Seven Steps for Developing a Proactive Schoolwide Discipline Plan: A Guide for Principals and Leadership Teams

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Geoff Colvin & George Sugai

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    Acknowledgements

    To our neighbors Naoko and her five children, Youha, Kazuki, Sho-un, Haruka, and Whumie and to their parents/grandparents Tsuneo and Yumi who live in Japan −

    For their inspiring resilience.

    Geoff Colvin

    Like your bamboo walking stick, my work is reinforced by your purity, strength, longevity, and flexibility. Thank you, Mom and Dad.

    George Sugai

    Prologue

    When we began the update of the 2010 version of this book, the task seemed relatively straightforward. We approached the revision from the usual perspective of addressing new implementation efforts, including recent research-based practices, and illustrating successful efforts to improve school climate and discipline. However, during the process, significant changes dramatically affected cultural norms, not only within American society but across the world at large. Relatively overnight, shifts in societal and global norms presented conflicts and contradictions to the norms and standards being established and promoted by educators in our schools and classrooms, places where the practices of this book were intended.

    Specifically, reactions to the 2016 Presidential election process and outcomes were associated with unprecedented shifts in reporting of negativity, intolerance, and disrespect in our nation’s cultural norms and personal and interpersonal expression. For example, in two disturbing reports, the Southern Poverty Law Center (November, 2016a, b) reported the following:

    In the ten days following the election, there were almost 900 reports of harassment and intimidation from across the nation. Many harassers invoked Trump’s name during assaults, making it clear that the outbreak of hate stemmed in large part from his electoral success.

    People have experienced harassment at school, at work, at home, on the street, in public transportation, in their cars, in grocery stores and other places of business, and in their houses of worship. They most often have received messages of hate and intolerance through graffiti and verbal harassment, although a small number also have reported violent physical interactions. Some incidents were directed at the Trump campaign or his supporters.

    Of course, hate crimes and lower-level incidents of racial or ethnically charged harassment have long been common in the United States. But the targets of post-election hate incidents report that they are experiencing something quite new.

    Also:

    The survey data indicate that the results of the election are having a profoundly negative impact on schools and students. Ninety percent of educators report that school climate has been negatively affected, and most of them believe it will have a long-lasting impact. A full 80 percent describe heightened anxiety and concern on the part of students worried about the impact of the election on themselves and their families.

    In a similar vein and at the same time, visible and violent acts of terrorism have become increasingly frequent images across our social media and traditional entertainment and news outlets. Persistent and wide gaps in political, social, religious, and cultural positions offer little hope or prospect for peace, compromise, or discussion. These inhumane acts of terror and hate have triggered mass immigration by the innocent and defenseless bystanders who are being victimized. The international mood is a sense of helplessness, confusion, and fear that in some cases is escalating cries for justice and vengeance. Countries are becoming more isolated, needy, untrusting, and discriminatory.

    Together, changes in our national norms related to respect, civility, and safety and the international climate of separatism and civil war have been associated with a shift in how we think about and act on diversity, equity, personal and collective responsibility, and individual and societal norms. In part because our schools are reflections of our larger societal norms, they have long been regarded as a microcosm of society. Consequently, when shifts in the cultural norms of society appear in our schools, educators struggle with how to respond to challenges that seem to be reflective of larger national and international influences.

    We approached this edition of the “7 Step Schoolwide Discipline Plan” as critically important for educators and school leaders at all levels. In particular, a sense of urgency compels us to make our prevention efforts more formal, deliberate, explicit, and strategic to address the increased complexity and levels of unacceptable and uninhibited personal and interpersonal behavior occurring in our classrooms and schools. Urges to “get tough” and to enact strict “zero-tolerance” policies are likely reactions to increases in unsafe and disrespectful behavior in schools, especially if educators fail to increase their attention and investment in evidence-based practices derived from our prevention and behavioral sciences. Therefore, we urge all educators and school leaders to “double up” their efforts to maximize academic achievement; teach and encourage safe, civil, and responsible behavior; and establish teaching and learning environments that do not tolerate disrespectful and dehumanizing behavior and respond by promoting proactive personal and interpersonal behavior with and for all children, youth, and adults.

    In sum, we are experiencing a historic time in our country and world where educators must become fully aware of the impact of shifts in societal and cultural norms and a tendency to react in injurious, uncivil, and discriminatory ways. Consequently, we must pursue with vigor and firm resolve the full implementation of a positive and proactive school discipline plan. While schools can reflect the values and norms of society, we also believe that schools can serve as a critical agency for change. Although schools may not be able to directly affect events and conditions at the national and international levels, educators do have six hours a day, 180 days a year to structure opportunities to shape today’s students into competent and contributing citizens of tomorrow. In her incredible and inspiring story of survival from terrorism, Malala Yousafzai (2013) expressed it most poignantly:

    “Let us pick up our books and our pens. They are our most powerful weapons. One child, one teacher, one book, and one pen can change the world.”

    About the Authors

    Geoff Colvin draws on his experience as a classroom teacher, administrator, researcher, and instructor at the University of Oregon and as a national public school consultant. Widely recognized as an expert on the subjects of school safety and violence prevention, Colvin has provided inservice training for teachers and administrators in more than 100 school districts and agencies nationally and internationally. He recently served as research associate at the University of Oregon and independent consultant in the areas of schoolwide discipline, school climate, school safety and violence prevention, classroom management, and individual cases involving students with severe behavior disorders. Geoff also directed a juvenile detention school and a school program for youth with serious emotional disturbances. Colvin has authored more than 60 publications, books, book chapters, journal articles, and video programs on the subject of teaching and managing students who exhibit the full range of problem behavior.

    George Sugai is Professor and Carole J. Neag Endowed Chair in the Neag School of Education, Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Connecticut. His research and practice interests include schoolwide positive behavior support, behavioral disorders, applied behavior analysis, classroom and behavior management, and school discipline. He has been a classroom teacher, program director, personnel preparer, and applied researcher. Dr. Sugai has a noteworthy publication record in refereed journals, having published over 130 peer-reviewed articles, numerous monographs, and five college textbooks on effective teaching practices and applied behavior analysis. He has presented at numerous local, national, and international conferences and professional meetings, and has served as advisor to the U.S. Departments of Education, Justice, and Health and Human Services. His international work includes projects and consultation in 11 countries. He is codirector of the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS), research scientist in the UConn Center on Behavioral Education and Research, and codirector of the OSEP Early Childhood Personnel Center.

    Introduction

    Two broad concerns have challenged educators for decades and are still high priorities today. First, discrepancies in academic performance and achievement are ongoing and widespread among schools and districts. While some schools have maintained high standards and others have shown marked improvement, large numbers of schools and districts perform at mediocre or abysmally low levels. Several persistent factors contribute to failures to provide quality education to all students. For example, large funding disparities and efficiencies exist across districts and states. Teacher and leadership preparation and ongoing professional development are inadequate and misaligned in scope and detail to enable teachers to teach effectively and respond to the range of students in their classrooms. Scientifically supported practices are not given selection priority and not sustained in use. Schools are having more difficulty establishing and maintaining safe, preventive, and positive learning environments. The use of ineffective, reactive, “get-tough,” zero tolerance policies and procedures is increasing. Graduation rates remain below acceptable levels, and dropout rates continue to be high. Discipline referrals and consequences are alarmingly disparate across racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. Administrators are not set up and supported to be instructional leaders and managers of struggling and challenging school and district funding. Finally, educators, parents, professionals, politicians, and community members cannot agree on operating priorities, resulting in poor collaborations, communications, and trust.

    Second, schools’ and districts’ efforts have failed to achieve and sustain acceptable systemic levels of achievement for all students in all schools. Although our knowledge and access to effective educational practices are well established, educators have not implemented with sufficient fidelity and scope to accelerate and sustain performance levels of all their students. More important, students with learning failures, disabilities, and other risks have at best marginally improved or more often shown no meaningful improvement in achievement.

    Although substantial research funds have been invested in model development, improved practices, and professional development, school and district adoption and implementation responses are inconsistent. Some schools initially implement with high fidelity, but it does not last long enough for the practice to become well established and implemented with sustainable fidelity. Others schools opt to implement parts of a practice or make modifications that change its core features and impact, and result in lowered student impact and progress. Many schools and districts do not implement a practice at all because of philosophical, theoretical, and/or personal differences about what the practice consists of, how they believe students learn, or whether using the practice is their responsibility. In addition, school, district, and state organizational structures are often fragmented, isolated, redundant, overlapping, and not data informed, which results in inadequate internal communication, monitoring, and support, as well as inconsistent adoption, implementation, and student outcomes.

    Our failure to address these challenges on an effective and meaningful scale has resulted in poor and disparate overall student achievement, low educator job satisfaction, and unfavorable and diminishing public support for education generally. To be fair, we believe that educators and school leaders work hard and want the best for students; however, we believe that the impact could be so much greater and access could be so much more equitable if priorities were on using data to guide decisions, selecting and sustaining implementation of scientifically supported educational practices, and providing organizational supports and systems to maintain a highly competent and efficient teaching workforce. So, if we know what effective teaching practices are needed to maximize student success, what is required to ensure that all students can truly benefit? The practices and approach presented in this book attempt to address this question.

    Thus, the purpose of this book is to twofold. First, we closely examine the “whats,” “whys,” and “hows” of effective schoolwide discipline practices utilized in schools that have sound documented support from ongoing research. Second, based on these findings, we present a step-by-step process for developing and maintaining a proactive schoolwide discipline plan that sets the stage for maximizing teaching and learning, preventing problem behavior, and maintaining the desirable behavior that enhances school success. In addition, we emphasize the process for restructuring and utilizing resources to significantly increase the capacity of schools and districts in their efforts to address the academic and social needs of all students.

    We did not design this book to take care of all academic and behavior issues but rather to be a necessary first step for creating a positive and supportive environment where all students are exposed to the best possible practices provided by all staff across all settings. If that goes well, the stage is set for assisting those students who require more intensive and differentiated academic and/or social behavioral supports. Although we emphasize the behavior and social aspects of classrooms and schools, we also acknowledge the critical importance of a comparable and integrated approach to academic programming and support.

    The book is organized into two sections. In Section I, Foundations, we present the guiding principles that underlie the content for the procedural details of the proactive schoolwide discipline plan. These principles are derived from applied research and from schools and districts that have documented success in meeting the range of challenges facing educators today, particularly, in the area of problem behavior. In Chapter 1, we highlight those critical variables that must be effectively addressed so implementation fidelity is high and student outcomes are maximized. In Chapter 2, we describe in detail how teaching affects student learning. This understanding is critical for how instruction is designed, delivered, and adjusted and how students acquire, become fluent with, maintain, and generalize academic and behavioral skills over time.

    In Section II, we describe the 7 procedural steps for developing, implementing, and maintaining a proactive schoolwide discipline plan:

    • Step 1: Getting started (Chapter 3)
    • Step 2: Developing schoolwide behavior expectations (Chapter 4)
    • Step 3: Teaching the behavior expectations (Chapter 5)
    • Step 4: Maintaining the behavior expectations (Chapter 6)
    • Step 5: Correcting problem behavior (Chapter 7)
    • Step 6: Using the data effectively (Chapter 8)
    • Step 7: Sustaining the plan for the long haul (Chapter 9)

    We also designed this book so school personnel would carefully self-assess what they have in place in their school setting in the context of how their students are progressing academically and behaviorally. Using student data and information about local teaching and the learning context, educators can build upon effective components, eliminate ineffective practices, and adopt more effective practices. We place high priority on organizational supports and systems that give educators capacity to implement with high fidelity. While many service providers may benefit, we designed this book for four specific groups of professionals:

    • Educators including school administrators, regular and special education teachers, school psychologists, counselors, educational specialists, and classified staff
    • Inservice providers at school building, district, and state levels
    • Preservice providers from colleges and universities who prepare teachers, administrators, school psychologists and counselors, social workers, etc.
    • Other support staff members who shape school climate and interact with students and staff, including school resource officers, nurses, office administrative support staff, building maintenance staff, etc.

    The Appendices section of the book contains checklists, forms, and plans that may be reproduced or adapted for personal use in the classroom, school, or district.

  • Appendices

    Note: These appendices may be reproduced or adapted for personal use in the classroom, school, or district.

    Appendix A
    Form 3.1 Checklist for Determining the Adequacy of an Existing Schoolwide Discipline Plan

    YES NO 1. A school leadership team is in place.

    YES  NO  2. Schoolwide behavior expectations are clearly stated.

    YES  NO 3. Schoolwide procedures are in place to teach expected behaviors.

    YES NO 4. Schoolwide practices are in place to recognize demonstrations of expected behavior.

    YES NO 5. Staff members are clear as to which behavior should be dealt with by staff and which should warrant office referrals.

    YES NO 6. Procedures are in place for staff to work together to address persistent, minor behavior.

    YES NO 7. A continuum of steps is available to address serious office-referral–level behavior.

    YES  NO 8. Procedures are in place to use building resources to assist students who display chronic, serious behavior.

    YES  NO 9. Procedures are in place to address crises or emergencies.

    YES NO 10. Data-keeping procedures are in place to track student behavior.

    YES NO 11. Data are used to make planning decisions.

    YES  NO 12. Procedures are in place to sustain the plan.

    ___________ Number of YES items

    ___________ Number of NO items

    Mark Decision

    ____ More than eight YES responses: Maintain existing program and develop plan to address inadequacies, if necessary.

    ____ Fewer than eight YES responses: Establish and develop a building leadership team to assist staff in developing a proactive schoolwide discipline plan.

    Copyright © 2018 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Seven Steps for Developing a Proactive Schoolwide Discipline Plan by Geoff Colvin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, www.corwin.com. Reproduction authorized only for the local school site or nonprofit organization that has purchased this book.

    Appendix B
    Form 3.2 Leadership Team Meeting Record

    School ____________________________________________ Date ____________________________________________

    Present ____________________________________________  _____________________________________________

      ____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

      ____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

      ____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

    Time  _________________ to ___________________ Location ____________________________________________

    Updates

    New Discussion/Activities

    Decisions

    Items to Present to Faculty

    Team Member(s) Presenting Items:

    Other

    Next Meeting:

    Next Chair:

    Copyright © 2018 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Seven Steps for Developing a Proactive Schoolwide Discipline Plan by Geoff Colvin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, www.corwin.com. Reproduction authorized only for the local school site or nonprofit organization that has purchased this book.

    Appendix C
    Form 3.3 Checklist and Action Plan for Step 1, Getting Started

    Systemic Factor

    Response

    1. Has preliminary schoolwide discipline plan survey been conducted?

    Yes

    No

    2. Has leadership team been developed?

    Yes

    No

    3. Has need for the plan been established?

    Yes

    No

    4. Has effectiveness of plan been communicated?

    Yes

    No

    5. Has the plan been demonstrated to mesh with school goals and other plans?

    Yes

    No

    6. Has the capacity of the district and schools been assessed?

    Yes

    No

    7. Have roles and responsibilities been presented?

    Yes

    No

    8. Have opportunities for full discussion been provided?

    Yes

    No

    9. Has planning been made for the long haul?

    Yes

    No

    10. Has a commitment been obtained from all stakeholders?

    Yes

    No

    11. Has a comprehensive professional development plan been developed?

    Yes

    No

    12. Has self-assessment checklist for implementation and action planning been developed?

    Yes

    No

    Action Plan

    Copyright © 2018 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Seven Steps for Developing a Proactive Schoolwide Discipline Plan by Geoff Colvin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, www.corwin.com. Reproduction authorized only for the local school site or nonprofit organization that has purchased this book.

    Appendix D
    Form 4.1 Worksheet for Developing Schoolwide Expectations

    Schoolwide Behavior Expectations

    All students and staff at ___________________________________________ school are expected to:

    1. ______________________________________________________________________

    _________________________________________________________________________

    _________________________________________________________________________

    2. ______________________________________________________________________

    _________________________________________________________________________

    _________________________________________________________________________

    3. ______________________________________________________________________

    _________________________________________________________________________

    _________________________________________________________________________

    4. ______________________________________________________________________

    _________________________________________________________________________

    _________________________________________________________________________

    5. ______________________________________________________________________

    _________________________________________________________________________

    _________________________________________________________________________

    Copyright © 2018 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Seven Steps for Developing a Proactive Schoolwide Discipline Plan by Geoff Colvin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, www.corwin.com. Reproduction authorized only for the local school site or nonprofit organization that has purchased this book.

    Appendix E
    Form 4.2 List of Major Common Settings in the School

    Directions: List the common settings in your school.

    1._________________________________________________________________________

    2._________________________________________________________________________

    3._________________________________________________________________________

    4._________________________________________________________________________

    5._________________________________________________________________________

    6._________________________________________________________________________

    7._________________________________________________________________________

    8._________________________________________________________________________

    Copyright © 2018 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Seven Steps for Developing a Proactive Schoolwide Discipline Plan by Geoff Colvin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, www.corwin.com. Reproduction authorized only for the local school site or nonprofit organization that has purchased this book.

    Appendix F

    Form 4.3 Common Settings Behavioral Expectations Matrix

    Appendix G
    Form 5.1 Instruction Plan for Teaching Behavior Expectations to Younger Students

    Common Setting:

    Step 1: Explain

    Step 2: Specify student behaviors

    Step 3: Practice

    Step 4: Monitor

    Step 5: Review

    Copyright © 2018 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Seven Steps for Developing a Proactive Schoolwide Discipline Plan by Geoff Colvin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, www.corwin.com. Reproduction authorized only for the local school site or nonprofit organization that has purchased this book.

    Appendix H
    Form 5.2 Teaching Behavior Expectations to Older Students and a Maintenance Plan for Younger Students

    Schoolwide Behavior Expectation:

    Common Setting:

    Specific Behaviors:

    Remind:

    Supervise:

    Provide Feedback:

    Copyright © 2018 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Seven Steps for Developing a Proactive Schoolwide Discipline Plan by Geoff Colvin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, www.corwin.com. Reproduction authorized only for the local school site or nonprofit organization that has purchased this book.

    Appendix I
    Form 5.3 Checklist for Generalizing the Teaching to All Common Areas

    Item

    Date Completed

    Notes

    1. Utilize Schoolwide Behavior Expectations Matrix

    2. Determine Priority Common Areas

    3. Coordinate Preparation for Start Date

    4. Review Progress

    5. Conduct Periodic Reviews

    Copyright © 2018 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Seven Steps for Developing a Proactive Schoolwide Discipline Plan by Geoff Colvin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, www.corwin.com. Reproduction authorized only for the local school site or nonprofit organization that has purchased this book.

    Appendix J
    Form 6.1 Checklist for Systematic Review of Schoolwide Behavior Expectations

    Procedure

    Date Completed

    Notes

    1. Select specific behaviors expectations from Schoolwide Behavior Expectation Matrix

    2. Schedule when each behavior and common setting will be reviewed for the term or semester

    3. List activities faculty will engage in to review student performance on the targeted behaviors

    4. Provide feedback to faculty and students on the results of the review

    Copyright © 2018 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Seven Steps for Developing a Proactive Schoolwide Discipline Plan by Geoff Colvin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, www.corwin.com. Reproduction authorized only for the local school site or nonprofit organization that has purchased this book.

    Appendix K

    Form 6.2 Schoolwide Recognition Matrix

    Appendix L
    Form 7.1 Worksheet for Office-Referral Behaviors

    The following behaviors should result in an office referral:

    1. _________________________________________________________________________

    2. _________________________________________________________________________

    3. _________________________________________________________________________

    4. _________________________________________________________________________

    5. _________________________________________________________________________

    6. _________________________________________________________________________

    7. _________________________________________________________________________

    8. _________________________________________________________________________

    9. _________________________________________________________________________

    Copyright © 2018 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Seven Steps for Developing a Proactive Schoolwide Discipline Plan by Geoff Colvin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, www.corwin.com. Reproduction authorized only for the local school site or nonprofit organization that has purchased this book.

    Appendix M
    Form 7.2 Worksheet for Office-Referral Behavior Definitions

    Problem Behavior

    Definition

    Copyright © 2018 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Seven Steps for Developing a Proactive Schoolwide Discipline Plan by Geoff Colvin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, www.corwin.com. Reproduction authorized only for the local school site or nonprofit organization that has purchased this book.

    Appendix N
    Form 7.3 Middle School Office-Referral Form

    Student __________________________________

    Referred by ______________________________

    Grade 6 7 8 Date __________________________

    Homeroom Teacher ________________________

    Reason for Referral

    □ Repeated Minor Infraction(s)

    □ Documentation Attached

    □ Parent Contacted

    □ Serious School Violation

    □ Attendance

    □ Controlled Substance(s)

    □ Defiance

    □ Misuse of Electronic Devices

    □ Bullying

    □ Dress Code

    □ Fighting, Assault

    □ Off-Campus Violation

    □ Serious Disruption

    □ Theft

    □ Vandalism

    □ Verbal Abuse

    □ Weapon(s)

    □ Other ______________________________

    Incident Report

    Specify times, places, those involved, relevant conditions, and initial steps to address problem.

    _____________________________________________

    _____________________________________________

    _____________________________________________

    _____________________________________________

    _____________________________________________

    _____________________________________________

    _____________________________________________

    _____________________________________________

    _____________________________________________

    Location

    □ Recess □ Hallway

    □ Classroom □ Gymnasium

    □ Cafeteria □ Bus Stop

    □ Library □ Bus

    □ Media Center

    □ Other _________________________

    Action taken by administrator or designee

    □ Conference with student

    □ Parent contacted (phone/note)

    □ Student suspended _____days

    □ Referred to school behavior–support team

    □ Principal’s hearing for possible expulsion __________________

    □ Conference requested with teacher and student

    □ Parent conference requested

    □ Student placed on detention _____days

    □ Community service

    □ Police contacted

    □ Lane County Youth Services contacted

    □ Other __________________________

    Administrator’s Comments

    _____________________________________________

    _____________________________________________

    _____________________________________________

    _____________________________________________

    _____________________________________________

    _____________________________________________

    _____________________________________________

    _____________________________________________

    _____________________________________________

    _________________________ __________

    Administrator’s Signature Date

    Routing

    White: Office Yellow: Parent

    Pink: Homeroom Teacher Gold: Referring Staff

    To Parent or Guardian: This is a copy of an official referral for your son or daughter made by a staff member of Sydney Middle School, 8998 Snell Blvd., Eugene, Oregon 97435. The action taken is indicated.

    Please sign and return or call 387-8856 to indicate receipt.

    ___________________________________________ _________________________

    Parent’s or Guardian’s Signature Date

    Copyright © 2018 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Seven Steps for Developing a Proactive Schoolwide Discipline Plan by Geoff Colvin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, www.corwin.com. Reproduction authorized only for the local school site or nonprofit organization that has purchased this book.

    Appendix O
    Form 7.4 Teacher Team Meeting for Staff-Managed Behavior

    □ Behavior Problem □ Academic Problem

    Student Name: _________________ Grade: _____________ Date: ________________________

    Teacher(s): _________________ # of Previous Behavior Reports/Staff Meeting: __________________

    Staff Present: _________________________________________________________________________________

    _______________________________________________________________________________________________

    Problem Behavior(s) (2 minutes)

    Expected Behavior(s) (2 minutes)

    Strategies to Teach Expected Behaviors (select 1–3) (3 minutes)

    □ Reminders □ Practice □ Parent contact

    □ Reinforcers □ Individual contacts □ Counseling

    □ Feedback □ Monitoring sheet □ Tutoring

    □ Contract □ Self-management □ Modified assignments

    □ Other

    Strategies to Correct Problem Behavior(s) (1 minute)

    □ Time out □ Parent contact

    □ Loss of privilege □ Detention

    □ Other

    Action Plan (5 minutes)

    Who What When

    _________________________ _________________________ _________________________

    _________________________ _________________________ _________________________

    Tracking System: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    Copies to:

    Office File

    Teacher:

    Other:

    Copyright © 2018 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Seven Steps for Developing a Proactive Schoolwide Discipline Plan by Geoff Colvin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, www.corwin.com. Reproduction authorized only for the local school site or nonprofit organization that has purchased this book.

    Appendix P

    Form 9.1 7-Step Checklist and Action Plan for Sustaining the Plan

    Appendix Q
    Table 9.1 Evidence Base for PBIS Implementation and Sustainability

    Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A. S. (2011). Reexamining the relationship between academic achievement and social behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 13, 3–16.

    Bradshaw, C. P. (2015). Translating research to practice in bullying prevention. American Psychologist, 70, 322–332.

    Bradshaw, C. P., Koth, C. W., Thornton, L. A., & Leaf, P. J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100–115.

    Bradshaw, C. P., Koth, C. W., Bevans, K. B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462–473.

    Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133–148.

    Bradshaw, C. P., Pas, E. T., Goldweber, A., Rosenberg, M. S., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). Integrating school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports with tier 2 coaching to student support teams: The PBISplus model. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion 5, 177–193.

    Bradshaw, C. P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K. B., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1–26.

    Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). Effects of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on child behavior problems. Pediatrics, 130(5), 1136–1145.

    Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behavior: Preliminary results from a single case study. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, 15–25.

    Goldweber, A., Waasdorp, T. E., & Bradshaw, C. P. (in press). Examining the link between forms of bullying behaviors and perceptions of safety and belonging among secondary school students. Journal of School Psychology.

    Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J. (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133–145.

    Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1–14.

    McIntosh, K., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 8, 146–154.

    McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., Chard, D. J., Dickey, C. R., & Braun, D. H. (2008). Reading skills and function of problem behavior in typical school settings. Journal of Special Education, 42, 131–147.

    Nelson, J. R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, N. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 53–62.

    Sorlie, M., & Ogden, T. (2015). School-wide positive behavior support—Norway: Impacts on problem behavior and classroom climate. International Journal of School and Educational Psychology, DOI: 10.1080/21683603.2015.1060912.

    Waasdorp, T. E., Bradshaw, C. P., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). The impact of School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) on bullying and peer rejection: A randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 116(2), 149–156

    Wang, C., & Algozzine, B. (2011). Rethinking the relationship between reading and behavior in early elementary school. Journal of Educational Research, 104, 100–109.

    Copyright © 2018 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Seven Steps for Developing a Proactive Schoolwide Discipline Plan by Geoff Colvin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, www.corwin.com. Reproduction authorized only for the local school site or nonprofit organization that has purchased this book.

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    Credits

    This page constitutes an extension of the copyright page. Every effort has been made to trace the ownership of the copyrighted material and to secure permission from copyright holders. In the event of any issue regarding the use of material in this book, we will be pleased to make any corrections for future printings.

    Thanks are due to the following authors, publishers, and agencies for permission to use the material indicated.

    Chapter 1: Figures 1.1, 1.2. Source: www.pbis.org, OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

    Chapter 4: Boxes 4.24.4. Source: Courtesy of Anchorage School District, Anchorage, Alaska.

    Chapter 8: Figures 8.1, 8.3. Source: www.pbis.org, OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Figures 8.2, 8.4, 8.6. Source: Courtesy of Educational Resource Associates, Eugene, Oregon. Figures 8.5, 8.7, 8.8. Source: Courtesy of Anchorage School District, Anchorage, Alaska.

    Chapter 9: Figure 9.1. Source: www.pbis.org, OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.


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