Safety, Risk and Adventure in Outdoor Activities

Books

Bob Barton

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
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  • Copyright

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    Acknowledgements

    I have learned a great deal from those with whom I have climbed, walked, skied, sailed and, occasionally, paddled. I am grateful to them all for their impressive enthusiasm. Particularly memorable adventures were in the company of Allen Fyffe, Sam Crymble, Keith Geddes, Dave Morris, Jon Prosser, Mark Diggins, Steve Jones, Iain Peter, Mark Seaton, Brian Griffiths, John Cardy, Harold Gillespie, the late Peter Boardman and the late John Furness.

    My career with the Outward Bound Trust has evolved into one where risk management is its prominent part. I admire Outward Bound's policy of openness on safety issues and acknowledge my debt of gratitude to that organisation and its superb staff. Previously, my colleagues, both at Glenmore Lodge and Brathay, gave a developing instructor much to aspire to, and my fellow mountain guides are continuing exemplars of effective risk management in action.

    My thanks are due to Sir Michael Hobbs for his encouragement in the early stages of this book; to Sir Chris Bonington for unquenchable enthusiasm and wise counsel; to the late Fred Harper who showed how adventure and professionalism can be combined; and to Barbara Roscoe who opened my eyes to outdoor education.

    Doug Jones, Rachel Carroll and Anne Salisbury kindly commented on an early draft and Johan Hovelynk, Jim Rowe, Jarkko Riikonen, Jorge Lantero, Mark Squires, Darren Black and Admiral Thiruchandran all gave insights into adventure education in other countries.

    Thanks are due to the following individuals and organisations for permission to reproduce copyright material:

    • Professor James Reason
    • Simon Knight and Dave Anderson
    • The Adventure Activities Licensing Authority
    • East Barnby Outdoor Education Centre
    • Canadian Mountain Holidays
    • The Outward Bound Trust.

    Other sources and influences are acknowledged in the text. I have benefited from the views and ideas of many people but any errors in what follows are mine alone.

    Without the enduring support of Anna, Alex, Eliane and Flora the book would never have been written – thank you!

    Foreword

    Sir ChrisBonington

    My life was changed completely when I discovered rock climbing at the age of sixteen. It gave me so much – the athletic joy of controlling muscle and mind to climb a stretch of rock, the stimulus of calculating risk, the sense of exploration, the wonder at the beauty of the natural environment and the friendships built from shared commitment and experience. Those feelings are as strong now as they were fifty-five years ago.

    I also saw how much this exposure to adventure could do for other young people when I spent two years as an instructor at the Army Outward Bound School. I learnt the extent of the responsibility that I had as an instructor and the challenge of offering an enriching adventurous experience while at the same time ensuring that the risk to the student was kept to acceptable levels. This balance is not an easy one to achieve.

    Bob Barton is particularly well qualified to help us to ensure that balance between the thrill of adventure and the need for a safe outcome. He is an outstanding mountaineer with a series of challenging first ascents in the Himalayas, an experienced mountain guide, a former instructor at Glenmore Lodge and Principal at Outward Bound Eskdale. I chair Outward Bound's Risk Management Committee, of which Bob is secretary. We have had many great days together on the hills and have discussed at length many of the topics covered in this book.

    Adventure in the outdoors has so much to offer and this book will help you to enjoy it yourself and introduce it to others in the best possible way.

  • Recommended Books and Sources

    Outdoor Education
    Drasdo, Harold (1972) Education and the Mountain Centres. Tyddyn Gabriel.
    Duke of Edinburgh's Award (2000) Duke of Edinburgh's Award Handbook. Duke of Edinburgh Award.
    English Outdoor Council (2006) High Quality Outdoor Education. English Outdoor Council.
    Exeter, David (ed.) (2001) Learning in the Outdoors. Outward Bound Trust.
    Hopkins, David and Putnam, Roger (2003) Personal Growth through Adventure. David Fulton.
    Hunt, John (ed.) (1989) In Search of Adventure. Talbot Adair Press.
    Keay, Wally (2000) Expedition Guide. Duke of Edinburgh's Award.
    Mortlock, Colin (1984) The Adventure Alternative. Cicerone Press.
    Risk and its Management
    Adams, John (1995) Risk. UCL Press.
    DfEE (1998) Health and Safety of Pupils on Educational Visits. DfEE.
    Furedi, Frank (1998) Culture of Fear. Cassell.
    Haddock, Cathye (1993) Managing Risks in Outdoor Activities. New Zealand Mountain Safety Council.
    Health and Safety Executive (1996) Guidance to the Licensing Authority on the Adventure Activities Licensing Regulations 1996. HSE.
    Health and Safety Executive (1999a) Adventure Activities Centres: Five Steps to Risk Assessment. HSE.
    Health and Safety Executive (1999b) Five Steps to Risk Assessment. HSE.
    Health and Safety Executive (1999c) Reducing Error and Influencing Behaviour. HSE.
    Leemon, Drew and Schimelpfenig, Tod (2005) Risk Management for Outdoor Leaders. National Outdoor Leadership School.
    Pratt, Jeremy (2003) Human Factors and Flight Safety, Private Pilot Licence Course, Vol. 5. AFE Paperback.
    Reason, James (1990) Human Error. Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139062367
    Reason, James (1997) Managing the Risks of Organisational Accidents. Ashgate.
    Leadership
    Adair, John (1989) Effective Leadership. Gower.
    Barr, L. and Barr, N. (1989) The Leadership Equation. Eakin Press.
    MLTE (n.d.) MLTE Remote Supervision Guidance Notes. Mountain Leader TrainingEngland.
    Ogilvie, Ken (2005) Leading and Managing Groups in the Outdoors. Institute of Outdoor Learning.
    Ramblers' Association (1994) Navigation and Leadership. Ramblers' Association.
    Activity Specific
    Barton, Bob and Wright, Blyth (2000) A Chance in a Million? Scottish Avalanches. Scottish Mountaineering Club.
    British Canoe Union (2002) Canoe and Kayak Handbook. British Canoe Union.
    British Mountaineering Council (1998) BMC Climbing Wall Manual. BMC.
    Bruce, Peter (2004) Adlard Coles' Heavy Weather Sailing. Adlard Coles.
    Ferrero, Franco (1998) White Water Safety and Rescue. Pesda Press.
    Fyffe, Alan and Peter, Iain (1997) The Handbook of Climbing. Pelham Books.
    Hiscock, Eric (1991) Cruising under Sail. Adlard Coles.
    Langmuir, Eric (1995) Mountaincraft and Leadership. SSC/MLTB.
    Long, Steve (2003) Hillwalking, Mountain Leader Training Handbook. MLTUK.
    Mason, Bill (2001) Path of the Paddle. Cordee.
    MLTUK (various authors)Mountain Leader Training Handbooks. MLTUK (covering hillwalking, rock climbing, winter mountaineering, etc.).
    Nealy, William (1990) Kayak – A Manual of Technique. Menasha Ridge Press.
    Nealy, William (1992) Mountain Bike – A Manual of Beginning to Advanced Technique. Menasha Ridge Press.
    Peter, Libby (2005) Rock Climbing, Mountain Leader Training Handbook. MLTUK.
    Adventure
    Bonington, Chris (2000) The Quest for Adventure. Weidenfeld & Nicholson Illustrated.
    Diemberger, Kurt (1971) Summits and Secrets. Allen & Unwin.
    Hawkridge, John (1991) Uphill All the Way. Michael Joseph.
    Knox-Johnston, Robin (1994) A World of My Own. W. W. Norton.
    Murray, W. H. (1979) Moutaineering in Scotland. Diadem.
    Tilman, Bill (1958) Mischief in Patagonia. Cambridge University Press.
    Whymper, Edward (1981) Scrambles Amongst the Alps in Years 1860–69. Ten Speed.
    Wilson, Brian (1998) Blazing Paddles. Wildland Press.
    Websites
    British Canoe Union: http://www.bcu.org.uk
    British Mountaineering Council: http://www.thebmc.co.uk
    Campaign for Adventure: http://www.campaignforadventure.org
    Department for Education and Skills (UK): http://www.dfes.gov.uk
    Duke of Edinburgh's Award: http://www.theaward.org
    Health and Safety Executive: http://www.hse.gov.uk/schooltrips/facts.htm
    Institute for Outdoor Learning: http://www.outdoor-learning.org
    Marine Accident Investigation Branch: http://www.maib.dft.gov.uk
    Mountain Leader Training UK: http://www.mltuk.org
    Outdoor Education Advisors' Panel: http://www.oeap.info/index.htm
    Ramblers' Association: http://www.ramblers.org.uk
    Royal Yachting Association: http://www.rya.org.uk

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    HSE (1996) Guidance to the Licensing Authority on the Adventure Activities Licensing Regulations 1996. London: HSE Books.
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