Sex and Manners: Female Emancipation in the West, 1890–2000


Cas Wouters

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    This book is the result of a larger research project consisting of a study of changes in English, Dutch, German, and American manners books from the end of the nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century. The research design of historical and international comparison focuses on changes and differences in the codes and ideals of manners and emotion management regulating the relationships between people of different rank and different gender. This book focuses on the latter; it presents, compares and interprets national differences and changes pertaining to the relationships between women and men. Special attention is paid to changes and differences in courting and dating. From the perspective of the research project as a whole, many developments presented in this book appear to be specific examples of more general trends and overall processes. In all four countries under study, general trends in all relationships – including those between women and men – have been an informalization of manners, a diminishing social and psychic distance between people, expanding social integration and mutual identification, and an ‘emancipation of emotions’ implying rising demands on emotion management and self-regulation. Of course, overall processes such as rising social constraints towards self-restraints such as reflection, presence of mind, consideration, role-taking, and the ability to bear and control conflicts, allow for many differences in pace and place. The historical and international comparison in the research project and in this book focuses on these differences as well as on general trends.

    My interest in manners and manners books began in the late 1960s. It originated from being impressed by the enormous changes in all kinds of manners taking place at that time, as well as by reading Norbert Elias's The Civilizing Process ([1939] 2000), for which his study of manners books provided a significant empirical basis. In the late 1980s, I expanded my study of Dutch manners books and headed for a systematic international comparative study. I started out to make myself acquainted with the manners books of the three other countries by developing an overview of the literature with the help of existing bibliographies, bringing them up to date where necessary. In the 1990s, I gathered and studied a large selection of etiquette books in several libraries, an important criterion being whether a book had gained wider recognition, that is, whether and how many times it was reprinted. From these and other books, for instance, the large numbers of manners books for sale in the main bookshops in Berlin, London and Washington at the time of my visits, I extracted whatever seemed interesting from the perspective of the general research questions. It meant being alert and open to anything that seemed typical for a country or a time, anything that would reveal something about the relationships between people of different rank (or class) and sex, and anything that would imply a change in demands on emotion management or, more generally, self-regulation. In addition, I always compared (changes in) the formal and the informal, the public and the private, in such matters as introductions, the use of personal pronouns, ‘social’ kissing, dancing, dating, visiting hours, etc. Besides all this, I made myself familiar with the body of literature on manners books. The earlier reports of my research project that have been used to write this book are Wouters 1987, 1995, 1998b, 1999c, 2001a, and 2001b.

    In the process of getting acquainted with the manners books of the three countries other than the Netherlands, I have profited from a bibliography and a number of excerpts from nineteenth- and twentieth-century English etiquette books compiled by Stephen Mennell, who very kindly supplied me with copies. In order to find my way into the world of German manners books, the (1984) study by Horst-Volker Krumrey has been a great help. It reports changes in German etiquette books between 1870 and 1970. When my research took me to Berlin, I also benefited from discussions with him. An introduction to the history of American manners was found in a book on this subject by Arthur M. Schlesinger (1946). On the American etiquette books of the twentieth century, Deborah Robertson Hodges has published an annotated bibliography (1989). Both that book and conversations with its author have been helpful in studying the American sources. The same goes for an interview with Judith Martin, better known as Miss Manners. In order to understand the development of courting manners in the USA, I have further profited from studies such as those by Bailey (1988), Baltzell (1964), Caldwell (1999), Fass (1977), Gorer (1948), Mead (1950), Rothman (1984), and Waller (1937).

    With regard to the period immediately preceding the period covered in my research, the nineteenth century, in addition to a considerable number of manners books from this century that I have studied, I have drawn on many other studies of these sources, among them the studies of English manners books by Michael Curtin (1987), Leonore Davidoff (1973), and Cecile Porter (1972), and the studies of American ones by John Kasson (1990), Karen Halttunen (1982) and Dallett Hemphill (1996, 1999).

    My research project and this book owe a debt to Norbert Elias's work in many ways, but in particular for using his theoretical perspective on manners as explained in his The Civilizing Process. Elias presented a large number of excerpts from manners books in chronological order, thus revealing an overall directional trend in codes of manners and emotion management. By studying these sources, he uncovered evidence of long-term changes in these codes as well as in people's psychic make-up. Elias made connections between the changes in personality structure and changes in the social structure of European societies and offered explanations why this happened. With Elias, I understand changes in the code of manners and feeling to illuminate changes in relationships between individuals and groups (nation-states, social classes, sexes, and generations) as well as psychic processes within people, in how individuals manage their emotions and ‘relate to themselves’. This theoretical perspective will be outlined in the introduction that follows, but it will avoid polemics. Instead, I have preferred to apply this perspective in a diachronical and systematical study of original sources from four countries over a period of more than a century. In contrast to the bulk of studies on the history of relationships between the sexes and their sexuality, Foucault's work included, this study is primarily based upon original sources and upon the work of others who use original sources. This book will provide many quotations from manners books. The authentic sound and the eloquence of these various voices in the choir of history function as empirical evidence. I have tried to orchestrate these voices according to current issues or themes, nationality, and historical sequence. As this sequence is not always indicated before each quotation, the reader is advised to keep an eye on the publication date in the reference following it.


    My research project and I owe a lot to Michael Schröter, Berlin, Jonathan Fletcher and Lisa Driver-Davidson, Cambridge, and Irwin and Verda Deutscher, Washington. Not only as hosts when I came to study and collect manners books, but also as partners in discussing problems and data they have been most helpful, particularly Michael Schröter. At some stages of the writing process, I have received comments from Rineke van Daalen, Eric Dunning, Jon Fletcher, Tom Inglis, Richard Kilminster, Stephen Mennell, Jakob Pastoetter, Michael Schröter, Peter Stearns, Bram van Stolk, and Luuk Wouters. I am grateful for their support and valuable comments. My language, including my translations from German and Dutch sources, has been corrected by Eric Dunning and Stephen Mennell. Thanks a lot Stephen! Thanks a lot Eric!

    Of course, my work owes a lot to the support of my intimates and friends of whom I would like to mention Truus, Julia, Roos, Sam, and Joost. And it pleases me enormously to dedicate this book to my grandson, Sam Voerman.


    Amsterdam, November 2002

  • Notes


    1 This can be understood from the fact that the authors of manners books took for granted that their female readers would only participate in non-bodily contact sports such as tennis.

    2 Here lies a major difference between Foucault's views on ‘expert knowledge’ and ‘discourse’ and mine: changes in the regimes of manners and emotions include changes in discourse, not the other way round.

    3 Revised editions were published in 1927, 1931, 1934, 1937, 1942, 1950, and 1960. Subsequent citations will specify the edition cited.

    Confined to the Drawing Room

    1 In 1940, as today, the ‘cut direct’ needed explanation; it was ‘to look directly at another and not acknowledge the other's bow … a direct stare of blank refusal’ (Post, 1940: 30).

    To Pay or Be Paid For?

    1 This quotation is from a book written by an English author, Barbara Cartland, but it was written for and adapted to the American market, where millions were sold. When she discussed dancing, for example, she addressed the question ‘can you ask someone to cut in and rescue you?’ Cutting in was a very American custom, see Section 6.7a (Cartland 1984: 34).

    Developments in Courting Regimes

    1 The German words for ‘lust-balance’ and ‘lust economy’ have been translated into English as ‘pleasure balance’ and ‘pleasure economy’: ‘The degree of anxiety, like the whole pleasure economy, is different in every society, in every class and historical phase’ (Elias, 2000: 441).

    2 In the last decades of the twentieth century holidays were still considered to be dangerous and worth a warning regarding the dangers of unsafe sex. For instance, in the summer of 1993 a (Dutch) government-subsidised leaflet, entitled ‘Have Safe Sex, Also on Holidays’, was distributed in a great number of public places. It contained, among others, sentences like ‘Have you ever heard of AIDS?’, ‘Do you have a condom with you?’ and ‘I'll put on a condom, it's safer’ in English, German, French and Spanish.

    3 In the 1930s there was a turning inwards to motherhood and domesticity, ‘partly caused by a decline in Society functions … The woman is now seen as guardian of her family's health and happiness rather than of its social place’ (Davidoff, 1973: 99). This increased isolation of a more tightly drawn nuclear family and the strengthening of the mother's bond with her children, may also be interpreted as a ‘civilizing offensive’ of wives, consciously or unconsciously aimed at ‘Bringing up Father’, thus limiting double standards and his display of superiority feelings. (‘Bringing Up Father’ is the title of a series of popular drawings by the American George McManus, presenting ‘father’ as a captive of mother and of her longing for success in good society.)

    4 To some extent the ‘modern girl’ was still the popular heroine that she had become when working on munitions in factories. She was known as ‘the flapper’, yet this was not a term of reproach. Flapper in the Nineties had meant a very young prostitute, scarcely past the age of consent, but the word had improved before the war to mean any girl in her teens with a boyish figure. The craze for the flapper … reached England about 1912 … ‘Flapper’ was now a term for a comradely, sporting, active young woman, who would ride pillion on the ‘flapper-bracket’ of a motorcycle. It did not become a term of reproach again, with a connotation of complete irresponsibility, until 1927 … The women who only a year or so earlier had been acclaimed as patriots, giving up easy lives at home to work for their Country in her hour of need, were now represented as vampires who deprived men of their rightful jobs. (Graves and Hodge, 1941: 43–4)

    Thanks to Adrian Gregory for this.

    5 Knigge wrote just as negatively about the female counterpart, the stagy type of favour-currying and coquettish women; he advised readers to shun them like the plague ([1788] 1977: 199).

    6 Apparently, this author not only had introductions into sexuality in mind, but also books about social problems like alcoholism and prostitution, books containing sentences like: ‘I will not tell you the number of servant girls that end as whores – but you clumsy, needy housewives, you should realize that it is from amongst their midst that prostitutes are recruited, and that it is your husbands and sons… but why relate this… it is common knowledge’ (Alberts, 1918: 15–6).

    7 Bailey did raise the question why these definitions of masculinity and femininity developed in the dating code, but as she lacked an international comparative perspective, she did not notice that none of the answers she came up with were specific to the USA.

    8 The book was translated into Dutch by J.F. Kliphuis and appeared in 1964; the locally well-known physician-sexologist L.H Levie wrote a favourable introduction.

    9 The social scientist Benthem van den Bergh (1990) suggested that political emancipation and the presence of nuclear weapons, creating a situation that has been summed up as Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD), have exerted pressure towards higher levels of caution and MAS, Mutually Assured Self-Restraints. His colleague Goudsblom (1998: 78) deemed assurance in these matters to be out of the question and suggested that ‘mutually expected self-restraint’ (MES) is a more realistic phrase.

    10 The use of the word ‘intercourse’ in this context shows how weak and/or repressed the sexual connotations of this word still were. From the Sexual Revolution onwards, along with the emancipation of women and their sexuality, these connotations have become stronger and also more openly acknowledged.

    The Lust-Balance of Sex and Love since the Sexual Revolution

    1 It was Bram van Stolk who initiated this study of Opzij and presented me with his notes and photocopies.

    2 Nor can this difference be explained by a reference to the effect of prostitutes’ organizations, for the Dutch one was only established in 1985, and the others either later or, if earlier, like the American organizations Coyote (1973) and the North American Task Force on Prostitution (1979), they were predominantly aimed at repealing the relatively harsh laws on prostitution in their country, on which basis relatively large numbers of prostitutes were arrested.

    3 As a didactical aid, the feel for the lust-balance question can also be stimulated by trying to decide whether sex will help you through times of no love better than love will help you through times of no sex, or whether it is the other way round. Friends of Gilbert Shelton's The Freak Brothers will, of course, have recognized their famous sentence: ‘Dope will help me through times of no money better than money will help me through times of no dope’.

    International Comparisons, Theoretical Interpretations, and Regularities in Processes of Emancipation and Integration

    1 The tension between these longings is likely also to be heightened by a relentless (and less religiously inspired) curiosity for what was placed behind social and psychic scenes in former centuries, for both sex and death. In this process, awareness of bodily attraction and erotic longings will increase together with awareness of transitoriness, and of death as the denial of all endurance, the durability of intimate relationships included.


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    Sigusch, V., and Schmidt, G. (1970) ‘Psychosexuelle Stimulation durch Bilder und Filme: geschlechtsspezifische Unterschiede’,; pp. 39-53 in G.Schmidt, V.Sigusch and E.Schorsch (eds), Tendenzen der Sexualforschung. Stuttgart: Enke., pp. 39-53.
    Stearns, Peter N. (1993) ‘Historical Causation in Emotions Research’, Amsterdams Sociologisch Tijdschrift, 19 (3): 3-22.
    Stearns, Peter N. (1994) American Cool: Constructing a Twentieth-Century Emotional Style. New York: New York University Press.
    Stearns, Peter N., and Knapp, Mark (1992) ‘Men and romantic love: pinpointing a twentieth-century change’, Journal of Social History, 26 (4): 769-95.
    Stolk, Bram van (1991) Eigenwaarde als groepsbelang: Sociologische studies naar de dynamiek van zelfwaardering. Houten: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum.
    Stolk, Bram van, and Wouters, Cas (1987a) Frauen im Zwiespalt.: Beziehungsprobleme im Wohlfahrtsstaat. Eine Modellstudie. Mit einem Vorwort von Norbert Elias. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
    Stolk, Bram van, and Wouters, Cas (1987b) ‘Power changes and self-respect: a comparison of two cases of established-outsider relations’, Theory, Culture and Society, 4 (2-3): 477-89.
    Stolk, Bram van (1991) Eigenwaarde als groepsbelang: Sociologische studies naar de dynamiek van zelfwaardering. Houten: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum.
    Straver, Cees (1980) Kijken naar seks. Deventer: Van Loghum Slaterus.
    Straver, Cees, Ab van der Heiden, Ab and van der Vliet, Ron (1994) De huwelijkse logica: Huwelijksmodel en inrichting van het samenleven bij arbeiders en anderen. Leiden: NISSO/DSWO Press.
    Swidler, Ann (1980) ‘Love and Adulthood in American Culture’, in Neil J.Smelser and Eric H.Erikson (eds), Themes of Work and Love in Adulthood. London: Grant McIntyre. pp. 120-47.
    Tarde, Gabriel ([1890] 1903[1890]) The Laws of Imitation. transl. E.C.Parsons., introd. F.Giddings, New York: Holt and Co. Reprint 1962: Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith.
    Vennix, Paul, and Bullinga, Marcel (1991) Sekserollen en emancipatie. Houten/Antwerpen: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum.
    Vliet, Ron van der (1990) ‘De opkomst van het seksuele moratorium’, Amsterdams Sociologisch Tijdschrift, 17 (2): 51-68.
    VogelsT. and van der Vliet, R. (1990), Jeugd en seks, Den Haag: SDU.
    Waller, Willard (1937) ‘The Rating and Dating Complex,’, American Sociological Review, 2: 727-34.
    Waller, Willard ([1938] 1951) [1938] The Family: A Dynamic Interpretation, Revised by Reuben Hill. New York: The Dryden Press.
    Wander, B. (1976) ‘Engelse en continentale etiquette in de negentiende eeuw: invloeden en ontwikkel literatuurrapport’, Volkskundig Bulletin, 2 (2): 1-17.
    Wattjes, Prof. J.G. (ca 1930) Wijsgerige gedachten over Het Huwelijk. Delft.
    Wolfe, Tom (1976) Move Gloves & Madmen, Clutter & Vine. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
    Wouters, Cas (1984) ‘Vrouwen, porno en seksualiteit’, Tijdschrift voor Vrouwenstudies, 5 (2): 246-50.
    Wouters, Cas (1986) ‘Formalization and informalization, changing tension balances in civilizing Processes’, Theory, Culture & Society, 3 (2): 1-19.
    Wouters, Cas (1987) ‘Developments in behavioural codes between the sexes: formalization of informalization, The Netherlands 1930–1985’, Theory, Culture & Society, 4 (2-3): 405-29.
    Wouters, Cas (1992) ‘On status competition and emotion management:; the study of emotions as a new field’, in: MikeFeatherstone (ed.), Cultural Theory and Cultural Change. London: Sage:, pp. 229-52.
    Wouters, Cas (1995) ‘Etiquette books and emotion management in the twentieth century; part two – the integration of the sexes.’Journal of Social History, 29 (2): 325-40.
    Wouters, Cas (1998a) ‘Etiquette books and emotion management in the twentieth century: Aamerican habitus in international comparison’, in Peter N.Stearns and JanLewis (eds), An Emotional History of the United States. New York: New York University Press. pp. 283-304.
    Wouters, Cas (1998b) ‘How strange to ourselves are our feelings of superiority and inferiority’, Theory, Culture & Society, 15 (1): 131-50.
    Wouters, Cas (1998c) ‘Changes in the “lust balance” of love and sex since the sexual revolution: the example of the Netherlands’, in GillianBendelow and Simon J.Williams (eds), Emotions in Social Life: Critical Themes and Contemporary Issues, London: Routledge. pp. 228-49.
    Wouters, Cas (1999a) ‘Changing patterns of social controls and self-controls: on the rise of crime since the 1950s and the sociogenesis of a “third nature”’. British Journal of Criminology, 39 (3): 416-32.
    Wouters, Cas (1999b) ‘Die verlegte “Rue d'Amour”: Über Hans Peter Duerrs Kritik and der Zivilizationstheorie von Norbert Elias’, Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung. 12 (1): 50-7.
    Wouters, Cas (1999c) ‘Balancing Sex and Love since the 1960s Sexual Revolution’, in MikeFeatherstone (ed.), Love and Eroticism. London: Sage. pp. 187-214.
    Wouters, Cas (1999d) Informalisierung.: Norbert Elias’ Zivilizationstheorie und Zivilizationsprozesse im 20. Jahrhundert. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.
    Wouters, Cas (2001a) ‘Manners’, in Encyclopedia of European Social History: From 1350 to 2000, editor in chief: Peter N.Stearns, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons; Volume 4, Section 17, pp. : 371-82.
    Wouters, Cas (2001b) ‘The integration of classes and sexes in the twentieth century: etiquette books and emotion management’, pp. 50-83 in Thomas Salumets, Thomas (ed.), Norbert Elias and Human Interdependencies. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, pp. 50-83. 2001.
    Wouters, Cas (2002) ‘The quest for new rituals in dying and mourning: changes in the we-I balance’, Body & Society, 8 (1): 1-27.
    Wouters, Cas (forthcoming) A History of Manners: Informalization.
    Wouters, Kees C.A.T.M (1999) Ongewenste Muziek. Den Haag: SDU Uitgevers.
    Zeegers, Wil (1994) De zonnige zijde van seks: De nawerking van positief beleefde seksualiteit. FSW, Rijksuniversiteit Leiden: DSWO Press.
    Zessen, Gertjan van, and Sandfort, Theo (eds) (1991) Seksualiteit in Nederland: seksueel gedrag, risico en preventie van aids. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger.
    Zwaan, Ton (ed.) (1993) Familie, huwelijk en gezin in West-Europa. Amsterdam/Heerlen: Boom/Open Universiteit.
    Zwerin, Mike (2000[1985]) Swing Under The Nazis: Jazz As A Metaphor For Freedom. New York: Cooper Square Press.

    Manners Books

    A (1894) Doodgewone Dingen. Amsterdam: Centen.
    Alberts, Joh. C. P. (1918) De zegeningen van ons fatsoen (diagnose en prognose). Baarn: Hollandia.
    Alsen, Ola (1936) Zoo zijn onze manieren. Een handleiding voor goede omgangsvormen. Leiden: Leidsche Uitgeversmaatschappij. (translated from the German)
    App, Austin J. (1947) Courtesy, Courtship and Marriage., San Antonio, Texas: published by the author.
    Armstrong, Lucie Heaton (1908) Etiquette Up-to-Date. London: Werner Laurie.
    BakkerEngelsman, Netty (1983) Etiquette in de jaren ‘80. Utrecht: Luitingh.
    Baldridge, Laetitia (1990) Laetitia Baldridge's Complete Guide to the New Manners of the 90's. New York: Rawson Associates.
    Beyfus, Drusilla (1992) Modern Manners: The Essential Guide to Living in the ‘90s. London: Hamlyn.
    Bolton, Mary (1955, 1961) The New Etiquette Book. London: Foulsham.
    Bourg, Dominique Le (1950) De Kunst van Beminnen en Beminnelijk te zijn. Een liefdesvademecum voor Eva's dochteren.(l'Art d'être aiméee). Rotterdam: Donker. (reprint 1956, identical).
    Bradley, Julia M. (1889) Modern Manners and Social Forms. Chicago: J.B. Smiley.
    BreenEngelen, R.A. (1959) Etiquette: Een Boekje voor Moderne Mensen (Etiquette: A Book for Modernem People). Bussum (
    4th edition 1969
    Bremner, Moyra (1989) Enquire within upon Modern Etiquette and Successful Behaviour for Today. London: Century.
    Brown, Helen Gurley (ed.) (1971) The Cosmo Girl's Guide to The New Etiquette. New York: Cosmopolitan.
    Brown, Helen Gurley (1983) Having It All. New York: Pocket Books.
    Bruck-Auffenberg, Natalie (1897) De Vrouw ‘Comme Il Faut’. trans. from the German by Marie de Bock-Hardenberg. Leiden: Brill.
    Brummell & Co. (1927) De Man op z'n best. Een geestige Handleiding in Savoir-Vivre. Den Haag: Moorman.
    Bruyn, Klazien de (1957) “‘Spiegel voor Eva’”Goede manieren en het moderne meisje. Maastricht: Schenk. [first half 1950s]
    Burleigh (1925) Etiquette Up To Date. New York: Howard Watt.
    Calcar, E. van (1886) Gelukkig – ofschoon getrouwd. Een boek voor gehuwden en ongehuwden, trans. from the English. Haarlem: Bohn.
    Cassell's (1921) Cassell's Book of Etiquette, by ‘A Woman of the World’, London.
    Caprio, Frank S. (1960) Mijn man, mijn minnaar. Amsterdam: Strengholt.
    Cartland, Barbara (1984) Barbara Cartland's Etiquette for Love and Romance. Bath: Chivers Press (
    2nd edn. 1986
    Case, Carleton B (ed.) (1916) The American Girl in Society: The Way to Social Success. Chicago: Shrewesbury.
    Courey, Anne de (1985) A Guide to Modern Manners. London: Thames and Hudson.
    Day, Beth (1972) Sexual Life Between Blacks and Whites: The Roots of Racism. Introduction by MargaretMead, New York: World Publishing Co.
    Debrett (1981) Debrett's Etiquette and Modern Manners, edited by Elsie BurchDonald,
    2nd edition: 1982
    ; London: Pan Books.
    Devereux, G.R.M. (1927) Etiquette for Men: A Handbook of Modern Manners and Customs. New Edition. Entirely rewritten and brought up to date. London: Pearson.
    Dietrich, Heinz (1934) Menschen miteinander. Berlin und Darmstadt: Deutsche Buch-Gemeinschaft.
    Duvall, Evelyn Millis, with Joy DuvallJohnson (1958 and 1968) The Art of Dating. New York: Association Press.
    ECvdM (1911) Het wetboek van Mevrouw Etiquette voor Heeren in zestien artikelen, Utrecht: Honig.
    ECvdM. (1912) Het wetboek van mevrouw Etiquette in 32 artikelen. Utrecht: Honig.
    7th edition
    ECvdM. (1920) Etiquette voor heeren. Utrecht: Honig. 2nd enlarged printing;
    1st edn: 1917
    Edwards, Anne, and Beyfus, Drusilla (1956) Lady Behave: A Guide to Modern Manners. London: Boswell & Co.;
    revised edition 1969
    Ehrhardt, Dr. Fritz (1905) Das Buch der Lebensart: Ein Ratgeber für den guten Ton in jeder Lebenslage. Berlin: Merkur.
    Eichler, Lilian (1921) The Book of Etiquette, 2 vollumes. Gardean City, New York: Doubleday. Reprinted 1923.
    Eichler Watson, Lilian (1948) The Standard Book of Etiquette. New York: Gardean City Publishing.
    Eijk, Inez van (1983) Etiquette Vandaag. Utrecht/Antwerpen: Spectrum.
    Eijk, Inez van (1994) Bij jou of bij mij – Erotische etiquette. Amsterdam: Contact.
    Eijk, Inez van (2000) Etiquette: Over moderne omgansvormen. Amsterdam: Contact: Amsterdam.
    Eijk, Inez van (2001) Hoog spel. Lexicon van de verleiding. Amsterdam: HP/De Tijd.
    Eldridge, Elisabeth (1936) Co-Etiquette. Poise and Popularity for Every Girl. New York: Dutton.
    Eltz, J. von ([1902] 1908) Das goldene Anstandsbuch: Ein Wegweiser für die gute Lebensart zu Hhause, in Gesellschaft und im öffentlichen Leben. Essen: Fredebeul & Koenen.
    Engelberts, D.H. (1890) De goede toon: Een wegwijzer etc. Amsterdam/De Rijp: Van Raven.
    Etiquette for Americans (1909) by a Woman of Fashion. New York: Duffield;
    new and revised edition; 1st edn: 1898
    Etiquette for Ladies: A Complete Guide to the Rules and Observances of Good Society. (1900) London: Ward, Lock & Co.
    Etiquette for Ladies (1923, 1950) A Guide to the Observances of Good Society. London: Ward, Lock & Co.
    Etiquette for Women (1902) A Book of Modern Modes and Manners. London: Pearson.
    Etiquette for Ladies (1923; 1950) A Guide to the Observances of Good Society. London: Ward, Lock & Co.
    Fein, Ellen and Schneider, Sherrie Schneider (1995) The Rules: Time-tested Secrets for Capturing the Heart of Mr. Right. New York: Warner Books.
    Foerster, Dr. Fr. W. (1911) Levenswandel. Een boek voor jonge menschen. Zwolle: Ploegsma (
    2nd edn.
    ; 1st edn: 1910) (translated from the German).
    Franken, Konstanze von (1951/1957) Der Ggute Ton: Ein Brevier für Takt und Benehmen in allen Lebenslagen. Berlin: Hesse.
    Frenken, Jos (1976) Afkeer van seksualiteit. Deventer: Van Loghum Slaterus.
    Gillum, Lulu W. (1937) Social Usage for High Schools. Kansas City, MOissouri: Gillum Book.
    Graham, Laurie (1989) Getting It Right: A Survival Guide to Modern Manners. London: Chatto & Windus.
    Graudenz, Karlheinz and Pappritz, Erica Pappritz (1967) Etikette neu. München: Südwest.
    Grosfeld, Frans (ed.) (1983) Zo hoort het nu. Etiquette voor de jaren tachtig. Amsterdam/Brussels, Elsevier (
    second and third editions 1984
    Groskampten Have, Amy (1939) Hoe Hoort Het Eigenlijk? (What's the Right Way?). Amsterdam: Becht. (1–3 edns: 1939; 4–5 edns: 1940; 6th: 1941; 7th: 1942; 8th: 1947; 9th: 1948; 10th: 1953; 11th: 1954; 12th: 1957; 13th: 1966, revised by Ina van den Beugel).
    Groskampten Have, Amy (1983) Hoe hoort het eigenlijk? Completely revised by MajaKrans and WiaPost, Amsterdam: Becht, (
    2nd second edition 1984
    Haeften, Olga van (1936) Manieren. Wenken voor wie zich correct willen gedragen. Amsterdam: Kosmos. (
    2nd edn. 1937
    , identical).
    Haluschka, Helene (n.d./1937a) Hoe vindt U het moderne jonge meisje?Heemstede: De Toorts.
    Haluschka, Helene (1939) Wat is nu goede toon?Heemstede: de Toorts. Translation: Alb. Schelfhout v.d. Meulen.
    Handboek der Etiquette voor oud en jong (1905).
    Hanson, John Wesley Jr. (1896): Etiquette of To-Day: The Customs and Usages Required by Polite Society. Chicago.
    Hanstein (1971) Ursula von Hanstein's Lexikon moderner Etikette. München: Moderne Verlags GmbH.
    Harland, Marion, and van de Water, Virginia (1905/1907) Everyday Etiquette: A Practical Manual of Social Usages. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
    Hennenhofer/Jaensch (1974) KNIGGE 2000. Befreiter Umgang mit dem Anderen. Ein Teambuch des Schönberger Institut für Programmierte Instruktion. Cologne Köln: Kiepenheuer & Witsch.
    Holt, Emily (1901; revised editions: 1904 and 1920) The Secret of Popularity: How to Achieve Social Success. New York: McClure, Phillips. revised editions: 1904 and 1920.
    Houghton, Walter R. et al., (1882) American Etiquette and Rules of Politeness,
    6th edition
    , Chicago: Rand McNally.
    Hout, H.P.M.van den, M.A. (1982) Omgangsvormen (Etiquette)., Rijswijk: Schoevers.
    Humphry, Mrs. C. E. (1897) Etiquette for Every Day. London: Richards.
    Humphry, Mrs. C.E. (1902) Etiquette for Every Day. London: Richards.
    Jonathan, Norton Hughes (1938) Gentlemen Aren't Sissies (A Modern Guide Book for the Young Man About Town). Chicago: Winston.
    Kandaouroff, Princess Beris (1972) The Art of Living: Etiquette for the Permissive Age. London: Allan.
    Kasson, John F. (1990) Rudeness and Civility: Manners in Nineteenth-Century Urban America. New York: Hill and Wang.
    KeulaerdsP.L. and v. Tienen, P.M. (1950s) ‘“Savoir Vivre”’: Omgangvormen en etiquette voor jonge mensen. Maastricht: Schenk.
    Klickmann, Flora (1902) The Etiquette of To-day. London.
    2nd edition
    : 1915; 3rd edn: 1916.
    Kloos-Reyneke van Stuwe, Jeanne (1927) Gevoelsbeschaving. Handboek voor huis en gezelschapsleven. Rotterdam: Nijgh & Van Ditmar.
    Knap, Henri (1961) Zo zijn onze manieren. Amsterdam: Bezige Bij.
    Knigge, Adolph Freiherr von ([1788/] 1977) Über den Umgang mit Menschen. Herausgegeben von ed. GertUeding., Frankfurt/M: Insel Verlag.
    KoebnerF.W. (1919) Der Man von Welt: Ein Herrenbrevier. Berlin: Eysler (new improved edn., 46–40 thousand.
    1stst edn.
    Krampen, Hans Joachim von (between 1910 and 1915) Was ist Vornehm- Vom Herzens- und gesellschaftlichen Takt. Berlin: Langenscheid.
    Kuitenbrouwer, Jan (1990) Lijfstijl: De manieren van nu. Amsterdam: Prometheus.
    Landers, Olive Richards (1936) Modern Etiquette for Young People. New York: Greenberg.
    Lansbury, Angela (1985) Etiquette for Every Occasion: A Guide to Good Manners. London: Batsford.
    Latouche, Anette (1946) Etiquette of de sierlijkheid des levens. Tilburg: Bergmans. (From the Swiss, adapted by Clara Eggink).
    Löwenbpirg, Sylvia Lichem von (1987) Das neue Buch der Etikette. Munich: Droemer Knaur.
    Ludden, Allen (1956) Plain Talk for Women Under 21!New York: Dodd & Mead 1956.
    Manners and Rules of Good Society (1879), [by] A Member of the Aristocracy. London: F. Warne. (
    32rd edn
    : 1910, 32rd edition; 1921; 42nd edition 1921). Published in 1940 as:
    Manners and Rule of Good Society (1946). London and New York: Warne. Revised by Joan Storey (reprints in 1946,1947, 1950, 1955).
    Margaretha, Anthonia (1921) Vormen en manieren: De eischen der Wellevendheid toegelicht voor onze Christelijke Kringen. Kampen: Kok.
    Marschner, Osw. (1901) Takt und Ton: Plaudereien über den feinen Takt und guten Ton im geselligen Verkehr. Leipzig: Maier.
    Martin, Judith (1979) Miss Manners’ Guide to Excruciatingly Correct Behaviour. New York: Warner Books/Atheneum Publishers. (reprinted: 1980/1981/1982/1983).
    Martin, Judith (1983) Miss Manners’ Guide for the Turn-of-the-Millennium. NewYork:
    PharosBooks/Fireside. (reprinted:1984/1985/1986/1987/1988/1989/1990).
    Martin, Judith (2003) Star-Spangled Manners. In Which Miss Manners Defends American Etiquette (For A Change). New York: Norton.
    McGinnis, Dr. Tom (1968) A Girl's Guide to Dating and Going Steady. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Meissner, Hans-Otto (1951) Man benimmt sich wieder. Giessen: Brühlscher.
    Meister, Ilse (1933) Vom Backfisch zur Dame: Vom Jüngling zum vollendeten Herrn. Ein neues Anstandsbuch. Stuttgart: Union. (7th reprint).
    Miller, Llewellyn (1967) The Encyclopedia of Etiquette: A Guide to Good Manners in Today's World. New York: Crown.
    Mounier, P.J.J. (n.d.), Gestroomlijnd leven voor de verloving. Kanarie-boekje No. 212. Den Haag/Antwerpen: Succes.
    Naber, Johanna (1923) Na XXV Jaren 1898–1923. Het feminisme in zijnen bloei en in zijne voleinding. Haarlem: Tjeenk Willink.
    Oheim, Gertrud (1955) Einmaleins des guten Tons. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann.
    Ostrander, Sheila (1967) Etiquette Etc: A Concise Guide with a Fresh Look. New York: Sterling Publishing, New York.
    Paeuw, L. de (1934) Nette manieren: Een handboek der wellevendheid voor jongen oud. Baarle-Hertog: De Belgische Boekhandel (
    2nd edn
    Palts-de Ridder, Yvonne and Eikhof, Vera (1960) Hoe het “‘hoort’:”. Van kennis-making tot huwelijk. Regina Goede Raad Serie Nr. 3, Haarlem: de Spaarnestad.
    Penelope, Lady (1982) Etiquette Today. Kingswood, Surrey: Paperfronts, Elliot Right Way Books. (reprinted 1989).
    Pierce, Beatrice (1937) Etiquette for Young Moderns. Home Service Booklets.
    Polak, J.H., and Polak, Maurits Polak (1903) De Ceremoniemeester in de Balzaal, de Cotilloneur, Danse et Maintien. Alkmaar: Kluitman.
    Post, Emily (1922), Etiquette in Society, in Business, in Politics and at Home. New York: Funk and Wagnalls. (revised editions: 1923; 1927; 1931; 1934; 1937; 1942; 1950; 1960; Replica Editon of first edition: 1969).
    Post, Elisabeth L. (1965) Emily Post's Etiquette. Revised by Elisabeth L.Post. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. [next edition: 1968]; 1975 edition: The New Emily Post's Etiquette. New editions in 1984 and 1992.
    Post, Elisabeth L. (1992) Emily Post's Etiquette.
    15th edn
    , New York: HarperCollins.
    Post, Toos (1938) Zoo Hoort Het. Wellevendheid als uiting van innerlijke beschaving en liefde tot den evenmensch. Utrecht: Urbi et Orbi (
    3erd edn.
    Rappard, Jonkvr. H.A. (1912) Goede manieren. Wat men doen en laten moet in het dagelijksch leven. Haarlem: Visser,
    3rd improved and enlarged edition
    . (1st: 1909, 2nd: 1910, 4th: 1920).
    Rees, Nigel (1992) Best Behaviour: A Complete Guide to Manners in the 1990s. London: Bloomsbury.
    Richardson, Anna Steese (1927), Etiquette At a Glance. New York: Appleton.
    Schidlof, Dr. B. (1926) Lebenskunst und Lebenstakt: Winke und Ratschläge. Berlin: Oestergaard.
    Schliff, Sebastian (1977), Gutes Benehmen – Kein Problem!München: Humboldt-Taschenbuchverlag; 1981 Taschenbuchausgabe (‘leicht gekürzt’).
    Schönfeldt, Sybil Gräfin (1987) 1 × 1 des guten Tons. München: Mosaik Verlag: Hamburg, 1991.
    Schramm, H. (1893) Der Ggute Ton oder das richtige Benehmen: Ein Ratgeber für den Verkehr in der Familie, in der Gesellschaft und im öffentlichen Leben. Berlin: Schulke (
    4th edn.
    Schrijver, Elka (1954) Kleine gids voor goede manieren. Assen: Born. (reprints 1959 and 1962)
    Scott, H. (1930) Good Manners and Bad. London: Ernest Benn.
    Segaloff, Nat (1997) The ‘Everything’ Etiquette Book. Holbrook, Mass.: Adams Media Corporation.
    Seidler, Dr. H.J. [1911-15] Hoe men zich bij de heeren het best bemind kan maken. Rotterdam: Bolle (trans. from the German).
    Sherwood, Mary E.W. (1907) Manners and Social Usages. New York: Harper.
    Staffe, Baronesse (1900s) Bestemming. Dochter, Echtgenoote, Moeder. vrij bewerkt naar het fransch door G.J Bakker Korff-Hoogeboom. Amsterdam: C.L.G. Veldt.
    Stratenus, Louise (1909) Vormen. Handboek voor de samenleving in en buiten huis. Gouda: Van Goor.
    Swartz, Oretha D. (1988) Service Etiquette. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press (
    4th edition
    Sweeney, Ester Emerson (1948), Dates and Dating. New York: The Women's Press. New York.
    Terry, Eileen (1925), Etiquette for All, Man, Woman or Child. London: Foulsham.
    Troubridge, Lady L. (1926), The Book of Etiquette. Kingswood: Windmill Press. (reprinted 1927, 1928, 1931).
    Troubridge, Lady L. (1939), Etiquette and Entertaining. London: Amalgamated Press.
    Umgangsformen Heute (1970), Die Empfehlungen des Fachausschusses für Umgangsformen. Niedernhausen: Falken (
    revised edns: 1988, 1990
    Unger, Art (ed.) (1960), Datebook's Complete Guide to Dating. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall.
    Vanderbilt, Amy (1952) Amy Vanderbilt's Complete Book of Etiquette: A Guide to Gracious Living. New York: Doubleday 1952 (reprints 1958, 1963, 1972).
    Vanderbilt, Amy (1956) Everyday Etiquette: Answers to Today's Etiquette Questions. New York: Hanover House (other editions: 1952, 1954, 1967).
    Vanderbilt, Amy (1978) The Amy Vanderbilt Complete Book of Etiquette, revised and expanded by Letitia Baldridge. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Veen-Wijers, Olga van (1936-/40) Etiquette: Encyclopedie der correcte omgangsvormen. ‘s-Gravenhage: Succes. Universiteit voor zelfstudie. (1936–1940, also 1946–50).
    Velde, Th. H. van de (1933/1928) Ideal Marriage: Its Physiogomy and Technique. London: Heinemann.
    Viroflay, Marguerite de (1916/1919), Plichten en Vormen voor Beschaafde Menschen. Amsterdam: Cohen Zonen.
    Viroflay-Montrecourt, Marguerite de (H.W.van Tienhoven-Mulder) [(192-]) Goede Manieren. Een Etikettenboek voor dames en heeren. 2 volumes; I for Ladies, II for Gentlemen. Amsterdam: Cohen.
    Vogue (1948) Vogue's Book of Etiquette: A Complete Guide to Traditional Forms and Modern Usage. by Millicent Fenwick, Associate Editor of Vogue. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Wachtel, Joachim (1973), 1 × 1 des guten Tons heute. München etc: Bertelsmann Ratgeberverlag.
    Wade, Margaret (1924) Social Usage in America. New York: Thomas Crowell.
    Wallace, Lily Haxworth (1941) The NEW American Etiquette. New York: Books.
    Weber, Annemarie (1956) Hausbuch des guten Tons: Ein Knigge von Heute. Berlin: Falken.
    Weißenfeld, Kurt von (1941) Der moderne Knigge: Über den Umgang mit Menschen. Berlin: Möller (
    1st edn
    : 1919; many new improved editions until 1960).
    Whitcomb, Helen and Lang, Rosalind (1971) Charm: The Career Girl's Guide to Business and Personal Success (2nd edn; 1st edn: 1964). New York: Gregg Division McGraw-Hill.
    Wilson, Margery (1942) The Woman You Want To Be: Margery Wilson's Complete Book of Charm. Lippincott, Philadelphia and New York (eleventh impression; copyright 1928, 1933).
    Wolter, Irmgard (1990) Der Ggute Ton im Privatleben. Niederhausen/Ts: Falken Bücherei. Überarbeitet von Wolf Stenzel.
    Woman's Life (1895) Published by George Neurnes Ltd. First issue 14 December 1895.
    Wrede-Grischkat, Rosemarie (1992) Manieren und Karriere: Verhaltensnormen für Führungskräfte.
    2nd edn.
    Wiesbaden: Frankfurter Allgemeine, Gabler.
    2nd ed.
    Zitzewitz, Rosemarie von (1986) Wenn Sie mich SO fragen: Rosemarie von Zitzewitz gibt Antworten auf Benimmfragen. München: Mosaik Verlag.
    Zutphen van Dedem, Mevr. van (1928) Goede Manieren. Amersfoort: Logon.

    Name Index

    • A 33, 44, 68, 121
    • Alberts, Joh. C.P. 141n
    • Alsen, Ola 28, 67, 71,
    • Andreae 63
    • Ang, Ien 130
    • App, Austin J. 105, 106
    • Armstrong, Lucie Heaton 52
    • Bailey, Beth L. viii, 30, 85–95, 105, 108, 109, 111, 125, 147, 141n
    • BakkerEngelsman, N74
    • Baldridge, Laetitia 32, 116
    • Baltzell, E. Digby 86–88
    • Batenburg, H.L 121
    • Beatrix, Queen 12
    • Bellah, Robert N. et al. 88
    • Benthem van den Bergh, Godfried van 141n
    • Beyfus, Drusilla 26, 41, 42, 53–57, 148
    • Blom, J.C.H. 124, 127
    • Bodanius 63
    • Bolton, Mary 50, 54
    • Boonstra, Heather 146
    • Bourg, Dominique le 148
    • Bradley, Julia M. 33, 75–77
    • Bremner, Moyra 27, 42, 56
    • Brinkgreve, Christien 135
    • Brown, Helen Gurley 112, 113, 115
    • Brugman, Emily et al. 138
    • Bruijn, Gerda de 129
    • Brummell & Co 69, 70
    • Bruyn, Klazien de 21, 74
    • Bullinga, Marcel see
      • Vennix
    • Burleigh 23, 52
    • Calcar, E. van 48
    • Caldwell, Mark 87, 94, 146
    • Cancian, F.M. and S.L. Gordon 4, 127, 160
    • Caprio, Frank S. 125
    • Cartland, Barbara 31, 115, 140n
    • Case, Carleton B. 86
    • Cassell's 33
    • CBS 138
    • Chesterfield, Lord 14
    • Coleman, L. 97
    • Coronel, S. Sr. 121
    • Cosby, Bill 146
    • Courey, Anne de 55
    • Cressey, Paul G.92
    • Curtin, Michaelviii, 9, 10, 11, 14, 18, 24, 51, 53
    • Daalen, Rineke van ix,
    • Daalen, Rineke van, and Bram van
    • Stolk 129
    • Dahrendorf, R. 84,
    • Dantzig, A. van 125
    • Darroch, Jacqueline E. et al. 146
    • Davidoff, Leonore 15, 17, 18, 51, 53, 141n
    • Day, Beth 97, 147
    • Debrett 26, 41, 42, 55
    • Dekker, Joost 131, 132
    • Derks, Marjet 21
    • Deutscher, Irwin ix
    • Deutscher, Verda ix
    • Devereux, G.R.M. 53
    • Dietrich, Heinz 57
    • Dowling, C. 134
    • Driver-Davidson, Lisa ix
    • Duerr, Hans Peter 141
    • Dunning, Eric ix, 5, 147, 150
    • Duvall, Evelyn Millis 30, 104, 107, 109–111,
    • ECvdM 19, 28, 64–69, 121, 122,
    • Ebhardt, Fritz 58, 60,
    • Edwards, Anne, and D. Beyfus 26, 41, 42, 53–55, 57,
    • Eggermont, Patricia 120
    • Ehrenreich, Barbara, and Deirdre
    • English 127
    • Ehrhardt, F. 57, 59,
    • Eichler, Lilian 21,
    • Eichler Watson, Lilian 37, 95, 103,
    • Eijk, Inez van 46, 75, 138,
    • Eldridge, Elisabeth 30, 91, 92, 96, 99, 100
    • Elias, Norbert ix, 2, 3, 5, 10, 47, 57, 84, 139, 149, 140n
    • Elias, Norbert, and Eric Dunning 5, 72, 150
    • Elias, N. and J.L. Scotson 10, 16, 135,
    • Ellis, Albert 109,
    • Eltz, J. von 59
    • Engelberts, D.H. 121
    • Ernst, Stefanie 44
    • Etiquette for Americans 78
    • Etiquette for Ladies 24, 51, 52
    • Etiquette for Women 25
    • Fass, Paula S. viii, 87–90, 94–96, 144
    • Fein, Ellen and Sherrie Schneider 32, 117
    • Fisher, W.A., and D. Byrne 131
    • Fletcher, Jonathan ix, 149
    • Foerster, Fr.W. 45
    • Foucault, Michel ix, 140n
    • Franken, Konstanze von 13, 27, 28, 58
    • Frenken, Jos 126
    • Fromm, Erich 133
    • Garcia, L.T. et al. 131
    • Gillum, Lulu W. 88
    • Gordon S.L. see
      • Cancian
    • Gorer, Geoffrey viii, 30, 89, 92, 96, 97
    • Görz 46
    • Goudsblom, J. 141n
    • Graham, Laurie 56
    • Graudenz, Karlheinz, and E. Pappritz 63, 131
    • Graves, Robert, and Alan Hodge 51
    • Greene, Gael 112, 113
    • Gregory, Adrian 141n
    • Groenendijk, H. 134
    • Grosfeld, Frans 29, 46, 74
    • Groskamp-ten Have, Amy 29, 45, 73, 74, 158
    • Haeften, Olga van 29, 71
    • Haluschka, Helene 29, 45, 71, 72, 158
    • Halttunen, Karen viii
    • Handboek 64
    • Hanson, John Wesley Jr. 16, 34
    • Hanstein, U von 61, 63
    • Harland, Marion, and Virginia van de
    • Water 33, 34, 35, 77, 87
    • Hatfield, Elaine, and R.L. Rapson 124
    • Heiman, J.R. 131
    • Hekma, Gert 48
    • Hemphill, C. Dallett viii, 16, 89
    • Hendin 133
    • Hennenhofer/Jaensch 63
    • Hinz, Michael 4
    • Hochschild, Arlie R. 34, 139, 143
    • Holt, Emily 21, 78
    • Houghton, Walter R. et al. 11
    • Hout, H.P.M. vd 46, 74
    • Humphry, Mrs. C.E. 16
    • Iley, Chrissy 117
    • Inglis, Tom ix
    • Jonathan, Norton Hughes 92, 96, 100–102
    • Jong, Erica 127
    • Juliana, Queen 12
    • Kandaouroff, Princess Beris 55
    • Kasson, John F. viii
    • Keulaerds, P.L. and P.M. v. Tienen 74
    • Kilminster, Richard ix
    • Klein, Gabriele 23
    • Klickmann, Flora 15, 16
    • Kliphuis, J.F. 141n
    • Kloos-Reyneke van Stuwe, Jeanne 20, 70
    • Knap, Henri 46
    • Knapp, Mark see
      • Stearns and Knigge
      • Adolph
    • Freiherr von14, 59, 61
    • Koebner, F.W. 23
    • König, Oliver 160
    • Kool-Smit, Joke 128
    • Kooy, G.A. 124
    • Krampen, Hans Joachim von 59, 60
    • Krumrey, Horst-Volker viii, 27, 60, 63
    • Kuitenbrouwer, Jan 138
    • Laan, Ellen 131, 132, 135
    • Ladies’ Home Journal 91, 127
    • Landers, Olive Richards 37, 80, 95, 98
    • Lang, Rosalind see
      • Whitcomb
    • Lansbury, Angela 25
    • Lasch, Christopher 133
    • Lasch-Quinn, Elisabeth 127
    • Latouche, Anette 45
    • Levie, L.H 141n
    • Lewis, Ida 147
    • Ludden, Allen 104, 107–109, 111
    • Machover Reinisch J. see
      • Sanders
    • Mahlmann, Regina159
    • Manners and Rule 16, 51
    • Manners and Social Usages 77
    • Margaretha, Anthonia 28, 69, 70, 122
    • Marschner, Osw. 58
    • Martin, Judith viii, 32, 39, 98, 117, 118, 148
    • McGinnis, Tom 97, 104, 112
    • McManus, George 141n
    • Mead, Margaret viii, 89, 92, 94
    • Mennell, Stephen viii, ix
    • Meulenbelt, Anja 128
    • Meissner, Hans-Otto 24, 27, 43, 44, 61
    • Meister, Ilse 27, 60
    • Miller, Llewellyn 38, 82
    • Miss Manners viii, 39, 98, 118, 119, 143, 147
    • Mooij, Annet 123
    • Mosher, D.L. and B.B. White 131
    • Mounier, P.J.J. 154
    • Naber, Johanna 45
    • Nota 131
    • Oheim, Gertrud 28, 44, 61, 62
    • Orbach, Susie 155
    • Ostrander, Sheila 30, 37, 108
    • Paeuw, L. de 23, 73
    • Palts-de Ridder, Yvonne, and Vera
    • Eikhof 74
    • Pappritz, E. see
      • Graudenz
    • Pastoetter, Jakob ix
    • Peabody, Dean 84
    • Penelope, Lady 26, 56
    • Pierce, Beatrice 80, 99
    • Pola Negri 20
    • Polak, J.H. and M. Polak, 19
    • Porter, Cecil viii, 18, 50, 51
    • Porter, Cole 97
    • Post, Emily 11, 15, 23, 30, 31, 35, 36, 37, 38, 78–81, 90, 98, 103, 104, 107
    • Post, Elizabeth L. 37, 79, 82, 83, 105, 107, 114, 115, 116
    • Post, Toos 73
    • Rappard, H.A. Jonkvr. 66
    • Rapport 21
    • Rees, Nigel 42, 56
    • Reiss, Ira L. 132
    • Remez, Lisa 142
    • Ritter, P.H.Jr. 154
    • Röling, H.Q. 127, 135
    • Rothman, Ellen K. viii, 86
    • Rubinstein, Renate 134
    • Richardson, Anna Steese 79
    • Robertson Hodges, Deborah viii
    • Saal 123
    • Sanders, Stephan 139
    • Sanders, Stephanie A. and J. Machover
    • Reinisch 142
    • Sandfort, Theo zie Zessen
    • Schalet, Amy Townsend 138, 144, 145
    • Schary, Jill 112
    • Schidlof, B. 43
    • Schlesinger, Arthur M viii, 91
    • Schliff, Sebastian 63
    • G. Schmidt see
      • Sigusch
    • Schnabel, Paul 160
    • Schneider, Sherrie see
      • Fein
    • Schönfelt, Sybil Gräfin 44
    • Schramm, H. 58
    • Schreurs, Karlein M.G. 124
    • Schrijver, Elka 122
    • Schröter, Michael ix
    • Scott, H. 40
    • SCR 138
    • Segaloff, Nat 83
    • Seidman, Stephen 48
    • Seidler, H.J. 68, 121
    • Shelton, Gilbert 142n
    • Sherwood, Mary E.W. 77, 78
    • Sigusch, V. and G. Schmidt 131
    • Simpson, G. 122
    • Staffe, Baronesse 68, 121
    • Stearns, Peter N. 86, 87, 140
    • Stearns, Peter N. and Mark Knapp 91, 95
    • Stepp, Laura Sessions 142
    • Stolk, Bram van ix, 129, 155, 142n
    • Stolk, Bram van, and Cas Wouters 69, 127, 128, 137, 139, 149, 155, 159
    • Stratenus, Louise 68
    • Straver, Cees 131
    • Straver, Cees, et al. 139
    • Swartz, Oretha D. 115
    • Sweeney, Ester Emerson 24, 104
    • Swidler, Ann 127
    • Tarde, Gabriel 11, 12
    • Terry, Eileen 22
    • Tienen, P.M. v. see
      • Keulards
    • Troubridge, Lady L. 25, 33, 41, 52, 53
    • Umgangsformen Heute 64
    • Unger, Art 31, 105, 107–110
    • Valentino, Rudolf20
    • Vanderbilt, Amy 31, 32, 35, 37, 39, 40, 81, 82, 106, 108, 114
    • Veen-Wijers, Olga van 72
    • Velde, Th.H. vd 125
    • Vennix, Paul, 136
    • Vennix, Paul, and Marcel Bullinga 127
    • Viroflay, M. de 20, 65, 69
    • Viroflay-Montrecourt 3, 20, 69
    • Vliet, Ron van der 138
    • Vogels, T. and R vd Vliet 138
    • Voerman, Sam ix
    • Vogue's Book of Etiquette 81
    • Wachtel, Joachim 63
    • Wade, Margaret 17
    • Wade Farrer, Eliza 36
    • Wallace, Lily Haxworth 103
    • Waller, Willard viii, 87, 89, 94, 96
    • Water, Virginia van de see
      • Harland
    • Wattjes, J.G. 125
    • Weber, Annemarie 61, 62, 63
    • Weißenfelt, Kurt von 43
    • Whitcomb, Helen, and Rosalind Lang 38, 40, 114
    • White B.B. see
      • Mosher
    • Wilson, Margery 35, 37
    • Wolter, Irmgard 64
    • Woman's Life 50
    • Wrede-Grischkat, Rosemarie 44
    • Wolfe, Tom 132
    • Wouters, Cas viii, 3, 22, 57, 84, 98, 133, 141, 145, 153see also
      • Stolk and Wouters
      • Kees 23
    • Wouters, Luuk viii
    • Zeegers, Wil 48, 156
    • Zessen, Gertjan van, and Theo Sandfort 124
    • Zitzewitz, Rosemarie von 63, 64
    • Zutphen van Dedem, Mevr. van 71
    • Zwaan, Ton 124
    • Zwerin, Mike 23

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