School-Based Teacher Training: A Handbook for Tutors and Mentors
Publication Year: 2013
Covering both primary and secondary teaching, this handbook offers support to those delivering school-based teacher training. By identifying best practice, the book shows you how to develop your professional knowledge and become an effective teacher educator and mentor.
Topics covered include: Strategies for coaching and mentoring trainee teachers; Teacher training in schools; Links between teacher education and recent research; How to develop your own identity as a teacher educator
Packed with case studies of good practice, models of successful teaching and activities to try, this practical book leads you through a professional development process that will enable you to be confident and secure in your practice.
An essential guide for tutors, mentors and all those involved in staff development in schools, the book is also useful for experienced ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part A: How Teacher Educators Develop Their Own Professional Knowledge and Understanding
- Chapter 1: The Professional Development of Teacher Educators
- What Is a Teacher Educator and Who Takes on This Role?
- The Early Stages of Professional Development of Teacher Educators
- Charting a Pathway for Your Personal and Professional Development as a Teacher Educator
- Chapter 2: A Whole School Approach to Professional Development
- What Does Professional Development Look Like in a School?
- Who Are Teacher Educators in Schools?
- Performance Management and Teacher Educators
- Chapter 3: Becoming a Teacher Educator: Developing a New Aspect to Your Identity
- Engaging with Research
- Teaching Adults
- Leading Learning
Part B: Aspects of the Professional Knowledge and Practice of Teacher Educators
- Chapter 4: The Pedagogy of Teacher Educators
- Embracing Change
- Revealing How to Think Like a Teacher
- Enacting a Pedagogy That Prepares Trainees for Working in Diverse Settings
- How to Critique, Develop and Articulate Uses of Modelling in Your Setting
- Chapter 5: Enhancing Professional Learning Conversations
- Finding a Space
- Discover – Deepen – Do (The 3D Approach)
- An Example of Using the 3D Approach
- Reflection on the Example of Using the 3D Approach
- How the 3D Approach Could Work for You
- Chapter 6: How to Nurture the Development of Subject Knowledge for Teaching
- ‘Subject Knowledge for Teaching’ or SKfT
- Creating a SKfT Audit and Action Plan
- Transforming Subject Knowledge Per Se for Your Learners
- Identifying the Needs of Trainees
- How Can SKfT Be Developed?
- Chapter 7: Providing the Right Mix of Support and Challenge
- Support for Training – Planning and Practice
- Appropriate Challenge
- Maximising the Benefits of Training
- Chapter 8: Practical and Experiential Support for Trainees
- Semi-Structured Interviews
- Forum Theatre and Augusto Boal
- When Things Go Wrong
- Chapter 9: Developing Your Practice Through Engaging with Educational Literature
- The Development of Teacher Professionalism
- Becoming the Teacher You Want to Be
- The Interdependent Nature of Educational Theory and Practice
- Engaging with ‘What Is Known’ to Support Professional Development
- Reading for a Purpose
- Chapter 10: Practice-Based Enquiry as a Basis for Change
- The Impetus and Capacity to Effect Change Through Practice-Based Enquiry
- Visualising an Enquiry Process – the Enquiry Tree
- Planning and Undertaking Your Enquiry
- Planning for and Evaluating Impact
- Sharing What You Have Learned
Education at SAGE[Page ii]
SAGE is a leading international publisher of journals, books, and electronic media for academic, educational, and professional markets.
Our education publishing includes:
- accessible and comprehensive texts for aspiring education professionals and practitioners looking to further their careers through continuing professional development
- inspirational advice and guidance for the classroom
- authoritative state of the art reference from the leading authors in the field
Find out more at: http://www.sagepub.co.uk/education
Chapter 1 & 4 © Elizabeth White and Joy Jarvis 2013
Chapter 2 © Mike Stevens 2013
Chapter 3 © Joy Jarvis 2013
Chapter 5 © Sally Graham 2013
Chapter 6 © Elizabeth White 2013
Chapter 7 © Phil Lenten 2013
Chapter 8 © Lynn Chapman and Bushra Connors 2013
Chapter 9 © Lara Fuller, Hilary Taylor and Amanda Roberts 2013
Chapter 10 © Amanda Roberts and Hilary Taylor 2013
First published 2013
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
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Library of Congress Control Number: 2012938830
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4462-5465-3 (pbk)
Editor: Jude Bowen
Assistant editor: Miriam Davey
Assistant production editor: Nicola Marshall
Production manager: Bill Antrobus
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Marketing manager: Lorna Patkai
Cover design: Wendy Scott
Typeset by Kestrel Data, Exeter, Devon
Printed by: CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY
List of Figures[Page vii]
- Figure 1.1 The voice of new teacher educators 4
- Figure 1.2 Aspects of the professional development of teacher educators 6
- Figure 1.3 Reflecting on your professional development 7
- Figure 2.1 Overview of influences on professional development in school 10
- Figure 2.2 Reflecting on school aspects of your professional development 13
- Figure 3.1 Comments of teachers leading professional development 19
- Figure 3.2 Reflecting on your professional identity 20
- Figure 4.1 New teacher educators share their experiences of teaching trainees 28
- Figure 4.2 Reflecting on your pedagogy 31
- Figure 5.1 The 3D approach 36
- Figure 5.2 Activities for your professional learning conversation 37
- Figure 5.3 Reflecting on your professional learning conversations 40
- Figure 6.1 What experienced teachers say about teaching 42
- Figure 6.2 Reflecting on nurturing the development of SKfT 50
- Figure 7.1 Support-challenge grid 53
- Figure 7.2 Reflecting on how to provide the right mix of support and challenge 59
- Figure 8.1 Responses to Forum Theatre 63
- Figure 8.2 Reflecting on supporting trainees 66
- Figure 9.1 Exploring, surfacing and articulating your beliefs and values 69
- Figure 9.2 Restricted and extended professionality 70
- Figure 9.3 Exploring the scope and purposes of engaging with educational literature 72
- Figure 9.4a–c Trainees' comments 73
- Figure 9.5 Reflecting on using literature 74
- Figure 10.1 The enquiry tree 78
- Figure 10.2a–c Comments of teachers using the guidance 80
- Figure 10.3 The fruits of your enquiry 81
- Figure 10.4a–b Comments of teachers undertaking an enquiry on their own practice 82
- Figure 10.5 Reflecting on your research opportunities 83
List of Tables
It is a time of great change in teaching and teacher education, with a shift toward school-led teacher training and the introduction of Teaching Schools. Schools will take on increasing responsibility for the professional development of trainee and newly qualified teachers in their workplace. The editors of this book are passionate about the quality of initial teacher education; they believe that new teachers must have the opportunity to establish their professional values, identity, knowledge and practice in order to provide an excellent learning experience for all pupils.
The initial teacher education partnership between schools and universities is in a state of flux. As new roles develop and the responsibilities of the various players are realigned, it is vital that the wealth of practice experience, the criticality and rigour of academic study and the opportunity to have a vision for education which exceeds the immediate context are preserved. This presents a challenge for us all. It is a challenge we must rise to in order to ensure that professionally committed teachers in our schools are able to offer the best possible learning experiences for all pupils.
This book will be a useful resource for anyone working with trainee and newly qualified teachers. It offers a way for teachers to manage their own professional development when taking on the changing and challenging responsibilities of a school-based ‘teacher educator’.Dr MaryRead, Dean of School of Education, University of Hertfordshire
This book has been written to help teachers who are taking on the role of teacher educators. We would like to thank all the trainees, teachers and teacher educators who have contributed to our research directly and those who have influenced us while we have been working collaboratively on initial and continuing professional development programmes at the University of Hertfordshire.
Our thanks go to Jude Bowen and Miriam Davey at Sage for their guidance in the production of this book.
Outstanding learning in schools depends on the quality of the teachers. Initial teacher training enables individuals to be effective, purposeful practitioners and reflective professionals able to creatively prepare future generations for the challenges ahead. Taking on the new role of teacher educator as a tutor or mentor of early career teachers is a challenging task for experienced teachers in any setting. In interviews we found that teachers with this additional responsibility initially assumed that they only needed experience as a teacher to train others effectively. However, this view changed in their first year working in schools to support trainee teachers as they realised that additional practices and knowledge of teacher education are required to meet the needs of their trainees. It can be difficult for teachers who do this work based in a school to access the expertise of other teacher educators in order to develop their practice. It is for these teachers in particular that this book is written. We hope you will find this a practical resource to guide your professional development and to enable you to be confident and secure in your practice.
Each of the authors has drawn on their experience, their own research and wider research from the field of teacher education to underpin their contribution.Structure of the Book
The book is in two parts. Part A is focused on how teacher educators develop their own professional knowledge and understanding. Part B is designed to enable you to analyse many aspects of your practice so that you can dip in to the chapters that are the most appropriate for your current responsibilities. The role of the teacher educator is underpinned by scholarship (engaging with educational theory and research and integrating it with practice) and research (contributing to original research in the field of education). Our desire is that teacher educators will aspire to developing high level skills and confidence in practitioner research so that they can support their trainees in enquiry and action research activities. We see Chapters 9 and 10 as the pinnacle of the book for this reason.
Throughout Part B resources are provided to nurture the development of the trainee towards reaching and going beyond the specific professional standards applicable in your context.Further Support
As we have edited this book we have realised there is so much more that we would like to share with you. We would be very interested in your feedback about what you have found helpful and what else you would find useful for your on-going [Page xii]development as a school-based teacher educator. Within the School of Education at the University of Hertfordshire we have a wide range of expertise and welcome working in partnership with schools – this could include consultancy, research projects, professional learning conversations, running bespoke courses or exploring on-going partnership working.ElizabethWhite and JoyJarvis, firstname.lastname@example.org@herts.ac.ukSchool of Education, University of Hertfordshire
About the Editors and Contributors[Page xiii]The Editors
Joy Jarvis worked in primary schools and as an advisory teacher for deaf children before coming to the University of Hertfordshire to lead a course in deaf education. She has developed approaches for supporting new teacher educators in the School of Education. In her role as Associate Dean, she is currently researching student-staff partnership in learning and teaching.
Elizabeth White has been working with the GTP for five years while being employed as a secondary science teacher. She is currently the Deputy Programme Director for the Hertfordshire Regional Partnership GTP. The GTP is one of the employment-based routes into teaching where it is possible to train and qualify as a teacher while working in a school. Her research has included a self study of her experience as a new teacher educator developing a new aspect to her identity and she is currently researching how to support new subject tutors in developing the subject knowledge of trainee teachers.The Contributors
Lynn Chapman is the Programme Director of the PGCE secondary programme, and science PGCE course tutor at the University of Hertfordshire. Lynn's current research focuses on apprenticeship learning using real world experiences through the medium of Forum Theatre to develop a greater quality and depth of reflection. Prior to taking up her role at Hertfordshire, she was a science teacher in a number of schools and was head of department. Lynn has published previously as co-editor of the Key Stage 3 scheme of work, Connecting Science (Hodder Education). She also has a chapter, ‘Physics for 4-Year-Olds: Promoting Open and Focused Exploration for Young Children in Everyday Contexts’ in Science Education at the Nexus of Theory and Practice, edited by Y. J. Lee and A. L. Tan (2008, Sense).
Bushra Connors is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Education at the University of Hertfordshire. She is currently teaching on the Doctorate in Education programme. Bushra developed her ideas on science teaching during her twenty years' experience as a physicist, a science teacher and head of department. Her previous publications have been concerned with behaviour management in schools and recent conference papers have been about the use of narrative methods in assessing students and the use of metaphor in pedagogy. Together with Lynn Chapman, she has been collaborating in an action research project with science trainee teachers involving the emancipatory use of theatrical techniques, drawing upon the work of Augusto Boal, to assist trainees to share their collective experiences of the journey from novice to experienced teacher.
[Page xiv]Lara Fuller is the current Programme Director for Education CPD at the University at Hertfordshire. Previously, she worked as a primary school teacher and as a local authority adviser working with schools to develop their practice and understanding of assessment for learning. She now works closely with schools to help them to develop their CPD programmes and this learning community has become the focus for her research.
Sally Graham is a leading teacher educator with particular expertise in coaching and mentoring, professional learning and leadership. After a career in primary schools leading to deputy headship, she now has the role of director of the University of Hertfordshire's Centre for Coaching and Mentoring. In this role Sally leads national conferences, short courses and bespoke consultancy for business organisations, voluntary sector groups and educational providers as well as the managing of specialist postgraduate courses and qualifications. Sally's research interests include relational coaching, action research and arts-informed inquiry.
Phil Lenten taught in secondary schools in Hertfordshire for over 20 years, where he also had long-term responsibility for professional development. This experience as a teacher educator led to an opportunity to establish and run a new PGCE course at Middlesex University before moving to employment-based ITT at the University of Hertfordshire. Over 10 years he has played a lead role in developing the Graduate Teacher Programme into one of the largest employment-based programmes of its kind in the country, acknowledged by Ofsted as a grade 1 provider. Phil also manages a successful programme for Overseas Trained Teachers. His particular interest is in developing Masters level work as an integral element of GTP. Phil is an experienced external examiner for GTP and OTTP.
Amanda Roberts worked in schools in Hertfordshire for 20 years, culminating in a headship, prior to joining the University of Hertfordshire. She moved on to run an educational consultancy company, providing support for learning in a variety of contexts including schools in challenging circumstances. Amanda is currently Programme Director for the MSc in Practice-Based Research. Her previous publications have focused on school improvement, with a recent emphasis on student leadership. Her current research focuses on the development of students and staff as academic writers.
Mike Stevens has worked for over 30 years in Hertfordshire secondary schools, with over 15 years as a deputy headteacher and most recently as a headteacher. For several years he chaired the Stevenage CPD group, which collaboratively introduced performance management to all Stevenage secondary schools and has worked closely as a teacher educator in the role of professional mentor with the University of Hertfordshire both with PGCE and GTP trainees. In recent years, he has taught in Professional Studies on the PGCE programme and is a Visiting Tutor on the Graduate Teacher Programme at the University of Hertfordshire. He is currently working with the Stevenage Educational Trust in exploring the cross-phase delivery of CPD.
[Page xv]Hilary Taylor is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Hertfordshire, with an interest in the professional development of teachers at all stages of their career. She is Programme Director for the Masters in Teaching and Learning and is a lead tutor for the CPD Masters programme. She works closely with schools to develop a research and enquiry-based approach to professional development and school improvement. Hilary's research has included case studies of teachers engaging in research activity both in the UK and overseas. She is currently researching the nature of teachers' professional knowledge in different contexts and exploring professional identity as they progress in their careers.
- CPD Continuing Professional Development
- GTP Graduate Teacher Programme
- ICT Information and Communications Technology
- ITT Initial Teacher Training
- NQT Newly Qualified Teacher
- OTTP Overseas Trained Teacher Programme
- PGCE Postgraduate Certificate in Education
- SKfT Subject Knowledge for Teaching
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