Serious & Violent Juvenile Offenders: Risk Factors and Successful Interventions

Books

Edited by: Rolf Loeber & David P. Farrington

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Developmental Course and Risk Factors

    Part II: Preventive Interventions and Graduated Sanctions

    Part III: Concluding Overview

  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Foreword: Never too Early

    For decades, scholars have quarreled over whether crime could best be reduced by punishing offenders or treating offenders. In the punishment group were those, including myself, who argued that we knew too little about the causes of crime; that such causes as could be identified were beyond much planned change; and that in any event the results, if any, of those changes would take years, perhaps decades, to appear. In the treatment group were writers who believed that causes could be found; that government could change them significantly; and that the benefits of those changes, even if they took years to appear, would do less harm than the painful effects of punishment. Among those effects, they argued, were the tendency of punishment to confirm people in a life of crime. Prisons were not only costly, they were also schools for crime.

    That debate continues, but now, I think, in a somewhat less extreme fashion. The defenders of the deterrent and incapacitative effects of punishment still argue (reasonably, I believe) that higher levels of punishment have in fact lowered crime rates in the United States, but they now concede that the financial and human costs of this strategy are, indeed, very large. We have more than a million inmates in state and federal prisons (plus many in jails). Not only has this created a substantial monetary burden, it has also affected racial groups very differently. An Afro-American male born today will, if present imprisonment and crime rates continue, have more than a one in four chance of being in state or federal prison before he dies. It is hard to be sanguine about a policy that produces so profound a racial divide in our society.

    The defenders of treatment have become a bit less optimistic about what rehabilitative programs can achieve, are less convinced now that merely increasing the number of jobs or multiplying new government programs will reduce the crime rate, and are more willing than previously to acknowledge the vital importance of early childhood experiences and personal endowments in explaining why some youth commit crimes at such high rates. Moreover, they now are more inclined to admit that community-based alternatives to traditional juvenile prisons must exercise very close supervision if they are to be as effective.

    The narrowing of the punishment-versus-treatment policy gulf is best illustrated by the increased attention both sides now give to crime prevention. By prevention I mean intervening in a person's life before he or she has become a serious or high-rate offender. This book provides a rigorous synthesis of much that has been learned about such prevention programs.

    Though I would draw somewhat different conclusions from the data reviewed in some parts of this book, I am struck by the extent to which so many authors now emphasize early childhood experiences. Crime prevention is less likely to be defined by scholars as trying some bold new program, whether it involves how police are trained or assigned; what prosecutors do; how Neighborhood Watch can make places safe; or why bringing down the unemployment rate, embracing some new rehabilitation program, or mounting innovative high school courses can make our streets much safer.

    Instead, the focus is to a greater extent than ever before on several important themes that are supported by research:

    • The precursors of crime occur very early in the lives of many serious offenders.
    • These precursors involve a complex array of relationships between child and parents.
    • Changing those precursors requires a complex intervention that affects parents as well as children and that best occurs early in the life of the youngsters.

    Interventions based on these principles are likely to make the most difference for children who display certain risk factors: early use of alcohol and drugs, ties to antisocial friends, early expressions of aggression, poor parent-child relations, low intelligence, and similar factors. Modern criminology has rediscovered arguments made in the 1950s by Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck and soon thereafter rejected by people who wrongly believed that families were of little importance compared with economic opportunity.

    Gail Wasserman and Laurie Miller supply us with a good review of what we know about the consequences of programs that attempt to modify family life. Richard Catalano and his colleagues are sufficiently impressed with efforts to alter the factors that put children at risk that they press for “comprehensive,” “community-wide” interventions that embody a variety of treatments. Of course, the story is not over once the child becomes a delinquent, as Mark Lipsey and David B. Wilson show in their analysis of interventions on known offenders.

    Some early childhood programs do make a lasting difference, just as some rehabilitation programs applied to certain kinds of offenders seem to make a difference. But to expand on these programs some difficult problems must still be overcome.

    Very few of the more successful interventions were expressly aimed at reducing the crime rate of serious offenders. Some may have had this effect, but we are not quite certain why. Many of these successful efforts were small-scale programs run by dedicated clinicians employing talented staff, but we have no reason yet to think that these efforts would be as successful as they were for 2 dozen children if they were applied to 2,000 or 200,000 youngsters. We now have a pretty good understanding of the characteristics of children who are at risk of becoming serious offenders, but that knowledge is not so good that we can reliably identify the at-risk children at an early age. Some of the best early interventions were carried out many years ago, before drug use, social disorganization, and high levels of gang violence had become as commonplace as they are now. In short, our growing awareness of the potential value of early interventions rests on replication of those findings in several sites by people other than those who invented the program.

    What is impressive about many of the essays in this book is that they reveal a common interest in early intervention involving both parents and children, and they are informed by a shared knowledge of the experimental efforts that seem to have worked.

    This common interest should help to further narrow the policy differences among scholars. The choice today is not one between the death penalty or midnight basketball. The real choice is between mounting a serious, large-scale effort to rebuild weak families or continuing a politically attractive but largely sterile debate over how great the maximum sentence should be for convicted felons. Rebuilding weak families is still very much in the pilot project phase: We do not know how to do it on a large scale. We can discuss comprehensive, community-wide projects, but we have virtually no experience with actually producing them. By the same token, making people who commit serious crimes face longer maximum sentences is in part a cheap, symbolic effort, given the fact that most offenders—because of plea bargaining, judicial discretion, or prison crowding—serve only a fraction of these maximum penalties.

    Theft and other forms of property crime are, as it turns out, more susceptible to control than violent crime. Our rates of property crime, have, for the most part, gone down since 1980, and now are, for many offenses, lower than they are in England, Sweden, or other European nations. But we are still today, as we have been for generations, the murder capital of the industrialized world. Most troubling, it has been the murder rate among juveniles that has, in recent years, climbed the fastest. If we wish to reduce the murder rate, for example, we must confront the fact that we have only imperfect ways of identifying would-be murderers at any early age (and hence prevention is difficult) and the median murderer released from prison today has probably served after considerable pretrial delay no more than 6 years in confinement (and hence sanctions are both postponed and moderate). We ought to try to improve our performance on both prevention and punishment efforts, but we have a long ways to go before we know how to do either.

    Crime prevention, I think, has come face to face with the central social question of our time: How, if at all, can we sustain a healthy family life in a culture that rewards personal self-expression, an economy that no longer is dominated by family labor, and a policy world that provides countless opportunities for living apart from family obligations? Crime control, in short, is now engaged with the issue whose resolution will profoundly affect the future of our culture. This book is a good place to start looking for what we know and what we do not know about why this has happened and what can be done about it.

    James Q.Wilson

    Foreword: How Criminology Can Be Enhanced by the Study of Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders

    This book brings together new insights and understanding of the origins of criminal careers and the effectiveness of intervention or prevention programs. The task was greatly facilitated by the initiation over the past two decades of major research studies focused on the development of delinquent conduct. The productivity of the Study Group that produced this book was also enhanced by several strategic decisions on the issues to be explored. From the outset a primary concern was to search for explanations of serious and violent conduct by juvenile offenders. This helped to sensitize literature reviews to the factors accounting for such conduct. At the same time it made the search more difficult because serious and violent offending occurs at a low rate among all juvenile offenses. In a number of instances this led to additional analyses of existing data sets focusing more sharply on correlates of such behavior.

    Another defining strategy was the primacy given to studies of delinquent and criminal behavior that took a developmental approach involving successive interviews with one or more age cohorts. This approach broadens the range and salience of the questions that can be addressed. For example, it can relate the evidence of early childhood problems to the various pathways leading to serious and violent conduct. It can explore the predictive value of self-reports of offending compared to arrest data at different age levels, and it can determine the relative importance of gang membership as a factor in the development of serious and violent behavior. In fact, each of the chapters in this report provides fresh evidence of the explanatory power gained through the developmental study of age cohorts.

    Another major guideline was the constant attention to identifying both risk and protective factors in the progression toward serious and violent conduct. How did these factors vary with age and their relation to other problems of childhood and youth? Finding answers to this type of question was, of course, one of the primary aims in creating the Study Group with the support of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention in the U.S. Department of Justice. This agency has also provided support for several developmental research studies represented in the Study Group and was interested in assessing the current state of knowledge in the field in general.

    A second aim of the Study Group was to assess the relevance of knowledge gained from the developmental studies for the design of intervention and prevention policies and programs. This interest served to highlight the importance of community institutions, social agencies, and contextual influences on the type and rates of juvenile offenses. It led to a major effort by the Study Group to survey the results and effectiveness of programs of interventions and prevention. The Study Group encountered serious deficiencies in the design and effectiveness of studies because of the complexities in administration and costs of experimental evaluations. It, nevertheless, concluded that the available evidence justified a much greater attention to the role of community influences on juvenile conduct in research studies of risk and protective factors and in the design of intervention and prevention policies and programs.

    Throughout the report the Study Group has pointed to gaps and limitations of existing research findings and program development. Taken as a whole they constitute an impressive agenda for further basic research on risk and protective factors and program evaluations. Most of the research studies in recent years have focused on the individual differences in the characteristics and experiences of various types of offenders. Much less attention has been devoted to identifying community and institutional differences that could become major targets for intervention and prevention strategies. In calling attention to these types of deficiencies in our knowledge, the Study Group has underscored the need for more balanced research policies that will assist the development of more effective program designs and evaluations.

    The editors of this book have a history of involvement in developmental studies of delinquent youth that spans two decades—and longer, in the studies by Farrington in England. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention provided support for three developmental studies that generated comparative data as well as data on different issues. The studies undertaken in Rochester, Denver, and Pittsburgh demonstrated the productivity of developmental research designs in advancing knowledge about the onset, growth, and termination of criminal careers. The studies also stimulated the reanalysis of earlier research findings from such studies as those of Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck prior to World War II and the Cambridge-Somerville treatment study by Joan McCord.

    The insights gained from such work have greatly enlarged the range of issues addressed in the various chapters in this book. Without the studies conducted over the past two decades, this book could not have been written. The editors' immersion in these developments provided them with an understanding of the range of issues involved and the persons best equipped to assess them in a critical and constructive manner. The editors and chapter authors are to be congratulated for the scope and depth of their assessments of the state of knowledge and their definitions of the need for continuing research on critical issues. By dealing with the course of development and risk factors in criminal careers and juxtaposing the insights gained with the relevance and potential effectiveness of prevention policies and programs, the authors are helping to transcend a division between research and action. Well-designed evaluations of programs and policies of interventions also contribute to the basic fund of knowledge about what works and why. In producing a report that fosters both types of inquiry, the Study Group and its sponsors in the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention have created a solid foundation for further growth of research and policy in the years ahead.

    Lloyd E.Ohlin

    Preface

    This volume sets out the conclusions of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's (OJJDP) Study Group on Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders. The initial idea for the Study Group was broached with James C. Howell, then Director of Research at OJJDP, who enthusiastically endorsed it. Subsequently, the office issued a request for proposals, and Rolf Loeber and David P. Farrington were the successful applicants and became cochairs of the Study Group. Members of the Study Group, who were selected because of their expert knowledge of different aspects of serious and violent juvenile offenders, were David M. Altschuler, Alfred Blumstein, Richard F. Catalano, Julius Debro, David P. Farrington, Peter Greenwood, Nancy G. Guerra, Darnell Hawkins, J. David Hawkins, James C. Howell, David Huizinga, Barry Krisberg, John H. Laub, Marc Le Blanc, Mark W. Lipsey, Rolf Loeber, Walter Miller, Mark H. Moore, Howard N. Snyder, Terence P. Thornberry, Patrick Tolan, and Gail A. Wasserman.

    Starting in November 1995, the Study Group met periodically to discuss the main thrust of the report, and later, the drafts that members (some joined by one or more coauthors) prepared. In the process we received valuable guidance from several staff members of OJJDP, including Shay Bilchik, John Wilson, Betty Chemers, Joan Hurley, and Barbara Allen-Hagen. Furthermore, observers from some other agencies assisted in several meetings, including Christy Visher of the National Institute of Justice, Carol Petrie of the National Academy of Sciences, and Jan Chaiken of the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Chapters were reviewed by agency staff members, in addition to the editors and Study Group members, and went through several iterations. OJJDP provided financial support for the project (Grant 95-JD-FX-0018). Points of view or opinions in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of OJJDP or the Department of Justice.

    In Pittsburgh, we received assistance from David Kupfer, Chair of the Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh. We are particularly grateful to JoAnn Fraser for her thoughtful and effective administrative guidance to the project, and to Daniel Waschbusch for his help in retrieving source material and checking the manuscript chapters. Most of all, we want to thank the members of the Study Group for their splendid collaboration, writing, and secondary data analyses; for their tolerance of our unreasonable requests for revisions of their manuscript chapters at short notice; and for their collegial assistance in advancing knowledge about serious and violent juvenile offenders.

    Executive Summary

    RolfLoeber & David P.Farrington

    We draw a number of key conclusions in this volume about serious and/or violent juvenile (SVJ) offending. Serious violent offenses include homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, and kidnapping. Serious nonviolent offenses include burglary, motor vehicle theft, theft over $100, arson, and drug trafficking.

    The two main aims of this volume are to review knowledge about SVJ offenders and about which types of interventions can reduce their level of offending. This volume was inspired by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's (OJJDP) Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders. This strategy emphasized strengthening the family and core socializing institutions, implementing prevention programs targeting key risk factors, identifying early potential offenders, and employing graduated sanctions based on assessments of risks and needs. The Comprehensive Strategy provides an excellent framework for understanding, preventing, and controlling SVJ offending. The present volume uses the Comprehensive Strategy as a springboard and includes detailed quantitative analyses of risk and protective factors and of the effectiveness of prevention and intervention programs for SVJ offenders. It also aims to integrate the risk/protective factor and prevention/intervention program literature, so that programs are based more on research on influential factors, and conclusions about putative causal effects of factors are drawn from knowledge about the effectiveness of programs.

    This volume carries two main themes. First, SVJ offenders tend to start displaying behavior problems and delinquency early in life, warranting early intervention. It is our thesis that prevention is never too early. Second, we also maintain that interventions for SVJ offenders can never be too late; effective interventions exist for known SVJ offenders.

    The executive summary centers around the following main conclusions:

    • SVJ offenders are a distinct group of offenders who tend to start early and continue late in their offending.
    • From childhood to adolescence, SVJ offenders tend to develop behavior problems in several areas, including aggression, dishonesty/property offenses, and conflict with authority figures.
    • Many potential SVJ offenders below the age of 12 are not routinely processed in the juvenile court, and services in the community for such offenders appear unnecessarily fragmented, leading to a lack of public accountability for young potential SVJ offenders.
    • There are many known predictors of SVJ offending that could be incorporated into screening devices for the early identification of SVJ offenders.
    • It is never too early: Preventive interventions for young children at risk for SVJ should be implemented at an early age and are known to be effective.
    • It is never too late: Interventions and sanctions for known SVJ offenders can reduce their risk of reoffending.
    • Evaluations of interventions often are inadequate and usually do not provide information specifically about changes in the rate of offending by SVJ offenders.
    • An integrated and coordinated program of research is needed on the development and the reduction of SVJ offending.
    • Several key issues about SVJ offenders are unresolved and remain to be addressed through research.

    We will now elaborate on each point.

    SVJ Offenders are a Distinct Group of Offenders
    • The majority of the SVJ offenders of any race tend to be multiple-problem youth. They often have school problems (truancy, suspension, and dropout), substance use problems, and mental health problems, and they are disproportionally victims of violence.
    • SVJ offenders are also distinguishable from non-SVJ offenders in that the majority of the SVJ offenders start offending early in life and continue offending longer than non-SVJ offenders. In addition, the age of onset of nondelinquent behavior problems is much earlier in SVJ offenders than in non-SVJ offenders.
    • Chronic offenders account for more than half of all serious crime committed by juveniles. The vast majority of chronic offenders are SVJ offenders.
    • Black (African American) youth have higher rates of SVJ offending, but this may be due to community factors such as living in a socially disorganized neighborhood.
    Development of SVJ Offending
    • From childhood to adolescence SVJ offenders tend to develop behavior problems in several areas, including aggression, dishonesty/property offenses, and conflict with authority figures.
    • Typically, SVJ offenders tend to advance simultaneously in each of these areas, with minor problem behaviors preceding the onset of moderately serious problem behaviors, which in turn tend to progress to more serious forms of delinquency.
    • As offenders progress in these areas to SVJ offending, they tend to continue to commit less serious delinquent acts at high rates.

    Comment. The delinquency careers of SVJ offenders are vastly different according to official records of arrest or referral to the juvenile court compared with self-reported delinquency. Self-reports show that most persisting serious offenders have an onset of serious offending before age 14, with about half of the persisting SVJ offenders starting their delinquent career before age 12.

    SVJ Offenders, Juvenile Justice, and Public Accountability
    • Typically, juvenile courts do not routinely deal with delinquency by youth below the age of 12. However, very young offenders, and particularly serious or persisting young offenders, are the most likely group from which SVJ offenders will develop. Presently, no alternative agency in society is held accountable for the early-onset offenders, and as a result there is a fragmentation of services and lack of resources to deal effectively with early-onset offenders.
    • Many SVJ offenders, judging from their self-reports, are never arrested, even at a later age.
    • At first appearance before the juvenile court, SVJ offenders are often not readily identifiable, because many of them are arrested for less serious delinquent acts. Screening devices, based on legally permissible predictors, need to be improved to identify potential SVJ offenders at their first arrest or first referral to the juvenile court.
    • SVJ offenders tend to be persistent offenders, and many of them will be at risk in the community during their peak offending years even if they were apprehended earlier and incarcerated for a short period of time.
    • The majority of violent youth commit only one officially recorded violent crime as a juvenile. Therefore, to prevent violence it is important not to wait to intervene before this officially recorded violent crime occurs.

    Comment. In evaluating the roles and functions of the juvenile justice system, the mental health system, and child welfare services in addressing SVJ offenders, it is clear that integration of services is often lacking and that gaps exist in who receives sanctions and/or intervention. Also, because each institution is reactive rather than proactive, none of them serves an efficient role in preventing SVJ offending in the community. Most important, it is not clear which institutions or community groups are held accountable for SVJ offenders as they emerge in each generation of youth. This lack of public accountability stands in the way of the development of effective interventions, particularly at the community level. An important priority is to give resources and mandates to agencies that can focus on the prevention of SVJ offending, and to require coordination and public accountability across the different systems of care.

    Screening for SVJ offenders has two purposes: the identification of future SVJ offenders for prevention purposes, and the classification of offenders for juvenile justice programming. Screening is most effective using multiple informants, multiple methods, and multiple types of variables. Variables that might be used in a prevention screening instrument include prior delinquency, antisocial peers or parents, and poor school attitudes or performance. Risk assessment instruments are widely used by juvenile court personnel. However, more technical work, and especially validations, needs to be completed before adequate screening instruments, individualized for particular communities, can be confidently recommended to policymakers and practitioners.

    Predictors of SVJ Offending
    • Persistent precocious behavior problems in children during the elementary school-age years are a warning sign for later SVJ offending.
    • Among the strongest, potentially modifiable predictors of SVJ offending evident between ages 6 and 11 are nonserious delinquent acts, aggression, substance use, low family socioeconomic status, and antisocial parents.
    • Among the strongest predictors of SVJ offending evident between ages 12 and 14 are lack of strong social ties, antisocial peers, nonserious delinquent acts, poor school attitude and performance, and psychological conditions such as impulsivity.
    • Juveniles to whom the strongest predictor variables apply are 5–20 times more likely to engage in subsequent SVJ offending than those without such predictor variables.
    • The risk of juveniles engaging in SVJ offending is greatly enhanced when they join a gang or become a drug dealer.
    • The higher the number of risk factors, the greater the likelihood of a youth engaging in SVJ offending.

    Comment. In general, violent behavior results from the interaction of individual, contextual (family, school, peers), situational, and community factors. Much is known about the predictors of serious and violent offending.

    Adolescents who join delinquent gangs are more frequently involved in SVJ offending than non-gang members. Gang members, although representing a minority of the juvenile population, are responsible for the vast majority of serious delinquent acts. Rates of SVJ offending increase after joining a gang and decrease after leaving a gang. Hence, it is important to target gangs to reduce SVJ offending.

    Prevention of SVJ Offending
    • Early intervention in childhood and early adolescence can reduce the likelihood of young at-risk juveniles becoming SVJ offenders.
    • Preventive interventions should be based on public health approaches and should target known risk factors within a comprehensive community-based program in disadvantaged neighborhoods.
    • The best preventive interventions are based on an integration of different services, including services provided by the juvenile justice system, schools, mental health, medical health, and child protection agencies.
    • Early prevention is important, including home visitation of pregnant women, teenage parents, parent training, preschool intellectual enrichment programs, and interpersonal skills training.
    • Important targets for later prevention are reductions in gangs, victimization, gun availability, and drug markets.

    Comment. Because SVJ offending is multiply determined, it is unlikely that interventions directed only toward a single source of influence (e.g., individual, family, school, or peers) will be very successful. Multiple-component prevention programs are needed. Therefore, priority should be given to preventive actions that reduce risk factors in multiple domains. Few programs have been evaluated specifically in relation to SVJ offenders. The most successful early prevention programs involve interventions simultaneously in the home and the school. Many of the same risk factors that predict adolescent delinquency and violence also predict substance abuse, dropping out of school, early sexual involvement, and teen pregnancy.

    The primary methods of preventing the development of SVJ offenders are through family, school, and community interventions. Public health approaches to offending are desirable that target risk or protective factors and immediate situational influences. For that reason, better routine data collection methods are needed that specify when, where, and how offenses occur and offenders develop. Wide-ranging community-based programs are required in which risk and protective factors are measured and intervention techniques targeting these factors are implemented and their impact measured.

    Many preventive actions can best take place in communities. Community mobilization, community policing, and intensive policing strategies can be effective. School-based strategies are also useful, especially those targeted on school organization or on classroom-based curricula emphasizing the reinforcement of prosocial and academic skills. Other targets for community interventions include reducing the availability of firearms and drugs, and enhancing laws and norms favorable to prosocial behaviors. Most of these approaches have been incorporated in the comprehensive Communities That Care preventive strategy, which still remains to be evaluated.

    Interventions and Sanctions for Identified SKI Offenders
    • SVJ offenders constitute only a minority of identified offenders in the juvenile court system.
    • The reoffending of SVJ offenders can be reduced by appropriate intervention, especially interpersonal skills training and cognitive-behavioral treatment.
    • Programs to prevent youth gang violence can be successfully implemented.
    • In selecting treatment and sanctions in the juvenile justice system, account should be taken of (a) the severity of the presenting offense; (b) the risk of recidivism for serious offenses; and (c) the individual needs of the juvenile offender, such as academic needs and family support.
    • Interventions for SVJ offenders often have to be multimodal to address multiple problems, including law breaking, substance use and abuse, and academic and family problems.
    • The administration of multimodal programs requires integration of services of the juvenile justice system, mental health, schools, and child welfare agencies.
    • Aftercare programs are essential to reduce the likelihood of reoffending by SVJ offenders.

    Comment. A meta-analysis of experimental and quasi-experimental intervention programs for reducing the recidivism of SVJ offenders showed that the most effective programs with noninstitutionalized offenders involved interpersonal skills training, behavioral contracting, or individual counseling. The most effective programs with institutional offenders involved interpersonal skills training, cognitive-behavioral treatment, or teaching family homes programs. Intervention effects were greater where there was a longer duration of treatment.

    Three promising programs were identified to prevent youth gang violence. The comprehensive community approach developed by Spergel involves the design and mobilization of community efforts by police, prosecutors, judges, probation and parole officers, corrections officers, schools, employers, community agencies, and grassroots organizations. OJJDP's Comprehensive Strategy also targets youth gang violence through risk-focused prevention and graduated sanctions. Youth gang homicides can be addressed by a multiple-component program combined with restricting access to firearms, enhanced prosecution of gang crimes, with multiagency sanctioning and hospital emergency room intervention.

    Most SVJ offenders slow down their rate of offending after correctional interventions. However, alternatives to secure confinement for SVJ offenders are at least as effective as incarceration in suppressing recidivism and are far less costly. Juveniles who are transferred to the adult court are more likely to be incarcerated but also more likely to reoffend. Because of the inadequacy of research designs, the relative effectiveness of juvenile and adult court disposals is unclear.

    Intermediate sanctions, including electronic monitoring, house arrest, home detention, drug and alcohol testing, community tracking, intensive supervision, boot camps, day treatment/reporting centers, and community service and restitution, are increasingly being used as alternatives to institutionalization, probation, parole, and aftercare. These sanctions are being used by varying degrees with SVJ offenders. Existing research on intermediate sanctions suggests that treatment availability and participation in treatment are associated with lower recidivism. Unfortunately, many offenders are left untreated. Risk-based treatment services should play a prominent role in the philosophy, design, and implementation of intermediate sanctions.

    Evaluation of Interventions
    • Better designed evaluations of the effectiveness of programs are needed (e.g., randomized experiments), and studies of the cost-effectiveness of one program compared with others.
    • More evaluations need to study the impact of prevention and intervention programs specifically on SVJ offending.
    • The effectiveness of transfer to adult court for SVJ offenders compared with the effect of sanctions administered by the juvenile court needs to be evaluated in terms of the risk of reoffending.
    • Community-wide programs, such as Communities That Care, need to be evaluated for their efficacy in reducing both community levels of delinquency and SVJ offending.

    Comment. Evaluation of intervention programs is essential to identify more effective versus less effective programs. Evaluations are also essential to make cost comparisons between programs and implement programs with the highest yields at lowest cost. However, the evaluation of community-based programs poses many challenges.

    Research Priorities
    • More studies are needed focusing specifically on risk factors for SVJ offenders and aiming to identify protective factors in disadvantaged neighborhoods where SVJ offenders are especially found.
    • Because SVJ offenders commit less serious delinquent acts at a high rate, screening devices need to be developed that can identify potential SVJ offenders on their first arrest or referral to the juvenile court.
    • A key research priority is to assess the effects of interventions specifically on SVJ offenders.
    • The course of development of SVJ offenders needs to be investigated, not only in inner cities but also in rural communities and for female offenders.
    • Annual or biannual surveys are needed, especially in large metropolitan areas, to measure (a) the prevalence of SVJ offenders, and (b) the prevalence of youth at risk for SVJ offending. These surveys can assist in the evaluation of prevention and intervention programs for SVJ offenders.
    • Longitudinal studies are needed, in which multiple cohorts are followed up, to draw conclusions about development from birth to the teenage years and into early adulthood.

    Comment. Research on risk factors for SVJ offending needs to have a more developmental focus, documenting how they emerge and change in different contexts, and how risk and protective factors affect onset, persistence, escalation, and desistance of offending. There is a need to develop theories that apply not just to juvenile delinquents in general, but also to SVJ offenders. New longitudinal studies should measure a wide range of risk and protective factors. They should be based on high-risk samples incorporating screening methods to maximize the yield of SVJ offenders. Experimental studies are also needed in which multiple-component interventions are used and SVJ offending is measured. The different components should be targeted on different age ranges, and the interventions should be applied to high-risk youth or high-risk communities. In some cases, it is desirable to include interventions in a longitudinal study or to follow up cohorts in an intervention study. Such a coordinated program could dramatically advance knowledge about SVJ offending and ultimately lead to a significant reduction in this troubling social problem in the next decade.

    An integrated and coordinated program of data collection, intervention, and research specifically on SVJ offenders should be developed and administered by an appropriate federal agency, advised by scholars from the juvenile delinquency and juvenile justice communities.

  • Appendix: Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders—An Assessment of the Extent of and Trends in Officially Recognized Serious Criminal Behavior in a Delinquent Population

    Howard N.Snyder

    The nationwide growth in the juvenile violent crime arrest rate between 1986 and 1994, after more than a decade of relative stability, has fueled the public's concerns over the viability of the juvenile justice system. To respond to these concerns, most state legislatures have recently made substantial changes in their state's juvenile justice systems. Some legislation has even removed serious and violent offenders from the jurisdiction of the juvenile court and placed these youth under the jurisdiction of the criminal court. Clearly, the future of America's juvenile justice system is being molded by the public's perception of serious and violent juvenile offenders. Therefore, it is important for juvenile justice policymakers, practitioners, and the public to understand the volume of, and growth in, this segment of the juvenile offending population.

    This research was designed to place the serious and violent offender in context of the general population handled by the juvenile justice system. Unlike other recent studies that have focused on self-reported delinquent behavior, this work focuses on youth with official records of delinquency. Although information about self-reported law-violating behavior is essential to understand the development of law-violating careers, the juvenile justice system can respond only to officially recognized delinquent behavior. Therefore, a clear picture of serious and violent juvenile behavior from the perspective of the juvenile justice practitioner is necessary to support the development of policies that guide the justice system's response to juvenile offenders.

    AUTHOR'S NOTE: This research was supported in part by grants to the National Center for Juvenile Justice from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (Grants 95-JN-FX-K008 and 95-JN-FX-0008).

    This descriptive study was designed to answer a set of basic questions often raised in the debates over juvenile justice policies and procedures:

    • What are the proportions of serious and violent offenders in the officially recognized delinquent population?
    • Are these proportions increasing?
    • Are serious and violent juvenile offenders in recent years being referred for more serious and violent crimes?
    • Are chronic offenders also serious and violent offenders?
    • Is the onset of officially recognized juvenile violence and serious offending occurring at younger ages?
    Method

    To explore officially recognized serious and violent juvenile offending, this study analyzes the juvenile court careers of all persons born between 1962 and 1977 who were referred to the juvenile court in Maricopa County, Arizona, for a delinquency offense prior to their 18th birthday.1 Another way of classifying this population is to identify each cohort not by its birth year but by the year its members turned 18 years of age and aged out of the original jurisdiction of the juvenile justice system. From this perspective, this study investigates the officially recognized offending patterns of the juvenile justice “graduating classes” of 1980 through 1995.2

    Maricopa County population in 1995 was 2.4 million persons, making it the sixth largest county in the United States. In 1995 the violent crime rate in Maricopa County was 12% greater than the national average, and its property crime rate was 75% above the national average. Maricopa County contains a populous central city (Phoenix) and a rapidly growing and ethnically varied population, and it faces the range of problems found in most large metropolitan areas in the United States. In many ways, it is typical of urban America.

    When a youth is arrested in this jurisdiction, the youth (or paper on the incident) is sent to the juvenile court's intake screening office for processing. By policy, law enforcement does not screen the case before sending it to juvenile court intake. Therefore, in this jurisdiction, the juvenile court referral population is comparable to the juvenile arrest population in most other jurisdictions.

    To characterize the nature of a juvenile court career, this study counted each of a youth's referrals to juvenile court intake and classified each referral by the most serious charge in the set of charges presented at intake. The most serious offense in each case was classified into one of three general offense categories:

    • Violent offenses include the offenses of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, kidnapping, violent sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault.
    • Serious nonviolent offenses include burglary, serious larceny, motor vehicle theft, arson, weapons offenses, and drug trafficking.
    • Nonserious delinquent offenses include such crimes as simple assault, possession of a controlled substance, disorderly conduct, vandalism, nonviolent sex offenses, minor larceny, liquor law offenses, and all other delinquent offenses.

    If a referral contained only status offenses (e.g., running away from home, truancy, curfew, underage drinking) or traffic offenses, the referral was excluded from the analyses. All the remaining delinquency referral records were sorted by referral date (earliest referral first), and a rap sheet detailing the youth's juvenile court delinquent career was prepared.

    Results
    Size of the Graduating Classes

    A total of 151,209 youth from the juvenile justice graduating classes of 1980 through 1995 had at least one referral to juvenile court intake in Maricopa County for a delinquent offense prior to their 18th birthday (Table A1.a). Thirty percent (or 46,108) of these youth were female (Table A1.b). The number of youth in each class generally increased over time; however, the increases were not consistent from year to year. Overall, there were 35% more youth (28% more males and 54% more females) in the juvenile justice graduating class of 1995 than in the class of 1980. The sizes of the classes were rather constant between 1980 and 1985. Following a transition year in 1986, the 1987 graduating class was nearly 25% larger than the class of 1985. This class size was roughly maintained from 1987 through 1994. Once again, in 1995, the size of the graduating class abruptly changed, moving out of the range observed in the prior 8 years to a level about 10% above the average class size of the prior 8 years. Although these changes are somewhat related to the growth in the juvenile population within the county during this period, the consistent growth in the general juvenile population within the county cannot explain the abrupt changes in the sizes of the juvenile justice graduating classes between 1985 and 1987 and between 1994 and 1995.

    TABLE A1.a Trends in Number of Delinquent Careers and Referrals
    TABLE A1.b Trends in Number of Delinquent Careers and Referrals by Sex

    Between 1980 and 1990, the membership in each birth cohort in Maricopa County increased substantially. For example, the decennial census in 1980 found that there were 22,100 seven-year-olds in the county; by 1990 this same birth cohort (who were now age 17) had 27,900 members—a 26% growth over the 10-year period. These figures indicate a substantial net in-migration (and relatively little out-migration) of young persons with this birth year in the county over the time period when these youth were at risk of juvenile court referral. Certainly, a large proportion of each juvenile justice graduating class lived in the county throughout their juvenile years, whereas others moved into the jurisdiction during their juvenile years (ages 7 through 17) and stayed until they aged out of juvenile court jurisdiction. With an unstable population base, the proportion of youth in a birth cohort that were referred to a juvenile court cannot be developed from these data with any precision. However, rough estimates (i.e., assuming the birth cohort was equal to the number of 18-year-olds in the county in the graduation year) indicate over the set of 16 birth cohorts that about one of every three youth had a juvenile court referral for a delinquent offense. Roughly 45% of males and 20% of females had at least one referral to the juvenile court for a delinquency offense prior to their 18th birthday. These estimates also show that the proportion of the birth cohort with a juvenile court referral increased somewhat over the 16-year period.

    Age at Onset

    It is often heard in many juvenile justice policy debates that juveniles are beginning their court careers at younger ages. Over the graduating classes, was there any evidence that members were referred to juvenile court at earlier ages for their first delinquency referral, their first serious nonviolent referral, or their first violent referral? On average, across all 16 cohorts, the first delinquency referral occurred at age 15.2 years, the first serious nonviolent referral occurred at 15.2 years, and the first violent referral occurred at age 15.8 years. There is no evidence that any of these average entry ages changed from the class of 1980 through the class of 1995.

    In addition, there is no evidence from court records that the proportion of the graduating class that began their court careers below age 14 has risen to extraordinary levels in recent years. Across the 16 graduating classes, 26.1 % of all youth began their officially recognized delinquent careers below age 14. The class of 1988 had the smallest proportion of delinquent careers beginning below age 14 (21.9%), whereas the proportions in the graduating classes in the early 1980s and mid-1990s average about 28%.

    Over the 16 graduating classes, 7.1% of referred youth (and 23.9% of those youth ever referred for a serious nonviolent offense) had their first referral for a serious nonviolent offense below age 14 (Figure A1). Over the graduating classes, these proportions fell and then increased, staying within a limited range and giving little support for the notion that juveniles in recent years are entering the juvenile justice system at younger ages for serious nonviolent offenses. Over the 16 graduating classes, 1.1% of referred youth (and 13.5% of those youth ever referred for a violent offense) had their first referral for a violent offense below age 14. As with the serious nonviolent referrals, these proportions fluctuated within a limited range over the 16 graduating classes, giving no indication of earlier onset of violent referrals in recent years.

    Figure A1. Proportion of Careers With First Serious Referral Prior to Age 14
    Number of Referrals

    The 151,209 youth from the juvenile justice graduating classes of 1980 through 1995 were involved in a total of 325,259 delinquency referrals. Twenty-one percent of referrals involved females. The class of 1995 had 55% more delinquency referrals than the class of 1980. Between the class of 1980 and the class of 1995, the increase in court referrals was greater for females (97%) than for males (46%); however, the male and female increases between the classes of 1986 and 1995 were more consistent, with male referrals increasing 39% and female referrals increasing 49%.

    The 55% increase in referrals between the classes of 1980 and 1995 is greater than the 35% increase in the sizes of the graduating cohorts. Thus, youth in the class of 1995 had a higher average number of referrals per career than did members of the class of 1980. Across all cohorts, the average career contained 2.15 delinquent referrals, with 60% having only one referral in their court careers. Over the 16 birth cohorts, males averaged more delinquency referrals per career than females (2.43 vs. 1.51), and males had a smaller percentage of careers with only one referral (54% vs. 73%).

    The average number of referrals per career increased significantly across the graduating classes. For the graduating classes in the 1980s, the average number of referrals per career was 2.06 (2.32 for males and 1.44 for females), whereas in the 1990s the average increased to 2.28 (2.60 for males and 1.58 for females). In addition, the proportion of each cohort with only one referral in their careers declined relatively consistently from 62% in the 1980 cohort to 56% in the 1995 cohort. Declines in the proportion of single-referral careers were observed in both the male (55% to 51%) and the female (79% to 68%) cohorts. Therefore, along with the growth in the number of youth in each birth cohort referred to juvenile court intake, recent graduating classes also averaged more referrals per court career than did previous graduating classes.

    Offense Characteristics of Graduating Classes

    Compared to the class of 1980, the class of 1995 generated more referrals in each of the general offense categories (Table A2). The increases in the number of referrals for violent and for nonserious offenses were greater than the growth in the size of the juvenile justice graduating classes, whereas the increase in serious nonviolent referrals paralleled the growth in the size of the referral cohort (Table A3). As a result of these differential increases, the offense profile of the juvenile justice graduating classes changed in the recent years. Compared to the class of 1980, the class of 1995 not only had more referrals per career (2.36 vs. 2.06), it also had more nonserious (1.76 vs. 1.47) and more violent (0.124 vs. 0.095) referrals per career. In contrast, the average number of serious nonviolent referrals per career changed relatively little between the classes of 1980 and 1995 (0.493 vs. 0.476). Compared to earlier cohorts, the cohorts aging out of the juvenile court's jurisdiction most recently were, on average, brought to court more often for both violent and nonserious delinquent offenses; however, there was no difference in the average frequency with which cohort members were referred for a serious nonviolent (largely serious property) offense.

    TABLE A2 Trends in the Offense Characteristics of Delinquency Referrals
    TABLE A3 Changes Between the Classes of 1980 and 1995 (in percentages)
    Size of graduating class35
    Delinquency referrals55
    Nonserious referrals62
    Serious referrals38
    Serious nonviolent referrals31
    Violent referrals76
    Delinquent Career Types

    Serious nonviolent careers. Although graduating class averages may be useful in some discussions, the assessments of change may be most useful when focusing on individual careers. An individual career may have many attributes; for example, a youth may be a violent offender (with one or more violent referrals in his or her career) while also being a serious nonviolent offender and a chronic offender. One way to address questions concerning the changes in the character of individual juvenile careers is to study each of several career attributes independently.

    Over all graduating classes, 29.5% of youth referred had at least one serious nonviolent referral in their careers (Table A4). The proportion of serious nonviolent offenders in each cohort (i.e., the percentage of the cohort with at least one serious nonviolent referral in their career) showed no consistent trend over the classes of 1980 through 1995 (Figure A2). Has the level of serious nonviolent offending changed within individual careers? That is, were those youth involved in serious nonviolent behavior referred for more of these acts in the later cohorts? To address this point, the career referral rate for serious nonviolent offenses (i.e., the average number of serious nonviolent referrals in careers that had at least one serious nonviolent referral) was developed for each cohort (Figure A3). Overall, youth referred for a serious nonviolent offense were referred an average of 1.69 times for such behaviors in their juvenile court careers. This rate did not change over the 16 cohorts. Therefore, the growth in serious nonviolent referrals observed from the class of 1980 through the class of 1995 was the result of more youth becoming involved in these behaviors and was not caused by an increase in the individual level of youth involvement in serious nonviolent crimes.

    TABLE A4 Trends in the Offense Attributes of Juvenile Court Delinquent Careers
    Figure A2. Career Types Within Juvenile Justice Graduating Classes
    Figure A3. Rate of Offense-Specific Referrals Within Career Type

    Violent careers. The court records show that over all graduating classes between 1980 and 1995, 8.1% of all youth referred had at least one referral for a violent offense in their career (Table A4). The data show, however, that the classes that graduated in the 1990s had a greater proportion of their members charged with a violent offense (Figure A2). A violent offense referral was found in 6% to 8% of the court careers of the classes of 1980 through 1990. After a transitional class in 1991, the proportion of violent offenders in the classes of 1992 through 1995 increased to the 10%–11% level. Therefore, from the juvenile court's perspective, a greater proportion of youth in the recent graduating classes were involved in violent crime.

    Were the increases in violent offense referrals in the later graduating classes the result of increases in the number of referred youth with a violent act in their careers, or had the frequency of violent referrals within an individual career increased? Turning once again to the career referral rates, the average number of violent offense referrals in the careers of youth with a violent offense referral remained constant over the 16 graduating classes, averaging 1.24 violent referrals per career (Figure A3). Across all cohorts, 83% of violent careers (i.e., careers with at least one violent referral) had only one violent referral in the career. That is, 17% of all violent careers over all graduating classes (or 1.4% of all referred youth) had two or more referrals for a violent offense. Over the graduating classes of 1980 through 1995, the proportion of repeat violent offenders fluctuated, reaching a low point of 11% in the class of 1988 and high points of 20% in 1982 and 1992 (Figure A4). Therefore, the substantial increases in violent crime referrals between the classes of the 1980s and those of the 1990s were primarily the result of a greater number of youth being referred for a single violent offense and not the result of an increase in the level of repeat violent offending by members of the more recent graduating classes.

    Figure A4. Violent Careers With More Than One Violent Referral

    Very few of the individuals in the 16 cohorts could be characterized as chronically violent offenders. Of the 151,209 youth in these 16 cohorts, 168 had four or more violent referrals in their court records. This was 0.1% of all referred youth and 1.4% of those youth ever referred for a violent offense. Even those with three or more violent referrals in their careers represent just 0.4% of all referred juveniles and 4.8% of violent juvenile offenders.

    Chronic offenders. Juvenile policymakers have been actively concerned since the mid-1970s with the chronic offender. Popularized by Wolfgang, Figlio, and Sellin (1972), their study of police contacts in Philadelphia defined chronic offenders as that small portion of a birth cohort who are responsible for the majority of serious crimes committed by the cohort. In the Philadelphia cohort, for example, 18% of all the males with police contacts were responsible for 52% of all delinquent acts committed by the cohort. In the Philadelphia study, chronic offenders were those youth with five or more police contacts in their juvenile careers. A corresponding definition can be developed using juvenile court referrals. A study of the referral patterns of the complete set of 16 graduating classes finds that 14.6% of youth (those with four or more delinquency referrals before their 18th birthdays) were responsible for a disproportionate number of the cohort's serious referrals. More specifically, these chronic offenders were involved in 44.6% of all referrals, 39.3% of all nonserious referrals, 58.2% of serious nonviolent referrals, and 60.0% of violent referrals (Table A5).

    TABLE A5 Proportion of Referrals Involving Chronic Offenders (in percentages)

    The later graduating classes contained greater proportions of chronic offenders (Table A6). The court records show that the proportion of each graduating cohort that were chronic offenders (those with four or more referrals) remained constant throughout the classes of the 1980s, averaging 13% of all cohort members (Figure A2). The classes of the early 1990s, however, displayed an abrupt increase in their chronic offender proportions, averaging 17% of the careers in the 1992 through 1995 graduating classes. As a result, chronic offenders in the graduating classes of the 1990s were involved in a greater proportion of referrals in all offense categories.

    TABLE A6 Trends in the Proportion of Chronic Careers

    However, although the number and proportion of chronic careers grew over the cohorts, it is important to realize that the nature of the individual chronic career remained the same. Over the 16 graduating classes, chronic offenders averaged 6.56 referrals in their juvenile court career, were referred for 4.17 nonserious offenses, 1.98 serious nonviolent offenses, and 0.41 violent offenses (Table A7). These offense-specific referral rates for chronic offenders did not vary in any consistent manner across the classes, although the number of nonserious offense referrals in these careers did increase somewhat in the classes of 1993 through 1995. In all, the court records show that the later classes contained more (not more active, or more serious, or more violent) chronic offenders and that chronic offenders were generally responsible for a greater proportion of all types of referrals in the classes of 1992 through 1995 compared to previous classes.

    TABLE A7 Average Offense Profile of Chronic Careers
    Career Attributes of Serious Juvenile Offenders

    So far, we have largely been considering selected attributes of delinquent careers without considering their interrelationships. To help visualize the overlapping attributes of delinquent careers, it is useful to divide members of the referral cohorts into eight career categories, which can be labeled using a three-character career index. The first character of the career index is either a C or an X, indicating that the career has either four or more referrals (chronic, or C) or fewer than four referrals (not chronic, or X). The second character of the career index is either an S or an X, indicating whether the career contains a serious nonviolent offense (S) or not (X). The third character of the career index is either a V or an X, indicating whether the career contains a violent offense (V) or not (X). The career indexes are as follows:

    • XXX: Nonchronic careers with no serious offenses
    • XSX: Nonchronic careers with at least one serious nonviolent offense
    • XXV: Nonchronic careers with at least one violent offense
    • XSV: Nonchronic careers with at least one serious nonviolent and one violent offense
    • CXX: Chronic careers with no serious offenses
    • CSX: Chronic careers with at least one serious nonviolent offense
    • CXV: Chronic careers with at least one violent offense
    • CSV: Chronic careers with at least one serious nonviolent and one violent offense.

    It should be noted that the entire chronic violent offender population is the combination of two groups: CXV and CSV.

    Most youth referred to court were never charged with a serious offense (Table A8 and Figure A5). Nearly two thirds (63.9%) of juvenile court careers had fewer than four referrals and had no referrals for a serious offense (XXX). Another 2.5% of careers were chronic offenders with no serious offenses in their careers (CXX). In all, two thirds (66.4%) of all youth referred to juvenile court intake were never charged with a serious offense.

    TABLE A8 Frequency of Career Types
    Figure A5. Anatomy of Delinquent Careers Highlighting the Joint Attributes of Chronicity, Serious Nonviolent, and Violent Referrals

    Chronic and violent offenders (CXV and CSV) were 4.2% of the graduating classes. Although 83.0% of chronic offenders had at least one serious (i.e., violent or serious nonviolent) referral, the large majority of chronic offenders did not have a violent referral. More than three fourths (76.7%) of all chronic offenders (i.e., CXV, CSV, CSX, and CXX) had at least one serious nonviolent referral in their careers, and 29.0% had at least one violent referral. More than half (52.6%) of all violent offenders were also chronic offenders, and this proportion changed little over the 16 graduating classes (Figure A6). Most (78.3%) of the chronic and violent offenders also had at least one serious nonviolent referral in their careers (CSV). In fact, the most common career type containing a violent offense referral was CSV chronic offenders with both a violent and a serious nonviolent referral in their careers. Nearly 3 of every 5 careers containing a serious nonviolent offense were not chronic (59.8%), and almost 7 of every 8 serious nonviolent careers did not contain a violent offense (86.5%).

    Figure A6. Proportion of Violent Careers That Were Also Chronic Careers

    The existence of at least one serious nonviolent referral in a career was very common, even in relatively short careers (Figure A7). The court records show that 62% of careers with four referrals to juvenile court intake had at least one referral for a serious nonviolent offense. The likelihood of juveniles having a serious nonviolent offense in their careers was over 90% once the career reached nine referrals. In fact, over half of careers with nine referrals contain at least three separate referrals for a serious nonviolent offense.

    Figure A7. Proportion of Careers With Serious Nonviolent Referrals

    The existence of a violent referral in a juvenile court career was directly related to the length of a career. As Figure A8 shows, the relation is almost linear, and the slope is far more gradual than that between serious nonviolent referrals and career length. It is as if each new referral to court increases a juvenile's likelihood of having a violent offense in his or her career. Youth with three referrals have a 5% greater likelihood of having a violent offense in their career than those with two referrals. Similarly, those with four referrals have a 5% greater likelihood than those with three referrals, as do careers with 12 referrals compared to those with 11 referrals. A similar linear relationship holds for the second violent referral.

    Figure A8. Proportion of Careers With Violent Referrals
    Conclusions

    If this study's community and its juvenile justice system are typical of other jurisdictions in this country, practitioners and policymakers can take some comfort in the fact that the juvenile justice system is largely achieving its goal of successfully intervening in the lives of delinquent youth. First, the large majority of youth referred to the juvenile justice system were referred only once. Although many of these youth may have desisted from delinquent behavior on their own and some may have committed additional delinquent acts that were not detected by law enforcement, the fact is that 60% of those youth referred to juvenile court intake never returned for a new offense. Even the 8% of all referred youth who were charged with a violent offense rarely returned to court charged with a second violent act. In this community, five of every six of youth charged with a violent offense never returned on a new violent charge. If the public's concern is for repetitive violent youth, this study should help to put that concern in perspective—only 1% of all court-involved youth in the last 16 juvenile justice graduating classes were charged with two or more violent acts.

    Practitioners and policymakers should also consider that the world may not be changing as rapidly as they believe. A larger proportion of youth are becoming involved in the juvenile justice system. However, it is not true that a new type of juvenile offender (e.g., a generation of violent predators) is emerging in our communities. Compared to the juvenile justice graduating classes of the early 1980s, those of the early 1990s had a somewhat greater proportion of referred youth charged with a violent offense, but the increase was not dramatic. In this study the juvenile justice graduating classes in the first half of the 1980s had about 8% of their members charged with a violent offense, compared to 10% in the first half of the 1990s. This is not evidence of a new type of violent offender, especially when it is remembered that the vast majority of violent offenders in the more recent classes (as in previous classes) were charged with only a single violent act.

    If there were a new breed of serious juvenile offenders, the court's workload in serious nonviolent crime should also have increased; however, the proportion of a graduating class charged with a serious but nonviolent offense did not change over the 16 classes studied. In fact, much of the growth in referrals for the more recent graduating classes was a growth in referrals for nonserious offenses, an indication that the juvenile justice system may be spreading its net wider, bringing in more juveniles, not more serious juvenile offenders.

    If our society were facing a new type of delinquent offender, this type of offender should be most apparent in the large urban areas in this country, such as the one studied in this research. Based on this study, the empirical evidence for a new type of offender is not there. Too often, changes in policy and practice are based on exceptions and rare events (e.g., the Willie Bosket case in New York or the 6-year-old charged with attempted murder in Richmond, California)—high-profile, unique cases that create the perceptions that drive change. With a growing population and the laws of probability, more of these outlandish events will occur. We must defend against having our understanding of juvenile crime and our evaluations of the juvenile justice system molded by these aberrations.

    What we should remember is captured best in this study's finding of the relationship between career length and the existence of a violent crime referral in the career. From this study, it appears that each time a youth returns to court on a new charge there is a greater risk that it will be for a violent crime. To reduce juvenile violence, therefore, we must work to reduce the recidivism of juvenile offenders regardless of the act that has brought them to the attention of the juvenile justice system. And the earlier we successfully intervene in the career, the more effective the intervention will be in reducing the overall level of violence caused by the members of a juvenile justice graduating class. Waiting to intervene until the youth is officially labeled a violent offender will have little effect on the overall level of officially recognized violent crime because the large majority of this violence is tied to a youth who will commit only one officially recognized violent crime. By the time the label can be applied, the youth's officially recognized violence is over.

    Notes

    1. The data used in this chapter were housed in and made available by the National Juvenile Court Data Archive, which is maintained by the National Center for Juvenile Justice in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and supported by grants from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice. The data were originally collected by the Maricopa County Juvenile Court. The Maricopa County Juvenile Court bears no responsibility for the analyses or the interpretations presented herein, although the court has reviewed a draft of the chapter and has given its permission for the author to identify the source of the data.

    2. Much of the significant research on the nature of juvenile law-violating careers describes the behavior of youth who passed through their juvenile law-violating years in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Many policymakers believe that children today are much different than children 20 years ago. This graduating class terminology emphasizes the timeliness of the information in this chapter.

    References

    Aber, J. L., Brown, J. L., Chaudry, N., Jones, S. M., & Samples, F. (1996). The evaluation of the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program: An overview. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Youth Violence Prevention: Descriptions and Baseline Data From 13 Evaluation Projects, 12, 82–90.
    Abikoff, H. (1991). Cognitive training in ADHD children: Less to it than meets the eye. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24, 205–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002221949102400404
    Abikoff, H., & Gittelman, R. (1984). Does behavior therapy normalize the classroom behavior of hyperactive children?Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 449–454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1984.01790160035003
    Abikoff, H., & Hechtman, L. (1996). Multimodal therapy and stimulants in the treatment of children with ADHD. In P.Jensen & E. D.Hibbs (Eds.), Psychosocial treatment for child and adolescent disorders: Empirically based approaches (pp. 341–169). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10196-014
    Abikoff, H., & Klein, R. G. (1992). Attention-deficit hyperactivity and conduct disorder: Comorbidity and implications for treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 881–892. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.60.6.881
    Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. S. (1983). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and Revised Child Behavior Profile. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
    Ageton, S. S. (1983). Sexual assault among adolescents. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Akamine, T., O'Neill, B. A., & Haymond, C. J. (1980). Effectiveness of Homebuilders' family counseling intervention. Washington State University, Department of Education.
    Akers, R. L., Krohn, M. D., Lanza-Kaduce, L., & Radosevich, M. (1979). Social learning and deviant behavior: A specific test of a general theory. American Sociological Review, 44, 636–655. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094592
    Alexander, J. F., Barton, C., Schiavo, R. S., & Parsons, B. V. (1976). Systems-behavioral intervention with families of delinquents: Therapist characteristics, family behavior and outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 656–664. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.44.4.656
    Alexander, J. F., & Parsons, B. V. (1973). Short-term behavioral intervention with delinquent families: Impact of family process and recidivism. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 81, 219–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0034537
    Alinsky, S. D. (1946). Reveille for radicals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Allen-Hagen, B. (1975). Youth crime control project: A final report on an experimental alternative to incarceration of young adult offenders (Research Rep. No. 75–1). Washington, DC: D.C. Department of Corrections.
    Altschuler, D. M., & Armstrong, T. L. (1991). Intensive aftercare for the high-risk juvenile parolee: Issues and approaches in reintegration and community supervision. In T. L.Armstrong (Ed.), Intensive interventions with high-risk youths: Promising approaches in juvenile probation and parole (pp. 45–84). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
    Altschuler, D.M., & Armstrong, T. L. (1994a). Intensive aftercare for high-risk juveniles: An assessment. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Altschuler, D. M., & Armstrong, T. L. (1994b). Intensive aftercare for high-risk juveniles: A community care modelWashington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Altschuler, D. M., & Armstrong, T. L. (1995). Managing aftercare services for delinquents. In B.Glick & A. P.Goldstein (Eds.), Managing delinquency programs that work (pp. 137–170). Laurel, MD: American Correctional Association.
    American Academy of Pediatrics. (1992). Firearms and adolescents. Pediatrics, 89, 784–787.
    American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (
    3rd ed., rev.
    ). Washington, DC: Author.
    American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (
    4th ed.
    ). Washington, DC: Author.
    American Psychological Association, Commission on Violence and Youth. (1993). Violence and youth: Psychology's response. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Anderson, E. (1990). Streetwise: Race, class, and change in an urban community. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Anderson, E. (1994, May). The code of the streets. Atlantic Monthly, pp. 81–94.
    Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (1994). The psychology of criminal conduct. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
    Andrews, D. A., Zinger, I., Hoge, R. D., Bonta, J., Gendreau, P., & Cullen, F. T. (1990). Does correctional treatment work? A clinically-relevant and psychologically informed meta-analysis. Criminology, 28, 369–404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1990.tb01330.x
    Arbuthnot, J., & Gordon, D. A. (1986). Behavioral and cognitive effects of a moral reasoning development intervention for high-risk behavior-disordered adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 208–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.54.2.208
    Armstrong, T. L. (1988). National survey of juvenile intensive probation supervision, Part I. Criminal Justice Abstracts, 20, 342–348.
    Armstrong, T. L. (1991). Introduction. In T. L.Armstrong (Ed.), Intensive interventions with high-risk youths: Promising approaches in juvenile probation and parole (pp. 1–26). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
    Armstrong, T. L., & Altschuler, D. M. (1994). Recent developments in programming for high-risk juvenile parolees: Assessment findings and program prototype development. In A. R.Roberts (Ed.), Critical issues in crime and justice (pp. 189–213). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Arthur, M. W., Ayers, C. D., Graham, K. A., & Hawkins, J. D. (1997). Mobilizing communities to reduce risks for substance abuse: A comparison of two strategies. Manuscript submitted for publication.
    Arthur, M. W., Brewer, D. D., Graham, K. G., Shavel, D. A., Tremper, M., & Hawkins, J. D. (1996). Assessing state and community readiness for prevention. Unpublished manuscript, University of Washington, Seattle, Social Development Research Group.
    Arthur, M. W., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, F. R., Pollard, J. A., & Howze, T. H. (1997). Six State Consortium for Prevention Needs Assessments Studies Project: Measurement validation results. Final report submitted to the Kansas Department of Social and Rehabilitation Services, Alcohol and Drug Abuse Services. Seattle: University of Washington, Social Development Research Group.
    Ary, D. V., Biglan, A., Glasgow, R., Zoref, L., Black, C., Ochs, L., Severson, H., Kelly, R., Weissman, W., Lichtenstein, E., Brozovsky, P., Wirt, R., & James, L. (1990). The efficacy of social-influence prevention programs versus “standard care”: Are new initiatives needed?Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 13, 281–296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00846835
    Ashford, J. B., & LeCroy, C. W. (1990). Juvenile recidivism: A comparison of three prediction instruments. Adolescence, 25, 441–450.
    Attar, B., Guerra, N., & Tolan, P. (1994). Neighborhood disadvantage, stressful life events, and adjustment in urban elementary-school children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 391–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2304_5
    Auerbach, A. W. (1978). The role of the therapeutic community “Street Prison” in the rehabilitation of youthful offenders. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University. (University Microfilms No. 78-01086)
    August, G. J., Realmuto, G. M., Crosby, R. D., & Mac-Donald, A. W. (1995). Community-based multiple-gate screening of children at risk for conduct disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 521–544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01447212
    Austin, J., Elms, W., Krisberg, B., & Steele, P. (1991). Unlocking juvenile corrections. San Francisco: National Council on Crime and Delinquency.
    Austin, J., Joe, K., Krisberg, B., & Steele, P. (1990, March). The impact of juvenile court sanctions: A court that works. In Focus. San Francisco: National Council on Crime and Delinquency.
    AustinJ., & Krisberg, B. (1982). The unmet promise of alternatives to incarceration. Crime & Delinquency, 28, 274–409.
    Bachman, J. G., & O'Malley, P. M. (1984). Yea-saying, nay-saying, and going to extremes: Black-white differences in response styles. Public Opinion Quarterly, 48, 491–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/268845
    Baird, S. C. (1984). Classification of juveniles in corrections: A model system approach. Madison, WI: National Council on Crime and Delinquency.
    Baird, S. C. (1987). The development of risk prediction scales for the California Youthful Offender Parole Board. San Francisco: National Council on Crime and Delinquency.
    Baird, S. C. (1991). Validating risk assessment instruments in community corrections. Madison, WI: National Council on Crime and Delinquency.
    Baker, R. L. A., & Mednick, B. R. (1984). Influences on human development: A longitudinal perspective. Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-5642-1
    Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social-cognitive view. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Bank, L., Marlowe, J. H., Reid, J. B., Patterson, G. R., & Weinrott, M. R. (1991). A comparative evaluation of parent-training interventions for families of chronic delinquents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 19, 15–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00910562
    Banks, J., Porter, A. L., Rardin, R. L., Silver, T. R., & Unger, V. E. (1977). Phase I evaluation of intensive special probation projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
    Barkley, R. A. (1987). Defiant children: A clinician's manual for parent training. New York: Guilford.
    Barnes, H. E., & Teeters, N. K. (1945). New horizons in criminology. New York: Prentice Hall.
    Barton, C., Alexander, J. F., Waldron, H., Turner, C. W., & Warburton, J. (1985). Generalizing treatment effects of functional family therapy: Three replications. American Journal of Family Therapy, 13, 16–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01926188508251260
    Barton, W., & Butts, J. (1988). The Metro County intensive supervision experiment. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research.
    Barton, W. H., & Butts, J. A. (1990). Viable options: Intensive supervision programs for juvenile delinquents. Crime & Delinquency, 36, 238–256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011128790036002004
    Battin, S. R., Hill, K. G., Abbott, R. D., Catalano, R. F., & Hawkins, J. D. (in press). The contribution of gang membership to delinquency beyond delinquent friends. Criminology.
    Battin, S., Hill, K. G., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Abbott, R. (1996). Testing gang membership and association with antisocial peers as independent predictors of antisocial behavior: Gang members compared to non-gang members of law-violating youth groups. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Chicago.
    Baumeister, R. F., Smart, L., & Boden, J. M. (1996). Relation of threatened egoism to violence and aggression: The dark side of high esteem. Psychological Review, 103, 5–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.103.1.5
    Baumer, T. L., & Mendelsohn, R. I. (1992). Electronically monitored home confinement: Does it work? In J. M.Byrne, A. J.Lurigio, & J.Petersilia (Eds.), Smart sentencing: The emergence of intermediate sanctions (pp. 54–67). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Bean, J. S. (1988). The effect of individualized reality therapy on the recidivism rates and locus of control orientation of male juvenile offenders (Doctoral dissertation, University of Mississippi, 1988). Dissertation Abstracts International, 49, 2370B. (University Microfilms No. 88–18138)
    Beasley, R. W., & Antunes, G. (1974). The etiology of urban crime: An ecological analysis. Criminology, 11, 439–461. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1974.tb00607.x
    Bell, G. B., & Bennett, W. J. (Eds.). (1996). The state of violent crime in America: First report of the Council on Crime in America. Washington, DC: New Citizenship Project.
    Berrueta-Clement, J. R., Schweinhart, L. J., Barnett, W. S., Epstein, A. S., & Weikart, D. P. (1984). Changed lives: The effects of the Perry Preschool Program on youths through age 19. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope.
    Bickford, A., & Massey, D. (1991). Segregation in the second ghetto: Racial and ethnic segregation in American public housing, 1977. Social Forces, 69, 1011–1036.
    Biglan, A. (1995). Translating what we know about the context of antisocial behavior into a lower prevalence of such behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 479–492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1995.28-479
    Biglan, A., & Ary, D. V. (1985). Current methodological issues in research on smoking prevention. In C.Bell & R. J.Battjes (Eds.), Prevention research: Deterring drug abuse among children and adolescents (NIDA Research Monograph No. 63, pp. 170–195). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Biglan, A., Severson, H., Ary, D., Faller, C., Gallison, C., Thompson, R., Glasgow, R., & Lichtenstein, E. (1987). Do smoking prevention programs really work? Attrition and the internal and external validity of an evaluation of a refusal skills training program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 10, 159–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00846424
    Binet, A., & Simon, T. (1907). Les enfants anormaux: guide pour l'admission des enfants anormaux dans les classes de perfectionnement [Abnornal children: A guide for the admission of abnormal children in special classes]. Paris: Armand Colin.
    Bishop, D. M., Frazier, C. E., Lanza-Kaduce, L., & Winner, L. (1996). The transfer of juveniles to criminal court: Does it make a difference?Crime & Delinquency, 42, 171–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011128796042002001
    Bjerregaard, B., & Lizotte, A. J. (1995). Gun ownership and gang membership. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 86, 37–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1143999
    Bjerregaard, B., & Smith, C. (1993). Gender differences in gang participation, delinquency, and substance use. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 9, 329–355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01064108
    Black, G. S. (1989). Changing attitudes toward drug use. Rochester, NY: Gordon S. Black.
    Blackburn, R. (1993). The psychology of criminal conduct: Theory, research and practice. Toronto: John Wiley.
    Block, C. (1993). Lethal violence in the Chicago Latino community. In A. V.Wilson (Ed.), Homicide: The victim/offender connection (pp. 267–342). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
    Block, C. R. (1988). Lethal violence in the Chicago Latino community, 1965–1981. In J. F.Kraus, S. B.Sorenson, & P. D.Juarez (Eds.), Proceedings of research conference on violence and homicide (pp. 31–65). Los Angeles: University of California.
    Block, C. R., & Block, R. B. (1991). Beginning with Wolfgang: An agenda for homicide research. Journal of Crime and Justice, 14, 31–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0735648X.1991.9721438
    Block, C. R., & Christakos, A. (1995). Major trends in Chicago homicide: 1965–1994. Research Bulletin. Chicago: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.
    Block, C. R., Christakos, A., Jacob, A., & Przybylski, R. (1996). Street gangs and crime: Patterns and trends in Chicago. Research Bulletin. Chicago: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.
    Block, R. (1979). Community, environment, and violent crime. Criminology, 17, 46–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1979.tb01275.x
    Block, R., & Block, C. R. (1993). Street gang crime in Chicago. Research in brief. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.
    Blumstein, A. (1995). Youth violence, guns, and the illicit-drug industry. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 86, 10–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1143998
    Blumstein, A., Cohen, J., & Farrington, D. (1988a). Criminal career research: Its value for criminology. Criminology, 26, 1–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1988.tb00829.x
    Blumstein, A., Cohen, J., & Farrington, D. (1988b). Longitudinal and criminal career research: Further clarifications. Criminology, 26, 57–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1988.tb00831.x
    Blumstein, A., Cohen, J., Roth, J. A., & Visher, C. A. (Eds.). (1986). Criminal careers and “career criminals.”Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Blumstein, A., Farrington, D. P., & Moitra, S. D. (1985). Delinquency careers: Innocents, desisters, and persisted. In M.Tonry & N.Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research (Vol. 6, pp. 137–168). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Boland, B. (1996, August). What is community prosecution?National Institute of Justice Journal, pp. 233–238.
    Bond, L. A., & Compas, B. E. (Eds.). (1989). Primary prevention and promotion in the schools. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Borduin, C. M., Cone, L. T., Mann, B. J., Henggeler, S. W., Fucci, B. R., Blaske, D. M., & Williams, R. A. (1995). Multisystemic treatment of serious juvenile offenders: Long-term prevention of criminality and violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 569–578. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.63.4.569
    Borduin, C. M., Henggeler, S. W., Blaske, D. M., & Stein, R. J. (1990). Multisystemic treatment of adolescent sexual offenders. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 34, 105–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X9003400204
    Borduin, C. M., Mann, B. J., Cone, L. T., Henggeler, S. W., Fucci, B. R., Blaske, D. M., & Williams, R. A. (1995). Multisystemic treatment of serious juvenile offenders: Long-term prevention of criminality and violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 569–587. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.63.4.569
    Bosworth, K., Espelage, D., Dahlberg, L., Daytner, G., DuBay, T., & Karageorge, K. (in press). The effectiveness of a multimedia violence prevention program for early adolescents. Adolescence.
    Bosworth, K., Espelage, D., & DuBay, T. (1997). A multimedia tool for mediating conflict in young adolescents. Manuscript under review.
    Bosworth, K., Espelage, D., DuBay, T., Dahlberg, L., & Daytner, G. (1996). Using multimedia to teach conflict resolution skills to young adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 12, 65–74.
    Bottoms, A. E., & Wiles, P. (1988). Crime and housing policy: A framework for crime prevention analysis. In T.Hope & M.Shaw (Eds.), Crime, policing and place. London: HMSO.
    Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Renick, N. L., Filazzola, A. D., & Botvin, E. M. (1984). A cognitive behavioral approach to substance abuse prevention. Addictive Behaviors, 9, 137–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603%2884%2990051-0
    Bowker, L., & Klein, M. W. (1983). The etiology of female juvenile delinquency and gang membership: A test of psychological and social structural explanations. Adolescence, 18, 739–751.
    Boydstun, J. E. (1975). San Francisco field interrogation final report. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.
    Bracht, N., & Kingsbury, L. (1990). Community organization principles in health promotion: A five-stage model. In N.Bracht (Ed.), Health promotion at the community level (pp. 66–88). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452204789
    Braithwaite, J. B., & Law, H. G. (1978). The structure of self-reported delinquency. Applied Psychological Measurement, 2, 221–238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014662167800200205
    Brennan, R. T. (1992). Project evaluation: ECSS program of the Lesson One Foundation beginners' curriculum (pre-kindergarten to third grade). Boston: Lesson One Foundation.
    Brennan, T. (1980). Multivariate taxonomic classification for criminal justice research: Vol. 1. An evaluative overview of classification of criminal justice. Final report to the National Institute of Justice. Boulder, CO: Behavioral Research Institute.
    Brennan, T. (1987a). Classification: An overview of selected methodological issues. In D. M.Gottfredson & M.Tonry (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review: Vol. 9. Prediction and classification: Criminal justice decision making (pp. 201–248). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Brennan, T. (1987b). Classification for control in jails and prisons. In D. M.Gottfredson & M.Tonry (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review: Vol. 9. Prediction and classification: Criminal justice decision making (pp. 323–366). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Brewer, D. D., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Neckerman, H. J. (1995). Preventing serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offending: A review of evaluations of selected strategies in childhood, adolescence, and the community. In J. C.Howell, B.Krisberg, J. D.Hawkins, & J. J.Wilson (Eds.), Sourcebook on serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders (pp. 61–141). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Brier, N. (1995). Predicting anti-social behavior in youngsters displaying poor academic achievement: A review of risk factors. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 16, 271–276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004703-199508000-00010
    Briggs, P. F., Wirt, R. D., & Johnson, R. (1961). An application of prediction tables to the study of delinquency. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 25, 46–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0040449
    Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Browne, S. F. (1975). Denver high-impact anti-crime program: Evaluation report. Denver, CO: Denver Manpower Administration.
    Bry, B. H. (1982). Reducing the incidence of adolescent problems through preventive intervention: One- and five-year follow-up. American Journal of Community Psychology, 10, 265–276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00896494
    Bry, B. H., & George, F. E. (1979). Evaluating and improving prevention programs: A strategy from drug abuse. Evaluation and Program Planning, 2, 127–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0149-7189%2879%2990022-3
    Bry, B. H., & George, F. E. (1980). The preventive effects of early intervention on the attendance and grades of urban adolescents. Professional Psychology, 11, 252–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.11.2.252
    Bry, B. H., McKeon, P., & Pandina, R. J. (1982). Extent of drug use as a function of number of risk factors. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91, 273–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.91.4.273
    Bryk, A. S., & Raudenbush, S. W. (1992). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Buikhuisen, W., & Jongman, R. W. (1970). A legalistic classification of juvenile delinquents. British Journal of Criminology, 10, 109–123.
    Burgess, E. W. (1928). Factors determining success or failure on parole. In A. A.Bruce, E. W.Burgess, & A. J.Am (Eds.), The working of the intermediate sentence law and the parole system in Illinois (pp. 205–249). Springfield, IL: State Board Parole.
    Burke, P. B. (1997). Policy-driven responses to probation and parole violations. Washington, DC: National Institute of Corrections.
    Bursik, R., & Webb, J. (1982). Community change and patterns of delinquency. American Journal of Sociology, 88, 24–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/227632
    Bursik, R. J. (1980). The dynamics of specialization in juvenile offenses. Social Forces, 58, 851–864.
    Bursik, R. J., Jr., & Grasmick, H. G. (1993). Neighborhoods and crime: The dimensions of effective community control. New York: Lexington Books.
    Butts, J. A., Snyder, H. N., Finnegan, T. A., Aughenbaugh, A. L., Poole, R. S. (1996). Juvenile court statistics 1994. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Byrne, J. M., & Kelly, L. (1989). Restructuring probation as an intermediate sanction: An evaluation of the Massachusetts Intensive Probation Supervision Program. Unpublished final report to the National Institute of Justice.
    Byrne, J. M., Lurigio, A. J., & Baird, S. C. (1989). The effectiveness of the new intensive supervision programs (Research in Corrections No. 5). Washington, DC: National Institute of Corrections.
    Byrne, J. M., & Pattavina, A. (1992). The effectiveness issue: Assessing what works in the adult community corrections system. In J. M.Byrne, A. J.Lurigio, & J.Petersilia (Eds.), Smart sentencing: The emergence of intermediate sanctions (pp. 281–303). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Cadoret, R. (1991). Genetic and environmental factors in initiation of drug use and transition to abuse. In M.Glantz & R.Pickens (Eds.), Vulnerability to drug abuse (pp. 99–113). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Cadoret, R. J., & Stewart, M. A. (1991). An adoption study of attention deficit hyperactivity, aggression and their relationships to adult antisocial personality. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 32, 73–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-440X%2891%2990072-K
    Cairns, R. B., Cairns, B. D., & Neckerman, H. J. (1989). Early school dropout. Child Development, 60, 1437–1452. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130933
    Cairns, R. B., Cairns, B. D., Neckerman, H. J., Gest, S. D., & Gariepy, J. L. (1988). Social networks and aggressive behavior: Peer support or peer rejection?Developmental Psychology, 24, 815–823. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.24.6.815
    Cairns, R., Earls, F., Fisher, C., Linster, R., Massey, D., Moffitt, T., Ohlin, L., Raudenbush, S., Reiss, A. J., Sampson, R. J., Simcha-Fagan, O., Street, L., Sullivan, M., & Taub, R. (1990, November). Community measures in the development of delinquent and criminal behavior. Workshop sponsored by the Program on Human Development and Criminal Behavior, Harvard School of Public Health, Chicago.
    California Department of Youth Authority. (1982). Early identification of the chronic delinquent. Sacramento: Author.
    Campbell, A. (1990). Female participation in gangs. In C. R.Huff (Ed.), Gangs in America (pp. 163–182). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232201
    Campbell, S. B., & Ewing, L. J. (1990). Hard-to-manage preschoolers: Adjustment at age nine and predictors of continuing symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31, 871–889. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1990.tb00831.x
    Capaldi, D. M., & Patterson, G. R. (1996). Can violent offenders be distinguished from frequent offenders? Prediction from childhood to adolescence. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 33, 206–231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427896033002003
    Capizzi, M., Cook, J. I., & Schumacher, M. (1995, Fall). The TARGET model: A new approach to the prosecution of gang cases. The Prosecutor, pp. 18–21.
    Caplan, N. S., Deshaies, D. J., Suttles, G. D., & Mattick, H. W. (1967). The nature, variety, and patterning of street club work in an urban setting. In M.Klein & B. G.Myerhoff (Eds.), Juvenile gangs in context (pp. 194–202). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Carlson, C. L., Pelham, W. E., Milich, R., & Dixon, J. (1992). Single and combined effects of methylphenidate and behavior therapy on the classroom performance of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 20, 213–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00916549
    Cartwright, D. S., Tomson, B., & Schwartz, H. (1975). Gang delinquency. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Caspi, A., Elder, G. H., & Bem, D. J. (1987). Moving against the world: Life-course patterns of explosive children. Developmental Psychology, 23, 308–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.23.2.308
    Casswell, S., Gilmore, L., Maguire, V., & Ransom, R. (1989). Changes in public support for alcohol policies following a community-based campaign. British Journal of the Addictions, 84, 515–522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1989.tb00608.x
    Catalano, R. F., & Hawkins, J. D. (1996). The social development model: A theory of antisocial behavior. In J. D.Hawkins (Ed.), Delinquency and crime: Current theories (pp. 149–197). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Cauce, A. M., Comer, J. P., & Schwartz, D. (1987). Long-term effects of a systems-oriented school prevention program. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 127–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1987.tb03519.x
    Center for Successful Child Development. (1993). Beethoven's fifth: The first five years of the Center for Successful Child Development (Executive summary). Chicago: Ounce of Prevention Fund.
    Centers for Disease Control. (1990). Forum on youth violence in minority communities: Setting the agenda for prevention. Public Health Report, 106, 225–279.
    Centerwall, B. (1984). Race, socioeconomic status, and domestic homicide, Atlanta, 1971–72. American Journal of Public Health, 74, 813–815. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.74.8.813
    Centerwall, B. (1995). Race, socioeconomic status, and domestic homicide. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 1755–1758. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1995.03520460037031
    Cernkovich, S. A., Giordano, P. C., & Pugh, M. D. (1983). The chronic offender and self-report measures of chronic delinquency. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Denver, CO.
    Cernkovich, S. A., Giordano, P. C., & Pugh, M. D. (1985). Chronic offenders: The missing cases in self-reported delinquency research. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 76, 705–732. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1143519
    Chaiken, J., & Chaiken, M. (1987). Selecting “career criminals” for priority prosecution. Cambridge, MA: Abt.
    Chaiken, J., Chaiken, M., & Rhodes, W. (1994). Predicting violent behavior and classifying violent offenders. In A. J.Reiss & J. A.Roth (Eds.), Understanding and preventing violence: Vol. 4. Consequences and control (pp. 217–295). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Chaiken, M. R., & Chaiken, J. M. (1984). Offender types and public policy. Crime & Delinquency, 30, 195–226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011128784030002003
    Chambliss, W. (1994). Policing the ghetto underclass: The politics of law and law enforcement. Social Problems, 41, 177–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1994.41.2.03x0433q
    Chandler, M. J. (1973). Egocentrism and antisocial behavior: The assessment and training of social perspective-taking skills. Developmental Psychology, 9, 326–333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0034974
    Charlebois, P., Le Blanc, M., Gagnon, C., & Larivée, S. (1994). Methodological issues in multiple-gating procedures for antisocial behaviors in elementary students. Remedial and Special Education, 15, 44–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/074193259401500107
    Charlebois, P., Le Blanc, M., Gagnon, C., Larivée, S., & Tremblay, R. E. (1993). Age trends in early behavioral predictors of serious antisocial behaviors. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 75, 23–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00964321
    Chavez, E. L., Oetting, E. R., & Swaim, R. (1994). Dropout and delinquency: Mexican-American and Caucasian Non-Hispanic youth. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 47–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2301_7
    Chesney-Lind, M., Leisen, M. B., Allen, J., Brown, M., Rockhill, A., Marker, N., Liu, R., & Joe, K. (1995a). Crime, delinquency, and gangs in Hawaii: Evaluation of Hawaii's Youth Gang Response System: Part 1. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, Manoa, Social Science Research Institute, Center for Youth Research.
    Chesney-Lind, M., Leisen, M. B., Allen, J., Brown, M., Rockhill, A., Marker, N., Liu, R., & Joe, K. (1995b). The Youth Gang Response System. A process evaluation: Part 11. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, Manoa, Social Science Research Institute, Center for Youth Research.
    Chesney-Lind, M., Marker, N., Stern, I. R., Song, V., Reyes, H., Reyes, Y., Stern, J., Taira, J., & Yap, A. (1992). An evaluation of Act 189: Hawaii's response to youth gangs. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, Manoa, Social Science Research Institute, Center for Youth Research.
    Chesney-Lind, M., Marker, N., Stern, I. R., Yap, A., Song, V., Reyes, H., Reyes, Y., Stern, J., & Taira, J. (1992). Gangs and delinquency in Hawaii. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, Manoa, Social Science Research Institute, Center for Youth Research.
    Children's Research Center. (1993). A new approach to child protection: The CRC modelMadison, WI: National Council on Crime and Delinquency.
    Clarke, R. V. (1983). Situational crime prevention: Its theoretical basis and practical scope. In M.Tonry & N.Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research (Vol. 4, pp. 225–256). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Clarke, R. V. (1995). Situational crime prevention. In M.Tonry & D. P.Farrington (Eds.), Crime and justice: A review of research: Vol. 19. Building a safer society: Strategic approaches to crime prevention (pp. 91–150). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Clarke, R. V., & McGrath, G. (1990). Cash reduction and robbery prevention in Australian betting shops. Security Journal, 1, 160–163.
    Clear, T. (1988). Statistical prediction in correction. Research in Correction, 1, 1–39.
    Clear, T. R. (1991). Juvenile intensive probation supervision: Theory and rationale. In T. L.Armstrong (Ed.), Intensive interventions with high-risk youths: Promising approaches in juvenile probation and parole (pp. 29–44). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
    Clear, T. R., & Byrne, J. M. (1992). The future of intermediate sanctions: Questions to answer. In J. M.Byrne, A. J.Lurigio, & J.Petersilia (Eds.), Smart sentencing: The emergence of intermediate sanctions (pp. 319–331). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Clear, T. R., & Hardyman, P. L. (1990). The new intensive supervision movement. Crime & Delinquency, 36, 42–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011128790036001004
    Cloward, R. A., & Ohlin, L. B. (1960). Delinquency and opportunity: A theory of delinquent gangs. New York: Free Press.
    Coates, R., Miller, A., & Ohlin, L. (1978). Diversity in a youth correctional system. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
    Cohen, B. (1969). The delinquency of gangs and spontaneous groups. In T.Sellin & M. E.Wolfgang (Eds.), Delinquency: Selected studies (pp. 61–111). New York: John Wiley.
    Cohen, J. (1986). Research on criminal careers: Individual frequency rates and offense seriousness. In A.Blumstein, J.Cohen, J. A.Roth, & C. A.Visher (Eds.), Criminal careers and “career criminals” (Vol. 1, pp. 292–418). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (
    2nd ed.
    ). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Cohen, M. I., Williams, K., Bekelman, A. M., & Crosse, S. (1994). Evaluation of the National Youth Gang Drug Prevention Program. In M. W.Klein, C.Maxson, & J.Miller (Eds.), The modern gang reader (pp. 266–275). Los Angeles: Roxbury.
    Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1983). Communities and changes in children's sociometric status: A five-year longitudinal study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 29, 261–282.
    Coie, J. D., & Jacobs, M. R. (1993). The role of social context in the prevention of conduct disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 263–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400004387
    Coie, J. D., Watt, N. F., West, S. G., Hawkins, J. D., Asarnow, J. R., Markman, H. J., Ramey, S. L.Shure, M. B., & Long, B. (1993). The science of prevention: A conceptual framework and some directions for a national research program. American Psychologist, 48, 1013–1022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.10.1013
    Comer, J. P. (1988). Educating poor minority children. Scientific American, 259, 42–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican1188-42
    Committee for Children. (1990). Second Step: A violence prevention curriculum. Seattle, WA: Author.
    Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1992). A developmental and clinical model for the prevention of conduct disorders: The FAST Track program. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 509–527. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400004855
    Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1996, May). An initial evaluation of the FAST Track program. Paper presented at the National Conference on Prevention, Washington, DC.
    Connell, J. P., Kubisch, A. C., Schorr, L. B., & Weiss, C. H. (Eds.). (1995). New approaches to evaluating community initiatives: Concepts, methods, and contexts. Washington, DC: Aspen Institute.
    Cook, P. (1985). The case of the missing victims: Gunshot woundings in the National Crime Survey. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 1, 91–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01065250
    Cook, P., & Laub, J. (in press). The unprecedented epidemic in youth violence. In M.Tonry & M.Moore (Eds.), Crime and justice: A review of research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Cook, P. J. (Ed.). (1981a). Gun control. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 455, 1–167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000271628145500102
    Cook, P. J. (1981b). The “Saturday night special”: An assessment of alternative definitions from a policy perspective. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 72, 1735–1745. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1143251
    Cook, P. J. (1991). The technology of personal violence. In M.Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: An annual review (Vol. 14, pp. 1–71). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Cook, P. J., & Nagin, D. (1979). Does the weapon matter?Washington, DC: Institute of Law and Social Research.
    Cook, P. J., & Tauchen, G. (1982). The effect of liquor taxes on heavy drinking. Bell Journal of Economics, 13, 379–390. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3003461
    Cooper, H., & Hedges, L. V. (Eds.). (1994). The handbook of research synthesis. New York: Russell Sage.
    Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (1996). Combatting violence and delinquency: The National Juvenile Justice Action Plan. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Copas, J. B., & Loeber, R. (1990). Relative improvement over chance (RIOC) for 2 × 2 tables. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 43, 293–307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8317.1990.tb00942.x
    Copas, J. B., & Tarling, R. (1986). Some methodological issues in making predictions. In A.Blumstein, J.Cohen, J.Roth, & C. A.Visher (Eds.), Criminal careers and “career criminals” (Vol. 2, pp. 291–313). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Corsica, J. Y. (1993). Employment training interventions. In A.Goldstein & C. R.Huff (Eds.), The gang intervention handbook (pp. 301–317). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Coulton, C. J. (1995). Using community-level indicators of children's well-being in comprehensive community initiatives. In J. P.Connell, A. C.Kubisch, L. B.Schorr, & C. H.Weiss (Eds.), New approaches to evaluating community initiatives: Concepts, methods, and contexts. Washington, DC: Aspen Institute.
    Cowles, E. L., & Castellano, T. C. (1995). Boot camp, drug treatment and aftercare intervention: An evaluation review. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.
    Cox, S. M., Davidson, W. S., & Bynum, T. S. (1995). A meta-analytic assessment of delinquency related outcomes of alternative education programs. Crime & Delinquency, 41, 219–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011128795041002004
    Craig, M. M., & Glick, S. J. (1963). Ten years' experience with the Glueck Social Prediction Table. Crime & Delinquency, 9, 249–261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001112876300900305
    Crick, N. R., Bigbee, M., & Howes, C. (1996). Gender differences in children's normative beliefs about aggression: How do I hurt thee? Let me count the ways. Child Development, 67, 1003–1014. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131876
    Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development, 66, 710–722. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131945
    Cristoffel, K. K. (1991). Toward reducing pediatric injuries from firearms: Charting a legislative and regulatory course. Pediatrics, 88, 294–305.
    Cronin, R. (1994). Innovative community partnerships: Working together for change. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Cronin, R., Bourque, B., Gragg, F., Mell, J., & McGrady, A. (1988). Evaluation of the habitual serious and violent juvenile offender program. Washington, DC: American Institutes of Research.
    Cronin, R. C. (1996). Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Assessment Center Fact Finding Project: Final report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Cullen, F. T., & Gilbert, K. E. (1982). Reaffirming rehabilitation. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
    Curry, G. D. (1990). Client evaluation of youth gang services. Report to the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Curry, G. D., Ball, R. A., & Decker, S. H. (1996a, August). Estimating the national scope of gang crime from law enforcement data. Research in brief. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.
    Curry, G. D., Ball, R. A., & Decker, S. H. (1996b). Estimating the national scope of gang crime from law enforcement data. In C. R.Huff (Ed.), Gangs in America (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 266–275). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232201
    Curry, G. D., & Spergel, I. A. (1988). Gang homicide, delinquency, and community. Criminology, 26, 381–405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1988.tb00847.x
    Curry, G. D., & Spergel, I. A. (1992). Gang involvement and delinquency among Hispanic and African-American adolescent males. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 29, 273–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427892029003002
    Curry, G. D., Williams, K., & Koenemann, L. (1996, November). Structure, culture, and delinquency in female gang involvement. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Chicago.
    Curry, G. D., Williams, K., & Koenemann, L. (1997, March). Race and ethnic differences in female gang involvement. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, Lexington.
    Dade County Grand Jury (1985). Dade youth gangs. Final report of the Grand Jury, Miami.
    Dade County Grand Jury (1988). Dade County gangs. Final report of the Grand Jury, Miami.
    Dahmann, J. (1981). Operation Hardcore, a prosecutorial response to violent gang criminality: Interim evaluation report. Washington, DC: Mitre Corporation. Reprinted in M. W.Klein, C. L.Maxson, & J.Miller (Eds.). (1995). The modern gang reader (pp. 301–303). Los Angeles: Roxbury.
    DeBaryshe, B. D., Patterson, G. R., & Capaldi, D. M. (1993). A performance model for academic achievement in early adolescent boys. Developmental Psychology, 29, 795–804. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.29.5.795
    Decker, S. H., & Van Winkle, B. (1996). Life in the gang: Family, friends, and violence. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139174732
    Delinquency Research Group. (1986). An evaluation of the delinquency of participants in the Youth at Risk program. Claremont, CA: Claremont Graduate School, Center for Applied Social Research.
    Dembo, R., & Rivers, J. E. (1996, December). Juvenile assessment centers: The Florida experience. Paper presented at the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention National Conference, Baltimore.
    Dembo, R., Turner, G., Schmeidler, J., Sue, C. C., Borden, P., & Manning, D. (1996). Development and evaluation of a classification of high risk youths entering a juvenile assessment center. Substance Use and Misuse, 31, 303–322. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10826089609045814
    Dembo, R., Williams, L., Getreu, A., Genung, L., Schmeidler, J., Berry, E., Wish, E. D., & LaVoie, L. L. (1991). A longitudinal study of the relationships among marijuana/hashish use and delinquency in a cohort of high risk youths. Journal of Drug Issues, 21, 271–312.
    Denno, D. W. (1990). Biology and violence: From birth to adulthood. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511752803
    Department of Justice (1996). Youth violence: A community-based response. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
    Derzon, J. H. (1996). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of various antecedent behaviors, characteristics, and experiences for predicting later violent behavior (Doctoral dissertation, Claremont Graduate School, 1996). Dissertation Abstracts International, 57, 748.
    Deschenes, E. P., Greenwood, P. W., & Marshall, G. (1996). The Nokomis challenge program evaluation. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
    Developmental Research and Programs (1996). Promising approaches to prevent adolescent problem behaviors. Seattle, WA: Author.
    Dicken, C., Bryson, R., & Kass, N. (1977). Companionship therapy: A replication in experimental community psychology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 637–646. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.45.4.637
    Didier, L. (1990, March). Fred Meyer final report: Preparing for the drug (free) years. Salem: Oregon Prevention Resource Center.
    Dilulio, J. (1995, Fall). Arresting ideas. InPolicy review. Washington, DC: Heritage.
    Dishion, T., Patterson, G. R., Stoolmiller, M., & Skinner, M. L. (1991). Family, school, and behavioral antecedents to early adolescent involvement with antisocial peers. Developmental Psychology, 2, 172–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.27.1.172
    Dodge, K. A. (1993). The future of research on the treatment of conduct disorder. Development and Psycho-pathology, 5, 311–319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400004405
    Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1990). Mechanisms in the cycle of violence. Science, 250, 1678–1683. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.2270481
    Dodge, K. A., & Frame, C. L. (1982). Social cognitive biases and deficits in aggressive boys. Child Development, 53, 620–635. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129373
    Dodge, K. A., Murphy, R. R., & Buchsbaum, K. (1984). The assessment of intention-cue detection skills in children: Implications for developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 163–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129842
    Dootjes, I. (1972). Predicting juvenile delinquency. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 5, 157–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000486587200500304
    Dorfman, L., & Wallack, L. (1993). Advertising health: The case for counter-ads. Public Health Reports, 108, 716–726.
    Dryfoos, J. G. (1990). Adolescents at risk: Prevalence and prevention. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Dryfoos, J. G. (1991). Adolescents at risk: A summation of work in the field: Programs and policies. Journal of Adolescent Health, 12, 630–637. [Special issue: Adolescents at risk] http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1054-139X%2891%2990011-L
    Dryfoos, J. G. (1994). Full service schools: A revolution in health and social services for children, youth, and families. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Dryfoos, J. G. (1995). Full service schools: Revolution or fad?Journal of Research on Adolescence, 5157–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327795jra0502_1
    Dumas, J. E. (1989). Treating antisocial behavior in children: Child and family approaches. Clinical Psychology Review, 9, 197–222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358%2889%2990028-7
    Duncan, O. D., Ohlin, L. E., Reiss, A. J., & Stanton, H. R. (1952). Formal devices for making selection decisions. American Journal of Sociology, 58, 573–584. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/221224
    Dunford, F. W., & Elliott, D. S. (1984). Identifying career offenders using self-reported data. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 21, 57–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427884021001004
    Durlak, J. A. (1995). School-based prevention programs for children and adolescents. InDevelopmental clinical psychology and psychiatry (Vol. 34). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Dwyer, J. H., MacKinnon, D. V., Pentz, M. A., Flay, B. R., Hansen, W. B., Wang, E. Y. I., & Johnson, C. A. (1989). Estimating intervention effects in longitudinal studies. American Journal of Epidemiology, 130, 781–795.
    Edelman, C., & Mandle, C. L. (1986). Health promotion throughout the lifespan. St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby.
    Eisenhower Foundation. (1990). Youth investment and community reconstruction: Street lessons on drugs and crime for the nineties. Washington, DC: Author.
    Elliott, D., & Ageton, S. (1980). Reconciling race and class differences in self-reported and official estimates of delinquency. American Sociological Review, 45, 95–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095245
    Elliott, D., & Voss, H. (1974). Delinquency and dropout. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Elliott, D. S. (1994). Serious violent offenders: Onset, developmental course, and termination—The American Society of Criminology 1993 presidential address. Criminology, 32, 1–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1994.tb01144.x
    Elliott, D. S., Dunford, F. W., & Huizinga, D. (1987). The identification and prediction of career offenders utilizing self-reported and official data. In J. D.Burchard & S. N.Burchard (Eds.), Prevention of delinquent behavior. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Elliott, D. S., & Huizinga, D. H. (1984). The relationship between delinquent behavior and ADM problems. National Youth Report No. 28. Boulder, CO: Behavioral Research Institute.
    Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Menard, S. (1989). Multiple problem youth: Delinquency, substance use and mental health problems. New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-9637-6
    Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Morse, B. (1986). Self-reported violent offending. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1, 472–514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626086001004006
    Empey, L., & Erickson, M. (1972). The Provo experiment. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Empey, L., & Lubeck, S. (1971). The Silverlake experiment. Chicago: Aldine.
    Eron, L. D., Gentry, J. H., & Schlegel, P. (Eds.). (1994). Reasons to hope: A psychological perspective on violence & youth. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10164-000
    Eron, L. D., Walder, L. O., & Lefkowitz, M. M. (1971). Learning of aggression in children. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Erwin, B. S. (1987). New dimensions in probation: Georgia's experience with intensive probation supervision. Research in brief. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.
    Esbensen, F., & Huizinga, D. (1991). Juvenile victimization and delinquency. Youth & Society, 23, 202–228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0044118X91023002003
    Esbensen, F., & Huizinga, D. (1993). Gangs, drugs, and delinquency in a survey of urban youth. Criminology, 31, 565–589. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1993.tb01142.x
    Esbensen, F., Huizinga, D., & Weiher, A. W. (1993). Gang and non-gang youth: Differences in explanatory factors. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 9, 94–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104398629300900203
    Esbensen, F., & Osgood, D. W. (1997). National evaluation of G.R.E.A.T. Research in brief. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.
    Espiritu, R., & Huizinga, D. H. (1996). Developmental gender differences in delinquency and victimization. In R.Loeber, D. H.Huizinga, & T.Thornberry, Program of research on the causes and correlates of delinquency. Annual report, 1995–1996, presented to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Pittsburgh, PA: Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic.
    Ethiel, N. (Ed.). (1996). Saving our children: Can youth violence be prevented?Cambridge, MA: Harvard Law School, Center for Criminal Justice.
    Eyberg, S. M., & Boggs, S. R. (1989). Parent training for oppositional-defiant preschoolers. In C. E.Schaefer & J. M.Briemeister (Eds.), Handbook of parent-training: Parents as cotherapists for children's behavior problems (pp. 105–132). New York: John Wiley.
    Facella, C. A. (1983). Female delinquency in a birth cohort. Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
    Fagan, J. (1989). The social organization of drug use and drug dealing among urban gangs. Criminology, 27, 633–669. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1989.tb01049.x
    Fagan, J. (1990a). Social processes of delinquency and drug use among urban gangs. In C. R.Huff (Ed.), Gangs in America (pp. 266–275). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232201
    Fagan, J. (1990b). Treatment and reintegration of violent juvenile offenders: Experimental results. Justice Quarterly, 7, 233–263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07418829000090571
    Fagan, J. (1996). Gangs, drugs, and neighborhood change. In C. R.Huff (Ed.), Gangs in America (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 39–74). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232201
    Fagan, J., & Pabon, E. (1990). Contributions of delinquency and substance use to school dropout among inner-city youths. Youth & Society, 21, 306–354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0044118X90021003003
    Fagan, J., Piper, E., & Moore, M. (1986). Violent delinquents and urban youths. Criminology, 24, 439–471. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1986.tb00385.x
    Fagan, J., Weis, J. G., & Cheng, Y. (1990). Delinquency and drug use among inner city students. Journal of Drug Issues, 20, 351–402.
    Fagan, J., & Wilkinson, D. (in press). The functions of adolescent violence. In D. S.Elliott & B.Hamburg (Eds.), Violence in American schools. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Fagan, J. A. (1995). Separating the men from the boys: The comparative advantage of juvenile versus criminal court sanctions on recidivism among adolescent felony offenders. In J. C.Howell, B.Krisberg, J. D.Hawkins, & J. J.Wilson (Eds.), Sourcebook on serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders (pp. 238–274). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Fagan, J. A., & Hartstone, E. (1984). Strategic planning in juvenile justice—Defining the toughest kids. In R.Mathias, P.DeMuro, & R. S.Allinson (Eds.), Violent juvenile offenders (pp. 31–51). San Francisco: National Council on Crime and Delinquency.
    Family Services Research Center. (1995, October). Multisystemic therapy using home-based services: A clinically effective and cost effective strategy for treating serious clinical problems in youth. Charleston: Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.
    Farquhar, J. W., Fortmann, S. P., & Flora, J. A. (1990). Effects of community-wide education on cardiovascular disease risk factors: The Stanford Five-City Project. Journal of the American Medical Association, 264, 359–365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1990.03450030083037
    Farrell, A. D., & Meyer, A. L. (1997). Effectiveness of a school-based prevention program for reducing violence among urban adolescents: Differential impact on girls and boys. Manuscript under review.
    Farrington, D. P. (1973). Self-reports of deviant behavior: Predictive and stable?Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 64, 99–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1142661
    Farrington, D. P. (1979). Environmental stress, delinquent behavior, and convictions. In I. G.Sarason & C. D.Spielberger (Eds.), Stress and anxiety (Vol. 6, pp. 93–107). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.
    Farrington, D. P. (1983). Offending from 10 to 25 years of age. In K. T.Van Dusen & S. A.Mednick (Eds.), Prospective studies of crime and delinquency (pp. 17–37). Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-6672-7_3
    Farrington, D. P. (1985). Predicting self-reported and official delinquency. In D. P.Farrington & R.Tailing (Eds.), Prediction in criminology. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Farrington, D. P. (1986). Age and crime. In M.Tonry & N.Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research (Vol. 7, pp. 189–250). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Farrington, D. P. (1987). Early precursors of frequent offending. In J. Q.Wilson & G. C.Loury (Eds.), From children to citizens (pp. 27–50). New York: Springer-Verlag.
    Farrington, D. P. (1989a). Early predictors of adolescent aggression and adult violence. Violence and Victims, 4, 79–100.
    Farrington, D. P. (1989b). Self-reported and official offending from adolescence to adulthood. In M.Klein (Ed.), Cross-national research in self-reported crime and delinquency (pp. 399–423). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.
    Farrington, D. P. (1991). Childhood aggression and adult violence: Early precursors and later-life outcomes. In D. J.Pepler & K. H.Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 5–29). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Farrington, D. P. (1993). Protective factors in the development of juvenile delinquency and adult crime. Unpublished manuscript, Cambridge University, Institute of Criminology.
    Farrington, D. P. (1995). Key issues in the integration of motivational and opportunity-reducing crime prevention strategies. In P.-O. H.Wikström, R. V.Clarke, & J.McCord (Eds.), Integrating crime prevention strategies: Propensity and opportunity (pp. 333–357). Stockholm, Sweden: National Council for Crime Prevention.
    Farrington, D. P. (1996a). The explanation and prevention of youthful offending. In J. D.Hawkins (Ed.), Delinquency and crime: Current theories (pp. 68–148). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Farrington, D. P. (1996b). Understanding and preventing youth crime. York, England: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    Farrington, D. P. (1997a). Evaluating a community-based prevention program. Evaluation, 3, 157–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135638909700300203
    Farrington, D. P. (1997b). Early prediction of violent and nonviolent youthful offending. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 5, 51–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02677607
    Farrington, D. P. (in press). Predictors, causes and correlates of male youth violence. In M.Tonry & M. H.Moore, Youth violence, crime and justice (Vol. 24). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Farrington, D. P., & Loeber, R. (in press). Transatlantic replicability of risk factors in the development of delinquency. In P.Cohen, C.Slomkowski, & L. N.Robins (Eds.), Where and when: The influence of history and geography on aspects of psychopathology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Farrington, D. P., Loeber, R., Elliott, D. S., Hawkins, J. D., Kandel, D. B., Klein, M. W., McCord, J., Rowe, D. C., & Tremblay, R. E. (1990). Advancing knowledge about the onset of delinquency and crime. In B. B.Lahey & A. E.Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 13, pp. 283–342). New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-9835-6_8
    Farrington, D. P., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W. B., & Schmidt, L. (1996). Self-reported delinquency and a combined delinquency seriousness scale based on boys, mothers, and teachers: Concurrent and predictive validity for African-Americans and Caucasians. Criminology, 34, 501–525. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1996.tb01217.x
    Farrington, D. P., Ohlin, L. E., & Wilson, J. Q. (1986). Understanding and controlling crime: Toward a new research strategy. New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-4940-5
    Farrington, D. P., Snyder, H. S., & Finnegan, T. A. (1988). Specialization in juvenile court careers. Criminology, 26, 461–488. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1988.tb00851.x
    Farrington, D. P., & Tarling, R. (1985). Prediction in criminology. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Farrington, D. P., & West, D. J. (1993). Criminal, penal and life histories of chronic offenders: Risk and protective factors and early identification. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 3, 492–523.
    Farrington, D. P., & Wikström, P.-O. (1994). Criminal careers in London and Stockholm: A cross-national comparative study. In E. G. M.Weitekamp & H. J.Kerner (Eds.), Cross-national longitudinal research on human development and criminal behavior (pp. 65–89). Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff.
    Fattah, D. (1987). The House of Umoja as a case study for social change. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 494, 37–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716287494001004
    Fawcett, S. B., Paine, A. L., Francisco, V. T., & Vliet, M. (1993). Promoting health through community development. New York: Haworth.
    Federal Bureau of Investigation. (1993). Age-specific arrest rates and race-specific arrest rates for selected offenses, 1965–1992. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Feldhusen, J. F., Aversano, F. M., & Thurston, J. R. (1976). Prediction of youth contacts with law enforcement agencies. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 3, 235–253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009385487600300302
    Feldhusen, J. F., Thurston, J. R., & Benning, J. J. (1973). A longitudinal study of delinquency and other aspects of children's behavior. International Journal of Criminology and Penology, 1, 341–351.
    Feldman, L. H. (1991). Evaluating the impact of intensive family preservation services in New Jersey. In K.Wells & D.Biegel (Eds.), Family preservation services: Research and evaluation (pp. 47–71). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Felson, R. B. (1993). Predatory and dispute-related violence: A social interactionist approach. In R. V.Clark & M.Felson (Eds.), Routine activity and rational choice, advances in criminological theory (pp. 103–126). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Fergusson, D. M., Lynskey, M. T., & Horwood, L. J. (1996). Alcohol misuse and juvenile offending in adolescence. Addiction, 91, 483–494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1996.tb02302.x
    Fetzer Institute. (1994). Resolving conflict creatively program. In Connections, the newsletter of the Collaborative for the Advancement of Social and Emotional Learning. New Haven, CT: Yale Child Study Center.
    Feyerherm, W., Pope, C., & Lovell, R. (1992). Youth gang prevention and early intervention programs. Report to the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Fife, D., & Abrams, W. R. (1989). Firearms' decreased role in New Jersey homicides after a mandatory sentencing law. Journal of Trauma, 29, 1548–1551. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005373-198911000-00015
    Fingerhut, L., Ingram, D., & Feldman, J. (1992). Firearm and nonfirearm homicide among persons 15 through 19 years of age: Differences by level of urbanization, United States, 1979 through 1989. Journal of the American Medical Association, 267, 3048–3053. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1992.03480220066029
    Fingerhut, L. A., & Kleinman, J. D. (1990). International and interstate comparisons of homicide among young males. Journal of the American Medical Association, 263, 3292–3295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1990.03440240082020
    Firestone, P., Kelly, M. J., Goodman, J. T., & Davey, J. (1981). Differential effects of parent training and stimulant medication with hyperactives. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 20, 135–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-7138%2809%2960723-8
    Flay, B. R., Koepke, D., Thomson, S. J., Sand, S., Best, J. A., & Brown, K. S. (1989). Six-year follow-up of the first Waterloo school smoking prevention trial. American Journal of Public Health, 79, 1371–1376. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.79.10.1371
    Flynn, B. S., Worden, J. K., Secker-Walker, R. H., Badger, G. J., & Geller, B. M. (1995). Cigarette smoking prevention effects of mass media and school interventions targeted to gender and age groups. Journal of Health Education, 26S-45–S-51.
    Flynn, B. S., Worden, J. K., Secker-Walker, R. H., Badger, G. J., Geller, B. M., & Costanza, M. C. (1992). Prevention of cigarette smoking through mass media intervention and school programs. American Journal of Public Health, 82, 827–834. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.82.6.827
    Fo, W. S., & O'Donnell, C. R. (1975). The Buddy System: Effect of community intervention on delinquent offenses. Behavior Therapy, 6, 522–524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894%2875%2980008-6
    Forehand, R., Furey, W. M., & McMahon, R. J. (1984). The role of maternal distress in parent training to modify child noncompliance. Behavioral Psychotherapy, 12, 93–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0141347300009770
    Forehand, R., & McMahon, R. J. (1981). Helping the noncompliant child: A clinician's guide to parent training. New York: Guilford.
    Forst, M., Fagan, J., & Vivona, T. S. (1989). Youth in prisons and state training schools. Juvenile and Family Court Journal, 39, 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-6988.1989.tb00634.x
    Fortmann, S. P., Flora, J. A., & Winkleby, M. A. (1995). Community intervention trials: Reflections on the Stanford Five-City Project experience. American Journal of Epidemiology, 142, 576–586.
    Foshee, V., & Bauman, K. E. (1992). Parental and peer characteristics as modifiers of the bond-behavior relationship: An elaboration of control theory. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 33(1), 66–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136858
    Fox, J. A. (1996). Trends in juvenile violence. A report to the United States attorney general on current and future rates of juvenile offending. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Department of Justice.
    Fox, J. R. (1985). Mission impossible? Social work practices with Black urban youth gangs. Social Work, 30, 25–31.
    Fréchette, M., & Le Blanc, M. (1987). Délinquances et delinquants [Delinquencies and delinquents]. Montreal: Gaétan Morin.
    Frick, P. J., Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Tannenbaum, L., Van Horn, Y., Christ, M. A. G., & Hanson, K. (1992). Familial risk factors to oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: Parental psychopathology and maternal parenting. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 49–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.60.1.49
    Friedman, C. J., Mann, F., & Friedman, A. S. (1975). A profile of juvenile street gang members. Adolescence, 10, 563–607.
    Fritsch, E., & Hemmens, C. (1995). Juvenile transfer in the United States 1979–1995: A comparison of state waiver statutes. Juvenile and Family Court Journal, 17, 105–123.
    Gabor, T. (1986). The prediction of criminal behavior: Statistical approaches. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    Gabriel, R. M. (1996). Self-Enhancement, Inc. violence prevention program. Portland, OR: RMC Research.
    Gabriel, R. M., Hopson, T., Haskins, M., & Powell, K. E. (1996). Building relationships and resilience in the prevention of youth violence. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 12(Suppl. 5). [Youth violence prevention: Descriptions and baseline data from 13 evaluation projects]
    Gadow, K. D., Nolan, E. E., Sverd, J., Sprafkin, J., & Paolicelli, L. (1990). Methylphenidate in aggressive-hyperactive boys: I. Effects on peer aggression in public school settings. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 710–718. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199009000-00006
    Gainer, P. S., Webster, D. W., & Champion, H. R. (1993). A youth violence prevention program: Description and preliminary evaluation. Archives of Surgery, 128, 303–308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archsurg.1993.01420150059011
    Gandossy, R. P., Williams, J. R., Cohen, J., & Harwood, H. J. (1980). Drugs and crime: A survey and analysis of the literature. Owings Mill, MD: National Health.
    Garmezy, N. (1985). Stress-resistant children: The search for protective factors. In J. E.Stevenson (Ed.), Recent research in developmental psychopathology (pp. 213–233). New York: Pergamon.
    Garrett, C. J. (1985). Effects of residential treatment on adjudicated delinquents: A meta-analysis. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 22, 287–308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427885022004002
    Geis, G. (1965). Juvenile gangs. Report to the President's Committee on Youth Crime. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Gendreau, P., Little, T., & Goggin, C. (1996). A meta-analysis of the predictors of adult offender recidivism: What works. Criminology, 34, 575–607. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1996.tb01220.x
    Gendreau, P., & Ross, R. R. (1987). Revivification of rehabilitation: Evidence from the 1980s. Justice Quarterly, 4, 349–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07418828700089411
    Genelin, M. (1993). Gang prosecution: The hardest game in town. In A.Goldstein & C. R.Huff (Eds.), The gang intervention handbook (pp. 417–426). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    General Accounting Office (1996). Juvenile justice: Status of delinquency prevention programs and description of local projects. Report to the Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunity, House of Representatives (GAO/GGD-96–147). Washington, DC: Author.
    George, W. H., Crowe, L. C., Abwender, D., & Skinner, J. B. (1989). Effects of raising the drinking age to 21 years in New York State on self-reported consumption by college students. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 19, 623–635. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1989.tb00343.x
    Gibbons, D. C. (1962). Prospects and problems of delinquent typology. Sociological Inquiry, 32, 235–244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1962.tb00544.x
    Gibbons, D. C. (1975). Offender typologies—Two decades later. British Journal of Criminology, 15, 140–156.
    Giesbrecht, N., & Ferris, J. (1993). Community-based research initiatives in prevention. Addiction, 88(Suppl.), 83S–93S. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1993.tb02166.x
    Ginsberg, C., & Loffredo, L. (1993). Violence-related attitudes and behaviors of high school students—New York City 1992. Journal of School Health, 63, 438–439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.1993.tb06080.x
    Gittelman, R. (1982). A controlled study of methylphenidate in combination with academic instruction. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 18, 112–113.
    Gittelman, R., Abikoff, H., Pollack, E., Klein, D., Katz, S., & Mattes, J. (1980). A controlled trial of behavior modification and methylphenidate in hyperactive children. In C. C. K.Whalen & B.Henker (Eds.), Hyperactive children: The social ecology of identification and treatment (pp. 221–243). New York: Academic Press.
    Glaser, D. (1987). Classification for risk. In D. M.Gottfredson & M.Tonry (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review: Vol. 9. Prediction and classification: Criminal justice decision making (pp. 249–292). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Glick, B., & Goldstein, A. P. (1987). Aggression replacement training. Journal of Counseling and Development, 65, 356–362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1987.tb00730.x
    Glueck, S., & Glueck, E. (1950). Unraveling juvenile delinquency. New York: Commonwealth Fund.
    Gold, M. (1970). Delinquent behavior in an American city. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Gold, M., & Mann, D. W. (1984). Expelled to a friendlier place: A study of alternative schools. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Gold, M., & Mattick, H. (1974). Experiment in the streets: The Chicago Youth Development project. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research.
    Goldstein, A. P. (1993). Interpersonal skills training interventions. In A.Goldstein & C. R.Huff (Eds.), The gang intervention handbook (pp. 87–157). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Goldstein, A. P., & Glick, B. (1994). The prosocial gang: Implementing aggression replacement training. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam.
    Goodman, G. (1972). Companionship therapy: Studies in structured intimacy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Goodstadt, M. S. (1989). Substance abuse curricula vs. school drug polices. Journal of School Health, 59, 246–250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.1989.tb04715.x
    Goodstein, L., & Sontheimer, H. (1987). A study of the impact of ten Pennsylvania residential placements on juvenile recidivism. Shippensburg, PA: Center for Juvenile Justice, Training and Research.
    Gordon, D. A., Graves, K., & Arbuthnot, J. (1987). Prevention of adult criminal behavior using family therapy for disadvantaged juvenile delinquents. Unpublished manuscript, Ohio University, Athens, OH.
    Goring, C. (1913). The English convict: A statistical study. London: Darling & Son.
    Gorman-Smith, D., Tolan, P. H., Zelli, A., & Huesmann, L. R. (1996). The relation of family functioning to violence among inner-city minority youth. Journal of Family Psychology, 10, 115–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.10.2.115
    Gottfredson, D., & Barton, W. (1992). Deinstitutionalization of juvenile offenders. College Park: University of Maryland.
    Gottfredson, D. C. (1986). An empirical test of school-based environmental and individual interventions to reduce the risk of delinquent behavior. Criminology, 24, 705–731. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1986.tb01508.x
    Gottfredson, D. C. (1987). An evaluation of an organization development approach to reducing school disorder. Evaluation Review, 11, 739–763. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0193841X8701100603
    Gottfredson, D. C., & Gottfredson, G. D. (1992). Theory-guided investigation: Three field experiments. In J.McCord & R. E.Tremblay (Eds.), Preventing antisocial behavior (pp. 311–329). New York: Guilford.
    Gottfredson, D. C., Gottfredson, G. D., & Hybl, L. G. (1993). Managing adolescent behavior: A multiyear, multischool study. American Educational Research Journal, 30, 179–215.
    Gottfredson, D. C., Gottfredson, G. D., & Skroban, S. (1996). A multimodel school based prevention demonstration. Journal of Adolescent Research, 11, 97–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0743554896111006
    Gottfredson, D. C., Karweit, N. L., & Gottfredson, G. D. (1989). Reducing disorderly behavior in middle schools (Rep. No. 47). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Research on Elementary and Middle Schools.
    Gottfredson, D. M. (1987). Prediction and classification in criminal justice decision making. In D. M.Gottfredson & M.Tonry (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review: Vol. 9. Prediction and classification: Criminal justice decision making (pp. 1–20). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Gottfredson, D. M., & Tonry, M. (Eds.). (1987). Crime and justice: An annual review: Vol. 9. Prediction and classification: Criminal justice decision making. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Gottfredson, G. D. (1975). Organizing crime: A classificatory scheme based on offense transitions. Journal of Criminal Justice, 3, 321–332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0047-2352%2875%2990036-7
    Gottfredson, G. D. (1981). Schooling and delinquency. In S. W.Martin, L. B.Sechrest, & R.Rednez (Eds.), New directions in the rehabilitation of criminal offenders (pp. 424–469). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Gottfredson, M. R., & Gottfredson, D. M. (1985). Decision making in criminal justice: Toward the rational exercise of discretion. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
    Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1986). The true value of lambda would appear to be zero: An essay on career criminals, criminal careers, selective incapacitation, cohort studies, and related topics. Criminology, 24, 213–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1986.tb01494.x
    Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Gottfredson, S. D., & Gottfredson, D. M. (1985). Screening for risk among parolees: Policy, practice, and method. In D. J.Farrington & R.Tarling (Eds.), Prediction in criminology. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Gottfredson, S. D., & Gottfredson, D. M. (1986). Accuracy of prediction models. In A.Blumstein, J.Cohen, J. A.Roth, & C. A.Visher (Eds.), Criminal careers and “career criminals” (Vol. 2, pp. 212–290). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Gove, W., Hughes, M., & Geerken, M. (1985). Are the Uniform Crime Reports a valid indicator of the index crimes? An affirmative answer with minor qualifications. Criminology, 23, 451–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1985.tb00350.x
    Graham, J. W., & Donaldson, S. I. (1993). Evaluating interventions with differential attrition: The importance of nonresponse mechanisms and use of follow-up data. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 119–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.1.119
    Green, B. C. (1980). An evaluation of a Big Brothers' program for father-absent boys: An eco-behavioral analysis. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University.
    Greenberg, B. (1974). School vandalism: Its effect and paradoxical solutions. Crime Prevention Review, 1, 105.
    Greenberg, M. T., Kusche, C. C. A., Cook, E. T., & Quamma, J. P. (1995). Promoting emotional competence in school-aged children: The effects of the PATHS curriculum. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 117–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400006374
    Greenhill, L. L. (1995). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: The stimulants. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 4, 123–167.
    Greenwood, P. W., Deschenes, E. P., & Adams, J. (1993). Chronic juvenile offenders: Final results from the Skillman Aftercare Experiment. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
    Greenwood, P. W., Model, K. E., Rydell, C. P., & Chiesa, J. (1996). Diverting children from a life of crime: Measuring costs and benefits. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
    Greenwood, P. W., & Turner, S. (1987). The VisionQuest Program: An evaluation. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
    Grossman, M., Coate, D., & Arluck, G. M. (1987). Price sensitivity of alcoholic beverages in the United States: Youth alcohol consumption. Advances in substance abuse: Behavioral and biological research: Suppl. 1. Control issues in alcohol abuse prevention: Strategies for state and communities. Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Groves, B. M., Zuckerman, B., Marans, S., & Cohen, D. J. (1993). Silent victims: Children who witness violence. Journal of the American Medical Association, 269, 262–264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1993.03500020096039
    Gruenewald, P. J., Ponicki, W. R., & Holder, H. D. (1993). The relationship of outlet densities to alcohol consumption: A time series cross-sectional analysis. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 17, 38–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1993.tb00723.x
    Grunhut, M. (1955). Juvenile delinquents under punitive detention: A study of the first hundred Campsfield House boys. British Journal of Delinquency, 5, 191–209.
    Guerra, N. G., Eron, L. D., Huesmann, L. R., Tolan, P. H., & VanAcker, R. (1996). A cognitive/ecological approach to the prevention and mitigation of violence and aggression in inner-city youth. In K.Bjorkquist & D. P.Fry (Eds.), Styles of conflict resolution: Models and applications from around the world (pp. 199–213). New York: Academic Press.
    Guerra, N. G., Huesmann, L. R., Tolan, P. H., VanAcker, R., & Eron, L. D. (1995). Stressful event and individual beliefs as correlates of economic disadvantage and aggression among urban children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 518–528. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.63.4.518
    Guerra, N. G., Huesmann, L. R., Tolan, P. H., VanAcker, R., Henry, D., & Eron, L. D. (1997). Proximal outcomes for a large scale preventive intervention. Manuscript under review.
    Guerra, N. G., & Slaby, R. G. (1990). Cognitive mediators of aggression in adolescent offenders: 2. Intervention. Developmental Psychology, 26, 269–277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.26.2.269
    Guerra, N. G., Tolan, P. H., & Hammond, R. (1994). Prevention and treatment of adolescent violence. In L. D.Eron, J.Gentry, & P.Schlegel (Eds.), Reason to hope: A psychological perspective on violence and youth (pp. 383–404). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10164-015
    Guerra, N. G., & Williams, K. R. (1996). Building effective strategies to address youth violence in your community: Program guide. Miami, FL: John S. and James L. Knight Foundation.
    Gustin, J., Guerra, N. G., & Attar, B. (in press). Resilience in urban children: Four kids who could. In G.Brookins (Ed.), Exits from poverty. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Haapanen, R. (1990). Selective incapacitation and the serious offender. New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-3266-7
    Hagan, J., & Peterson, R. (1995). Criminal inequality in America: Patterns and consequences. In J.Hagan & R.Peterson (Eds.), Crime and inequality (pp. 14–36). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Hagedorn, J. (1988). People and folks: Gangs, crime and the underclass in a rustbelt city. Chicago: Lake View.
    Haglund, B., Weisbrod, R. R., & Bracht, N. (1990). Assessing the community: Its services, needs, leadership, and readiness. In N.Bracht (Ed.), Health promotion at the community level (pp. 91–108). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452204789
    Hall, J. (1952). Theft, law and society. New York: Bobbs-Merrill.
    Hammond, W. R., & Yung, B. R. (1991). Preventing violence in at-risk African American youth. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 2, 359–373.
    Hammond, W. R., & Yung, B. R. (1992). Evaluation and activity report: Positive Adolescents Choices Training (PACT) program. Dayton, OH: Wright State University, School of Professional Psychology.
    Hamparian, D., Estep, L., Muntean, S., Priestino, R., Swisher, R., Wallace, P., & White, J. (1982). Youth in adult courts: Between two worlds. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Hamparian, D. (1984). The young criminal years of the violent few. Cleveland, OH: Federation for Community Planning.
    Hamparian, D. M., Davis, J. M., Jacobson, J. M., & McGraw, R. E. (1985). The young criminal years of the violent few. Report prepared for the National Institute of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
    Hamparian, D. M., Schuster, R., Dinitz, S., & Conrad, J. P. (1978). The violent few: A study of dangerous juvenile offenders. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.
    Hansen, W. B., Johnson, C. A., Flay, B. R., Graham, J. W., & Sobel, J. (1988). Affective and social influences approaches to the prevention of multiple substance abuse among seventh-grade students: Results from Project SMART. Preventive Medicine, 17, 135–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-7435%2888%2990059-X
    Harachi, T. W., Ayers, C. D., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Cushing, J. (1995). Empowering communities to prevent adolescent substance abuse: Results from a risk- and protection-focused community mobilization effort. Journal of Primary Prevention, 16, 233–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02407424
    Harachi Manger, T. (1991). Empowering communities for the prevention of adolescent substance abuse. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle.
    Harachi Manger, T., Hawkins, J. D., Haggerty, K. P., & Catalano, R. F. (1992). Mobilizing communities to reduce risks for drug abuse: Lessons on using research to guide prevention practice. Journal of Primary Prevention, 13, 3–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01341778
    Harden, (1997). Boston's approach to juvenile crime encircles youths, reduces slayings. The Washington Post, D October 23, p. A3.
    Harrell, A. (1996). Findings of the evaluation of the Children at Risk program. Paper presented at the University of Maryland, College Park.
    Harries, K. (1990). Serious violence: Patterns of homicide and assault in America. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Harris, M. B. (1996). Aggression, gender, and ethnicity. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 1, 123–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1359-1789%2895%2900012-7
    Harrison, L., & Gfroerer, J. (1992). The intersection of drug use and criminal behavior: Results from the National Household Survey on drug abuse. Crime & Delinquency, 38, 422–443. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011128792038004002
    Hathaway, S. R., & Monachesi, E. D. (1953). Analyzing and predicting juvenile delinquency with the MMPI. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Havighurst, R. J., Bowman, P. H., Liddle, G. P., Matthews, C. V., & Pierce, J. V. (1962). Growing up in River City. New York: John Wiley.
    Hawkins, D. (in press). Racial and ethnic differences in rates of homicide: What can we learn from data disaggregation? In M. D.Smith & M.Zahn (Eds.), Homicide studies: A sourcebook of social research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Hawkins, D. F. (1983). Black and white homicide differentials: Alternatives to an inadequate theory. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 10, 407–440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0093854883010004003
    Hawkins, D. F. (1993). Crime and ethnicity. In B.Forst (Ed.), The socio-economics of crime and justice (pp. 89–120). Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.
    Hawkins, D. F. (1994). The analysis of racial disparities in crime and justice: A double-edged sword. In Enhancing capacities and confronting controversies in criminal justice (pp. 48–49). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
    Hawkins, D. F. (1995). Ethnicity, race, and crime: A review of selected studies. In D. F.Hawkins (Ed.), Ethnicity, race, and crime: Perspectives across time and place (pp. 11–45). Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Hawkins, J. D. (1995). Controlling crime before it happens: Risk-focused prevention. National Institute of Justice Journal, 10–18.
    Hawkins, J. D., Abbott, R., Catalano, R. F., & Gillmore, M. R. (1991). Assessing effectiveness of drug abuse prevention: Long-term effects and replication. In C.Leukfeld & W.Bukoski (Eds.), Drug abuse prevention research: Methodological issues (NIDA Research Monograph No. 107, DHHS Publication No. ADM 91–1761, pp. 195–212). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Hawkins, J. D., Arthur, M. W., & Catalano, R. F. (1995). Preventing substance abuse. In M.Tonry & D. P.Farrington (Eds.), Building a safer society: Strategic approaches to crime prevention: Vol. 19. Crime and justice: A review of research (pp. 343–427). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Hawkins, J. D., Arthur, M. W., & Olson, J. J. (1997). Community interventions to reduce risks and enhance protection against anti-social behavior. In D. S.Stoff, J.Breiling, & J. D.Masers (Eds.), Handbook of antisocial behaviors (pp. 365–374). New York: NIMH/John Wiley.
    Hawkins, J. D., & Catalano, R. F. (1992). Communities that care. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Hawkins, J. D., & Catalano, R. F. (1993). Risk-focused prevention using the social development strategy. Seattle, WA: Developmental Resources and Programs.
    Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Associates. (1992). Communities That Care: Action for drug abuse prevention. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Brewer, D. D. (1995a). Preventing serious, violent, and chronic delinquency and crime. In J. C.Howell (Ed.), Guide for implementing the comprehensive strategy for serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders (pp. 57–131). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Brewer, D. D. (1995b). Preventing serious, violent, and chronic offending: Effective strategies from conception to age 6. In J. C.Howell, B.Krisberg, J. D.Hawkins, & J. J.Wilson (Eds.), Sourcebook on serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders (pp. 36–60). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Kent, L. A. (1991). Combining broadcast media and parent education to prevent teenage drug abuse. In L.Donohew, H. E.Sypher, & W. J.Bukoski (Eds.), Persuasive communication and drug abuse prevention (pp. 283–342). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 64–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.64
    Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Kosterman, R., Abbott, R., & Hill, K. G. (1997). Promoting academic success and preventing crime in urban America: Six year follow up effects of the Seattle Social Development Project. Manuscript under review.
    Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Morrison, D. M., O'Donnell, J., Abbott, R. D., & Day, L. E. (1992). The Seattle Social Development Project: Effects of the first four years on protective factors and problem behaviors. In J.McCord & R. E.Tremblay (Eds.), Preventing antisocial behavior: Interventions from birth through adolescence (pp. 139–161). New York: Guilford.
    Hawkins, J. D., Doueck, H. J., & Lishner, D. M. (1988). Changing teaching practices in mainstream classrooms to improve bonding and behavior of low achievers. American Educational Research Journal, 25, 31–50.
    Hawkins, J. D., Farrington, D. P., & Catalano, R. F. (in press). Reducing violence through the schools. In D. S.Elliott, B. A.Hamburg, & K. R.Williams (Eds.), Youth violence: New perspectives for schools and communities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hawkins, J. D., & Lam, T. (1987). Teacher practices, social development and delinquency. In J. D.Burchard & S. N.Burchard (Eds.), Primary prevention of psychopathology: Vol. 10. Prevention of delinquent behavior (pp. 241–274). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Hawkins, J. D., Von Cleve, E., & Catalano, R. F. (1991). Reducing early childhood aggression: Results of a primary prevention program. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 208–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199103000-00008
    Hawkins, J. D., & Weis, J. G. (1985). The social development model: An integrated approach to delinquency prevention. Journal of Primary Prevention, 6(2), 73–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01325432
    Hechtman, L., & Weiss, G. (1986). Controlled prospective fifteen year follow-up of hyperactives as adults: Non-medical drug and alcohol use and anti-social behaviour. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 31, 557–567.
    Hedges, L. V. (1981). Distribution theory for Glass's estimator of effect size and related estimators. Journal of Educational Statistics, 6, 107–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1164588
    Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. New York: Academic Press.
    Heinicke, C. C., Beckwith, L., & Thompson, A. (1988). Early intervention in the family system: A framework and review. Infant Mental Health Journal, 9, 111–141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0355%28198822%299:2%3C111::AID-IMHJ2280090202%3E3.0.CO;2-I
    Henggeler, S. W., & Blaske, D. M. (1990). An investigation of systemic conceptualizations of parent-child coalitions and symptom change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 336–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.58.3.336
    Henggeler, S. W., & Borduin, C. M. (1990). Family therapy and beyond: A multisystemic approach to treating the behavior problems of children and adolescents. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Henggeler, S. W., Cunningham, P. B., Pickrel, S. G., Schoenwald, S. K., & Brondino, M. J. (1996). Multi-systemic therapy: An effective violence prevention approach for serious juvenile offenders. Journal of Adolescence, 19, 47–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jado.1996.0005
    Henggeler, S. W., Melton, G. B., & Smith, L. A. (1992). Family preservation using multisystemic therapy: An effective alternative to incarcerating serious juvenile offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 953–961. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.60.6.953
    Henggeler, S. W., Melton, G. B., Smith, L. A., Schoenwald, S. K., & Hanley, J. H. (1993). Family preservation using multisystemic treatment: Long-term follow-up to a clinical trial with serious juvenile offenders. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 2, 283–293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01321226
    Henry, B., Avshalom, C., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1996). Temperamental and familial predictors of violent and nonviolent criminal convictions: Age 3 to age 18. Developmental Psychology, 32, 614–623. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.32.4.614
    Hewitt, L. E., & Jenkins, R. L. (1946). Fundamental patterns of maladjustment and the dynamics of their origin. Springfield: State University of Illinois.
    Hill, K. G., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Kosterman, R., Abbott, R., & Edwards, T. (1996, November). The longitudinal dynamics of gang membership and problem behavior: A replication and extension of the Denver and Rochester gang studies in Seattle. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Chicago.
    Hill, K. G., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R., Maguin, E., & Kosterman, R. (1995, November). The role of gang membership in delinquency, substance use, and violent offending. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Boston.
    Hill, K. G., Howell, J. C., Hawkins, J. D., & Battin, S. R. (1996, November). Risk factors in childhood for adolescent gang membership: Results from the Seattle Social Development Project. Manuscript under review.
    Hindelang, M. (1974). The Uniform Crime Reports revisited. Journal of Criminal Justice, 2, 1–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0047-2352%2874%2990114-7
    Hindelang, M. (1978). Race and involvement in common law personal crimes. American Sociological Review, 43, 93–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094764
    Hindelang, M. (1981). Variations in sex-race-age-specific incidence rates of offending. American Sociological Review, 46, 461–474. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095265
    Hindelang, M., Hirschi, T., & Weis, J. (1981). Measuring delinquency. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Hingson, R., Heeren, T., Howland, J., & Winter, M. (1983). Reduced BAC limits for young people: Impact on night fatal crashes. Alcohol, Drugs and Driving, 7(2), 117–127.
    Hinshaw, S. P. (1991). Stimulant medication and the treatment of aggression in children with attentional deficits. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 20, 301–312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2003_9
    Hinshaw, S. P., & Erhardt, D. (1991). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In P. C.Kendall (Ed.), Child and adolescent therapy: Cognitive-behavioral perspectives (pp. 98–128). New York: Guilford.
    Hinshaw, S. P., Heller, T., & McHale, J. P. (1992). Covert antisocial behavior in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: External validation and effects of methylphenidate. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 274–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.60.2.274
    Hinshaw, S. P., Klein, R. G., & Abikoff, H. (in press). Childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Nonpharmacologic and combination treatments. In P.Nathan & J.Gorman (Eds.), Treatments that work. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Hodge, E. F., & Tait, C. D. (1963). A follow-up study of potential delinquents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 120, 449–453.
    Hoge, R. D., & Andrews, D. A. (1996). Assessing the youthful offender: Issues and techniques. New York: Plenum.
    Hogh, E., & Wolf, P. (1983). Violent crime in a birth cohort: Copenhagen 1953–1977. In K. T.Van Dusen & S. A.Mednick (Eds.), Prospective studies of crime and delinquency (pp. 249–267). Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-6672-7_14
    Holder, H. D., & Blose, J. O. (1987). Impact of changes in distilled spirits availability on apparent consumption: A time series analysis of liquor-by-the-drink. British Journal of Addiction, 82, 623–631. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1987.tb01524.x
    Home Office. (1989a). Criminal and custodial careers of those born in 1953, 1958, and 1963. In Home Office Statistical Bulletin. London: Author.
    Home Office. (1989b). Criminal and custodial careers of those born in 1953, 1958 and 1963: Variations in sentencing with the number of court appearances. In Home Office Statistical Bulletin. London: Author.
    Hope, T. (1991). Crime information in retailing: Prevention through analysis. Security Journal, 2, 240–245.
    Hope, T. (1995). Community crime prevention. In M.Tonry & D. P.Farrington (Eds.), Crime and justice: A review of research: Vol. 19. Building a safer society: Strategic approaches to crime prevention (pp. 21–89). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Horn, W. F., Ialongo, N. S., Pascoe, J. M., Greenberg, G., Packard, T., Lopez, M., Wagner, A., & Puttier, L. (1991). Additive effects of psychostimulants, parent training, and self-control therapy with ADHD children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 233–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199103000-00011
    Horne, A. M. (1993). Family-based interventions. In A.Goldstein & C. R.Huff (Eds.), The gang intervention handbook (pp. 189–218). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Howell, J. C. (Ed.). (1995). Guide for implementing the comprehensive strategy for serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Howell, J. C. (1996). Juvenile transfers to the criminal justice system: State-of-the-art. Law and Policy, 18, 17–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9930.1996.tb00163.x
    Howell, J. C. (1997). Youth gang homicides, drug trafficking, and program interventions. In J. C.Howell, Juvenile justice and youth violence (pp. 115–132). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Howell, J. C., & Krisberg, B. (1995). Conclusion. In J. C.Howell, B.Krisberg, J. D.Hawkins, & J. J.Wilson (Eds.), Sourcebook on serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders (pp. 275–278). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Howell, J. C., Krisberg, B., Hawkins, J. D., & Wilson, J. J. (1995). Sourcebook on serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Howell, J. C., Krisberg, B., & Jones, M. (1995). Trends in juvenile crime and youth violence. In J. C.Howell, B.Krisberg, J. D.Hawkins, & J. J.Wilson (Eds.), Sourcebook on serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders (pp. 1–35). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Howells, K., McEwan, M., Jones, B., & Mathews, C. (1983). Social evaluations of mental illness in relation to criminal behavior. British Journal of Social Psychology, 22, 165–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1983.tb00577.x
    Hudley, C. C. A. (1994). The reduction of childhood aggression using the Brainpower program. In M.Furlong & D.Smith (Eds.), Anger, hostility, and aggression: Assessment, prevention, and intervention strategies for youth (pp. 313–344). Brandon, VT: Clinical Psychology Publishing.
    Huesmann, L. R., Eron, L. D., Lefkowitz, M. M., & Walder, L. O. (1984). Stability of aggression over time and generations. Developmental Psychology, 20, 1120–1134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.20.6.1120
    Huesmann, L. R., Guerra, N. G., Miller, L. S., & Zelli, A. (1992). The role of social norms in the development of aggressive behavior. In A.Fraczek & H.Zumkley (Eds.), Socialization and aggression (pp. 139–152). New York: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-84653-3_9
    Huff, C. R. (1996a). The criminal behavior of gang members and nongang at-risk youth. In C. R.Huff (Ed.), Gangs in America (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 75–102). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232201
    Huff, C. R. (Ed.). (1996b). Gangs in America (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232201.
    Huizinga, D. (1979). Dynamic typologies. Paper presented at the 10th annual meeting of the Classification Society (NAB), Gainesville, FL.
    Huizinga, D. (1991). Assessing violent behavior with self-reports. In J. S.Milner (Ed.), Neuropsychology of aggression (pp. 47–66). Boston: Kluwer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-3878-3_3
    Huizinga, D. (1996). The influence of delinquent peers, gangs, and co-offending on violence. Fact sheet prepared for the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Huizinga, D. (1997, February). Gangs and the volume of crime. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Western Society of Criminology, Honolulu, HI.
    Huizinga, D., & Elliott, D. (1986). Reassessing the reliability and validity of self-report delinquency measures. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 2, 293–327.
    Huizinga, D., Esbensen, F.-A., & Weiher, A. (1994). Examining developmental trajectories in delinquency using accelerated longitudinal research design. In E. G. M.Weitekamp & H. J.Kerner (Eds.), Cross-national longitudinal research on human development and criminal behavior (pp. 203–216). Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff.
    Huizinga, D., Esbensen, F.-A., & Weiher, A. W. (1991). Are there multiple paths to delinquency?Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 82, 83–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1143790
    Huizinga, D., Loeber, R., & Thornberry, T. P. (1993). Longitudinal study of delinquency, drug use, sexual activity, and pregnancy among children and youth in three cities. Public Health Reports: Journal of the U.S. Public Health Service, 108(Suppl. 1), 90–96.
    Huizinga, D., Loeber, R., & Thornberry, T. P. (1994). Urban delinquency and substance abuse: Initial findings. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Huizinga, D., Loeber, R., & Thornberry, T. P. (1995). Recent findings from the program of research on the causes and correlates of delinquency. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Huizinga, D. H. (1995). Developmental sequences in delinquency. In L.Crockett & A.Crouter (Eds.), Pathways through adolescence (pp. 15–34). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Huizinga, D. H., Esbensen, F., & Weiher, A. (1996). The impact of arrest on subsequent delinquent behavior. In R.Loeber, D. H.Huizinga, & T. P.Thornberry (Eds.), Program of research on the causes and correlates of delinquency: Annual report 1995–1996 (pp. 82–101). Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Hunsaker, A. (1981). The behavioral-ecological model of intervention with Chicano gang delinquents. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 3, 225–239.
    Hunzeker, D. (1993). Ganging up against violence. State legislatures. Denver, CO: National Conference of State Legislatures.
    Hurst, H., IV, & Torbet, P. M. (1993). Organization and administration of juvenile services: Probation, aftercare, and state institutions for delinquent youth. Pittsburgh, PA: National Center for Juvenile Justice.
    Hutson, H. R., Anglin, D., & Eckstein, M. (1996). Drive-by shootings by violent street gangs in Los Angeles: A five-year review from 1989 to 1993. Academic Emergency Medicine, 3, 300–303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1553-2712.1996.tb03441.x
    Hutson, H. R., Anglin, D., Kyriacou, D. N., Hart, J., & Spears, K. (1995). The epidemic of gang-related homicides in Los Angeles County from 1979 through 1994. Journal of the American Medical Association, 274, 1031–1036. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1995.03530130037025
    Hutson, H. R., Anglin, D., & Mallon, W. (1992). Injuries and deaths from gang violence: They are preventable. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 21, 1234–1236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0196-0644%2805%2981752-4
    Hutson, H. R., Anglin, D., & Pratts, M. J. (1994). Adolescents and children injured or killed in drive-by shootings in Los Angeles. New England Journal of Medicine, 330, 324–327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199402033300506
    Hyndman, B., Giesbrecht, N., Bernardi, D. R., Coston, N., Douglas, R. R., Ferrence, R. G., Gliksman, L., Godstadt, M. S., Graham, D. G., & Loranger, P. D. (1992). Preventing substance abuse through multi-component community action research projects: Lessons from past experiences and challenges for future initiatives. Contemporary Drug Problems, 19, 133–164.
    Ialongo, N. S., Horn, W. F., Pascoe, J. M., Greenberg, G., Packard, T., Lopez, M., Wagner, A., & Puttler, L. (1993). The effects of a multimodal intervention with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder children: A 9-month follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 182–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199301000-00026
    Inciardi, J. A. (1990). The crack-violence connection within a population of hard-core adolescent offenders. In M.De La Rosa, E. Y.Lambert, & B.Gropper (Eds.), Drugs and violence: Causes, correlates, and consequences (pp. 92–111). NIDA Research Monograph No. 103. Rockville, MD: U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse.
    Inciardi, J. A., Horowitz, R., & Pottieger, A. E. (1993). Street kids, street drugs, street crime: An examination of drug use and serious delinquency in Miami. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Institute of Medicine, Committee on Prevention of Mental Disorders. (1994). In Reducing risks for mental disorders: Frontiers for preventive intervention research (P. J.Mrazek & R. J.Haggerty, Eds.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Jackson, R. K., & McBride, W. (1985). Understanding street gangs. Plackerville, CA: Custom.
    Jankowski, M. S. (1995). Ethnography, inequality, and crime in the low-income community. In J.Hagan & R.Peterson (Eds.), Crime and inequality (pp. 80–94). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Janosz, M., Le Blanc, M., Boulerice, B., & Tremblay, R. E. (1996). Disentangling the weight of school dropout predictors: A test on two longitudinal samples. Unpublished manuscript.
    Jarjoura, G. R. (1996). The conditional effect of social class on the dropout-delinquency relationship. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 33, 232–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427896033002004
    Jencks, C. (1992). Rethinking social policyCambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Jenkins, E., & Bell, C. (1994). Violence exposure, psychological distress, and high risk behaviors among inner-city high school students. In S.Friedman (Ed.), Anxiety disorders in African Americans (pp. 76–88). New York: Springer.
    Jenkins, R. L. (1973). The runaway reaction. In R. L.Jenkins (Ed.), Behavior disorders of childhood and adolescence (pp. 86–95). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Jensen, G., & Brownfield, D. (1986). Gender, lifestyles, and victimization. Violence and Victims, 1, 85–99.
    Jessness, C. F., Allison, F. S., McCormic, P. M., Wedge, R. F., & Young, M. L. (1975). Evaluation of the effectiveness of contigency contracting with delinquents. Sacramento: California Youth Authority.
    Jessness, C. F., & Haapanen, R. A. (1982). Early identification of chronic offenders. Sacramento, CA: Department of Youth Authority.
    Jessness, C. F., & Wedge, R. F. (1983). Classifying offenders: The Jessness Inventory Classification System technical manual. Sacramento, CA: Department of Youth Authority.
    Jessor, R. (1993). Successful adolescent development among youth in high-risk settings. American Psychologist's, 117–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.2.117
    Johnson, B. D., Wish, E. D., Schmeidler, J., & Huizinga, D. (1991). Concentration of delinquent offending: Serious drug involvement and high delinquency rates. Journal of Drug Issues, 21, 205–291.
    Johnson, C., Webster, B., & Connors, E. (1995). Prosecuting gangs: A national assessment. Research in briefWashington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.
    Johnson, C. A., Pentz, M. A., Weber, M. D., Dwyer, J. H., Baer, N. A., MacKinnon, D. P., Hansen, W. B., & Flay, B. R. (1990). Relative effectiveness of comprehensive community programming for drug abuse prevention with high-risk and low-risk adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 447–456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.58.4.447
    Johnson, D. L., & Walker, T. (1987). Primary prevention of behavior problems in Mexican-American children. American Journal of Community Psychology, 15, 375–385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00915208
    Join Together. (1992). Who is really fighting the war on drugs? Boston: Trustees of Boston University.
    Jonassen, C. (1949). A reevaluation and critique of the logic and some methods of Shaw and McKay. American Sociological Review, 14, 608–614. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2086649
    Jones, M. B., & Offord, D. R. (1989). Reduction of antisocial behavior in poor children by nonschool skill development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 30, 737–750. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1989.tb00786.x
    Jung, R. S., & Jason, L. A. (1988). Firearm violence and the effects of gun control legislation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 16, 515–524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00922768
    Kandel, E., Brennan, P. A., Mednick, S. A., & Michelson, N. M. (1989). Minor physical anomalies and recidivistic adult violent criminal behavior. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 79, 103–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1989.tb09241.x
    Kandel, E., & Mednick, S. A. (1991). Perinatal complications predict violent offending. Criminology, 29, 519–529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1991.tb01077.x
    Kantrowitz, R. E. (1980). Training nonprofessionals to work with delinquents: Differential impacts of varying training/supervisions/intervention strategies (Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts International, 40, 5007B. (University Microfilms No. 80-06139)
    Kaplan, S. L., Busner, J., Kupietz, S., Wassermann, E., & Segal, B. (1990). Effects of methylphenidate on adolescents with aggressive conduct disorder and ADHD: A preliminary report. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 719–723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199009000-00007
    Kasarda, J. (1993). Inner-city concentrated poverty and neighborhood distress: 1970–1990. Housing Policy Debate, 4, 253–302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10511482.1993.9521135
    Kawaguchi, R., & Butler, E. W. (1982). Impairments and community adjustment of young adults: Alcohol use, drug abuse and arrest. Chemical Dependencies: Behavioral and Biomedical Issues, 4, 209–219.
    Kawaguchi, R. M. (1975). Camp Fenner Canyon evaluation: Final reportLos Angeles: Los Angeles County Probation Department. (NCJRS Document Reproduction Service No. NCJ036121).
    Kazdin, A. (1987a). Conduct disorders in children and adolescents. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Kazdin, A. (1987b). Treatment of antisocial behavior in childhood: Current status and future directions. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 187–203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.102.2.187
    Kazdin, A. E. (1993). Adolescent mental health: Prevention and treatment programs. American Psychologist, 48, 127–141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.2.127
    Kazdin, A. E., Bass, D., Siegel, T., & Thomas, C. C. (1989). Cognitive-behavioral treatment and relationship therapy in the treatment of children referred for antisocial behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 522–535. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.57.4.522
    Kazdin, A. E., Esveldt-Dawson, K., French, N. H., & Unis, A. S. (1987a). Effects of parent management training and problem-solving skills training combined in the treatment of antisocial child behavior. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 416–424. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-198705000-00024
    Kazdin, A. E., Esveldt-Dawson, K., French, N. H., & Unis, A. S. (1987b). Problem-solving skills training and relationship therapy in the treatment of antisocial child behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 76–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.55.1.76
    Kazdin, A. E., Siegel, T. C. C., & Bass, D. (1992). Cognitive problem-solving skills training and parent management training in the treatment of antisocial behavior in children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 733–747. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.60.5.733
    Kelder, S. H., Orpinas, P., McAlister, A., Frankowski, R., Parcel, G. S., Friday, J. (1996). The Students for Peace project: A comprehensive violence-prevention program for middle school students. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 12(Suppl. 5). [Youth violence prevention: Descriptions and baseline data from 13 evaluation projects]
    Kellam, S. G., Mayer, L. S., Rebok, G. W., & Hawkins, W. E. (in press). Effects of improving achievement on aggressive behavior and of improving aggressive behavior on achievement through two preventive interventions: An investigation of causal paths. In B.Dohrenwend (Ed.), Adversity, stress, and psychopathology. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
    Kellam, S. G., & Rebok, G. W. (1992). Building developmental and etiological theory through epidemiologically based preventive intervention trials. In J.McCord & R. E.Tremblay (Eds.), Preventing antisocial behavior: Interventions from birth through adolescence (pp. 162–195). New York: Guilford.
    Kellam, S. G., Rebok, G. W., Ialongo, N., & Mayer, L. S. (1994). The course and malleability of aggressive behavior from early first grade into middle school: Results of a developmental epidemiologically-based preventive trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 259–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1994.tb01161.x
    Kellam, S. G., Werthamer-Larsson, L., Dolan, L. J., Brown, C. C. H., Mayer, L. S., Rebok, G. W., Anthony, J. C. C., Laudolff, J., & Edelsohn, G. (1991). Developmental epidemiologically based preventive trials: Baseline modeling of early target behaviors and depressive symptoms. American Journal of Community Psychology, 19, 563–584. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00937992
    Keller, M. B., Lavori, P. W., Beardslee, W. R., Wunder, J., Schwartz, C. C. E., Roth, J., & Biederman, J. (1992). The disruptive behavioral disorder in children and adolescents: Comorbidity and clinical course. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 204–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199203000-00005
    Kellerman, A. L., Lee, R. K., Mercy, J. A., & Banton, J. (1991). The epidemiologic basis for the prevention of firearm injuries. Annual Review of Public Health, 12, 17–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pu.12.050191.000313
    Kelling, G. L., Pate, T., Dieckman, D., & Brown, C. E. (1974). The Kansas City Prevention Patrol Experiment: A summary report. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.
    Kemp, M., & Lee, R. (1975). Project Crest: A third year experimental study. Gainesville, FL: Project Crest.
    Kempf, K. (1993). Hirschi's theory of social control: Is it fecund but not yet fertile?Advances in Theoretical Criminology, 4, 143–186.
    Kennedy, D. M., Piehl, A. M., & Braga, A. A. (1996). Youth violence in Boston: Gun markets, serious youth offenders, and a use-reduction strategy. Law and Contemporary Problems, 59, 147–196. [Special issue] http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1192213
    Kent, D. R., & Smith, P. (1995). The Tri-Agency Resource Gang Enforcement Team: A selective approach to reduce gang crime. In M. W.Klein, C. L.Maxson, & J.Miller (Eds.), The modern gang reader (pp. 292–296). Los Angeles: Roxbury.
    Kirigin, K. A., Braukmann, C. J., Atwater, J. D., & Worl, M. M. (1982). An evaluation of teaching family (Achievement Place) group homes for juvenile offenders. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 1–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1982.15-1
    Klein, M. W. (1968). The Ladino Hills Project: Final report. Los Angeles: University of Southern California, Youth Studies Center.
    Klein, M. W. (1969). Gang cohesiveness, delinquency, and a street-work program. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 6, 135–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002242786900600204
    Klein, M. W. (1971). Street gangs and street workers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Klein, M. W. (1993). Attempting gang control by suppression: The misuse of deterrence principles. Studies on Crime and Prevention, 2, 88–111.
    Klein, M. W. (1995). The American street gang: Its nature, prevalence, and control. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Klein, M. W., Gordon, M. A., & Maxson, C. L. (1986). The impact of police investigation on police-reported rates of gang and nongang homicides. Criminology, 24, 489–512. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1986.tb00387.x
    Klein, M. W., & Maxson, C. L. (1989). Street gang violence. In N. A.Weiner & M. E.Wolfgang (Eds.), Violent crime, violent criminals (pp. 198–234). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Klein, M. W., Maxson, C. L., & Cunningham, L. C. (1991). Crack, street gangs, and violence. Criminology, 29, 623–650. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1991.tb01082.x
    Klein, M. W., Maxson, C. L., & Miller, J. (1995). The modern gang reader. Los Angeles: Roxbury.
    Klein, N. C. C., Alexander, J. F., & Parsons, B. V. (1977). Impact of family systems intervention on recidivism and sibling delinquency: A model of primary prevention and program evaluation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 469–474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.45.3.469
    Klein, R. G. (1987). Pharmacotherapy of childhood hyperactivity: An update. In H. Y.Meltzer (Ed.), Psychopharmacology: The third generation of progress (pp. 1215–1224). New York: Raven.
    Klinteberg, B. A., Andersson, T., Magnusson, D., & Stattin, H. (1993). Hyperactive behavior in childhood as related to subsequent alcohol problems and violent offending: A longitudinal study of male subjects. Personality and Individual Differences, 15, 381–388. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869%2893%2990065-B
    Kobrin, S. (1959). The Chicago Area Project—A twenty-five year assessment. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 322, 19–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000271625932200104
    Kodluboy, D. W., & Evenrud, L. A. (1993). School-based interventions: Best practices and critical issues. In A.Goldstein & C. R.Huff (Eds.), The gang intervention handbook (pp. 257–299). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Koepsell, T. D., Martin, D. C., Diehr, P. H., Psaty, B. M., Wagner, E. H., Perrin, E. B., & Cheadle, A. (1991). Data analysis and sample size issues in evaluations of community-based health promotion and disease prevention programs: A mixed model analysis of variance approach. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 44, 701–713. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0895-4356%2891%2990030-D
    Kohn, G., & Shelly, C. (1991, August). Juveniles and gangs. Paper presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
    Krisberg, B. (1996). The historical legacy of juvenile corrections. In Juvenile justice programs and trends (pp. 45–50). Correctional Issues series. Lanham, MD: American Correctional Association.
    Krisberg, B., & Austin, J. (1978). The children of Ishmael: Critical perspectives on juvenile justice. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield.
    Krisberg, B., & Austin, J. (1993). Reinventing juvenile justice. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Krisberg, B., DeComo, R., Rudenstine, S., & Del Rosario, D. (1995). Juveniles Taken Into Custody FY 1994. San Francisco: National Council on Crime and Delinquency.
    Krisberg, B., DeComo, R., Wordes, M., & Del Rosario, D. (1996). Juveniles Taken Into Custody FY 1995. San Francisco: National Council on Crime and Delinquency.
    Krisberg, B., Litsky, P., & Schwartz, I. (1984). Youth in confinement: Justice by geography. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 21, 153–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427884021002005
    Krisberg, B., Neuenfeldt, D., Wiebush, R., & Rodriguez, O. (1994). Juvenile intensive supervision: Planning guide. Washington, DC: U.S. Justice Department, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Krisberg, B., Onek, D., Jones, M., & Schwartz, I. (1993). Juveniles in state custody: Prospects for community-based care of troubled adolescents. San Francisco: National Council on Crime and Delinquency.
    Krisberg, B., Rodriguez, O., Bakke, A., Neuenfeldt, D., & Steele, P. (1989). Demonstration of post-adjudication non-residential intensive supervision programs: Assessment report. San Francisco: National Council on Crime and Delinquency.
    Krohn, M. D., Lizotte, A. J., Thornberry, T. P., Smith, C., & McDowall, D. (1996). Reciprocal causal relationships among drug use, peers, and beliefs: A five wave panel model. Journal of Drug Issues, 26, 405–428.
    Krohn, M. D., Thornberry, T. P., Collins-Hall, L., & Lizotte, A. J. (1995). School dropout, delinquent behavior, and drug use: An examination of the causes and consequences of dropping out of school. In H. B.Kaplan (Ed.), Drugs, crime, & other deviant adaptations—Longitudinal studies (pp. 163–183). New York: Plenum.
    Kulik, J. A., Stein, K. B., & Sarbin, T. R. (1968). Dimensions and patterns of adolescent antisocial behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 32, 378–382.
    Kurz, G. A., & Moore, L. E. (1994). The “8% problem”: Chronic juvenile offender recidivism. Santa Ana, CA: Orange County Probation Department.
    Kvaraceus, W. C. (1953). KD Proneness Scale and Check List. Yonkers, NY: World Book.
    LaFree, G. (1995). Race and crime trends in the United States, 1946–1990. In D. F.Hawkins (Ed.), Ethnicity, race, and crime: Perspectives across time and place (pp. 169–193). Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Lally, J. R., Mangione, P. L., & Honig, A. S. (1988). The Syracuse University Family Development Research Project: Long-range impact of an early intervention with low-income children and their families. In D. R.Powell (Ed.), Annual advances in applied developmental psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 79–104). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Lam, J. A. (1989). The impact of conflict resolution programs on schools: A review and synthesis of the evidence. Amherst, MA: National Association for Mediation in Education.
    Land, K., McCall, P., & Cohen, L. (1990). Structural covariates of homicide rates: Are there any invariances across time and space?American Journal of Sociology, 95, 922–963. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/229381
    Land, K. C. (1992). Models of criminal careers: Some suggestions for moving beyond the current debate. Criminology, 30, 149–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1992.tb01100.x
    Larson, C. C. P. (1980). Efficacy of prenatal and postpartum home visits on child health and development. Pediatrics, 66, 191–197.
    Larson, J. D. (1992). Anger and aggression management techniques through the “Think First” curriculum. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 18, 101–117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J076v18n01_04
    Laub, J. (1983). Urbanism, race, and crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 20, 183–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002242788302000203
    Laub, J. (1987). Data for positive criminology. In M.Gottfredson & T.Hirschi (Eds.), Positive criminology (pp. 56–70). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Laub, J. H., & Lauritsen, J. L. (1993). Violent criminal behavior over the life course: A review of the longitudinal and comparative research. Violence and Victims, 8, 235–252.
    Laub, J., & McDermott, M. J. (1985). An analysis of serious crime by young black women. Criminology, 23, 81–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1985.tb00327.x
    Lauritsen, J., Sampson, R., & Laub, J. (1991). The link between offending and victimization among adolescents. Criminology, 29, 265–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1991.tb01067.x
    Le Blanc, M. (1995). Common, temporary, and chronic delinquencies: Prevention strategies during compulsory school. In P.-O.Wikström, J.McCord, & R. W.Clarke (Eds.), Integrating crime prevention strategies: Motivation and opportunity (pp. 169–205). Stockholm: National Council for Crime Prevention.
    Le Blanc, M. (1996). Changing patterns in the perpetration of offenses over time: Trajectories from early adolescence to the early 30's. Studies on Crime and Crime Prevention, 5, 151–165.
    Le Blanc, M. (1997). Socialization or propensity: A test of an integrative control theory with adjudicated boys. Studies in Crime and Crime Prevention, 6, 200–224.
    Le Blanc, M., Côté, G., & Loeber, R. (1991). Temporal paths in delinquency: Stability, regression and progression analyzed with panel data from an adolescent and a delinquent sample. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 33, 23–44.
    Le Blanc, M., & Fréchette, M. (1989). Male criminal activity, from childhood through youth: Multilevel and developmental perspectives. New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-3570-5
    Le Blanc, M., & Kaspy, N. (in press). Trajectories of delinquency and problem behavior: Comparison of synchronous and nonsynchronous paths on social and personal control characteristics of adolescents. Journal of Quantitative Criminology.
    Le Blanc, M., & Lanctot, N. (in press). Social and psychological characteristics of gang members according to the gang structure and its subcultural and ethnic makeup. Journal of Gang Research.
    Le Blanc, M., Marineau, D., Fréchette, M., Limoges, T. (1971). Quelques résultats d'un projet de prévention spécifique [Some results of a preventive intervention]. Revue Canadienne de Criminologie, 13, 232–250.
    Le Blanc, M., McDuff, P., Charlebois, P., Gagnon, C., Lariveé, S., & Tremblay, R. E. (1991). Social and psychological consequences, at 10 years old, of an earlier onset self-reported delinquency. Psychiatry, 54, 133–147.
    Lee, R., & Haynes, N. M. (1978a). Counseling delinquents: Dual treatment revisited. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 22, 130–133.
    Lee, R., & Haynes, N. M. (1978b). Counseling juvenile offenders: An experimental evaluation of Project Crest. Community Mental Health Journal, 14, 267–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00778601
    Lee, R., & Olejnik, S. (1981). Professional outreach counseling can help the juvenile probationer: A two-year follow-up study. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 59, 445–449. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2164-4918.1981.tb00592.x
    Lefebvre, R. C., Lasater, T. M., Carleton, R. A., & Peterson, G. (1987). Theory and delivery of health programming in the community: The Pawrucket Heart Health Program. Preventive Medicine, 16, 80–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-7435%2887%2990008-9
    Lemert, E. (1951). Social pathology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Lerman, P. (1975). Community treatment and social control. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Levy, D., & Sheflin, N. (1985). The demand for alcoholic beverages: An aggregate time-series analysis. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 4, 47–54.
    Liang, K. Y., & Zeger, S. L. (1986). Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models. Biometrika, 73, 13–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biomet/73.1.13
    Lindsay, B., & McGillis, D. (1986). Citywide community crime prevention: An assessment of the Seattle program. In D. P.Rosenbaum (Ed.), Community crime prevention: Does it work? (pp. 46–67). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Lipsey, M. W. (1992). Juvenile delinquency treatment: A meta-analytic inquiry into the variability of effects. In T. D.Cook, H.Cooper, D. S.Cordray, H.Hartmann, L. V.Hedges, R. J.Light, T. A.Louis, & F.Mosteller (Eds.), Meta-analysis for explanation: A casebook (pp. 83–127). New York: Russell Sage.
    Lipsey, M. W. (1995). What do we learn from 400 research studies on the effectiveness of treatment with juvenile delinquents? In J.McGuire (Ed.), What works? Reducing reoffending (pp. 63–78). New York: John Wiley.
    Lipsey, M. W., & Derzon, J. H. (1992, November). Prediction, prevention, programming, and meta-analysis. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Evaluation Association, Chicago.
    Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (1996). A toolkit for practical meta-analysis. Cambridge, MA: Human Services Research Institute.
    Lipton, D., Martinson, R., & Wilks, J. (1975). The effectiveness of correctional treatment: A survey of treatment evaluation studies. New York: Praeger.
    Lizotte, A. J., Howard, G. J., Krohn, M. D., & Thornberry, T. P. (1997). Patterns of carrying firearms among juveniles. Valparaiso University Law Review, 31, 375–393.
    Lizotte, A. J., Tesoriero, J. M., Thomberry, T. P., & Krohn, M. D. (1994). Patterns of adolescent firearms ownership and use. Justice Quarterly, 11, 51–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07418829400092131
    Lochman, J. E. (1987). Self- and peer-perceptions and attributional biases of aggressive and nonagressive boys in dyadic interactions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 404–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.55.3.404
    Lochman, J. E. (1992). Cognitive-behavioral intervention with aggressive boys: Three-year follow-up and preventive effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 426–432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.60.3.426
    Lochman, J. E., and the Conduct Problems Research Group. (1995). Screening of child behavior problems for prevention programs at school entry. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 549–559. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.63.4.549
    Lochman, J. E., & Curry, J. F. (1986). Effects of social problem-solving training and self-instruction with aggressive boys. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 15, 159–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp1502_8
    Lochman, J. E., Burch, P. R., Curry, J. F., & Lampron, L. B. (1984). Treatment and generalization effects of cognitive-behavioral and goal-setting interventions with aggressive boys. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 915–916. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.52.5.915
    Loeber, R. (1982). The stability of antisocial and delinquent child behavior: A review. Child Development, 53, 1431–1446. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130070
    Loeber, R. (1988). Natural histories of conduct problems, delinquency, and associated substance use: Evidence for developmental progressions. In B. B.Lahey & A. E.Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 11, pp. 73–124). New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-9829-5_2
    Loeber, R. (1990). Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 1–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358%2890%2990105-J
    Loeber, R. (1996). Developmental continuity, change, and pathways in male juvenile problem behaviors and delinquency. In J. D.Hawkins (Ed.), Delinquency and crime: Current theories (pp. 1–27). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Loeber, R., DeLematre, M. M., Keenan, K., & Zhang, Q. (in press). A prospective replication of developmental pathways in disruptive and delinquent behavior. In R. B.Cairns (Ed.), The individual as a focus in developmental research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Loeber, R., & Dishion, T. J. (1983). Early predictors of male delinquency: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 68–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.94.1.68
    Loeber, R., & Dishion, T. J. (1987). Antisocial and delinquent youths: Methods for their identification. In J. D.Burchard & S. N.Burchard (Eds.), Prevention of delinquent behavior (pp. 75–89). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Loeber, R., Dishion, T. J., & Patterson, G. R. (1984). Multiple gating: A multistage assessment procedure for identifying youths at risk for delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 21, 7–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427884021001002
    Loeber, R., Green, S. M., Lahey, B. B., Christ, M. A. G., & Frick, P. J. (1992). Developmental sequences in the age of onset of disruptive child behaviors. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 1, 21–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01321340
    Loeber, R., & Hay, D. F. (1994). Developmental approaches to aggression and conduct problems. In M.Rutter & D. F.Hay (Eds.), Development through life: A handbook for clinicians (pp. 488–515). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.
    Loeber, R., & Hay, D. F. (1996). Key issues in the development of aggression and violence from childhood to early adulthood. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 371–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.48.1.371
    Loeber, R., Keenan, K., & Zhang, Q. (1997). Boys' experimentation and persistence in developmental pathways toward serious delinquency. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 6, 321–357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1025004303603
    Loeber, R., & Le Blanc, M. (1990). Toward a developmental criminology. In M.Tonry & N.Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 12, pp. 375–473). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Loeber, R., & Schmaling, K. (1985). Empirical evidence for overt and covert patterns of antisocial conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 337–352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00910652
    Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1986). Family factors as correlates and predictors of juvenile conduct problems and delinquency. In M.Tonry & N.Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research (Vol. 7, pp. 219–339). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1987). Prediction. In H. C.Quay (Ed.), Handbook of juvenile delinquency (pp. 325–382). New York: John Wiley.
    Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (in press). Development of juvenile aggression and violence: Some common misconceptions and controversies. American Psychologist.
    Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W., & Farrington, D. P. (1989). Development of a new measure of self-reported antisocial behavior for young children: Prevalence and reliability. In M. W.Klein (Ed.), Cross-national research in self-reported crime and delinquency (pp. 203–225). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer-Nijhoff.
    Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W. B., & Farrington, D. P. (1991). Initiation, escalation and desistance in juvenile offending and their correlates. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 82, 36–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1143789
    Loeber, R., Van Kammen, W. B., & Fletcher, M. (1996). Serious, violent and chronic offenders in the Pittsburgh Youth Study: Unpublished data. Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA.
    Loeber, R., Van Kammen, W. B., Krohn, M. D., & Huizinga, D. (1991). The crime-substance use nexus in young people. In D.Huizinga, R.Loeber, & T. P.Thornberry (Eds.), Urban delinquency and substance abuse. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and Department of Justice.
    Loeber, R., Wung, P., Keenan, K., Giroux, B., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W. B., & Maughan, B. (1993). Developmental pathways in disruptive child behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 101–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400004296
    Loftin, C., Heumann, M., & McDowall, D. (1983). Mandatory sentencing and firearms violence: Evaluating an alternative to gun control. Law and Society Review, 17, 287–318. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3053349
    Loftin, C., & McDowall, D. (1984). The deterrent effects of the Florida Felony Firearm law. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 75, 250–259. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1143212
    Loftin, C., McDowall, D., & Wiersema, B. (1993). Evaluating effects of changes in gun laws. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 9(Suppl.), 39–43.
    Loftin, C., McDowall, D., Wiersema, B., & Cottey, T. I. (1991). Effects of restrictive licensing of handguns on homicide and suicide in the District of Columbia. New England Journal of Medicine, 325, 1615–1620. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199112053252305
    Loftin, C., & Mercy, J. (1995). Estimating the incidence, causes, and consequences of interpersonal violence for children and families. In Integrating federal statistics on children: Report of a workshop. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Loftus, A. P. T. (1974). Predicting recidivism using the Glueck Social Prediction Scale with male first offender delinquents. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 7, 31–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000486587400700105
    Lombroso, C. (1911). Crime: Its causes and remedies. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Loney, J., Kramer, J., & Milich, R. (1983). The hyperkinetic child grows up: Predictors of symptoms, delinquency, and achievement at follow-up: Birth and childhood cohorts. In S. A.Mednick, M.Harway, & K. M.Finello (Eds.), Handbook of longitudinal research (Vol. 1, pp. 426–447). New York: Praeger.
    Loney, J., & Milich, R. (1982). Hyperactivity, inattention, and aggression in a clinical practice. In M.Wolraich & D. K.Routh (Eds.), Advances in behavioral pediatrics (pp. 88–147). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Loney, J., Whaley-Klahn, M. A., Kosier, T., & Conboy, J. (1983). Hyperactive boys and their brothers at 21: Predictors of aggressive and antisocial outcomes. In K. T.Van Dusen & S. A.Mednick (Eds.), Prospective studies of crime and delinquency (pp. 181–207). Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-6672-7_10
    Lorion, R. P., Tolan, P. H., & Wahler, R. G. (1987). Prevention. In H. C.Quay (Ed.), Handbook of juvenile delinquency (pp. 383–416). New York: John Wiley.
    Lowry, P., Hassig, S., Gunn, R., & Mathison, J. (1988). Homicide victims in New Orleans: Recent trends. American Journal of Epidemiology, 128, 1130–1136.
    Luepker, R. V., Murray, D. M., Jacobs, D. R., Mittelmark, M. B., Bracht, N., Carlaw, R., Crow, R., Elmer, P., Finnegan, J., Folsom, A. R., Grimm, R., Hannan, P. J., Jeffrey, R., Lando, H., McGovern, P., Mullis, R., Perry, C. L., Pechacek, T., Pirie, P., Sprafka, M., Weisbrod, R., & Blackburn, H. (1994). Community education for cardiovascular disease prevention: Risk factor changes in the Minnesota Heart Health Program. American Journal of Public Health, 84, 1383–1393. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.84.9.1383
    Lurigio, A. J., & Petersilia, J. (1992). The emergence of intensive probation supervision programs in the United States. In J. M.Byrne, A. J.Lurigio, & J.Petersilia (Eds.), Smart sentencing: The emergence of intermediate sanctions (pp. 3–17). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Lynam, D. R. (1996). Early identification of chronic offenders: Who is the fledgling psychopath?Psychological Bulletin, 120, 209–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.120.2.209
    MacKenzie, D. L., & Hebert, E. E. (Eds.). (1996). Correctional boot camps: A tough intermediate sanction. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.
    MacKenzie, D. L., & Parent, D. (1992). Boot camp prisons for young offenders. In J. M.Byrne, A. J.Lurigio, & J.Petersilia (Eds.), Smart sentencing: The emergence of intermediate sanctions (pp. 103–119). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    MacKenzie, D. L., & Souryal, C. (1994). Multisite evaluation of shock incarceration. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.
    Magnusson, D., Stattin, H., & Dunér, A. (1983). Antecedents of aggression and antisocial behavior. In K. T.Van Dusen & S. A.Mednick (Eds.), Aggression and criminality in a longitudinal perspective (pp. 277–302). Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff.
    Maguin, E., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Hill, K., Abbott, R., & Herrenkohl, T. (1995, November). Risk factors measured at three ages for violence at age 17–18. Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology, Boston.
    Maguin, E., & Loeber, R. (1996). Academic performance and delinquency. In M.Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 20, pp. 145–264). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Maguire, K., & Pastore, A. L. (Eds.). (1996). Sourcebook of criminal justice statistics, 1995. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Mahoney, A. R. (1987). Juvenile justice in context. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
    Maloney, D., Romig, D., & Armstrong, T. (1988). Juvenile probation: The balanced approach. Reno, NV: National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges.
    Maltz, M. (1984). Recidivism. New York: Academic Press.
    Mann, C. R. (1993). Unequal justice: The question of color. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Mannuzza, S., Klein, R. G., Bessler, A., Malloy, P., & LaPadula, M. (1993). Adult outcome of hyperactive boys: Educational achievement, occupational rank, and psychiatric status. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 565–576. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1993.01820190067007
    Mannuzza, S., Klein, R. G., Konig, P. H., & Giampino, T. L. (1989). Hyperactive boys almost grown up: IV. Criminality and its relationship to psychiatric status. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 1073–1079. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1989.01810120015004
    Martinson, R. (1974). What works? Questions and answers about prison reform. Public Interest, 10, 22–54.
    Marzuk, P. M. (1996). Violence, crime and mental illness: How strong a link?Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 481–488. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830060021003
    Massey, D. (1996). The age of extremes: Concentrated affluence and poverty in the twenty-first century. Demography, 33, 395–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2061773
    Massey, D., & Denton, N. (1993). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Mathias, R., DeMuro, P., & Allinson, R. S. (1984). Violent juvenile offenders. San Francisco: National Council on Crime and Delinquency.
    Mattick, H., & Caplan, N. S. (1962). Chicago Youth Development Project: The Chicago boys club. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research.
    Maxfield, M. G., & Widom, C. S. (1996). The cycle of violence: Revisited 6 years later. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 150, 390–395. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.1996.02170290056009
    Maxson, C. L. (1995, September). Street gangs and drug sales in two suburban cities. Research in briefWashington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.
    Maxson, C. L. (in press). Gang homicide. In M. D.Smith & M. A.Zahn (Eds.), Homicide studies: A sourcebook of social research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Maxson, C. L., Gordon, M. A., & Klein, M. W. (1985). Differences between gang and nongang homicides. Criminology, 23, 209–222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1985.tb00334.x
    Maxson, C. L., & Klein, M. W. (1990). Street gang violence: Twice as great, or half as great? In C. R.Huff (Ed.), Gangs in America (pp. 71–100). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232201
    Maxson, C. L., Woods, K., & Klein, M. W. (1996, February). Street gang migration: How big a threat?National Institute of Justice Journal, 230, 26–31.
    Mayer, G. R., & Butterworth, T. W. (1979). A preventive approach to school violence and vandalism: An experimental study. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 57,436–441. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2164-4918.1979.tb05431.x
    Mayer, G. R., Butterworth, T. W., Nafpaktitis, M., & Sulzer-Azaroff, B. (1983). Preventing school vandalism and improving discipline: A three-year study. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, 355–369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1983.16-355
    McArdle, J. J., & Hamagami, F. (1991). Modeling incomplete longitudinal and cross-sectional data using latent growth structural models. In L. M.Collins & J. L.Horn (Eds.), Best methods for the analysis of change: Recent advances, unanswered questions, future directions (pp. 276–304). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10099-017
    McAuliffe, W. E., Dembling, B., Wilson, R., LaBrie, R., Geller, S., & Mulvaney, N. (1993, November). Social indicator modeling for substance abuse treatment allocation. Proceedings from the National Technical Center for Substance Abuse Needs Assessment 1993 Social Indicator Workshop, Cambridge, MA.
    McCord, J. (1978). A thirty-year follow-up of treatment effects. American Psychologist, 33, 284–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.33.3.284
    McCord, J. (1979). Some child-rearing antecedents of criminal behavior in adult men. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1477–1486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.37.9.1477
    McCord, J. (1988). L'évaluation des interventions: en premier lieu, ne pas nuire [Evaluating interventions: First, do no harm]. In P.Durning (Ed.), Education familiale, un panorama des recherches Internationales. Paris: Edition Matrice.
    McCord, J., & Ensminger, M. (1995, November). Pathways from aggressive childhood to criminality. Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology, Boston.
    McCord, J., Tremblay, R. E., Vitaro, F., & Desmarais-Gervais, L. (1994). Boys' disruptive behaviour, school adjustment, and delinquency: The Montreal Prevention Experiment. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 17, 739–752.
    McCord, W., McCord, J., & Zola, I. K. (1959). Origins of crime: A new evaluation of the Cambridge-Somerville Youth Study. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    McDowall, D., Lizotte, A. J., & Wiersema, B. (1991). General deterrence through civilian gun ownership: An evaluation of the quasi-experimental evidence. Criminology, 29, 541–559. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1991.tb01079.x
    McDowall, D., Loftin, C., & Wiersema, B. (1992). A comparative study of the preventive effects of mandatory sentencing laws for gun crimes. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 83, 378–394. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1143862
    McKinlay, S. M., Stone, E. J., & Zucker, D. M. (1989). Research design and analysis issues. Health Education Quarterly, 16, 307–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019818901600213
    McPartland, J. M., & Nettles, S. M. (1991). Using community adults as advocates or mentors for at-risk middle school students: A two-year evaluation of Project RAISE. American Journal of Education, 99, 568–586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/443998
    Mednick, S. A., & Kandel, E. S. (1988). Congenital determinants of violence. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 16, 101–109.
    Meehan, P. J., & O'Carroll, P. W. (1992). Gangs, drugs, and homicide in Los Angeles. American Journal of the Disabled Child, 146, 683–687.
    Megargee, E. I., & Bohn, M. J. (1979). Classifying criminal offenders: A new system based on the MMPI. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Meredith, C., & Paquette, C. (1992). Crime prevention in high rise rental apartments: Findings of a demonstration project. Security Journal, 3, 161–169.
    Messner, S., & Tardiff, K. (1986). Economic inequality and levels of homicide: An analysis of urban neighborhoods. Criminology, 24, 297–318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1986.tb01497.x
    Miethe, T., & Meier, R. (1994). Crime and its social context: Toward an integrated theory of offenders, victims, and situations. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Miller, A., & Ohlin, L. (1985). Delinquency and community. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Miller, B. C. (1995). Risk factors for adolescent nonmarital childbearing. In K. A.Moore (Ed.), Report to Congress on out-of-wedlock childbearing (pp. 201–216). Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
    Miller, G. H. (1995). Evaluation of Michigan's Families First program. Lansing, MI: University Associates.
    Miller, J. (1991). Last one over the wall: The Massachusetts experiment in closing reform schools. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
    Miller, L. S. (1994a). Preventive interventions for conduct disorders: A review. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 3, 405–419.
    Miller, L. S. (1994b). Primary prevention of conduct disorder. Psychiatric Quarterly, 65, 273–285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02354304
    Miller, L. S., & Klein, R. (1996). Early primary prevention of conduct problems. (NIMH Grant IRIMH-55188-OIAZ-MPPN3810)
    Miller, W. B. (1962). The impact of a “total community” delinquency control project. Social Problems, 10, 168–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1962.10.2.03a00060
    Miller, W. B. (1966). Violent crimes by city gangs. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 364, 96–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000271626636400110
    Miller, W. B. (1974). American youth gangs: Past and present. In A.Blumberg (Ed.), Current perspectives on criminal behavior (pp. 410–420). New York: Knopf.
    Miller, W. B. (1982). Crime by youth gangs and groups in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (Rev. 1992)
    Miller, W. B. (1990). Why the United States has failed to solve its youth gang problem. In C. R.Huff (Ed.), Gangs in America (pp. 263–287). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232201
    Miller, W. B. (1993). Critique of “Weed and Seed” project with a proposal for a new prevention initiative. Report to the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Miller, W. B. (1994). Boston assaultive crime [Memorandum].
    Minnesota Governor's Commission on Crime Prevention and Control. (1973). An evaluation of the Group Residence Program for juvenile girls: June 1972 through April 1973. St. Paul: Minnesota Department of Corrections.
    Mitchell, S., & Rosa, P. (1979). Boyhood behaviour problems as precursors of criminality: A fifteen-year follow-up study. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry22, 19–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1981.tb00528.x
    Mladenka, K., & Hill, K. (1976). A reexamination of the etiology of urban crime. Criminology, 13, 491–506. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1976.tb00682.x
    Moffitt, T. E. (1987). Parental mental disorder and offspring criminal behavior: An adoption study. Psychiatry, 50, 346–360.
    Moffitt, T. E. (1990a). Juvenile delinquency and attention deficit disorder: Boys' developmental trajectories from age 13 to age 15. Child Development, 61, 893–910. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130972
    Moffitt, T. E. (1990b). The neuropsychology of juvenile delinquency: A critical review. In M.Tonry & N.Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 12, pp. 99–169). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.100.4.674
    Monahan, J. (1981). Predicting violent behavior: An assessment of clinical techniques. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Monahan, J., & Klassen, D. (1982). Situational approaches to understanding and predicting violent behavior. In M. E.Wolfgang & N. A.Weiner (Eds.), Criminal violence (pp. 292–319). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Montgomery, I. M., Torbet, P. M., Malloy, D. A., Adamcik, L. P., Toner, M. J., & Andrews, J. (1994). What works: Promising interventions in juvenile justice. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Moore, C. B. (1978). Ego strength and behavior: A study of a residential treatment program for delinquent girls (Doctoral dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, 1977). Dissertation Abstracts International, 38, 5033B. (University Microfilms No. 78-02837)
    Moore, J. W. (1978). Homeboys: Gangs, drugs and prison in the barrios of Los Angeles. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Moore, J. W. (1991). Going down to the barrio: Home-boys and homegirls in change. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Moore, M. H. (1986). Purblind justice: Normative issues in the use of prediction in the criminal justice system. In A.Blumstein, J.Cohen, J. A.Roth, & C. A.Visher (Eds.), Criminal careers and “career criminals” (Vol. 2, pp. 314–355). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Moore, M. H. (1995). Public health and criminal justice approaches to prevention. In M.Tonry & D. P.Farrington (Eds.), Crime and justice: A review of research: Vol. 19. Building a safer society: Strategic approaches to crime prevention (pp. 237–262). Chicago: University of Chicago.
    Moore, M. H., Prothrow-Smith, D., Guyer, B., & Spivak, H. (1994). Violence and intentional injuries: Criminal justice and public health perspectives on an urgent national problem. In A. J.Reiss & J. A.Roth (Eds.), Understanding and preventing violence (Vol. 4, pp. 167–216). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Moore, R. H. (1987). Effectiveness of citizen volunteers functioning as counselors for high-risk young male offenders. Psychological Reports, 61, 823–830. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1987.61.3.823
    Moore, R. H., & Levine, D. (1974). Evaluation research of a community-based probation program. Lincoln: University of Nebraska at Lincoln, Department of Psychology.
    Morales, A. (1992). A clinical model for the prevention of gang violence and homicide. In R. C.Cervantes (Ed.), Substance abuse and gang violence (pp. 105–118). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Morris, J. A. (1970). First Offender: A volunteer program for youth in trouble with the law. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.
    Morris, N., & Tonry, M. (1990). Between prison and probation: Intermediate punishments in a rational sentencing system. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Mossman, D. (1994). Assessing predictors of violence: Being accurate about accuracy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 783–792. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.62.4.783
    Mulvey, E. P., & Phelps, P. (1988). Ethical balances in juvenile justice research practice. American Psychologist, 43, 65–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.43.1.65
    Murphy, H. A., Hutchinson, J. M., & Bailey, J. S. (1983). Behavioral school psychology goes outdoors: The effect of organized games on playground aggression. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 16, 29–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1983.16-29
    Murray, C., & Cox, L. (1979). Beyond probation. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Murray, D. M., & Hannan, P. J. (1990). Planning for the appropriate analysis in school-based drug-use prevention studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 458–468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.58.4.458
    Murray, D. M., & Wolfinger, R. D. (1994). Analysis issues in the evaluation of community trials: Progress toward solutions in SAS/STAT MIXED. Journal of Community Psychology, pp. 140–154. [CSAP special issue]
    Muscat, J. (1988). Characteristics of childhood homicide in Ohio, 1974–84. American Journal of Public Health, 78, 822–824. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.78.7.822
    Nagin, D. S., & Farrington, D. P. (1992a). The onset and persistence of offending. Criminology, 30, 501–523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1992.tb01114.x
    Nagin, D. S., & Farrington, D. P. (1992b). The stability of criminal potential from childhood to adulthood. Criminology, 30, 235–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1992.tb01104.x
    Nagin, D. S., Farrington, D. P., & Moffitt, T. E. (1995). Life-course trajectories of different types of offenders. Criminology, 33, 111–139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1995.tb01173.x
    National Conference of State Legislatures. (1995). Special analysis of 1995 juvenile justice gang related enactments for the National Youth Gang Center. Denver, CO: Author.
    National Drug Intelligence Center. (1994). NDIC Street Gang Symposium [Proceedings]. Washington, DC: Author.
    National Institute of Corrections. (1995). Offenders under age 18 in state adult corrections systems: A national picture. In Special issues in corrections (Vol. 1). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
    National Youth Gang Center. (1997). The 1995 National Youth Gang Survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Needle, J., & Stapleton, W. V. (1983). Police handling of youth gangs. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Neithercutt, M. G., & Gottfredson, D. M. (1973). Caseload size variation and difference in probation/parole performance. Pittsburgh, PA: National Center for Juvenile Justice.
    New York City Youth Board. (1960). Reaching the fighting gang. New York: Author.
    Newcomb, M. D., Maddahian, E., & Bentler, P. M. (1986). Risk factors for drug use among adolescents: Concurrent and longitudinal analyses. American Journal of Public Health, 76, 525–530. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.76.5.525
    Newton, G. D., & Zimring, F. E. (1969). Firearms and violence in American life: A staff report to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Nirdorf, B. J. (1988). Gang alternative and prevention program. Program policy and procedure handbook. Los Angeles: County of Los Angeles Probation Department.
    O'Brien, R. (1985). Crime and victimization data. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    O'Carroll, P. W., Loftin, C., Waller, J. B., McDowall, D., Bukoff, A., Scott, R. O., Mercy, J. A., & Wiersema, B. (1991). Preventing homicide: An evaluation of the efficacy of a Detroit gun ordinance. American Journal of Public Health, 81, 576–581. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.81.5.576
    O'Donnell, J., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Abbott, R. D., & Day, L. E. (1995). Preventing school failure, drug use, and delinquency among low-income children: Long-term intervention in elementary schools. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 65, 87–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079598
    O'Malley, P. M., & Wagenaar, A. C. (1991). Effects of minimum drinking age laws on alcohol use, related behaviors and traffic crash involvement among American youth: 1976–1987. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 52, 478–491.
    Oetting, E. R., Donnermeyer, J. F., Plested, B. A., Edwards, R. W., Kelly, K., & Beauvais, F. (1995). Assessing community readiness for prevention. International Journal of the Addictions, 30, 659–683.
    Office of Justice Programs, Working Group on Gangs. (1996). A report to the assistant attorney general. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (1995a). Community assessment centers: A discussion of the concept's efficiency. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (1995b). Delinquency prevention works. Washington, DC: Author.
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (1995c). Matrix of community-based initiatives. Washington, DC: Author.
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (1996a). Combating violence and delinquency: The national juvenile justice action plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (1996b, December). Innovative local law enforcement and community policing programs for the juvenile justice system [Information brief]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Offord, D. R. (1990). Conduct disorder: Risk factors and prevention. In D.Shaffer, I.Philips, & N.Enzer (Eds.), Prevention of mental disorder, alcohol, and drug use in children and adolescents (Office of Substance Abuse Prevention Monograph No. 2). Rockville, MD: Department of Health and Human Services.
    Olds, D. L. (1996, November). Reducing risks for childhood-onset conduct disorder with prenatal and early childhood home visitation. Paper presented at a pre-conference workshop at the annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, New York.
    Olds, D. L., Henderson, C. C. R., Chamberlin, R., & Tatelbaum, R. (1986). Preventing child abuse and neglect: A randomized trial of nurse home visitation. Pediatrics, 78, 65–78.
    Olds, D. L., Henderson, C. C. R., Phelps, C. C., Kitzman, H., & Hanks, C. C. (1993). Effects of prenatal and infancy nurse home visitation on government spending. Medical Care, 31, 155–174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005650-199302000-00006
    Olds, D. L., Henderson, C. C. R., Tatelbaum, R., & Chamberlin, R. (1988). Improving the life-course development of socially disadvantaged mothers: A randomized trial of nurse home visitation. American Journal of Public Health, 78, 1436–1445. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.78.11.1436
    Olweus, D. (1977). Aggression and peer acceptance in adolescent boys: Two short-term longitudinal studies of rating. Child Development, 48, 1301–1313. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1128488
    Olweus, D. (1979). Stability of aggressive reaction patterns in males: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 852–875. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.86.4.852
    Olweus, D. (1991). Bully/victim problems among schoolchildren: Basic facts and effects of a school based intervention program. In D. J.Pepler & K. H.Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 411–448). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Olweus, D. (1992). Bullying among school children: Intervention and prevention. In R. D.Peters, R. J.McMahon, & V. L.Quinsey (Eds.), Aggression and violence throughout the life span (pp. 100–125). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Orange County Probation Department. (1995). 8% Early Intervention Program: Program design and preliminary field test results. Santa Ana, CA: Author.
    Orange County Probation Department. (1996). 8% Early Intervention Program field test results (12 months). Santa Ana, CA: Author.
    Orpinas, P., Parcel, G. S., McAlister, A., & Frankowski, R. (1995). Violence prevention in middle schools: A pilot evaluation. Journal of Adolescent Health, 17, 360–371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1054-139X%2895%2900194-W
    Osborn, S. G., & West, D. J. (1978). The effectiveness of various predictors of criminal careers. Journal of Adolescence, 1, 101–117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-1971%2878%2980024-4
    Osofsky, J. (1995). The effects of exposure to violence on young children. American Psychologist, 50, 782–788. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.50.9.782
    Palmer, T. (1971). California's Community Treatment Program for delinquent adolescents. Journal of Research on Crime and Delinquency, 8, 74–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002242787100800108
    Palmer, T. (1992). The re-emergence of correctional intervention. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Palmer, T. (1994). A profile of correctional effectiveness and new directions for research. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Parent, D., Leiter, V., Livens, L., Wentworth, D., & Stephen, K. (1994). Conditions of confinement: Juvenile detention and corrections facilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Parker, J., & Asher, S. (1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 357–389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.102.3.357
    Paschall, M. J. (1996, June). Exposure to violence and the onset of violent behavior and substance use among black male youth: An assessment of independent effects and psychosocial mediators. Paper presented at the Society for Prevention Research, San Juan, PR.
    Pate, A. M., Skogan, W. G., Wycoff, M. A., & Sherman, L. W. (with Annan, S., & the Newark Police Department). (1985). Reducing the signs of crime: The Newark experience, executive summary. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.
    Patterson, C. J., Kupersmidt, J. B., & Vaden, N. A. (1990). Income level, gender, ethnicity, and household compositions as predictors of children's school-based competence. Child Development, 61, 485–494. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131109
    Patterson, G. R. (1979). A performance theory of coercive family interaction. In R. B.Cairns (Ed.), The analysis of social interactions: Methods, issues, and illustrations (pp. 119–162). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Patterson, G. R. (1982a). Coercive family processes. Eugene, OR: Castalia.
    Patterson, G. R. (1982b). A social learning approach to family intervention: III. Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia.
    Patterson, G. R. (1984). Siblings: Fellow travelers in coercive family processes. Advances in the Study of Aggression, 1, 173–215.
    Patterson, G. R., Capaldi, D., & Bank, L. (1991). An early starter model for predicting delinquency. In D. J.Pepler & K. H.Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 139–168). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., & Dishion, T. J. (1992). Antisocial boys: A social interactional approach (Vol. 4). Eugene, OR: Castalia.
    Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., Jones, R. R., & Conger, R. E. (1975). A social learning approach to family intervention: Families with aggressive children. Eugene, OR: Castalia.
    Pearson, F. S. (1988). Evaluation of New Jersey's intensive supervision program. Crime & Delinquency, 34, 437–448. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011128788034004005
    Peeples, F., & Loeber, R. (1994). Do individual factors and neighborhood context explain ethnic differences in juvenile delinquency?Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 10, 141–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02221156
    Pelham, W. E., Carlson, C. C., Sams, S. E., Vallano, G., Dixon, M. J., & Hoza, B. (1993). Separate and combined effects of methylphenidate and behavior modification on boys with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder in the classroom. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 506–515. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.61.3.506
    Pennell, S. (1983). San Diego Street Youth Program: Final evaluation. San Diego, CA: Association of Governments.
    Pennell, S., Curtis, C., Henderson, J., & Tayman, J. (1989). Guardian Angels: A unique approach to crime prevention. Crime & Delinquency, 35, 378–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011128789035003005
    Pennell, S., Curtis, C., & Scheck, D. D. (1990). Controlling juvenile delinquency: An evaluation of an interagency strategy. Crime & Delinquency, 36, 257–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011128790036002005
    Pentz, M. A., Brannon, B. R., Charlin, V. L., Barrett, E. J., MacKinnon, D. P., & Flay, B. R. (1989). The power of policy: The relationship of smoking policy to adolescent smoking. American Journal of Public Health, 79, 857–862. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.79.7.857
    Pentz, M. A., Dwyer, J. H., MacKinnon, D. P., Flay, B. R., Hansen, W. B., Wang, E. Y. I., & Johnson, C. A. (1989). A multi-community trial for primary prevention of adolescent drug abuse: Effects on drug use prevalence. Journal of the American Medical Association, 261, 3259–3266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1989.03420220073030
    Pentz, M. A., MacKinnon, D. P., Flay, B. R., Hansen, W. B., Johnson, C. A., & Dwyer, J. H. (1989). Primary prevention of chronic diseases in adolescence: Effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project on tobacco use. American Journal of Epidemiology, 130, 713–724.
    Pepler, D. J., & Rubin, K. H. (Eds.). (1991). The development and treatment of childhood aggression. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Perkins, D. D., Florin, P., Rich, R. C., Wandersman, A., & Chavis, D. M. (1990). Participation and the social and physical environment of residential blocks: Crime and community context. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 83–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00922690
    Perry, C. L., Kelder, S. H., Murray, D. M., & Klepp, K.-I. (1992). Communitywide smoking prevention: Long-term outcomes of the Minnesota Heart Health Program and Class of 1989 study. American Journal of Public Health, 82, 1210–1216. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.82.9.1210
    Perry, C. L., Klepp, K.-I., & Sillers, C. (1989). Community-wide strategies for cardiovascular health: The Minnesota Heart Health Program youth program. Health Education Research, 4, 87–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/4.1.87
    Perry, C. L., Williams, C. L., Forster, J. L., Wolfson, M., Wagenaar, A. C., Finnegan, J. R., McGovern, P. G., Veblen-Mortenson, S., Komro, K. A., & Anstine, P. S. (1993). Background, conceptualization and design of a community-wide research program on adolescent alcohol use: Project Northland. Health Education Research, 8, 125–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/8.1.125
    Perry, C. L., Williams, C. L., Veblen-Mortenson, S., Toomey, T. L., Komro, K. A., Anstine, P. S., McGovern, P. G., Finnegan, J. R., Forster, J. L., Wagenaar, A. C., & Wolfson, M. (1996, July). Project Northland: Outcomes of a community-wide alcohol use prevention program during early adolescence. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 956–965. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.86.7.956
    Peters, M., Albright, K., GimbelC., Thomas, D., Laxton, G., Opanga, M., & Afflerbach, M. (1996). Evaluation of the impact of boot camps for juvenile offenders: Denver interim report. Fairfax, VA: Caliber.
    Peters, M., Bullman, S., GimbelC., Thomas, D., Laxton, G., Opanga, M., Afflerbach, M., & Croan, G. (1996). Evaluation of the impact of boot camps for juvenile offenders: Mobile interim report. Fairfax, VA: Caliber.
    Petersilia, J. (1987). Expanding options for criminal sentencing. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
    Petersilia, J., Lurigio, A. J., & Byrne, J. M. (1992). Introduction: The emergence of intermediate sanctions. In J. M.Byrne, A. J.Lurigio, & J.Petersilia (Eds.), Smart sentencing: The emergence of intermediate sanctions (pp. ix–xv). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Petersilia, J., & Turner, S. (1990). Comparing intensive and regular supervision for high-risk probationers: Early results from an experiment in California. Crime & Delinquency, 36, 87–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011128790036001007
    Petersilia, J., & Turner, S. (1991). An evaluation of intensive probation in California. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 82, 610–658. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1143747
    Petersilia, J., & Turner, S. (1993). Evaluating intensive supervision probation/parole: Results of a nationwide experiment. Research in brief. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.
    Petersilia, J., Turner, S., & Deschenes, E. P. (1992). The costs and effects of intensive supervision for drug offenders. Federal Probation, 56, 12–17.
    Peterson, E. (1996). Juvenile boot camps: Lessons learned (Fact Sheet No. 36). Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Peterson, P. L., Hawkins, J. D., Abbott, R. D., & Catalano, R. F. (1994). Disentangling the effects of parental drinking, family management, and parental alcohol norms on current drinking by black and white adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 4, 203–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327795jra0402_3
    Peterson, P. L., Hawkins, J. D., & Catalano, R. F. (1992). Evaluating comprehensive community drug risk reduction interventions: Design challenges and recommendations. Evaluation Review, 16, 579–602. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0193841X9201600601
    Pfiffner, L. J., & O'Leary, S. G. (1993). School-based psychological treatments. In J. L.Matson (Ed.), Handbook of hyperactivity in children (pp. 234–255). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Piercy, F., & Lee, R. (1976). Effects of a dual treatment approach on the rehabilitation of habitual juvenile delinquents. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 19, 482–492.
    Piper, E. (1985). Violent recidivism and chronicity in the 1958 Philadelphia cohort. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 1, 319–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01064185
    Podkopacz, M., & Feld, B. C. (1995). Juvenile waiver policy and practice: Persistence, seriousness and race. Law and Inequality, 14, 101–207.
    Polk, K., Alder, C., Basemore, G., Blake, G., Cardray, S., & Coventry, G. (1981). Becoming an adult: An analysis of maturational development from age 16–30. Final report, Grant MH 14806, Center for Studies of Crime and Delinquency, National Institute of Mental Health. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
    Pollard, J., Catalano, R. F., Hawkins, J. D., & Arthur, M. (1997). Development of a school-based survey measuring risk and protective factors predictive of substance abuse in adolescent populations. Manuscript under review.
    Poorkaj, H., & Bockelman, C. (1973). The impact of community volunteers on delinquency prevention. Sociology and Sociological Research, 57, 335–341.
    Pope, C., & Feyerherm, W. (1993). Minorities and the juvenile justice system. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Porteus, S. D. (1942). Qualitative performance in the maze test. New York: Psychological Corporation. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11493-000
    Poyner, B. (1993). What works in crime prevention: An overview of evaluations. In R. V.Clarke (Ed.), Crime prevention studies. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
    Poyner, B., & Webb, B. (1987). Successful crime prevention: Case studies. London: Tavistock Institute of Human Relations.
    Price, R. H., & Lorion, R. P. (1989). Prevention programming as organizational reinvention: From research to implementation. In D.Shaffer, I.Philips, & N. B.Enzer (Eds.), Prevention of mental disorders, alcohol and other drug use in children and adolescents (pp. 99–121) (OSAP Prevention Monograph No. 2). Rockville, MD: Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.
    Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. C. (1992). In search of how people change: Applications to addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47, 1102–1114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.47.9.1102
    Provence, S., & Naylor, A. (1983). Working with disadvantaged parents and their children: Scientific and practice issues. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Provence, S., Naylor, A., & Patterson, S. (1977). The challenge of day care. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Pulkkinen, L. (1983). Predictability of criminal behavior. Psykolgia, 18, 3–10.
    Puska, P., Tuomilehto, J., Nissinen, A., Salonen, J. T., Vartiainen, E., Pietinen, P., Koskela, K., & Korhonen, H. J. (1989). The North Karelia Project: 15 years of community-based prevention of coronary heart disease. Annals of Medicine, 21, 169–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07853898909149928
    Pynoos, R. S., & Nader, K. (1988). Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 1, 445–473. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490010406
    Quay, H. C. (1964). Dimensions of personality in delinquent boys as inferred from the factor analysis of case history data. Child Development, 35, 479–484.
    Quay, H. C. (1979). Classification. In H. C.Quay & J. S.Werry (Eds.), Psychopathological disorders of childhood (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 1–42). New York: John Wiley.
    Quay, H. C. (1986). Conduct disorders. In H. C.Quay & J. S.Werry (Eds.), Psychopathological disorders of childhood (
    3rd ed.
    , pp. 35–72). New York: John Wiley.
    Quay, H. C., & Parsons, L. B. (1971). The differential classification of juvenile offender. Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of Prisons.
    Rae-Grant, N., Thomas, B. H., Offord, D. R., & Boyle, M. H. (1989). Risk, protective factors, and the prevalence of behavioral and emotional disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 262–268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-198903000-00019
    Raine, A., Brennan, P., & Mednick, S. A. (1994). Birth complications combined with early maternal rejection at age 1 year predispose to violent crime at age 18 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 984–988. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950120056009
    Raine, A., Brennan, P., Mednick, B., & Mednick, S. A. (1996). High rates of violence, crime, academic problems, and behavioral problems in males with both early neuromotor deficits and unstable family environments. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 544–549. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830060090012
    Raine, A., & Jones, F. (1987). Attention, autonomic arousal, and personality in behaviorally disordered children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 15, 583–599. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00917243
    Ramsay, M. (1991). The influence of street lighting on crime and fear of crime (Crime Prevention Unit Paper No. 28). London: Home Office.
    Rasmussen, D., & Yu, Y. (1996). An evaluation of juvenile justice innovations in Duval County, Florida. Tallahassee: Florida State University.
    Raymond, M. R. (1987). Missing data in evaluation research. Evaluation and the Health Professions, 9, 395–420.
    Reid, J. B. (1993). Prevention of conduct disorder before and after school entry: Relating interventions to developmental findings. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 243–262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400004375
    Reiss, A. J., Miczek, K. A., & Roth, J. A. (Eds.). (1994). Understanding and preventing violence: Vol. 2. Biobehavioral influences. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Reiss, A. J., & Roth, J. A. (Eds.). (1993). Understanding and preventing violence. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Reiss, D., & Price, R. H. (1996). National research agenda for prevention research. National Institute of Mental Health Report. American Psychologist, 51, 1109–1115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.51.11.1109
    Rescarla, L. A., Provence, S., & Naylor, A. (1982). The Yale Child Welfare Research Program: Description and results. In E. F.Zigler & E. W.Gordon (Eds.), Day care: Scientific and social policy issues (pp. 183–199). Boston: Auburn.
    Rhine, E. (1996). Something works: Recent research on effective correctional programming. In American Correctional Association, The state of corrections: 1995 proceedings. Lanham, MD: American Correctional Association.
    Ribisl, K. M., & Davidson, W. S., II. (1993). Community change interventions. In A.Goldstein & C. R.Huff (Eds.), The gang intervention handbook (pp. 333–355). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Rice, R. (1963, October 19). A reporter at large: The Persian Queens. The New Yorker, 39.
    Richman, N., Stevenson, J., & Graham, P. J. (1982). Preschool to school: A behavioural study. London: Academic Press.
    Riggs, W. C., & Joyal, A. E. (1938). A validation of the Loofbourrow-Keys Personal Index of problem behavior in junior high schools. Journal of Educational Psychology, 14, 194–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0054036
    Ringwalt, C. C. L., Graham, L. A., Pascall, M. J., Flewelling, R. L., & Browne, D. C. C. (1996). Supporting adolescents with guidance and employment. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 12, 31–38.
    Rivers, J., & Trotti, T. (1995). South Carolina delinquent males: An 11-year follow-up into adult probation and prison Report to the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
    Robins, L. (1986). Changes in conduct disorder over time. In