Service Leadership: The Quest for Competitive Advantage
The purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive theoretical framework as well as practical strategies—not just for survival but for a true search for excellence in the uncertain and ever-changing world of customer service management. The theoretical framework is based on the notion that customer service contains three key variables: a promise, a process, and people. After going through the step-by-step process of service management, the reader will have the necessary understanding and skill to choose the right strategy for the right circumstances, to design service processes, to identify the means and methods to implement these processes, and to measure the outcome.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Strategizing the Promise
- Leadership Insights: The Power of the Strategist
- Chapter 2: Looking Back on Service
- Chapter 3: Leading the Service Wave
- Chapter 4: Formulating Strategic Promises
- Leadership Insights: The Power of the Transformer
- Chapter 5: Developing the Service Strategy
- Chapter 6: Designing the Service Process
- Chapter 7: Strategizing for Service Recovery
- Chapter 8: Designing Service Metrics
To the two people in our lives who really understand that once you have reached the mountain top, the climb only begins.
Copyright © 2006 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
Sage Publications Ltd.
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
Sage Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
B-42, Panchsheel Enclave
Post Box 4109
New Delhi 110 017 India
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Service leadership: The quest for competitive advantage / Svafa Grönfeldt, Judith Banks Strother.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 1-4129-1374-8 (cloth) — ISBN 1-4129-1375-6 (pbk.)
1. Customer services—Management. I. Strother, Judith B. II. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
05 06 07 08 09 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Al Bruckner
Editorial Assistant: MaryAnn Vail
Production Editor: Diane S. Foster
Copy Editor: Catherine M. Chilton
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Scott Oney
Indexer: Molly Hall
Cover Designer: Candice Harman
List of Leadership and Practical Insights[Page vii]
- Leadership Insights: The Power of Leadership 1
Olaf Olafsson, Time Warner Inc.
- Part I: Strategizing the Promise 17
- Leadership Insights: The Power of the Strategist 19
Robert Wessman, Actavis Group
- Chapter 2Practical Insights: The U.S. Army on Leadership 44
- Chapter 3Practical Insights: Cambridge Leadership Associates on the Dangers of Leadership 63
- Chapter 4Practical Insights: The Masie Center on Leadership in the Age of Technology 84
- Leadership Insights: The Power of the Strategist 19
- Part II: Designing the Process 87
- Leadership Insights: The Power of the Transformer 89
George Mikitarian, Parrish Medical Center
- Chapter 5Practical Insights: Victoria's Secret on Customer Intelligence 115
- Chapter 6Practical Insights: Redefining Leadership from a Corporate Perspective 143
- Chapter 7Practical Insights: Pizza in the Sky: Lessons Learned from Service Failures 170
Wolf J. Rinke
- Chapter 8Practical Insights: SAS Institute on Data Mining 193
- Leadership Insights: The Power of the Transformer 89
- Part III: Engaging the Providers 197
- Leadership Insights: The Power of the Providers: General Electric Company on Preventing Service Failures in Business-to-Business Customer Service 199
David Kirchner, General Electric
- Chapter 9Practical Insights: The Human Faces of Customer Orientation 221
Jon Didrik Jonsson
- Chapter 10Practical Insights: Gallup on Employee Engagement and Customer Loyalty 244
- Chapter 11Practical Insights: The Gallup Organization on Talent Development 261
- Chapter 12Practical Insights: On Rewarding Performance 279
- Leadership Insights: The Power of the Providers: General Electric Company on Preventing Service Failures in Business-to-Business Customer Service 199
List of Figures[Page ix]
- Figure 1.1 Multidisciplinary Approach to Service Leadership 9
- Figure 1.2 Service Leadership Culture 10
- Figure 1.3 Three Dimensions of Service Strategy and Design 12
- Figure 1.4 Service Leadership Action Chain 13
- Figure 2.1 The Second Front Line 29
- Figure 2.2 American Customer Satisfaction Index (1994–2004) 33
- Figure 2.3 Customer Satisfaction Indexes for the United States and Europe 34
- Figure 2.4 The Gain of Customer Service (%) 35
- Figure 2.5 Industrial Structures 37
- Figure 2.6 Loyalty and Service Perception 39
- Figure 2.7 Business Innovations 40
- Figure 3.1 The Empowerment Continuum 55
- Figure 4.1 Three Dimensions of Strategy Service and Design 81
- Figure 5.1 Stages of Strategic Planning 97
- Figure 5.2 Basic Elements of Strategic Service Vision 100
- Figure 5.3 Strategic and Tactical Plan 102
- Figure 6.1 Outpatient Diagnostic Testing Flow 132
- Figure 6.2 PMC Blueprint 133
- Figure 6.3 House of Quality 135
- Figure 6.4 Incremental and Radical Innovations in Service 136
- Figure 6.5 Normative Model of New Service Development 139
- Figure 7.1 The Service Recovery Process 155
- Figure 7.2 Satisfying and Delighting Customers 158
- Figure 7.3 Empowerment-Service Recovery Relationship 163 [Page x]
- Figure 8.1 Strategy Map 179
- Figure 8.2 Balanced Scorecard 181
- Figure 8.3 Value Map 182
- Figure 9.1 COBEH Core Model 214
- Figure 9.2 The Satisfaction Mirror 218
- Figure 9.3 The Cycle of Capability 219
- Figure 10.1 The Changing Role of the Manager 231
- Figure 10.2 The Links in the Service Profit Chain 232
- Figure 10.3 Typical Relationship Between Customer Satisfaction and Customer Retention 235
- Figure 10.4 The Loyalty Effect 239
- Figure 10.5 The Empowerment-Productivity Relationship 242
- Figure 11.1 The Impact of the Assessment Method on Information Value 258
- Figure 12.1 Dimensions of Service Complexity 278
List of Tables
The proverbial, but true, story: Marty and his wife were traveling recently from New York to New Orleans on a combined business trip and 25th anniversary long weekend. When they arrived at the ticket counter to obtain their boarding passes, they discovered that their reservations had been cancelled due to a data entry error made by the airline's reservations agent. Unfortunately, they were told, there were no seats available on their original flight, and the best the airline could do was to book them on a connecting flight that would get them to New Orleans around midnight, rather than midafternoon, on what already was going to be a rather quick trip. While the ticket counter attendant was shrugging his shoulders, a fellow attendant noticed the commotion and came over to inquire. When he learned of the problem, he began to make phone calls, at one point having two phones at work, one in each ear. He was making calls, working the computer, and asking the original attendant to help in various ways, all, it seemed, at the same time. It took him about 15 minutes, but he finally found two seats to New Orleans, in first class no less, and Marty and his wife were on their way to a well-deserved weekend celebration.
Now, what does another airline story have to do with this book? It's no secret that as we write, the airline industry is in dire financial straits. As every frequent flyer knows, for some time and for some airlines, the response has been to create cost savings by making service cuts of one kind or another. These cuts are felt directly by customers, thereby making driving, taking the train, videoconferencing, or vacationing close to home all increasingly attractive options, thus deepening the original troubles facing the industry.
The airlines should read this book. So should our bank. And maybe even our doctor.
Drs. Grönfeldt and Strother have melded nontraditional concepts of leadership with evolving business theory to create a new paradigm for what leadership looks like in a service industry environment.
From our perspective, as authors, teachers, and consultants on leadership development, there are three core leadership ideas that inform this powerful rethinking of the culture of a service firm. These are three of the essential elements of what we would call a leadership culture in a firm, an organization, or perhaps even a family.
[Page xii]First, in a firm with a leadership culture, every employee, no matter where he or she sits in the organization chart, with or without a corner office, believes and acts as if exercising leadership is an integral aspect of his or her job description. Exercising leadership is not the prerogative of those at the top.
Second, in a firm with a leadership culture, one of the ways that leadership is manifested is that individuals take responsibility for the firm as a whole, not just their individual silo. In the Grönfeldt-Strother context, that means that a service problem in one department has the constructive attention of everyone with some stake in it.
Third, in a firm with a leadership culture, leadership means exercising discretion, taking risks, and, again in this context, first meeting the customers' needs in ways that might well be beyond “standard operating procedure,” job descriptions, and formal authorization, asking for forgiveness later rather than approval beforehand.
The significance of bringing together these two disciplines in this book goes beyond the service industry, and we expect that the model they have created will provide food for thought for practitioners and students in a wide range of business environments.Harvard University,Harvard University,
Like all explorers, we are drawn to discover what's waiting out there. We embarked on this journey without the slightest hesitation or thought of the road ahead, the obstacles we would meet, and the challenges we would face. We had direction, purpose, and motivation.
These binding elements made impossible schedules, thousands of miles, and the scarce resource of time look like bumps in the road on our way to accomplishing our mission. The thousands of minutes, hundreds of hours, days, and months spent on this project flew by. The result of our efforts is presented in this book. However, it is by no means only a result of our work and dreams but a collective effort of so many people we have met and worked with in the past.
We would like to express sincere appreciation to all those involved: our assistants Halla Jonsdottir and Ashildur Bragadottir who organized our world; the managers and CEOs who shared their experiences with us; all our talented friends at IMG Gallup and Deloitte—Gunnar Beinteinsson, Thor Karlsson, and Gunnar Haugen, to name only a few—who communicated their knowledge and insights; Jennee Saddorf and Michael Wahlgren at Florida Tech, who helped field test questions; and Edwin Strother, for his editorial expertise. We would also like to thank Al Bruckner at Sage for his helpful input and cheerful encouragement during the entire publishing process, Katja Fried for her developmental editorial expertise, and Catherine Chilton for her tireless copyediting. Without these valuable people, this book would not have been possible.[Page xiv]
- Leadership Insights: The Power of Leadership 1
References[Page 283]1. Actavis. (2004). Corporate fact sheet. Retrieved July 22, 2005, from the Actavis Corporate Web site: http://www.actavis.com/investors/corporatefactsheet.htm.2. 1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behaviour. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall., & (3. 1990). An introduction to quality function deployment. In Y.Akao (Ed.), Quality function deployment: Integrating customer requirements into product design (pp. 1–24). Cambridge, MA: Productivity Press.(4. 1969). Reveille for radicals. New York: Vintage Books.(5. 1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organisation. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1), 1–18., & (6. American Customer Satisfaction Index. (2005). The American Customer Satisfaction Index at ten years. Ann Arbor: Stephen M. Ross School of Business, University of Michigan.7. 1994). Customer satisfaction, market share, and profitability: Findings from Sweden. Journal of Marketing, 58, 53–66., , & (8. 2000). Strengthening the satisfaction-profit chain. Journal of Service Research, 3(2), 107–120., & (9. 2001). Value mapping: A second generation performance measurement and performance management solution. Aberdeen, UK: Business Excellence International.(10. 1996). The concept of corporate strategy. In H.Mintzberg & J. B.Quinn (Eds.), The strategy process: Concepts, context, cases. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Chap. 4, a, p. 47.(11. 1965). Corporate strategy. New York: McGraw-Hill.(12. 1999). Empowerment: Power, culture and leadership—a strategy or fad for the millennium?Journal of Workplace Learning, 11(7), 233–254. Chap. 3, p. 243., , & (13. 1998). Empowerment: A contrasting overview of organizations in general and nursing in particular—an examination of organizational factors, managerial behaviors, job design and structural power. Empowerment in Organizations, 6(2), 29–50., & (14. 2000). Gestalt characteristics of experiences: The defining features of summarized events. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 13, 191–201., & (15. 1994). Service quality and service recovery: The role of capacity management. In C. G.Armistead (Ed.), The future of service management (pp. 27–39). London: Kogan Page., & ([Page 284]16. Arthur M. Blank, chairman. (n.d.). Retrieved July 19, 2005, from the Arthur M. Blank Family Foundation Web site: http://www.blankfoundation.org/about/bio_arthurblank.html.17. 2004). Leadership style: Leaders believe in their own management ability and workers' attitude towards their job and work environment. Reykjavik: University of Iceland, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.(18. 2001, April). U.S. international transactions, fourth quarter and year 2000. Survey of Current Business, 21–68.(19. 2002). Chapter 11: Organizational culture. Retrieved June 14, 2005, from http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:nK0XTYAqX4QJ:www.science.doe.gov/sc-5/benchmark/Ch%252011%2520Organizational%2520Culture%252006.08.02.pdf+%2Bbaker+%2B%22organizational+culture%22&hl=en.(20. Balanced scorecard method. (2004). Retrieved June 20, 2005, from http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_balancedscorecard.html.21. 1993). Tightening the iron cage: Conceptive control in self-managing teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 38, 408–437.(22. 1996). Effects of transformational leadership training on attitudinal and financial outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(6), 827–832., , & (23. 1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99–120.(24. 1994). Winning ways with culture. Personnel Management, 26(10), 64–68.(25. 1995, September 21). Going public with studies on culture management. People Management, 1(19), 60.(26. 2002, Winter). Building competitive advantage through people. MIT Sloan Management Review, 43(2), 34–41., & (27. 1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.(28. 1990). Bass and Stogdill's handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications. New York: Free Press.(29. 1997). Does the transactional-transformational paradigm transcend organizational and national boundaries?American Psychologist, 22(2), 130–142.(30. 1989). The multifaceted leadership questionnaire. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press., & (31. 1983). Job satisfaction and the good soldier: The relationship between affect and citizenship. Academy of Management Journal, 26, 587–595., & (32. 1985). Perceived control and the service encounters. In J. A.Czepiel, M. R.Solomon, & C. F.Surprenant (Eds.), The service encounter (pp. 67–82). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.(33. 2002). International marketing and management. Copenhagen, Denmark: Copenhagen Business School. Chap. 4, a, p. 31, b, p. 25, c, p. 28., & (34. 1987, October). Service breakdown: The road to recovery. Management Review, 76(10), 32–35., & (35. 1989). On becoming a leader. New York: Addison-Wesley.(36. 1985). Leaders: The strategies for taking charge. New York: Harper & Row., & (37. 1990). Contextual issues in predicting high-level leadership performance: Contextual richness is a criterion consideration in personality research with executives. In K. E.Clark & M. B.Clark (Eds.), Measures of leadership (pp. 131–143). West Orange, NJ: Leadership Library of America.([Page 285]38. 1926). An introduction to social psychology. New York: Holt.(39. 1995). On great service: A framework for action. New York: Free Press.(40. 1999). Discovering the soul of service: The nine drivers of sustainable business success. New York: Free Press. Chap. 10, a, p. 40, b, p. 21; chap. 11, a, p. 181.(41. 2000). Teaching an old service new tricks: The promise of service redesign. Journal of Service Research, 2(3), 265–275., & (42. 1990, January). The service encounter: Diagnosing favorable and unfavorable incidents. Journal of Marketing, 54, 71–84., , & (43. 1992). Designing and achieving competency. New York: McGraw-Hill., & (44. Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Inc. (1982). New products management for the 1980s. New York: Author.45. 2000). The influence of selected antecedents on frontline staff's perceptions of service recovery performance. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 11(1), 63–90., & (46. 1992). The empowerment of service workers: What, why, how, and when. Sloan Management Review, 33(3), 31–39., & (47. 1989). A framework for analyzing customer service orientations in manufacturing. Academy of Management Review, 11, 710–725., , & (48. 1966). Predicting organizational effectiveness with a four-factor theory of leadership. Administrative Science Quarterly, 11, 238–263., & (49. 1986). The new populism: The politics of empowerment. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press., & (50. 1986). Prosocial organizational behaviors. Academy of Management Review, 11, 710–725., & (51. 1992). Why participative management won't work here. Management Review, 81(6), 42–46.(52. 1998). Competing On The Edge. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press., & (53. 1995, May). Customer satisfaction by industry among demographic and socioeconomic groups (Working paper no. 9590–08). Retrieved July 22, 2005, from the University of Michigan School of Business Administration Web site: http://www.hti.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?sid=afba80ee1d2665a4e4ea2f6ca12aabd2;c=busadwp;view=text;rgn=main;idno=b1793901.0001.001.(54. 1993). Charismatic leadership in business organizations: Some neglected issues. Leadership Quarterly, 4, 531–539. Chap. 3, p. 439.(55. 1999). A civil campaign: A comedy of biology and manners. Riverdale, NY: Baen Books.(56. 1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.(57. 1999). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture: Based on the competing values framework. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Chap. 12, a, p. 4., & (58. 1966). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Chicago: Rand McNally., & (59. 1991). Long range planning. Oxford, England: Pergamon Press., & (60. Center for Army Leadership, Department of the Army. (2004). The U.S. Army leadership field manual. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill.61. Center for Creative Leadership. (2004). [Home page]. Retrieved June 23, 2005, from http://www.ccl.org.[Page 286]62. 1985). Three models of strategy. Academy of Management Review, 10(1), 89–98.(63. 1962). Strategy and structure: Chapters in the history of the industrial enterprise. Cambridge: MIT Press.(64. 1999). Why CEOs fail. Fortune, 139(12), 68–75., & (65. 2000). Service quality in the service delivery system: A diagnostic framework. In S.Brown, E.Gummensson, B.Edvardsson, & B.Gustavsson (Eds.), Service quality: Multidisciplinary and multinational perspectives. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books., & (66. 1994, Spring). Make your service fail-safe. Sloan Management Review, 35(3), 35–44., & (67. 2003). Leading by leveraging culture. California Management Review, 45(4), 20–34., & (68. 1991). Communicating for managerial effectiveness. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(69. 2002). Follow this path: How the world's greatest organizations drive growth by unleashing human potential. New York: Warner Books., & (70. 1993). The portable MBA in management. New York: John Wiley.(71. 2003). Managerial involvement and perceptions of strategy process. Long Range Planning, 36, 67–83., , & (72. 1999). Building leaders: How successful companies develop the next generation. New York: Free Press., & (73. 1988). The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice. Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 471–482., & (74. 1997). The book of positive quotations. Minneapolis, MN: Fairview Press.(75. 1980). New York attitude measures of trust, organizational commitment and personal need non-fulfillment. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 53, 39–52., & (76. 2002). Human issues in service design. Journal of Operations Management, 20, 159–174., , , , , & (77. 1995). Choosing the right words: The development of guidelines for the selection of the “appropriate” crisis-response strategies. Management Communication Quarterly, 8(4), 447–476.(78. 1999). Ongoing crisis communication: Planning, managing, and responding. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(79. 1994). Autonomy and empowerment: New wine in old bottles. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Western Academy of Management, Santa Fe, NM., & (80. 1996, June/July). Empowerment: Myth or reality?Executive Speeches, 10(6), 23–28.(81. Data and text mining. (2005). Retrieved July 22, 2005, from the SAS Institute Web site: http://www.sas.com/technologies/analytics/datamining/index.html.82. 1987). Future perfect. New York: Addison-Wesley.(83. 2001). Leadership development: A review in context. Leadership Quarterly, 11(4), 581–613.(84. 1994). Management theory and total quality: Improving research and practice through theory development. Academy of Management Review, 19(3), 392–401., & (85. 1982). Quality, productivity and competitive position. Cambridge: MIT Press.([Page 287]86. 1986). Out of crisis. Cambridge: MIT Press.(87. 1994). Making common sense: Leadership as meaning-making in a community of practice. Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership., & (88. 1998). The relational view: Cooperative strategy and sources of interorganizational competitive advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(4), 660–679., & (89. 1996). Notes for the Workshop on Leadership Development. Unpublished manuscript, Australian Graduate School of Management, Sidney.(90. 1998). Service quality improvement. Managing Service Quality, 8(2), 142–150.(91. 2002). The effects of satisfaction and loyalty on profits and growth: Products versus services. In J. W.Cortada & J. A.Woods (Eds.), The quality yearbook: 2002 edition (pp. 116–129). New York: McGraw Hill., , , & (92. 2004). Organizational communication: Balancing creativity and constraint. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's. Chap. 10, a, p. 209., & (93. 1991). A closed-loop model of communication, empowerment, urgency and performance. Unpublished paper, University of Southern California, Los Angeles., & (94. 1996). So what is strategy? In H.Mintzberg & J. B.Quinn (Eds.), The strategy process: Concepts, context, cases. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Chap. 4, p. 11.(95. 1996). Research on leadership selection and training: One view of the future. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(2), 241–250.(96. 1994). Service management: Operations, strategy and information technology (, & (2nd ed.). Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill.97. 2000, May). Customer satisfaction: Is the free market working? Retrieved July 4, 2005, from http://www.theacsi.com/related_research.htm#web.(98. 1996). The American Customer Satisfaction Index: Nature, purpose, and findings. Journal of Marketing, 60(4), 7–18., , , , & (99. 1992). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum Press.(100. 2001, March). High tech the old fashioned way. Harvard Business Review, 79(3), 119–125.(101. 1986). Reliability, sensitivity to measuring change, and construct validity of therapist adaptability. Counseling Psychology, 33, 377–386., , & (102. Gallup Organization. (2002a, September 26). The four disciplines of sustainable growth: The critical elements of a performance management system. Gallup Management Journal. Retrieved July 22, 2005, from the Gallup Organization Web site: http://gmj.gallup.com/content/default.asp?ci=442.103. Gallup Organization. (2002b). The Gallup path. Retrieved July 12, 2005, from the Gallup Organization Web site: http://www.gallup.com/content/default.aspx?ci=1528.104. Gallup Organizaton. (2005). [Home page]. Retrieved July 12, 2005, from http://www.gallup.com.105. 1990). The employee empowerment era. Business Quarterly, 55(2), 74–79.(106. 1990). On leadership. New York: Free Press. Chap. 3, p. 38.(107. 1991). State or trait: Effects of positive mood on prosocial behavior, sales performance, and turnover: A group-level analysis in service context. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(2), 299–307.([Page 288]108. 1992). Feeling good—doing good: A conceptual analysis of the mood at work—organizational spontaneity relationship. Psychological Bulletin, 112(2), 310–329., & (109. 2000). Managing core competencies: The impact of knowledge management on human resource practice in leading-edge organizations. Knowledge and Process Management, 7(2), 237–247.(110. 1986). Assessment of leisure time exercise behavior by self-report: A concurrent validity study. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 77, 359–362., , & (111. 2002). The service concept: The missing link in service design research. Journal of Operations Management, 20, 121–134., , , & (112. 1995). Customer-firm relationships, involvement and customer satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 1310–1324., , , & (113. 2004). Parenting in complex structures. Oxford, England: Basil Blackwell., & (114. 2001). A new manifesto for management. In M. A.Cusumano & C. C.Markides (Eds.), Strategic thinking for the next economy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass., , & (115. 1991). An essay on organizational citizenship behavior. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 4, 249–270.(116. 2003, June). A pebble at a time. Hospitals and Health Networks, 77(6).(117. 2000). The nature, impact and development of customer oriented behaviour. London: London School of Economics.(118. 2003a). Customer oriented behavior: The nature, impact and development. Reykjavik: University of Iceland, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.(119. 2003b). Tjonustuhegdun: Rannsokn a edli, ahrifum og troun [Service orientation: Research on antecedents, impact, and development] (Working paper). Reykjavík: University of Iceland, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.(120. 2004). Customer oriented behaviour: Nature, impact and development. Reykjavik: University of Iceland.(121. 1982). A service quality model and its management implication (Handout). Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Helsinki, Finland.(122. 2003). Competing in service economy: How to create a competitive advantage through service development and innovation. San Francisco: John Wiley. Chap. 4, a, p. 13, b, p. 12., & (123. 1986). The psychology of self-management in organizations. In M. S.Pallack & R. O.Perloff (Eds.), Psychology and work: Productivity, change, and employment (pp. 89–136). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.(124. 1995). Total quality management: Empirical, conceptual, and practical issues. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40(2), 309–327., & (125. 2000). Service management and operations (, , , & (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Chap. 2, p. 1; chap. 6, a, p. 187.126. 1957). A factorial study of the leader behavior descriptions. In R. M.Stogdill & A. E.Coons (Eds.), Leader behavior: Its description and measurement (pp. 39–51). Columbus: Ohio State University College of Commerce and Administration, Bureau of Business Research., & (127. 1989, May-June). Strategic intent. Harvard Business Review, 67(3), 63–76., & ([Page 289]128. 1990). The core competence of the corporation. Harvard Business Review, 68(9), 79–91., & (129. 1991). Managing modern capitalism: Industrial renewal and workplace democracy in the United States and Western Europe. New York: Praeger., , & (130. 1998). The power behind empowerment: Implications for research and practice. Human Relations, 51(4), 451483., & (131. 2000, April). Turning customer service inside out! How poor internal customer service negatively impacts external customers. Retrieved July 22, 2005, from http://www.craigspeaks.com/InsideCS.html.(132. 1985). Communication and participative decision-making: An exploratory study. Personnel Psychology, 38, 93–116.(133. 1990, July-August). The profitable art of service recovery. Harvard Business Review, 68, 148–156., , & (134. 1996). Freedom of speech: Construct for creating a culture which empowers organizational members. Journal of Business Communications, 33, 85–97.(135. 1997). Organizational theory. New York: Oxford University Press.(136. 2002, Fall). Leading with an open heart. Leader to Leader, 26, 28–33. Retrieved July 22, 2005, from the Leader to Leader Institute Web site: http://leadertoleader.org/leaderbooks/l2l/fall2002/heifetz.html., & (137. 2004, April). When leadership spells danger. Educational Leadership, 61(7), 33–37. Retrieved July 25, 2005, from http://www.ascd.org/authors/ed_lead/el200404_heifetz.html., & (138. 1957). Development of the leader behavior description questionnaire. In R. M.Stogdill & A. E.Coons (Eds.), Leader behavior: Its description and measurement (pp. 6–38). Columbus: Ohio State University College of Commerce and Administration, Bureau of Business Research., & (139. 2001, August). Why some new products are more successful than others. Journal of Marketing Research, 38, 362–375., & (140. 1986). Managing in the service economy. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.(141. 1994, March-April). Putting the service-profit chain to work. Harvard Business Review, 72(1), 164–174., , , , & (142. 1997). The service profit chain: How leading companies link profit and growth to loyalty, satisfaction, and value. New York: Free Press., , , , & (143. 2003). The value profit chain: Treat employees like customers and customers like employees. New York: Free Press., , & (144. 2003). Beyond philanthropy: How improved service contributes to efficiency and profitability. Retrieved June 13, 2005, from http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:qqQahoXYhgMJ:webdesign.ittoolbox.com/browse.asp%3Fc%3DWDPeerPublishing%26r%3D%252Fpub%252FSF070903.pdf+%2Bhewson+%2Bmeekings+%2B%22beyond+philanthropy%22&hl=en., , & (145. 2004, October 26). You've got new customers. Now what do you do?Customer Think Advisor. Retrieved July 19, 2005, from the http://CRMguru.com Web site: http://crmguru.custhelp.com/cgi-bin/crmguru.cfg/php/enduser/std_adp.php?p_faqid=1382&p_created=1098810060&p_sid=cvNNASKh&p_lva=&p_sp=cF9zcmNoPTEmcF9zb3J0X2J5PSZwX2dyaWRzb3J0PSZwX3Jvd19jbnQ9MTEwOCZwX3Byb2RzPSZwX2NhdHM9JnBfcHY9JnBfY3Y9JnBfcGFnZT0xJnBfc2VhcmNoX3RleHQ9IllvdSd2ZSBHb3QgQ3VzdG9tZXJzLiI*&p_li=&p_topview=1.([Page 290]146. 1995). In search of TQM. Employment Relations, 17(3), 8–26., & (147. 2002). Linking learning and performance: A practical guide to measuring learning and on-the-job application. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.(148. 1994). What do we know about personality: Leadership and effectiveness?American Psychologist, 49, 493–504., , & (149. Home improvement store chain: Employee engagement and customer loyalty. (2005). Retrieved July 22, 2005, from the Gallup Organization Web site: http://gallup.com/content/?ci=1480&pg=1.150. 1997). A review of the literature on employee empowerment. Empowerment in Organizations, 5(4), 202–212.(151. 1997). Leadership theory: Past, present and future. Team Performance Management, 3(4), 270–287. Chap. 3, a & b, p. 270, c, p. 271.(152. 1977). A 1976 theory of charismatic leadership. In J. G.Hunt & L. L.Larson (Eds.), Leadership: The cutting edge (pp. 189–207). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.(153. 1997). The social scientific study of leadership: Quo vadis?Journal of Management, 23(2), 409–473. Chap. 3, a, p. 410, b, p. 429, c, p. 410., & (154. 1994). Why do people say nasty things about self-reports?Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 299–404.(155. 2003). How to improve customer service. Retrieved July 23, 2004, from the ACA Group Web site: http://www.theacagroup.com/customerservice.htm.(156. 1996). Reading statistics and research. New York: Harper Collins., & (157. 2002). Leadership: Enhancing the lessons of experience. New York: McGraw-Hill. Chap. 4, a, p. 78, b, p. 40., , & (158. 2004, May 14). How to focus on the customer and keep shareholders happy. Retrieved July 25, 2005, from the MORI Web site: http://www.mori.com/pubinfo/pfh/how-to-focus-on-the-customer.pdf.(159. 1985). What is total quality control? The Japanese way. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(160. Íslenska ánægjuvogin kynnt [The Icelandic Customer Satisfaction Survey introduced]. (2004, March 24). Retrieved July 22, 2005, from the IMG Web site: http://img.is/index.jsp.161. 1996). Measuring the impact of quality initiatives on firm financial performance. In S.Ghosh & D.Fedor (Eds.), Advances in the management of organizational quality (Vol. 1, pp. 1–37). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press., & (162. 1979). Superior-subordinate communication: The state of the art. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 1201–1222.(163. 2004). Value mapping—A second generation performance measurement and performance management solution. Retrieved June 20, 2005, from http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/articles_jack_value_mapping_second_generation_performance_management.pdf.(164. 2005, March 6). Retrieved July 15, 2005, from the Academy of Achievement Web site: http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/bez0bio-1.. (165. 2000). Customer satisfaction over industries, countries and time (Working paper). Ann Arbor: Ross Business School, University of Michigan., , & ([Page 291]166. 1997). Achieving empowerment using the empowerment strategy grid. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 18(2), 64–73., & (167. 1995). The zone of tolerance: Exploring the relationship between service transactions and satisfaction with the overall service. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 6(2), 46–61.(168. 1999). Service transaction analysis: Assessing and improving customers' experience. Managing Service Quality, 9(2), 102–109.(169. 1999). Service recovery strategies for single and double deviation scenarios. Service Industries Journal, 19(2), 69–82., & (170. 2004, May/June). Facility of the month: Circle of life. Healthcare Construction & Operations.(171. 1989). Juran on leadership for quality. New York: Free Press.(172. 1993). When more pain is preferred to less: Adding a better end. Psychological Science, 4(6), 401–405., , , & (173. 1968). Commitment and social organization: A study of commitment mechanisms in utopian communities. American Sociological Review, 33, 499–517.(174. 2001). The strategy-focused organization: How balanced scorecard companies thrive in the new business environment. Boston: Harvard Business School Press., & (175. 2003). Surveys: Construction, phrasing and drawbacks. In S.Halldórsdóttir & K.Kristjánsson (Eds.), Handbook in methodology for research in health sciences. Akureyri, Iceland: University of Akureyri.(176. 2004). Will you survive the service revolution?Harvard Business Review, 82(6), 100–110.(177. 1978). The social psychology of organizations. New York: John Wiley., & (178. 1993, Spring). Discretion and the service employee. Journal of Retailing, 69, 104–126.(179. 1994). Antecedents to customer expectations for service recovery. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(1), 52–61., & (180. 1989). The ABC's of service system blueprinting. In M. J.Bitner & L. A.Crosby (Eds.), Designing a winning service strategy (pp. 30–33). Chicago: American Marketing Association.(181. 1991). Technology, design and service quality. International Journal of Service Industries Management, 2(3), 47–59.(182. 1979). Techniques for evaluating training programs. Training and Development Journal, 33(6), 78–92.(183. 1985). Quality epiphenomenon: The conceptual understanding of quality in face-to-face service encounters. In J.Czepiel, M.Solomon, & C.Surprenant (Eds.), The service encounter: Managing employee/customer interaction in service businesses. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.(184. 1993). Leadership, culture, and organizational effectiveness. In K. E.Clark & M. B.Clark (Eds.), The impact of leadership (pp. 215–223). Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership., , & (185. 1991). The impact of transformational leadership on organizational commitment: Organizational citizenship behavior, teacher satisfaction and student performance in Singapore. Paper presented at the meeting of the Academy of Management, Fontainebleau, FL., , & (186. 1992). Corporate culture and performance. New York: Free Press., & ([Page 292]187. 1993). Credibility: How leaders gain and lose it, why people demand it. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Chap. 10, p. 21., & (188. 1985). Altruism and aggression. In G.Lindzey & E.Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology: Special fields and applications (Vol. 2, pp. 1–71). New York: Random House., & (189. 1986). Developing new services. In M.Venkatesan, D. M.Schmalennee, & C.Marshall (Eds.), Creativity in services marketing: What is new, what works, what is developing?Chicago: American Marketing Association., , & (190. 1995). Human resource management: Rhetorics andrealities. London: MacMillan.(191. 1988). Organizational learning. Annual Review of Sociology, 14, 319–340., & (192. 1972). Production line approach to service. Harvard Business Review, 60(5), 41–52.(193. 1993). Industrial democracy in America. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press., & (194. 2004, October 1). Why CEOs don't always lead, or why CEOs do not exercise leadership more often. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Leadership Associates. Retrieved July 25, 2005, from http://www.cambridge-leadership.com/images/WhyCEO%27sDon%27tAlwaysLead.pdf. Chap. 3, p. 1.(195. 2003). Leadership on the line. Boston: Harvard University Press., & (196. 1980). Surprise and sensemaking: What newcomers experience in entering unfamiliar organizational settings. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25, 226–251.(197. 2002). Customer service: Skills and concepts for success ((2nd ed.). New York: Glencoe McGraw-Hill.198. 1992). Developing self-managing teams: Structure and performance. Journal of Management Development, 11(3), 34–43., , & (199. 1991). SuperLeadership: Beyond the myth of heroic leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 19, 18–35. Chap. 3, a, p. 18., & (200. 1984). Behavioral control of exercise in sedentary adults: Studies 1 through 6. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology, 52, 795–811., , , , , , et al. (201. 2004, September 30-October 1). Leadership, learning, knowledge and technology. Keynote session presented at the Friends of the Center Leadership Conference, Jersey City, NJ.(202. 1990). A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108(2), 171–194., & (203. 1992). The recovery paradox: An examination of customer satisfaction in relation to disconfirmation, service quality, and attribution based theories. In C. T.Allen (Ed.), Marketing theory and application. Chicago: American Marketing Association., & (204. 2004, May 6). Roll out the blue carpet: How Ritz-Carlton can teach you to serve your customers better. Business 2.0. Retrieved July 22, 2005, from the CNNMoney Web site: http://money.cnn.com/2004/05/06/technology/business2_ritz-carlton/.(205. 1998). A little leadership, please?Organizational Dynamics, 26(3), 39–49., & (206. 2002). New service development: Areas for exploitation and exploration. Journal of Operations Management, 20, 135–157., , & ([Page 293]207. 1990). How to put employee empowerment into practice. The Woman CPA, 52(3), 25.(208. 2001). Analyzing service failures and recoveries: A process approach. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 12(1), 20–28.(209. 1997). Human resource management. Chicago: Times Mirror Higher Education Group., & (210. 1986). Managing service industries. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.(211. 1987, Fall). The strategy concept II: Another look at why organizations need strategies. California Management Review, 30(1), 25–32.(212. 1999, Spring). Reflecting on strategy process. Sloan Management Review, 40(3), 21–30.(213. 1996). The strategy process: Concepts, context, cases (, & (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Chap. 4, a, p. 4, b, p. 5, c, p. 14.214. “Model” employees rewarded for outstanding customer service. (2004, February 9). Retrieved June 17, 2005, from the Roke Manor Research Web site: http://www.roke.co.ukews/article.asp?id=66.215. 1982). Employee-organizational linkages: The psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnover. New York: Academic Press., , & (216. 1996). Management and organizational behaviour. London: Pittman.(217. 1982). Megatrends. New York: Warner.(218. 2002). Service management: Strategy and leadership in service business. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley. Chap. 2, a, p. 19, b, p. 8, c, p. 14, d, p. 15, e, p. 7, f, p. 2.(219. 1978). Psychometric theory ((2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.220. 1995). Paradoxes of participation: A literary analysis of case studies on employee involvement. Organization Science, 16(5), 769–803.(221. 2004). The world of customer service. Boston: Pearson Education.(222. 2000). New directions in corporate strategy. St. Leonards, Australia: Allen & Unwin.(223. 2001). Real-time strategy: What is strategy, anyway?Journal of Business Strategy, 22(6), 7–10.(224. 1996). Cultures as social control: Corporations, cults, and commitment. In L.Cummings & B.Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 18, pp. 157–200). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press., & (225. 1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The “good soldier” syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.(226. 1990). The motivational basis of organizational citizenship behavior. In B. M.Staw & L. L.Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (pp. 43–72). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.(227. 2004, July/August). British Airways' new sleeper service, New York-London. Business Traveler.(228. 1985). A conceptual model of service quality and implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, 49, 41–50., , & (229. 1993). Industrial relations myth and shop floor reality: The team concept in the auto industry. In N.Lichtenstein & J. H.Howell (Eds.), Industrial democracy in America (pp. 249–274). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.(230. 2000). Empowerment, expectations, and the psychological contract: Managing the dilemmas and gaining the advantages. Journal of Socio-Economics, 29(4), 471–485., , & ([Page 294]231. 1997). The antecedents of employee commitment to customer service: Evidence from a UK service context. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8, 66–86., & (232. 1987). Factors associated with transformational leadership in an Indian engineering firm. Paper presented at the meeting of the Administrative Science Association of Canada, Vancouver, BC.(233. 1987). Thriving on chaos. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.(234. 1992). Liberation management. New York: MacMillan.(235. 1982). Thepolitics of organizational decision making. London: Tavistock., & (236. Pettigrew, A. M., & Fenton, E. M. (Eds.). (2000). The innovating organization. London: Sage.237. 2002). How to measure training results: A practical guide to tracking the six key indicators. New York: McGraw-Hill., & (238. Complaints welcome here. Retailer News. Retrieved June 20, 2005, from http://retailernews.com/898/phill898.html.(n.d.).239. 2000, October). No longer services as usual. OECD Observer, 223, 52–54. Chap. 2, p. 52.(240. 1998, July-August). Welcome to the experience economy. Harvard Business Review, 76(4), 97–105., & (241. 1999). The experience economy. Boston: Harvard Business School Press., & (242. 1989, November). Is business ethics a contradiction in terms?Personnel Management, 60–63.(243. 1980). Competitive strategy: Techniques for analyzing industries and competitors. New York. Free Press.(244. 2004, November). Finding workers who fit. Business 2.0, 5(10), 74.(245. 1997). Strategies for growth. In R.Gibson (Ed.), Rethinking the future: Business, principles, competition, control, leadership, markets and the world (pp. 63–75). London: Nicholas Brealey.(246. 2002). Historical outline of the leadership literature. Boston: Kennedy School, Harvard University.(247. 1996). Strategies for change: Logical incrementalism. In H.Mintzberg & J. B.Quinn (Eds.), The strategy process: Concepts, context, cases. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Chap. 4, a & b, p. 3.(248. 1987, December). Technology in services. Scientific American, 257(6), 50–58., , & (249. 1997). The road to empowerment: Seven questions every leader should consider. Organizational Dynamics, 26(2), 37–49., & (250. 2003). Creating leaderful organizations: How to bring out leadership in everyone. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.(251. 1987). Terms of empowerment/exemplars of prevention: Toward a theory for community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 15(2), 121–148.(252. 2001, May). Lead from the center: How to manage divisions dynamically. Harvard Business Review, 79(5), 92–105., & (253. 1996). Patients' memories of painful medical treatments: Real time and retrospective evaluation of two minimally invasive procedures. Pain, 66, 3–8., & (254. 1996). The loyalty effect. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.(255. 1983, June). An analysis of consumer interaction styles in the marketplace. Journal of Consumer Research, 10, 73–82.([Page 295]256. 2004). Don't oil the squeaky wheel and 19 other contrarian ways to improve your leadership effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill.(257. 2000, October/November). Pizza in the sky: Lessons learned from service failures. Winning Manager, 3(5). Retrieved June 20, 2005, from http://www.wolfrinke.com/WMNEWSLETTER/wm1000.html.(258. 1995). Counterfactual thinking: A critical overview. In J. N.Roese & J. M.Olson (Eds.), What might have been: The social psychology of counterfactual thinking (pp. 1–56). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (259. 1985). Advocacy and empowerment: Mental health care in the community. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul., & (260. 1996). A teaching plan for strategy alternatives for the British motorcycle industry. In H.Mintzberg & J. B.Quinn (Eds.), The strategy process: Concepts, context, cases ((3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.261. 2000). Getting returns from service quality: Is the conventional wisdom wrong? (Working paper, Report No. 00–120). Boston: Marketing Science Institute., , & (262. 2003, September). A higher goal: Evidence-based design raises the bar for new construction. Health Facilities Management, 16(9).(263. SAS customer intelligence: In fashion at The Limited. (2005). Retrieved July 22, 2005, from the SAS Institute Web site: http://www.sas.com/success/limited.html.264. SAS Institute [Home page]. (2005). Retrieved July 8, 2005, from http://www.SAS.com.265. 1992). Organizational culture and leadership ((2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Chap. 3, pp. 373–374.266. 1989). A proposed model for new service development. Journal of Service Marketing, 3(2), 25–34., & (267. 1991). The service driven service company. Harvard Business Review, 69(5), 71–81., & (268. 1991). Organizational citizenship: A review, proposed model and research agenda. Human Relations, 44, 735–759.(269. 1973). The perception of organizational climate: The customer's view. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57, 248–256.(270. 1980). The service organization: Climate is crucial. Organizational Dynamics, 9, 52–65.(271. 2000). Why good management ideas fail: The neglected power of organizational culture. Strategy and Leadership, 28(1), 24–29.(272. 1994). Operations management continuous improvement (, & (5th ed.). Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill Education.273. Second generation performance management: Value mapping. (2004). Retrieved June 20, 2005, from the Value Based http://Management.net Web site: http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_jack_value_mapping.html.274. 2004). The practice of public relations ((9th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.275. 2003, July 7). What customers want. Fortune, 148(1), 122., & (276. 1999). The dance of change: The challenges to sustaining momentum in learning organizations. New York: McGraw-Hill., , , , , & (277. 2003, Autumn). Raelin: Creating leaderful organizations: How to bring out leadership in everyone [Book review]. Personnel Psychology, 56(3), 762–765.(278. 1991). People power. Executive Excellence, 8(12), 7–8.([Page 296]279. 2004). Transforming strategy into success. How to implement a lean management system. New York: Productivity Press., , & (280. 1984). Service design in the operating environment. In W. R.George & C.Marshall (Eds.), Developing new services (pp. 27–43). Chicago: American Marketing Association.(281. 1987). Service positioning through structural change. Journal of Marketing, 51(1), 33–43.(282. 1986). Is strategic management ideological?Journal of Management, 12(3), 363–377.(283. 2001). Customer obsession—service recovery. CEO Refresher. Retrieved June 20, 2005, from http://www.refresher.com/!obsession3.html.(284. 2000). Applying the service profit chain in a retail environment challenging the “satisfaction mirror.”International Journal of Service Industry Management, 11(3), 244–268., & (285. Six sigma—What is six sigma? (2005). Retrieved July 15,2005, from the iSixSigma LLC Web site: http://www.isixsigma.com/sixsigma/six_sigma.asp.286. Skanska/Beers General Contractors. (2003). Beers Skanska builds the hospital of tomorrow today. Building Florida, 1, 13.287. 1976). Black empowerment: Social work in oppressed communities. New York: Columbia University Press.(288. 1987). Method variance as an artifact in self-reported affect and perceptions at work: Myth or significant problem?Journal of Applied Psychology, 72(3), 438–443.(289. 1993). Service problem deployment: Transformation of problem information into problem prevention activities. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 4(2), 41–62.(290. 1995, May 11). Process-oriented measurement of service quality by applying the sequential incident method. In Proceedings From a Workshop on Quality Management in Service, V. Tilburg, The Netherlands: Tilburg University., & (291. 1981). Treat-rigidity effects in organizational behavior: A multilevel analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly, 26, 501–524., , & (292. 2003). Piecing together service quality: A framework for robust service. Production and Operation Management, 12(2), 246–265.(293. 1991). Chairmen and chief executives: An exploration of their relationship. Journal of Management Studies, 28, 185–208.(294. The strategic role of customer service offerings. (2003, September). Retrieved July 23, 2005, from the LiveWire Logic Web site: http://www.inst-informatica.pt/v20/cid/biblioteca_digital/crm/CRM_The%20Strategic%20Role%20of%20Customer%20Service%20Offerings.pdf.295. Strategy maps—strategic communication. (2004). Retrieved June 20, 2005, from http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_strategy_maps_strategic_communication.html.296. 2002a, April). An assessment of the effectiveness of e-learning in corporate training programs. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 3(1). Retrieved June 21, 2005, from the Athabasca University Web site: http://www.irrodl.org/content/v3.1/strother.html.(297. 2002b). A contrast in responses to the unspeakable events of September 11: American Airlines vs. United Airlines. In Proceedings: 2002 IEEE International Professional Communication Conference (pp. 423–436). Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.([Page 297]298. 2004). Crisis communication put to the test: The case of two airlines on 9/11. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 47(4), 290–300.(299. 1998). The influence of organizational culture and internal politics in new service design and introduction. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 9(5), 469–485.(300. Study shows customer service in banks is still not up to standard. (2004, December 2). Retrieved July 7, 2005, from the http://eCustomerServiceWorld.com Web site: http://www.ecustomerserviceworld.com/eresearchstore_research.asp?id=701&action=display&type=research.301. 1976). Product performance and consumer satisfaction. Journal of Marketing, 40, 17–30., & (302. 1998, Fall). Recovering and learning from service failure. Sloan Management Review, 40(1), 75–88., & (303. 1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7), 509–533., , & (304. 1990). Cognitive elements of empowerment: An interpretative model of intrinsic task motivation. Academy of Management Review, 15(4), 18–40., & (305. 1997, Fall). The mark of a winner. Leader to Leader, 6, 25–28.(306. 1980). The third wave. New York: Collins.(307. 2004). Critical commentary. Retrieved June 16, 2005, from the Manageris Web site: http://www.manageris.com/all_en/uk/goulp/pro/com96b.html.(308. 1992). Empowerment: The latest motivational strategy. Health Care Supervisor, 11(2), 11–16.(309. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. (2003). Trends in Europe and North America: The statistical yearbook of the Economic Commission for Europe 2003. Retrieved June 13, 2005, from http://www.unece.org/stats/trends/Welcome.html.310. 1990, August). Extra role behaviors: In pursuit of construct and definitional clarity. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, San Francisco., & (311. 1992). Experiences extended across time: Evaluation of moments and episodes. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 5, 169–185., & (312. 2002). New issues and opportunities in service design research (Editorial). Journal of Operations Management, 20, 117–120., , , & (313. 2001). Rethinking strategy. London: Sage., & (314. 1996). Empowerment and the management of an organizational transformation project. Project Management Journal, 27(1), 12–17.(315. 1994). The contributions of total quality management to a theory of work performance. Academy of Management Review, 19(3), 510–536.(316. 1996). The effects of U.S. CEO leader behavior on firm profits under conditions of environmental certainty and uncertainty: A longitudinal investigation (Working paper). Philadelphia: Reginald H. Jones Center for Management Policy, Strategy, and Organization, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania., , & (317. 2001). Jack: Straight from thegut. New York: Warner Business Books.(318. 2005). Winning. New York: Harper Business., & (319. 1961). Techniques of value analysis and engineering. New York: McGraw-Hill.([Page 298]320. 2004, June 16). Customer benefits through total solutions and innovation. Retrieved July 19, 2005, from the Siemens Web site: http://www.siemens.com/index.jsp?sdc_rh=null&sdc_flags=null&sdc_sectionid=0&sdc_secnavid=0&sdc_3dnvlstid=&sdc_countryid=0&sdc_mpid=0&sdc_unitid=14&sdc_conttype=8&sdc_contentid=1197941&sdc_langid=1&sdc_pnid=&.(321. 2003). Public relations: Strategies and tactics (, , , & (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.322. 2003). Marketing research: An integrated approach. London: Prentice Hall.(323. 1994). Leadership trapeze: Strategies for leadership in team-based organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass., & (324. 1994). Science, specific knowledge and total quality management. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 18, 247–287., & (325. 2003). How customers think. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.(326. 2003). Service marketing: Integrating customer focus across the firm. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Chap. 2, a, p. 7, b, p. 5., & (327. 1990). Delivering quality service: Balancing customer perceptions and expectations. New York: Free Press., , & (328. 1989). The service edge: 101 companies that profit from customer care. New York: NAL Books., & (329. 2001). Profit from the core. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press., & (
About the Authors[Page 319]
Svafa Grönfeldt is Chief Executive of Strategy and Organizational Development for Actavis Group, one of the world's top 10 generic pharmaceutical companies. She received her Ph.D. in Industrial Relations from the London School of Economics and Political Science, where her major focus was on service orientation and management. For the past 8 years, she has also been a member of the faculty of economics and business administration at the University of Iceland. Currently her work takes her throughout the world and is mainly focused on aligning strategy, structure, and the talent of key Actavis personnel on five continents and in 28 countries. Prior to her Chief Strategist role at Actavis, she held the position of Country-Managing Partner for Deloitte Consulting in Iceland and was a member of Deloitte's EMEA leadership team. Before that, she was a partner in and Director of Research and Development for IMG Gallup. Her consulting career has mainly been focused on leadership coaching and service strategic formulation, and her research projects include numerous occupational and benchmarking studies for companies in the private and public sectors, including longitudinal and cross-cultural studies.
Judith B. Strother is Professor of Applied Linguistics and Chair of the graduate program in Technical and Professional Communication at Florida Institute of Technology, where she has developed and taught a number of courses, including customer service, public relations, and communicating in the global economy. She holds M.A. and M.B.A. degrees and earned her Ph.D. at Technische Universiteit Eindhoven in the Netherlands, where she is Visiting Professor for Special Lectures in Managerial and Technical Writing. She has conducted research in management areas such as crisis communication as well as in communication and applied linguistics, including specific psycholinguistic elements in reading and writing business and scientific and technical English. She has also studied sociolinguistic issues, such as the impact of regional dialects on first and second language speakers and the effect of cross-linguistic and cross-cultural communication issues and their impact on aviation safety. She has written two books and numerous articles, and she has delivered papers at many international conferences. In the private sector, she serves as an officer in Virtual Languages Learning Academy (ViLLA), which designs and delivers Web-based business English and aviation English courses for international corporate training programs.