Sexual Sites, Seminal Attitudes: Sexualities, Masculinities and Culture in South Asia
Publication Year: 2004
This book situates current research into the sexual cultures of South Asia within a cross-cultural perspective. The book argues that in societies undergoing rapid social and cultural change, the construction of sexuality and the discourses that gather around it have a fundamental connection with an entire range of processes - social, cultural, economic, political and global - with which people must engage. The contributors have studied sexuality as a site around which social and cultural ideas may be expressed.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction: Semen, History, Desire and Theory
- Chapter 2: Colonial Aversions and Domestic Desires: Blood, Race, Sex and the Decline of Intimacy in Early British India
- Chapter 3: Controlling the Ganymedes: The Colonial Gaze in J.R. Ackerley's Hindoo Holiday
- Chapter 4: Theatrical Transvestism in the Parsi, Gujarati and Marathi Theatres (1850–1940)
- Chapter 5: Rekhti: Impersonating the Feminine in Urdu Poetry
- Chapter 6: Crossing ‘Lines’ of Subjectivity: The Negotiation of Sexual Identity in Hyderabad, India
- Chapter 7: A Preliminary Report on Emerging Gay Geographies in Bangalore, India
- Chapter 8: Emancipated Bodies/Embodying Liberation: Debating Through Fire
- Chapter 9: Redrawing the Lakshman Rekha: Gender Differences and Cultural Constructions in Youth Sexuality in Urban India
- Chapter 10: ‘Cheli-Beti’ Discourses of Trafficking and Constructions of Gender, Citizenship and Nation in Modern Nepal
- Chapter 11: Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices: The Social Shadow of AIDS and STD Prevention in Nepal
- Chapter 12: Muscularity and its Ramifications: Mimetic Male Bodies in Indian Mass Culture
- Chapter 13: Non-Gandhian Sexuality, Commodity Cultures and a ‘Happy Married Life’: Masculine and Sexual Cultures in the Metropolis
Studies on Contemporary South Asia[Page 3]
A joint publication series with South Asian Studies Association (SASA)
South Asia Research Unit (SARU)
Curtin University of Technology
General Editors: Peter Reeves, John McGuire and Jim Masselos
Series Editor: Howard Brasted
Other Titles in this Series
John McGuire, Peter Reeves and Howard Brasted (eds), Politics of Violence: From Ayodhya to Behrampada (1996, Sage Publications, New Delhi).
D.A. Low and Howard Brasted (eds), Freedom, Trauma, Continuities: Northern India and Independence (1998, Sage Publications, New Delhi).
Siri Gamage and I.B. Watson (eds), Conflict and Community in Contemporary Sri Lanka: ‘Pearl of the East’ or the ‘Island of Tears’? (1999, Sage Publications, New Delhi).
[Page 5]In memory of Vikash N. Pandey (1959–2003) valued friend and colleague
Copyright © Editor of South Asia for the South Asian Studies Association, 2004
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilised in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
First published in 2004 by
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Published by Tejeshwar Singh for Sage Publications India Pvt Ltd, phototypeset in 10/12 Galliard at Excellent Laser Typesetters, New Delhi and printed at Chaman Enterprises, New Delhi.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Sexual sites, seminal attitudes: sexualities, masculinities and culture in South Asia / editor, Sanjay Srivastava.
1. Sex customs—South Asia. 2. Sex customs—India. 3. Masculinity—South Asia. 4. Masculinity—India. 5. Men—South Asia—Sexual behavior. 6. Men—India—Sexual behavior. I. Srivastava, Sanjay, 1960-
ISBN: 0-7619-9777-6 (US-Hb)
Sage Production Team: Larissa Sayers, Radha Dev Raj and Santosh Rawat
List of Plates[Page 9]
- 12.1Ram Raj Tilak (Ram's Coronation) by Ramchandra, 1990s, published by S. S. Brijbasi, New Delhi. 302
- 12.2Jai Shri Ram (Praise to Lord Ram), janmabhoomi campaign propaganda sticker, New Delhi, 1994, artist and publisher unknown. 303
- 12.3 Ram embedded in the body of Hanuman, detail from poster by ‘Appu’ (?), published by Jain Picture Publishers, purchased at New Delhi, 1994. 312
- 12.4 Postcard by M. Baskar, published by Vadhera Picture Publishers, purchased at New Delhi, 1994. 312
- 12.5Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan, by ‘R. Arts’, 1967 calendar, publisher unknown, Courtesy Patricia and J. P. S. Uberoi. 323
- 12.6God of Indian Children, artist unknown. Print, late twentieth century, published by Picture Paradise, Sivakasi, courtesy Patricia and J.P. S. Uberoi. 324
- 12.7 Amitabh Bachchan in Deewar, as shown on the back cover of a pirated videotape. 330
- 12.8 Self-portrait by Vikram, a boy studying at a municipal primary school in an underprivileged neighbourhood of Ahmedabad, produced at an art workshop I conducted there in 1984. Vikram had a picture of Amitabh Bachchan stuck on his shirt pocket; he had taken care to include it in his self-portrait, where it appears proportionally much larger than its actual size, possibly indicating its importance to him and his sense of self. 337
- 13.1 Hakim Hari Kishan Lal. 367
List of Figures[Page 10]
- 7.1 Nested Indian male-male sexuality spaces and their relative scales. 168
- 7.2 The progression of urban gay population organisation, group formation and spatial production over time in Bangalore. Note the absence of data for rural areas. 175
- 7.3 The gay spaces of Bangalore and their linkages. 180
- 7.4 Transnational linkages and flows of gay sexuality identities, persons and consumption. 182
- 7.5 Progression of gay spatial production along three axes over time. 184
About the Editor[Page 391]
Sanjay Srivastava is Associate Professor, Faculty of Arts, and Associate Head of School, School of Communications and Creative Arts, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia. He is also a member of the editorial committee of the journal South Asia. His research interests include masculinities, sexualities, popular culture and the city. His previous publications are Constructing Post-Colonial India: National Character and the Doon School and Asia: Cultural Politics in the Global Age (co-authored).
About the Series Editor and the Contributors[Page 392]Series Editor
Howard Brasted is Professor in modern South Asian history, University of New England, Armidale, Australia, and Director of the UNE Asia Centre. He also holds the position of Secretary of the South Asian Studies Association, and from 1984 to 2001 was the editor of its scholarly journal South Asia. He has published widely on topics ranging from Indian nationalism and the Indian National Congress to the processes of decolonisation. He has recently completed projects on child labour and female labour in South and South East Asia and has begun working and publishing on aspects of Islamic history.Contributors
Leena Abraham is Reader, Department of Sociology of Education, The Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, India. She has carried out research and has published in the areas of youth sexuality, development and gender issues in education, the social history of education, health education and alternatives in education.
Chandra S. Balachandran, a cultural geographer by training, has taught for several years in the USA and now lives in Bangalore, India. He is the founder and Chairman of The Dharani Trust, a Bangalore based non-governmental organisation, that acts as a forum bringing together academic and activist work. The trust has recently initiated a number of projects that cover areas such [Page 393]as inter-cultural studies and the human rights of marginalised peoples. He is also the founder and Chairman of the trust's first initiative, The Indian Institute of Geographical Studies, Bangalore. His interests include pilgrimages, geographic education, epidemics, religion and sexualities and their intersections with geography.
Zahid Chaudhary is currently finishing his PhD in the Department of English, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA. He has written a dissertation on colonial photography in India and has contributed an essay to a forthcoming book on ‘Mutiny’ photographs to be published by Sepia International and the Al-Kazi Collection of Photographs. His essay in this book has emerged from an earlier study on British travel writing in India.
Kathryn Hansen is Professor, Department of Asian Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, USA. She has published widely on Hindi and Urdu language and literature and on drama, popular culture and the performing arts in India. She is the author of Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theatre of North India.
Kajri Jain is a Post-Doctoral Fellow, Faculty of Arts, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia. Her research interests include popular culture, including film, television and calendar art, and globalisation in India.
Sushma Joshi has a master's degree in cultural anthropology from New School for Social Research, New York City, USA, and a bachelor's degree in international relations from Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA. She was the coordinator of the Global Reproductive Health Forum in South Asia, a project of Harvard University, from 1992 to 2000. She has worked with documentaries, including PANI, a documentary examining the gender and caste issues surrounding drinking water, which was featured on Q and A with Riz Khan on CNN International. She has taught at Eugene Lang and La Guardia colleges in New York City, USA. Her research interests include gender and development, technology and new media and the intersection between health and rights. Her recent publications include an essay on women's rights in Nepal in Greenwood's Encyclopedia of Women's Issues Worldwide. She also writes a weekly opted for The Kathmandu Post, Nepal's leading English daily.
[Page 394]Vikash N. Pandey (1959–2003) was Reader, Unit for Rural Studies, The Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, India. His research interests were agrarian legislation and property relations in colonial Awadh. Later, he explored theories of the self and freedom in post-structuralist analyses, ideas surrounding the rural-urban dichotomy and the uses of critical realism in contemporary social analysis. He also wrote on the relationship between the state and civil society in India. At the time of his death he was working on issues of ‘structural determinism’ in the study of rural society in India.
Carla Petievich is Associate Professor, Department of History, Montclair State University, USA. She has carried out research and has published in the areas of Indo-Muslim cultural history, classical and modern Urdu languages, contemporary of Pakistani culture and gender issues in the Muslim cultures of South Asia.
Stacy Leigh Pigg is Associate Professor, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada. She has carried out research and has published on medicine and transnational processes, relations between cosmopolitan and local medical systems, discourses, ideologies and practices of international development and all these issues in the context of AIDS. She is the editor of the journal Medical Anthropology: Cross Cultural Studies in Health and Illness.
Linnet Pike has studied anthropology and history at the universities of Melbourne and Queensland. She has conducted fieldwork in Kathmandu and in the mid-western region of Nepal between 1996–98. Her fieldwork explored sex work and HIV/AIDS, with particular focus on the programmes of non-governmental organisations related to HIV and STD education, prostitution issues and community development. She is currently writing her doctoral thesis titled, ‘Women and HIV Education in the Sex Industry of Nepal: The Politics and Culture of Prostitution’, at the Key Centre for Women's Health in Society, University of Melbourne, Australia.
Gayatri Reddy is Assistant Professor, Center for Gender and Women's Studies, the University of Illinois at Chicago, USA. She has published in the area of gender and non-heterosexual contexts in India and is currently working on a project titled, [Page 395]‘Queer Bodies: Construction of South Asian (Male) Queer Identities in the USA’.
Sudipta Sen is Associate Professor, Department of History, Syracuse University, USA. He is the author of Empires of Trade: The East India Company and the Making of the Colonial Market Place and A Distant Sovereignty: National Imperialism and the Origins of British India.