RTI with Differentiated Instruction, Grades K–5: A Classroom Teacher's Guide

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Jodi O'Meara

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  • Copyright

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    Acknowledgments

    My most humble and sincere thank you goes out to the team at Corwin and especially Hudson Perigo, whom I admire with awe and inspiration. I have such respect and trust for your judgment, and you have continued to recognize and polish the gems you see in my work. I have become a better person and professional in your hands. I am honored to know you and treasure you as a professional and friend. Great appreciation also goes out to the Corwin team who has worked hard to create such a wonderful resource; thank you, Allison, Lisa, Cassandra, and Sarah.

    I also want to express the deep gratitude and respect I have for my mother, who again helped me with this project. You have always amazed me with your success in life and as a mother. You have been there with guidance and support for my whole life as a lighthouse to show me the right direction and as a rock of stability and safety. Thanks for being there for me and cheering me on so that I had the confidence to take on these projects and grow. It is so cool to see someone I admire so much beam with such pride! Thank you for your strength, wisdom, guidance, and unconditional love and support as a mom and best friend.

    I need to also thank my other “mom,” Janie Bartels, who has been my Florida mom for more than 10 years. You have also been there for me with unconditional support and friendship. You have encouraged me and cheered me on as well as helped me in countless ways on a daily basis. I could not make it through a week without you!

    Thank you to Patrick Ewin for your personal tutoring to help me with the accuracy of this book. I appreciate your expertise as a statistician and, even more, your friendship.

    Thank you to my dear friend Dr. Shelby Robertson. Your friendship and knowledge has been invaluable to me. Thank you for lending me a shoulder to stress on, an ear to bend, and a critical eye to improve. Thank you for your expertise and help and most of all for your friendship, shopping dates, Aidan anecdotes, and smiles.

    Another huge thank you to my special friend and partner from the Florida Inclusion Network, Mike Muldoon. You have been a great friend and professional development partner for some time now. I am so fortunate to work and grow with you. Thanks for your support on this project and all my endeavors.

    On a personal note, thank you to grandpa and grandma, Fred and Ruth Choate. You are amazing people and the foundation of a big, wonderful family. I am so pleased to make you proud of me. Thank you to Jeff, Michelle, Emily, and Jennifer Choate. Thanks to Jon, Susanne, Aidan, and Elijah Choate. Family is always my happy place, my motivation for everything I do, and the most meaningful part of my life. You are each a part of me and everything I do.

    Thank you to Russell Schall for your love, support, and encouragement. It is great to see how proud you are of me. You make me feel very special.

    Finally, I can't go without saying thank you to so many educators in Manatee County who have left me speechless and moved by the amount of support and friendship you have shown with Beyond Differentiated Instruction and this book. I have been so touched by the support and shared happiness for my accomplishments. So much of what I learned in order to write this book has been spurred through questions and learning, side by side, with so many of you. We have grown as professionals together—teachers, paraprofessionals, school administrators, district leaders, parents, and students themselves. It has been so much more special to share it with so many friends and the community of which I am a part.

    Publisher's Acknowledgments

    Corwin gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following reviewers:

    Ronda Gregg

    Director of Special Services

    Litchfield, NH

    Angela Becton, NBCT

    Gifted Program Specialist

    National Board Support

    Johnston County Schools

    Smithfield, NC

    David Tudor

    Program Supervisor, Learning Improvement

    Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction

    Portland, OR

    Shelly Dostal

    Director, K–6 Principal and Curriculum

    Raymond Central Public Schools

    Valparaiso, NE

    Shelby Robertson

    Associate Director of Mathematics

    RTI Teaching Learning Connections

    University of Central Florida

    Orlando, FL

    About the Author

    Jodi O'Meara is an independent educational consultant of Jodi O'Meara, Inc. She also serves in Manatee County, Florida, as a curriculum specialist for students with special needs. Jodi provides professional development for educators and administrators at local, state, national, and international conferences and workshops. With over 15 years as a teacher and administrator of general education, special education, and gifted education, she recognizes the diverse needs of students and teachers. Her own experiences with differentiated instruction were first evident in the multiple stories of her own teaching in Chicken Soup for the Teacher's Soul (2002). More recently, Jodi's work includes Beyond Differentiated Instruction (2010) and RTI With Differentiated Instruction, Grades 6–8: A Classroom Teacher's Guide (2011), both published by Corwin.

    Jodi specializes in the areas of differentiated instruction for both students with special needs and students identified as gifted. She is a former president of the Florida Association for Gifted and is on the Board of Directors for the Family Network on Disabilities in her local area. She has been involved with writing state curriculum for students in general education, in gifted education, and those identified as having significant disabilities.

    Jodi is a strong advocate for both teachers and students. She believes that teachers hold the keys to our future and that today's students have amazing and unlimited potential. She believes that with changes to the educational system allowing educators to honor different strengths and needs, it is possible to foster every student in reaching his or her highest potential. She is committed to supporting teachers in making that difference. Jodi can be reached at jodi@jodiomeara.com.

  • Resources

    Define the Scope of the Problem
    • How many or what percentage of the students across the classroom are considered to be performing below expectations or standards?
    • How many or what percentage of the students across the grade level are considered to be performing below expectations or standards?
    • How many or what percentage of the students across the school are considered to be performing below expectations or standards?
    • How many or what percentage of the students across the district are considered to be performing below expectations or standards?

    At what level is there a problem?

    Analyze the Problem

    What is currently being done consistently at the level in which there is a problem?

    Assessment tool(s) used to measure achievement
    Assessment tool(s) used to measure progress
    Curriculum
    Instructional practices
    Programs implemented
    Prerequisite skills or concepts needed
    Amount of time provided
    Motivation or relevance through students' eyes
    Efforts to improve on the part of educators
    Priority given
    Stakeholders
    Change agents involved
    Create a Hypothesis

    Why is the problem occurring? Which areas above may be problematic?

    What would help the situation?

    Develop the Instruction/Intervention Design
    Who will implement the plan?
    What actions will be taken?
    How often will the instruction/intervention be provided?
    For how much time will the instruction/intervention be provided?
    For how much time will the instruction/intervention be provided until the plan is reassessed?
    Create a Follow-Up Plan

    Copyright © 2011 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from RTI With Differentiated Instruction, K–5: A Classroom Teacher's Guide, by Jodi O'Meara. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, http://www.corwin.com. Reproduction authorized only for the local school site or nonprofit organization that has purchased this book.

    Define the Scope of the Problem
    • How is the student performing in relation to the expectation or goal?
    • How is the student performing in relation to peers in the district?
    • How is the student performing in relation to peers in the school?
    • How is the student performing in relation to peers in grade level?
    • How is the student performing in relation to peers in the class?
    • Are the data consistent across different measures?
    Analyze the Problem

    Consider each of the following in relation to the concern.

    Assessment tool(s) used to measure achievement
    Assessment tool(s) used to measure progress
    Programs implemented
    Prerequisite skills
    Amount of time provided for practice
    Environmental conditions at school and outside
    Student motivation
    Priority communicated by respected people
    Others who may be able to help
    Create a Hypothesis

    Why is the problem occurring? Which areas above may be problematic?

    What would help this student?

    Develop the Instruction/Intervention Design
    Who will implement the plan?
    What actions will be taken?
    How often will the instruction/intervention be provided?
    For how much time will the instruction/intervention be provided?
    For how much time will the instruction/intervention be provided until the plan is re-assessed?
    Considerations for the Development of an Intervention
    • The intervention must be research or evidence based.
    • The researched population must match the population of the students being considered for the intervention.
    • The intervention must be delivered with integrity and fidelity.
    • The person delivering the intervention must have the necessary knowledge and professional development to implement the intervention as stated in the research.
    • There must be support provided for the intervention plan by all stakeholders, including student and parent.
    • There must be consideration regarding the length of time the intervention will be provided.
    • The frequency with which the intervention will occur must be reasonable and match the intervention research recommendations.
    • There must be a method for monitoring and reporting progress established before beginning the implementation of the intervention.

    Copyright © 2011 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from RTI With Differentiated Instruction, K–5: A Classroom Teacher's Guide, by Jodi O'Meara. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, http://www.corwin.com. Reproduction authorized only for the local school site or nonprofit organization that has purchased this book.

    Analyze the Problem

    Consider each of the following in relation to the concern.

    Curriculum implemented
    Differentiated instruction provided
    Prerequisite skills
    Consistencies across content areas
    Environmental conditions within and outside the school
    Student motivation
    Parent input
    Create a Hypothesis

    Why is the problem occurring? What do the data show as a specific targeted need or area of support?

    Develop the Instruction/Intervention Design
    What research- or evidence-based intervention will be provided?
    What materials, space, or scheduling will need to be provided?
    Who will implement the plan?
    What supports will the person implementing the plan receive? From whom?
    How often will the instruction/intervention be provided?
    How often will progress be monitored? With what tool?
    For how long will the instruction/intervention be provided?
    Where will the intervention be provided?
    For how long will the instruction/intervention be provided until the plan is reassessed?

    Copyright © 2011 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from RTI With Differentiated Instruction, K–5: A Classroom Teacher's Guide, by Jodi O'Meara. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, http://www.corwin.com. Reproduction authorized only for the local school site or nonprofit organization that has purchased this book.

    References

    Brown-Chidsey, R., Bronaugh, L., & McGraw, K. (2009). RTI in the classroom: Guidelines and recipes for success. New York: Guilford Press.
    Burns, M. K., & Coolong-Chaffin, M. (2006). Response to intervention: The role of and effect on school psychology. School Psychology Forum: Research and Practice, 1(1), 3–15.
    Covey, S. B. (1990). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful lessons in personal change. New York: Fireside.
    Dawkins, B. (2010). Intentional teaching: The let me learn classroom in action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2001). Responsive curriculum design in secondary schools: Meeting the diverse needs of students. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.
    Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.
    Gentry, M. L. (1999). Promoting student achievement and exemplary classroom practices through cluster grouping: A research-based alternative to heterogeneous elementary classrooms (RM99138). Storrs: University of Connecticut, National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented.
    Gregory, G. H., & Kuzmich, L. (2004). Data driven differentiation in the standards-based classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Gresham, F. M. (2007). The evolution of the RTI concept: Empirical foundations and recent developments. In S. R.Jimerson, M. K.Burns, & A. M.VanDerHeyden (Eds.), Handbook of response to intervention: The science and practice of assessment and intervention (pp. 10–24). New York: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-49053-3_2
    Howard, M. (2009). RtI from all sides: What every teacher needs to know. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Jimerson, S. R., Burns, M. K., & VanDerHeyden, A. M. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of response to intervention: The science and practice of assessment and intervention. New York: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-49053-3
    Leuchovius, D. (2006). The role of parents in dropout prevention: Strategies that promote graduation and school achievement. Retrieved January 21, 2011, from http://www.ncset.org/publications/viewdesc.asp?id=3135
    Lipson, M., & Wixson, K. (2010). Successful approaches to RTI collaborative practices for improving K–12 literacy. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
    Madaus, G. F., & Stufflebeam, D. C. (1989). Educational evaluation: Classic works of Ralph W. Tyler. New York: Springer.
    Maslow, A. H. (1998). Toward a psychology of being. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
    Miller, J., & Desberg, P. (2009). Understanding and engaging adolescents. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Murawski, W. W. (2005). Addressing diverse needs through co-teaching: Take “baby steps.”Kappa Delta Pi Record, 41(2), 77–82.
    National Association of State Directors of Special Education. (2006). Response to intervention: Policy considerations and implementation. Alexandria, VA: Author.
    National Center on Response to Intervention. (n.d.-a). Progress monitoring tools chart. Retrieved January 18, 2011, from http://www.rti4success.org/tools_charts/progress.php
    National Center on Response to Intervention. (n.d.-b). What is RTI. Retrieved January 18, 2011, from http://www.rti4success.org/
    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2006). Curriculum focal points for prekindergarten through grade 8 mathematics: A quest for coherence. Reston, VA: Author.
    O'Meara, J. (2010). Beyond differentiated instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Riccomini, P. J., & Witzel, B. S. (2010). Response to intervention in math. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Rudebusch, J. (2008). The source for RtI. East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems.
    Safer, N., & Fleischman, S. (2005). How student progress monitoring improves instruction. Educational Leadership, 62(5), 81–83.
    Shalaway, L. (2005). Learning to teach … not just for beginners (
    3rd ed.
    ). New York: Scholastic.
    Simon, K. G. (2002). The blue blood is bad, right?Educational Leadership, 60(1), 24–28.
    Tomlinson, C. A. (2003). Fulfilling the promise of the differentiated classroom: Strategies and tools for responsive teaching. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Tomlinson, C., Kaplan, S. N., Renzulli, J. S., Purcell, J. H., Leppien, J. H., & Burns, D. E. (2002). The parallel curriculum: A design to develop high potential and challenge high-ability learners. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
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    2nd ed.
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