Social Construction in Context


Kenneth J. Gergen

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    Chapter 1 a revision of ‘Constructionism and realism: how are we to go on?’ In I. Parker (Ed.) (1998) Social construction, discourse and realism. London: Sage.

    Chapter 2 revision of a paper by the same name in Theory and Psychology, (1997), 7, 31–36.

    Chapter 3 a revision of a paper by the same name. In H. Simons & M. Billig (Eds.). (1994). After postmodernism. London: Sage.

    Chapter 4 a revision of an article by the same name, in History of the Human Sciences (1997), 10, 151–173.

    Chapter 5 revision of ‘History and psychology: three weddings and a future’. In P.N. Stearns & J. Lewis (Eds.), An emotional history of the United States (pp. 14–32). New York: New York University Press.

    Chapter 6 original paper

    Chapter 7 original paper

    Chapter 8 a revision of ‘Global organization: From imperialism to ethical vision. Organization (1995), 2, 519–532.

    Chapter 9 revision of an article by the same name in Journal of Applied Behavioral Science (1997), 32, 356–377.

    Chapter 10 a revision of an article of the same name. In L. Holzman & J. Morss (Eds.). (2000). Postmodern psychologies, societal practice, and political life. New York: Routledge.

    Chapter 11 a revision of an article by the same name. In J.E. Davis (Ed.), Identity and social change (pp. 135–154). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.


    To dialogic companions who unceasingly beckoned beyond the borders: Kurt Back, Michael Billig, Jerome Bruner, Mary Gergen, Harold Goulishian, Rom Harré, Edward Sampson and John Shotter.


    It was over 15 years ago that John Shotter and I began to discuss the need for an intellectual sinew that might bind together the sweeping dialogues of discontent in the social sciences. Could we locate a theme that might give common shape to the restless quests for alternatives to the pervasive naturalization of the human sciences? There were exciting developments in ethnomethodology, feminist social science, ethogenic psychology, labelling theory, symbolic anthropology, critical theory, dialectical psychology, power/knowledge theory, and historical psychology among them. And these developments seemed importantly linked to the demise of foundationalist science and its replacement by historical and social accounts of knowledge. At least one way of tying these various movements together was captured by the term social construction. Although drawn from the annals of the sociology of knowledge, the concept was now secreting itself into numerous discussions across the disciplines. Most importantly, to the extent that the genesis of knowledge can be traced to communal life, the sciences cease to be the arbiters of the real. No longer can scientists remove themselves from responsibility to the human project with knowledge claims simply demanded by what there is. With knowledge thus denaturalized and reenculturated, the vast repositories of the taken for granted – accumulating at least since the period of the Enlightenment – are opened for fresh reassessment. The implications seemed enormous.

    John and I shared our hopes of fostering dialogue and further development of constructionist endeavours with the editors of Sage in London. The heady mixture of enthusiasm and wise counsel with which editorial director Ziyad Marar responded were essential to what followed: the birth of the Sage book series, Inquiries in Social Construction. In the years since, John and I – later joined by Sue Widdicombe – assisted an enormously talented group of scholars from across the human sciences in generating 21 volumes of work in a constructionist vein.

    The Social Construction of Lesbianism (1987) CeliaKitzinger
    Texts of Identity (1988) JohnShotter & KennethGergen (Eds)
    Rhetoric in the Human Sciences (1988) HerbertSimons (Ed.)
    Collective Remembering (1990) DavidMiddleton & DerekEdwards (Eds)
    Everyday Understanding (1990) GunSemin & Kenneth Gergen, K (Eds)
    Research and Reflexivity (1991) FredSteier F (Ed.)
    Constructing Knowledge (1991) LorraineNencel & PeterPels (Eds)
    Therapy as Social Construction (1992) SheilaMcNamee & KennethGergen (Eds)
    Discursive Psychology (1992) DerekEdwards & JonathanPotterPsychology & Postmodernism (1992) SteinerKvale (Ed.)
    Constructing the Social (1993) TheodoreSarbin & JohnKitsuse (Eds) Conversational Realities (1993) JohnShotter
    Power and Gender (1994) LorraineRadtke & HendrikusStam H (Eds)
    After Postmodernism (1994) HerbertSimons H & MichaelBillig (Eds) The Social Self (1995) DavidBakhurst & ChristineSypnowich C (Eds)
    Reconstructing the Psychological Subject (1997) BettyBayer & JohnShotter (Eds)
    Re-imagining Therapy (1997) EeroRiikonen & GregorySmithConstructing the Mediated Self (1996) DeborahGrodin & ThomasLindlof (Eds)
    Pathology and the Postmodern (1999) DwightFee (Ed.)
    Social Constructionism, Discourse & Realism (1998) IanParker (Ed.)
    The Social Construction of Anorexia Nervosa (1999) JuliaHepworth

    We look back with delight at these offerings – wonderfully rich, intellectually bracing, and often daring. At the same time the present work will serve as a marker: it represents the closing contribution to the series. This is not at all because interest in the subject matter has drawn to a close. Rather it is because the dialogues on social construction have become so widespread and richly variegated that the concept of a circumscribed series is no longer viable. To suggest that there is a particular series of books that expresses the essence of current inquiry is wholly misleading. In certain corners of the scholarly world a constructionist sensibility is now so fully engrained that it even ceases to require a specific denotation. The series has been successful in contributing to a common consciousness, but at this point the consciousness requires little more from an effort such as this.

    My hope is that this book will serve as a worthy conclusion to the series. In important degree the content of these chapters has been provoked or stimulated by these offerings. In this sense the present work may be viewed as a tribute to the authors and editors with whom we have worked – both a complement and compliment. At the same time, my debts here are far more extended. The voices of so many – near and far, now and in the past – are echoed in these pages that a proper recounting is impossible. I close, then, with only a single moment of particular gratitude to symbolize the greater debt. This is to Cynthia Holt, my administrative assistant, whose effective interventions at every phase of the project were essential to its successful conclusion. Thank you for joining me in this endeavour.

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