Rethinking Violence Against Women
This cutting-edge volume advances theories, methodologies and policy analyses relating to various forms of violence against women. Topics covered include: the nature, importance and variety of cultural contexts in which violence occurs, is reproduced and may be challenged or changed; the nature and variety of sexualized violence; and a range of theoretical perspectives on perpetrators of violence. Taking an interdisciplinary focus on issues that affect community and state responses, the book includes individual accounts, and incorporates themes related to authority, sexual proprietariness, asymmetry of violence, socialization, patterns and deviations of victims and offenders, and social and cultural contexts.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Cross-Border Encounters: Challenges and Opportunities
- Violence(s), Concepts, and Definitions
- Working across Disciplines
- Methods of Study
- The Importance of Context
- The Extent of Violence against Women
- Physical and Sexual Attacks on the Body: Definitions of “What Counts,” “Marking” the Body, and “Making” the Person
- Intimate Violence in the Context of Violence in the Wider Society
- The Violent Event, Masculinity, and the Context of Male Culture
- Constructing Gender Through Violence, Enacting Gender Through Violence
- Chapter 2: Rethinking Survey Research on Violence against Women
- Traditional Crime-Victim Surveys
- The Conflict Tactics Approach
- The Violence against Women Survey
- Constructing Definitions of Violence
- The Prevalence of Violence against Women
- Test of a Theory of Assaults on Wives
- Chapter 3: Sexual Violence against Women and Girls: An Approach to an International Overview
- Emergence and Development of Issues
- Power and Male Domination
- Offenders and Male Sexual Aggression
- Impacts and Consequences
- Institutional and Social Responses
- Normalization and Resistance
- Chapter 4: Violence Embodied? Circumcision, Gender Politics, and Cultural Aesthetics
- Practices and the Literature
- Marriageability and Identity: Toward a Concept of Embodiment
- On the Politics of Aesthetics
- Chapter 5: Violence against Women in Societies under Stress
- What Constitutes Violence against Women in Conflictual Societies?
- Violence against Women in Conflict Situations
- Violence against Women in the Family
- Political Conflict and Domestic Violence: The Example of Northern Ireland
- Chapter 6: Violent Men and Violent Contexts
- Violent Acts and Violent Actors
- The Constellation of Violence: Violence, Injuries, and Controlling Behaviors
- Men, Masculine Identity, and Violence
- Chapter 7: The Hand That Strikes and Comforts: Gender Construction and the Tension between Body and Symbol
- The Symbols of Violence or the Aesthetics of the Gender Battle? A Symbolic Field Based on Bodily Movement and Contact
- The Masculine Symbolic Trinity: The Hand, the Strap, and the Phallus
- Women's Sexual Morphology of Touch as a Symbolic Basis
- Striking and Comforting—Or the Hand as a Constitutive Category
- A Violent Sex Life: Regulative Flexibility and Basic Constitutive Patterns
- “The Stone” and “The Sea”: “Different” or “The Same”?
- “Different” Contents—“The Same” Function?
- The Division between the Bodily and the Symbolic “Self”—The Strategy of the Abused Woman
- The Body as a Category for Change?
- Conclusion: A More Open Approach to Gender Theory?
- Chapter 8: Lethal and Nonlethal Violence against Wives and the Evolutionary Psychology of Male Sexual Proprietariness
- Psychological Links between Sexual Proprietariness and Violence
- An Evolutionary Psychological Framework for Understanding Links between Male Sexual Proprietariness and Violence against Wives
- Hypotheses about Patterned Variations in Male Sexual Proprietariness and Violence
- Violence against Wives and Children
- Concluding Remarks
Sage Series on Violence against Women[Page ii]
Claire M. Renzetti
St. Joseph's University
Jeffrey L. Edleson
University of Minnesota
In this series …
I AM NOT YOUR VICTIM: Anatomy of Domestic Violence by Beth Sipe and Evelyn J. Hall
WIFE RAPE: Understanding the Response of Survivors and Service Providers by Raquel Kennedy Bergen
FUTURE INTERVENTIONS WITH BATTERED WOMEN AND THEIR FAMILIES edited by Jeffrey L. Edleson and Zvi C. Eisikovits
WOMEN'S ENCOUNTERS WITH VIOLENCE: Australian Experiences edited by Sandy Cook and Judith Bessant
WOMAN ABUSE ON CAMPUS: Results From the Canadian National Survey by Walter S. DeKeseredy and Martin D. Schwartz
RURAL WOMAN BATTERING AND THE JUSTICE SYSTEM: An Ethnography by Neil Websdale
ATHLETES AND ACQUAINTANCE RAPE by Jeffrey R. Benedict
SAFETY PLANNING WITH BATTERED WOMEN: Complex Lives/Difficult Choices by Jill Davies, Eleanor Lyon, and Diane Monti-Catania
RETHINKING VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN edited by R. Emerson Dobash and Russell P. Dobash
EMPOWERING SURVIVORS OF ABUSE: Health Care for Battered Women and Their Children edited by Jacquelyn Campbell
BATTERED WOMEN, CHILDREN, AND WELFARE REFORM: The Ties That Bind edited by Ruth A. Brandwein
Copyright © 1998 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
Greater Kailash I
New Delhi 110 048 India
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Main entry under title:
Rethinking violence against women / edited by R. Emerson
Dobash and Russell P. Dobash.
p. cm. – (Sage series on violence against women; v. 9)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7619-1186-3 (cloth: acid free paper)
ISBN 0-7619-1187-1 (pbk.: acid free paper)
1. Women–Crimes against. 2. Sexual harassment of women. 3. Family violence. 4. Wife abuse. 5. Women–Social conditions. I. Dobash, R. Emerson. II. Dobash, Russell. III. Series.
HV6250.4.W65 R47 1998
98 99 00 01 02 03 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: C. Terry Hendrix
Editorial Assistant: Fiona Lyon
Production Editor: Diana E. Axelsen
Editorial Assistant: Denise Santoyo
Typesetter/Designer: Rose Tylak
Indexer: Trish Wittenstein
This anthology benefited from two conferences funded by the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation in 1993 and 1995, where scholars from diverse disciplines had an opportunity to discuss their work and current thinking about violence against women. For that early part of the project, we wish to thank Karen Colvard and Joel Wallman of the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation. We also wish to thank all the authors for their commitment to this project and willingness to continue as it grew and changed; Dorothy Anderson, who faithfully and professionally recorded the proceedings of the first conference in Carmona, Spain; and Lauren McAllister, who had more than her fair share of technological blips processing text and computer discs on the way to the final manuscript. We also wish to acknowledge support from the Scottish office, the Home Office, the Rockefeller Foundation, NATO, and the Carnegie Foundation. The final collection and the contents herein are the sole responsibility of the editors and authors.
References[Page 231][Page 250]1982). Sisters in affliction: Circumcision and infibulation in Africa. London: Zed.(1986). Veiled sentiments: Honor and poetry in a Bedouin society. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1990). The romance of resistance: Tracing transformations of power through Bedouin women. In P. R.Sanday & R. G.Goodenough (Eds.), Beyond the second sex (pp. 313–337). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.(1995). Rethinking feminist discourses on female genital mutilation: The case of the Sudan. Canadian Woman Studies, 15(2&3), 52–54.(1996, November). Revisiting feminist discourses on female infibulation: Responses from Sudanese indigenous feminists. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association, San Francisco, CA.(1995). Gendered work: Sexuality, family and the labour market. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.(1995). Developments in the struggle against the murder of women against the background of so-called family honour. Women Against Fundamentalism Journal, 6, 37–51.. (1990). Sex and secrets: Crimes involving Australian women since 1880. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.(1980). The hidden face of Eve. London: Zed.(1954). Growing up in an Egyptian village. London: Routledge.(Archer, J. (Ed.). (1994). Male violence. London: Routledge.1968). Family and community in Ireland. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press., & (1994). Rocking the cradle of sexual politics: What happened when women said incest. New York: Addison-Wesley.(1991, February 2). Female circumcision: Fighting a cruel tradition. New Scientist, 129, 42–47.(1994). Rape in South Africa: An invisible part of apartheid's legacy. Focus on Gender, 2(2), 35–39.([Page 232]1990). Violence against aboriginal women: Reconstitution of customary law—the way forward. Aboriginal Law Journal, 46(2), 6–9.(1980). Gynecologic and obstetric complications of female circumcision. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 17, 560–563.(1994). Violence against women: A national crime victimization survey report. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.(1995). Violence against women: Estimates from the redesigned survey. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics., & (1984). Female circumcision in the Sudan. Ahfad Journal, 1(1), 11–21.(1989). Number of sperm in human ejaculates varies in accordance with sperm competition theory. Animal Behaviour, 37, 867–869. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-3472%2889%2990075-4, & (1991). The role of male sexual arousal in rape: Six models. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59(5), 621–630. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.59.5.621, & (Barkow, J., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (Eds.). (1992). The adapted mind. New York: Oxford University Press.1982). Till death do us part: A study of spouse murder. Bulletin of the American Association of Psychiatry and Law, 10, 271–280., , , & (1994). Aman: The story of a Somali girl. Toronto: Knopf., & (1993). Violent networks: The origins and management of domestic conflict. In R.Tedeschi & J.Tedeschi (Eds.), Aggression and violence: Social interactionist perspectives (pp. 209–231). Washington, DC. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10123-009(1992). Unheard voices: Kagi women on war and sanctions. London: Change., , & (1984). The political use of Sande ideology and symbolism. American Ethnologist, 11(3), 455–472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/ae.1984.11.3.02a00030(1997). Characterizing human psychological adaptations. CIBA Foundation Symposium208. Chichester, UK: Wiley., & (1982). Womb as oasis: The symbolic context of pharaonic circumcision in rural northern Sudan. American Ethnologist, 9(4), 682–698. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/ae.1982.9.4.02a00040(1988). Spirits and selves in northern Sudan: The cultural therapeutics of possession and trance. American Ethnologist, 15(1), 4–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/ae.1988.15.1.02a00020(1989). Wombs and alien spirits: Women, men, and the Zar cult in northern Sudan. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.(1991a). Anthropology, feminism and the postmodern context. Culture, 11(1–2), 125–133.(1991b). Body politics: Continuing the anticircumcision crusade. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 5(1), 15–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/maq.1991.5.1.02a00020(1994). Afterword: Some background to Aman. In V. L.Barnes & J.Boddy (Comp.), Aman: The story of a Somali girl (pp. 289–349). Toronto: Knopf.(1998a). Embodying ethnography. In M.Lambek & A.Strathern (Eds.), Bodies and persons: Comparative perspectives from Africa and Melanesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1998b). Remembering Amal: On birth and the British in northern Sudan. In M.Lock & P.Kaufert (Eds.), Pragmatic women and body politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1953). Female sexuality. New York: International Universities Press.(1988). Anorexia nervosa: Psychopathology as the crystallization of culture. In I.Diamond & L.Quinby (Eds.), Feminism and Foucault (pp. 87–117). Boston: Northeastern University Press.(1989). The body and the reproduction of femininity: A feminist appropriation of Foucault. In A. M.Jaggar & S. R.Bordo (Eds.), Gender/body/knowledge: Feminist reconstructions of being and knowing (pp. 13–33). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.([Page 233]1993). Unbearable weight: Feminism, western culture, and the body. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1988). Kipsigis bridewealth payments. In L.Betzig, M.Borgerhoff Mulder, & P.Turke (Eds.), Human reproductive behaviour (pp. 65–82). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1992). Women and domestic violence: An annotated bibliography. Leiden, Netherlands: VENA.(1985). Female circumcision: Challenges to the practice as a human rights violation. Harvard Women's Law Journal, 8, 155–177.(1977). Outline of a theory of practice (R.Nice, Trans.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1990). The logic of practice (R.Nice, Trans.). Cambridge: Polity.(1996). In search of respect: Selling crack in El Barrio. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1992). Crimes of violence: Australian responses to rape and child sexual assault. Sydney: Allen and Unwin., & (1989). Crimes of passion: The campaign against wife killing in Brazil (1910–1940). Journal of Social History, 22, 653–666. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jsh/22.4.653(1983). Self-reported likelihood of sexually aggressive behaviour: Attitudinal versus sexual explanations. Journal of Research in Personality, 17, 315–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566%2883%2990023-5, & (1989). University males' sexual interest in children: Predicting potential indices of “Paedophilia” in a non-forensic sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13(1), 65–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2889%2990030-6, & (1983). Battering husbands: A survey of abusive men. Victimology, 6, 338–344.(1987). When battered women kill. New York: Free Press.(1986). Assessment of wife assault with the Conflict Tactics Scale: Using couple data to quantify the differential reporting effect. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 375–379. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352404, & (1973). Eating disorders. New York: Basic.(1990). Violent acts and injurious outcomes in married couples: Methodological issues in the National Survey of Families and Households. Gender & Society, 4, 56–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124390004001005(1994). “No one wants machismo anymore”: The rise of Bolivian feminism. In G.Kupers (Ed.), Companeras: Voices from the Latin American women's movement. London: Latin American Movement.(1994). Surviving beyond fear: Women and torture in Latin America. In M.Davies (Ed.), Women and violence (pp. 156–175). London: Zed.(1981). Child sex initiation rings. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 51(1), 110–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1981.tb01353.x, , & (1991). Evolutionary personality psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 42, 459–491. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.42.020191.002331(1994). The evolution of desire. New York: Basic.(1986). Preferences in human mate selection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 559–570. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.119, & (1992). Sex differences in jealousy: Evolution, physiology and psychology. Psychological Science, 3, 251–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0162-3095%2879%2990004-9, , , & (1990). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York: Routledge.(1996). Sex differences in jealousy in evolutionary and cultural perspective: Tests from the Netherlands, Germany and the United States. Psychological Science, 7, 359–363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0162-3095%2893%2990011-6, , , & ([Page 234]1995). Sex differences in aggression: Social representations and social roles. British Journal of Social Psychology., & (1988). Unofficial secrets. London: Virago.(1992a). If I can't have you, no one can: Issues of power and control in homicide of female partners. In J.Radford & D. E. H.Russell (Eds.), Femicide: The politics of woman killing. New York: Twayne.(1992b). Wife battering: Cultural contexts versus western social sciences. In D. C.Counts, J. K.Brown, & J. C.Campbell (Eds.), Sanctions and sanctuary: Cultural perspectives on the beating of wives (pp. 229–249). Boulder, CO: Westview.(Canadian Journal of Criminology. (1995). Focus on the Violence Against Women Survey, 37(3).Canadian Panel on Violence Against Women. (1993). Changing the landscape: Ending violence, achieving equality. Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services.1992). Yanomamo: The last days of Eden. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.(1991). U.S. Rapists. Changes, 9, 2–9.(1993). A study of patterns in criminal homicides in Greece. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 34, 260–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002071529303400307(1974). Family structure and feminine personality. In M. Z.Rosaldo & L.Lamphere (Eds.), Woman, culture and society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.(1978). The reproduction of mothering. Psychoanalysis and the sociology of gender. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.(1995a). Punishment in animal societies. Nature, 373, 209–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/373209a0, & (1995b). Sexual coercion in animal societies. Animal Behaviour, 49, 1345–1365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbe.1995.0166, & (1996). Law, social policy and violence: The impact of regional cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 961–978. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1681(1990). Women and revolution in Nicaragua. London: Zed.(1985). Body of power, spirit of resistance: The culture and history of a South African people. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1993). The diseased heart of Africa: Medicine, colonialism, and the black body. In S.Lindenbaum & M.Lock (Eds.), Knowledge, power and practice (pp. 305–329). Berkeley: University of California Press.(1991). Of revelation and revolution: Christianity, colonialism, and consciousness in South Africa (Vol. 1). Chicago: University of Chicago Press., & (1992). Ethnography and the historical imagination. Boulder, CO: Westview., & (1989). What sexual offenders tell us about prevention strategies. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13(2), 293–301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2889%2990016-1, , & (1979). Damage to physical health from pharaonic circumcision (infibulation) of females. In Traditional practices affecting the health of women and children (pp. 55–69). Alexandria: WHO/EMRO Technical Publication No. 2.(1990). Beaten wife, suicidal woman: Domestic violence in Kaliai, West New Britain. Pacific Studies, 13, 151–169.(Counts, D. C., Brown, J. K. & Campbell, J. C. (Eds.). (1992). Sanctions and sanctuary: Cultural perspectives on the beating of wives. Boulder, CO: Westview.1990). Coercive sexuality in dating relationships: A situational model. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 395–423. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358%2890%2990045-C(1992). Woman killing: Intimate femicide in Ontario (1974–1990). Toronto: The Women We Honour Action Committee., & ([Page 235]1991). The ant and the peacock. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1996). Male student athletes and violence against women: a survey of campus judicial affairs offices. Violence Against Women, 2, 163–179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801296002002004, , , & (1994). Experiences of female republican prisoners. In C.Fisher (Ed.), Policing a divided society (pp. 14–17). Belfast: Research and Documentation Centre.(1978). Gyn/Ecology. Boston: Beacon.(1993). Children fathered by previous partners: A risk factor for violence against women. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 84, 209–210., , & (1988a). Evolutionary social psychology and homicide. Science, 242, 519–524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.3175672, & (1988b). Homicide. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter., & (1990). Killing the competition: Male-male and female-female homicide. Human Nature, 1, 81–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02692147, & (1994). Evolutionary psychology of male violence. In J.Archer (Ed.), Male violence (pp. 253–288). London: Routledge., & (1995). Discriminative parental solicitude and the relevance of evolutionary models to the analysis of motivational systems. In M.Gazzaniga (Ed.), The cognitive neurosciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press., & (1996a). Evolutionary psychology and marital conflict: The relevance of stepchildren. In D. M.Buss & N.Malamuth (Eds.), Sex, power, conflict: Feminist and evolutionary perspectives (pp. 9–28). New York: Oxford University Press., & (1996b). Violence against stepchildren. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 5, 77–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.ep10772793, & (1997). Crime and conflict: Homicide in evolutionary psychological perspective. Crime and Justice, 22, 251–300., & (1982). Male sexual jealousy. Ethology and Sociobiology, 3, 11–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0162-3095%2882%2990027-9, , & (1997). Women with children sired by previous partners incur excess risk of uxoricide. Homicide Studies, 1, 61–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1088767997001001005, , & (1982). Woman, why do you weep? Circumcision and its consequences. London: Zed.(1992). Dunnock behaviour and social evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1991). Remaking the she-devil: A critical look at feminist approaches to beauty. Hypatia, 6, 21–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1527-2001.1991.tb01391.x(1995). Reshaping the female body: The dilemma of cosmetic surgery. New York: Routledge.(1982). The extended phenotype. Oxford: Freeman.(1989). Woman abuse in dating relationships: An exploratory study. Atlantis, 14(2), 55–62.(1993). The incidence and prevalence of woman abuse in Canadian university and college dating relationships. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 18(2), 137–159., & (1990). Research women abuse in Canada: A realist critique of the Conflict Tactics Scale. Canadian Review of Social Policy, 25, 19–27., & (1984). Murder into manslaughter. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(Department of Health. (1995). Child protection: Messages from research. London: HMSO.1996). The spears of twilight: Life and death in the Amazon jungle. London: HarperCollins.([Page 236]1996). Behold the wrath: Psychophysiological responses to facial stimuli. Motivation and Emotion, 20, 149–182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02253869, & (1992). Northern Ireland: Review and prospects for social policy. Social Policy and Administration, 26(1), 18–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9515.1992.tb00526.x, & (1977). Love, honour and obey: Institutional ideologies and the struggle for battered women. Contemporary Crisis, 1, 403–415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00729111, & (1977–1978). Wives: The “appropriate” victims of marital violence. Victimology, 2, 426–442., & (1979). Violence against wives. New York: Free Press., & (1981). Community response to violence against wives: Charivari, abstract justice and patriarchy. Social Problems, 28(5), 563–581. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1981.28.5.03a00140, & (1983a). The context-specific approach. In D.Finkelhor, R.Gelles, G.Hotaling, & M.Straus (Eds.), Dark side of families: Current family violence research (pp. 261–276). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & (1983b). Patterns of violence in Scotland. In R. J.Gelles & C. P.Cornell (Eds.), International perspectives on family violence (pp. 147–155). Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath., & (1984). The nature and antecedents of violent events. British Journal of Criminology, 24, 269–288., & (1988). Research as social action: The struggle for battered women. In K.Yllö & M.Bogard (Eds.), Feminist perspectives on wife abuse (pp. 51–74). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., & (1990a). How research makes a difference to policy and practice. In D. J.Besharov (Ed.), Family violence: Research and public policy issues (pp. 185–204). Washington, DC: AEI., & (1990b). How theory makes a difference to policy and practice. In D. J.Besharov (Ed.), Family violence: Research and public policy issues. Washington, DC: AEI., & (1992). Women, violence and social change. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203450734, & (1995). Evaluating criminal justice programmes for violent men. In R. E.Dobash, R. P.Dobash, & L.Noaks (Eds.), Gender and crime (pp. 358–389). Cardiff: University of Wales Press., , , & (1996). Research evaluation of programmes for violent men. Edinburgh: Scottish Office Central Research Unit., , , & (1998). Separate and intersecting reality: A comparison of men's and women's accounts of violence against women. Journal of Violence Against Women, 4(4), 382–414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801298004004002, , , & (Changing violent men. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452204987, , , & (in press).1992). The myth of sexual symmetry in marital violence. Social Problems, 39, 71–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1992.39.1.03x0064l, , , & (1992). Female genital mutilation: Proposals for change. London: Minority Rights Group., & (1994). The rape of women in Bosnia. In M.Davies (Ed.), Women and violence (pp. 176–181). London: Zed.(1992). Room to maneuver: !Kung women cope with men. In D. C.Counts, J. K.Brown, & J. C.Campbell (Eds.), Sanctions and sanctuary: Cultural perspectives on the beating of wives (pp. 43–61). Boulder, CO: Westview.(1989). Child sexual abuse: Feminist perspectives. London: MacMillan., & (1995, November). The role of paid employment in battered wives' decisions to leave: Toward a social psychological approach. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Boston, MA.([Page 237]1985). Men who batter women: A critical review of the evidence. Journal of Family Issues, 6, 229–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019251385006002006, & (1954). Provocation and the reasonable man: Another view. Criminal Law Review, 1954, 898–906.(1979). For her own good: 150 years of the experts advice to women. Garden City, NY: Anchor., & (1989). Intervening with men who batter: A critical review of the literature. Social Service Review, 37, 384–414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/603710, & (1993). Gender-related violence: Its scope and relevance. Focus on Gender, 1(2), 1–11., & (1990). The influence of education on female circumcision. Ahfad Journal, 7, 70–73.(1987). Post-separation woman abuse: The contribution of lawyers as “barracudas,” “advocates,” and “counsellors.”International Journal of Law & Psychiatry, 10, 401–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0160-2527%2887%2990022-7(1989). Male abuse of a married or cohabiting female partner: The application of sociological theory to research findings. Violence and Victims, 4(4), 235–255.(1991). Moderating effects of personal cognitions on experienced and perceived sexual harassment of women at the workplace. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21(16), 1320–1337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1991.tb00473.x, , & (1991). Unprotected by the Swedish welfare state. Women's Studies International Forum, 14(5), 413–421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-5395%2891%2990044-I, & (1990). Sexual abuse in the developmentally disabled: Dilemmas of diagnosis. Child Abuse & Neglect, 14, 497–502. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2890%2990098-E, et al. (1994). The morning after: Sexual politics at the end of the Cold War. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1987). Real rape. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1982). Hidden violence. Belfast: Farset.(1983). Violent men or violent husbands? Background factors and situational correlates. In D.Finkelhor, R.Gelles, G.Hotaling, & M.Straus (Eds.), In the dark side of families: Current family violence research (pp. 49–67). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., , & (1993a). The criminalization of domestic violence: Promises and limits (Research Rep.). Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.(1993b). Social structure and spouse assault. In B.Forst (Ed.), The socioeconomics of crime and justice (pp. 209–254). Toronto: M. E. Sharpe.(1987). Women who sexually abuse children. Violence and Victims, 2, 4.(Family Violence and Sexual Assault Institute (FVSAI). (1995). Trauma, amnesia and denial of abuse. Tyler, TX: Author.1965). The wretched of the earth. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1991). Formations of violence: The narrative of the body and political terror in Northern Ireland. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(Female circumcision: Because it's always been done. (1982, September 18). The Economist, 284, 42.1979). Sexually victimized children. New York: Free Press.(1986). A sourcebook on child sexual abuse. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1994). Out of the shadows: Women, resistance and politics in South America. London: Latin America Bureau.(1958). The genetical theory of natural selection. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Original work published 1930)(1989). The dimensions of sexual harassment: A structural analysis. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 35, 309–326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791%2889%2990032-8, & (1988). Mate guarding in a Caribbean village. Ethology and Sociobiology, 9, 1–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0162-3095%2888%2990002-7([Page 238]1986). Resource distribution, social competition, and mating patterns in human societies. In D. I.Rubenstein & R. W.Wrangham (Eds.), Ecological aspects of social evolution: Birds and mammals (pp. 217–243). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press., & (1996). Who is in control? Changing responses to women who have been raped and sexually abused. In M.Hester, L.Kelly, & J.Radford (Eds.) Women, violence and male power (pp. 66–175). Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.(1996). Sexual exclusivity among dating, cohabiting, and married women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58, 33–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353375, & (1977). Language, counter-memory, practice (D. F.Bouchard, Ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.(1979). Discipline and punish (A.Sheridan, Trans.). New York: Vintage.(1980). Power/knowledge (C.Gordon, Ed.). New York: Pantheon.(1982). The subject and power. In H. L.Dreyfus & P.Rabinow (Eds.), M. Foucault: Beyond structuralism and hermeneutics (pp. 208–226). New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.(1990). The history of sexuality (Vol. 1). New York: Vintage.(1988). Passions within reason: The strategic role of the emotions. New York: Norton.(1995). The first cut is (not) the deepest: Deconstructing “female genital mutilation” and the criminalization of the other. Dalhousie Law Journal, 18(2), 310–375.(1993). Marriage, social inequality, and women's contact with their natal families in alliance societies. American Anthropologist, 95, 395–419. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.1993.95.2.02a00070, , & (1991). Rape prevention and self defence: At what price?Women's Studies International Forum, 14(1/2), 49–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-5395%2891%2990083-T, , & (1992). Appalachian women: Violence and social control. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 20, 387–415.(1994). Organised and ritual abuse research report. Manchester, UK: Department of Social Policy and Social Work, Manchester University., , & (Gallagher, C., & Laqueur, T. (Eds.). (1987). The making of the modern body. Berkeley: University of California Press.1986). Views of future health workers in Somalia on female circumcision. Medical Anthropology Newsletter, 17(3), 71–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/maq.1986.17.3.02a00050(1991). Sexual victimization prevalence among New Zealand University students. Journal of Counselling and Clinical Psychology, 59(3), 464–466. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.59.3.464(1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic.(1988). Intimate violence: The causes and consequences of abuse in the American family. New York: Simon & Schuster., & (1990). A comparison of group and individual sexual assault victims. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 14, 325–342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1990.tb00023.x, & (1991). Women's equality and national liberation. In C. T.Mohanty, A.Russo, & L.Torres (Eds.) Third world women and the politics of feminism (pp. 215–236). Bloomington: University of Indiana Press.(1973). The yellow wallpaper. New York: Feminist Press. (Original work published 1899)(1987). Remarriage after divorce: Recent changes and demographic variations. Sociological Perspectives, 30, 162–179., & (1994). What's the big deal? We are men and they are women. In T.Newburn & E. A.Stanko (Eds.) Just boys doing business? (pp. 135–152). London: Routledge.([Page 239]1996). The politics of doing feminist ethnography on excision. Unpublished master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.(1997). Evolution: The pleasures of pluralism. The New York review of books, 11, 26–50 (Vol. XLIV).(1971). Selections from the prison notebooks (Q.Hoare & G. N.Smith, Eds. and Trans.). New York: International.(1976). Remember the ladies: Women in America, 1750–1815. New York: Viking.(1987). Theories of choice: Contingent reward and punishment applications. Social Psychology Quarterly, 50, 16–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2786886, & (1971). The female eunuch. London: Paladin.(1965). Conversations with Ogotemmêli: An introduction to Dogon religious ideas. London: Oxford University Press.(1987). Notes towards a corporeal feminism. Australian Feminist Studies, 5(Summer), 1–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08164649.1987.9961562(1979). Men who rape: The psychology of the offender. New York: Plenum.(1992). A typology of per sexual harassment: Research and policy implications for the 1990s. Sex Roles, 26(11/12), 447–464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00289868(1992). The classification of rapists. Prison Service Journal, 85, 45–55.(1982). The movement against clitoridectomy and infibulation in Sudan: Public health policy and the women's movement. Medical Anthropology Newsletter, 13(2), 4–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/maq.1982.13.2.02a00020(1991). The Islamic movement, development, and health education: Recent changes in the health of rural women in central Sudan. Social Science and Medicine, 33(6), 637–645. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2891%2990017-7(1996). The cultural debate over female circumcision: The Sudanese are arguing this one out for themselves. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 10(4), 455–475. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/maq.1996.10.4.02a00030(1993). The constructed body. (D. G.Crowder, Trans.). In C.Burroughs & J.Ehrenreich (Eds.), In reading the social body (pp. 40–60). Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.(1992). Arrogant perception, world-travelling and multicultural feminism: The case of genital surgeries. Columbia Human Rights Law Review, 23(8), 188–248.(1994). A question of subjects: The “female circumcision” controversy and the politics of knowledge. Ufahamu, 22(3), 26–35.(1996). Gender politics in Sudan: Islamism, socialism, and the state. Boulder, CO: Westview.(1981). Sisters under the sun: The story of Sudanese women. London: Longman., & (1985). Ask any woman. Bristol: Falling Wall.(1986). The science question in feminism. New York: Cornell University Press.(1985). Working with women in Derry. In M.Abbott & H.Frazer (Eds.), Women and community work in Northern Ireland (pp. 38–45). Belfast: Farset., & (1994). No words can express: Two voices on female genital mutilation. Canadian Woman Studies, 14(3), 62–64., & (1989). Violence against prostitute women: Social and legal dilemmas. Australian Journal of Social Work, 24, 235–248.(1975). Female genital mutilation, fertility control, women's roles, and the patrilineage in modern Sudan: A functional analysis. American Ethnologist, 2, 617–633. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/ae.1975.2.4.02a00030([Page 240]1994). Violence against women: The hidden health burden (Discussion Paper 255). Washington, DC: World Bank.(1995). Sexual coercion and reproductive health: A focus on research. New York: The Population Council., , & (1992). Trauma and recovery: From domestic abuse to political terror. London: Triangle Books.(1988). Sexual selection and paternal investment among Aka pygmies. In L.Betzig, M.Borgerhoff Mulder, & P.Turke (Eds.), Human reproductive behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1978). Sixty battered women. Victimology, 2, 460–470., & (1996). Ache life history. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter., & (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1976). The Hite report. New York: Dell.(1992). Backstreets: Money, prostitution and love. Cambridge: Polity., & (1988, February 20). The concepts of mother Ireland. Irish Times.(1994). Typologies of male batterers: Three subsystems and the differences among them. Psychological Review, 116, 476–497., & (1991). Religion and custom in a Muslim society: The Berti of Sudan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511521102(1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1990). The logic of social control. New York: Plenum.(1982). The Hosken report: Genital and sexual mutilation of females ((3rd ed.). Lexington, MA: Women's International Network News.1986). An analysis of risk markers in husband to wife violence: The current state of knowledge. Violence and Victims, 1, 101–124., & (1979). Demography of the Dobe !Kung. New York: Academic.(1981). The woman that never evolved. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1976). An anthropological view of clitoral and other female genital mutilations. In T. P.Lowry & T. S.Lowry (Eds.), The clitoris (pp. 111–161). St. Louis, MO: Warren Green.(1987). Church courts, sex and marriage in England, 1570–1640. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1994). Virgin territories and Netherlands: Colonial and nationalist representations of Africa and Ireland. Feminist Review, 47, 1–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/fr.1994.18(1985). This sex which is not one (C.Porter, Trans.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.(1994). Interdisciplinarity or meddling in other people's subjects?Times Higher Education Supplement, 2(12), 10.(1994). Theorising masculine subjectivity. In T.Newburn & E. A.Stanko (Eds.), Just boys doing business? Men, masculinities and crime (pp. 10–31). London: Routledge.(1988). On the prevalence of rape in the United States revisited. Signs: A Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 6(11), 136–146.(1994). Sexual attitudes and lifestyles. Oxford: Blackwell., , , , & (1996). Dangerous domains: Violence against women in Canada. Toronto: Nelson.(1998). Social control and the cessation of assaults on wives. Doctoral dissertation, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.(1995). Researching violence against women: Statistics Canada's National Survey. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 37, 281–304., & ([Page 241]1980). Women who kill. New York: Fawcett Columbine.(1993). Drinking themselves to life, or the body in the bottle: Filmic negotiations in the construction of the alcoholic female body. In C.Burroughs & J.Ehrenreich (Eds.), Reading the social body (pp. 156–184). Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.(1994). The politics of women's rights in India: Report on the women and the law conference in Bangalore. Rights of Women Bulletin, Winter, 3–6.(1965). Female circumcision and sexual desire. Cairo: Ain Shams University Press., & (1993). Under the knife: Female genital mutilation as child abuse. Journal of Juvenile Law, 14, 118–132.(1988). Surviving sexual violence. Cambridge: Polity.(1989). The professionalisation of rape. Rights of Women Bulletin, Spring, 8–11.(1996). Tensions and possibilities: Community responses to domestic violence. In J.Edelson & Z.Eisikovits (Eds.), Future interventions with battered women and their families (pp. 67–86). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1993). Beyond victim to survivor: The implications of knowledge about children's resistance and avoidance strategies. In H.Ferguson, R.Gilligan, & R.Torode (Eds.) Surviving childhood adversity: Issues for policy and practice. Dublin: Social Studies Press., , & (1996). Beyond victim and survivor: Sexual violence, identity, feminist theory and practice. In L.Adkins & V.Merchant (Eds.), Sexualizing the social: The social organization of power (pp. 77–101). London: Macmillan., , & (1996). “Nothing really happened”: The invalidation of women's experiences of sexual violence. In M.Hester, L.Kelly, & J.Radford (Eds.) Women, violence and male power (Reprint, pp. 31–33). Buckingham, UK: Open University Press., & (1991). An exploratory study of the prevalence of sexual abuse in a sample of 1244 16–21 year olds (Final Report to the ESRC: Child Abuse Studies Unit). University of North London., , & (1978). Circumcision and excision ceremonies. In J.Kennedy (Ed.), Nubian ceremonial life (pp. 151–170). Berkeley: University of California Press.(1992). Age preferences in mates reflect sex differences in reproductive strategies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 15, 75–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00067595, & (1987). On the cutting edge: Feminism and clitoridectomy. Australian Feminist Studies, 5(Summer), 35–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08164649.1987.9961564(1984). In search of answers: Indian women's voices from Manushi. In M.Kishwar & R.Vita (Eds.), Family violence (pp. 203–242). London: Zed., & (1994). Anti-lesbian harassment. In C.Brant & Y. L.Too (Eds.), Rethinking sexual harassment (pp. 125–147). London: Pluto.(1990). Rape and resistance. Social Problems, 17(2), 149–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1990.37.2.03a00020, & (1987). The developmental antecedents and adult adaptions of rapist subtypes. Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 14(4), 403–426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0093854887014004001, & (1987). The circumcision of women: A strategy for eradication. London: Zed.(1988). The hidden rape victim: Personality, attitudinal and situational variables. In A. W.Burgess (Ed.), Rape and sexual assault (Vol. 2, pp. 3–25). New York: Garland.(1989). Hidden rape: Sexual aggression and victimization in a national sample of students in higher education. In M.Pirog-Good & J.Stets (Eds.), Violence in dating relationships: Emerging social issues (pp. 145–168). New York: Praeger.(1992). The underdetection of rape: Methodological choices influence incidence estimates. Journal of Social Issues, 48(1), 61–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1992.tb01157.x([Page 242]1989). A conceptual analysis of rape victimization: Long-term effects and implications for treatment. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 13, 27–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7916%2877%2990014-3, & (1985). Sexual experiences survey: Reliability and validity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 422–423. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.53.3.422, & (1982). Sexual experiences survey: A research instrument investigating sexual aggression and victimization. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 455–457. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.50.3.455, & (1985). Female circumcision in Africa: An overview. African Studies Review, 28(1), 95–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/524569, & (1993). The red fez: Art and spirit possession in Africa (M.Green, Trans.). London: Verso.(1993). The history of doing: An illustrated account of movements for women's rights and feminism in India, 1800–1990. New Delhi: Kali for Women.(1995). Social bonding and the cessation of partner violence across generations. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 295–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353684, & (1992). Life is hard: Machismo, danger, and the intimacy of power in Nicaragua. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1994). The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press., , , & (1997). Ruling passions: Sexual violence, reputation and the law. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.(1992). The continuum of violence against women: Psychological and physical consequences. Journal of American College Health, 40, 149–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.1992.9936276(1989). Family violence in cross-cultural perspective. Newbury Park: Sage.(1983). Pharaonic circumcision of females in the Sudan. Medicine and Law, 2, 353–360.(1989a). Prisoners of ritual: An odyssey into female genital circumcision in Africa. New York: Harrington Park.(1989b). The sexual experience and marital adjustment of genitally circumcised and infibulated females in the Sudan. Journal of Sex Research, 26(3), 375–392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498909551521(1990). Motives and psychodynamics of self-reported, unincarcerated rapists. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 60, 268–280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079178, & (1995a). Feminist theory and violent empiricism (L.Schenck, Trans.). Aldershot, UK: Avebury.(1995b). Matters of life and death. Trouble and Strife, 31, 33–39.(1991). Anthropologists, moralities, and relativities: The problem of genital mutilations. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 18, 499–518. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-618X.1981.tb00068.x(1992). Gang rape in the townships. Trouble and Strife, 24, 30–34.(MacCormack, C., & Strathern, M. (Eds.). (1980). Nature, culture and gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.1979). Sexual harassment of working women. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(1989). Towards a feminist theory of the state. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1992). Reactions of women's groups to the proposed national survey on violence against women. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics.(1988). Challenging the orthodoxy: Towards a feminist theory and practice. Feminist Review (Family Secrets: Child Sexual Abuse), 28, 16–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/fr.1988.3, & (1991). Legal images of battered women: Redefining the issue of separation. Michigan Law Review, 90, 1–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1289533([Page 243]1986). Gender differences in courtship violence victimization. Family Relations, 35, 383–388. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/584365(1981). Rape proclivity among males. Journal of Social Issues, 37, 138–157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1981.tb01075.x(1983). Sexual arousal to rape depictions: Individual differences. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92, 55–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.92.1.55, & (1990). An integrated theory of the etiology of sexual offending. In W.Marshall, D. R.Laws, & H. E.Barbee (Eds.), Handbook of sexual assault. London: Plenum., & (1987). The woman in the body: A cultural analysis of reproduction. Boston: Beacon.(1991). The egg and the sperm: How science has constructed a romance based on stereotypical male-female roles. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 16(3), 485–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/494680(1992a). Introduction: Soft-tissue modification and the horror within. In F. E.Mascia-Lees & P.Sharpe (Eds.), Tatoo, torture, mutilation, and adornment: The denaturalization of the body in culture and text (pp. 1–9). Albany: State University of New York Press., & (1992b). The marked and the un(re)marked: Tattoo and gender in theory and narrative. In F. E.Mascia-Lees & P.Sharpe (Eds.), Tattoo, torture, mutilation, and adornment: The denaturalization of the body in culture and text (pp. 145–170). Albany: State University of New York Press., & (1989). Female sexual offenders: An exploratory study. Orwell, VT: Safer Society Press., & (1989). When yielding is not consenting: Material and psychic determinants of women's dominated consciousness and some of their interpretations in ethnology (Part 1). Feminist Issues, 9(2), 3–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02685605(1990). When yielding is not consenting (Part 2). Feminist Issues, 10(1), 51–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02686518(1989). Dowry and rape: Women against traditional discrimination. In Y.Matsui (Ed.), Women's Asia (pp. 75–89). London: Zed.(1994). Confronting rape: The feminist anti-rape movement and the state. London: Routledge.(1996). Sexual experiences and sexual abuse of women with learning disabilities. In M.Hester, L.Kelly, & J.Radford (Eds.) Women, violence and male power (pp. 119–129). Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.(1993). Family feuds: Gender, nationalism and the family. Feminist Review, 44, 61–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/fr.1993.21(1994). Wars against women. Trouble and Strife, 28, 12–18., , & (1980). Female circumcision, excision and infibulation: The facts and proposals for change (Report No. 47). London: Minority Rights Group.(1982). Women reason and nature: Some philosophical problems with feminism. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.(1994). It's part of life here: Security forces and harassment in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Committee on the Administration of Justice.(1993). The church, the state and the women's movement in Northern Ireland. In A.Smyth (Ed.), Irish women's studies reader (pp. 79–99). Dublin: Attic.(1994). The woman other. Fortnight: An independent review of politics and the arts in Northern Ireland, 328, 24–25.(1993). Bringing it out in the open: Domestic violence in Northern Ireland. Belfast: HMSO., & (1996). Taking domestic violence seriously: Issues for the criminal and civil justice system. Belfast: HMSO., & ([Page 244]1990). The offence of rape in the Islamic law of Pakistan. International Sociology of Law, 18, 19–29.(1989). Fatal violence among spouses in the United States, 1976–1985. American Journal of Public Health, 79, 595–599. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.79.5.595, & (1996, March 18). Global human rights and politics in local places. Paper presented at Butterworth Lecture, University of London, UK.(1997). Sexual alliances: Evidence and evolutionary implications. In P. A.Gowaty (Ed.), Feminism and evolutionary biology (pp. 207–257). New York: Chapman & Hall. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-5985-6_9(Messner, M., & Sabo, D. (Eds.). (1994). Sex, violence and power in sports: Rethinking masculinity. California: Crossing.1986). Patriarchy and accumulation on a world scale: Women in the international division of labour. London: Zed.(1991). Colinizing Egypt. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1991). Reflections on the women's movement and Trinidad: Calypsos, changes and sexual violence. Feminist Review, 38, 33–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/fr.1991.18(1991). Female circumcision and child mortality in urban Somalia. Genus, 67, 203–223.(1991). Under western eyes: Feminist scholarship and colonial discourse. In C. T.Mohanty, A.Russo, & L.Torres (Eds.) Third world women and the politics of feminism (pp. 51–80). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.(1985). Sexual/textual politics: Feminist literary theory. London: Routledge.(1988). Paternity and paternal care in the swallowHirundo rustica. Animal Behaviour, 36, 996–1005.(1980). Psychological approaches to criminal behavior. In E.Bittner & S.Messinger (Eds.), Criminology review yearbook (Vol. 2). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & (1986). Police response to wife assault. Belfast: Northern Ireland Women's Aid Federation., & (1991). Women and the knife: Cosmetic surgery and the colonization of women's bodies. Hypatia, 6(3), 25–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1527-2001.1991.tb00254.x(1994). Sexual offending against children: Assessment and treatment of male abusers. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203411773, , & (1991). Safeguarding women's bodies: The white man's burden medicalized. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 5(1), 19–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/maq.1991.5.1.02a00040(1966). Morbid jealousy and murder. London: Tavistock.(1994). Jealousy: A community study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 35–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.164.1.35, & (1966). Female circumcision and infibulation in the Sudan. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the British Commonwealth, 73, 302–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0528.1966.tb05163.x(Mutilation by any name. (1992, April 25). The Economist, 323, 46.Myers, J. (Ed.). (1994). The backlash: Child protection under fire. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.1985). Circumcision: Its nature and practice among some ethnic groups in southern Nigeria. Social Science and Medicine, 21(5), 581–588. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2885%2990043-7, , , & (1986). The view from nowhere. New York: Oxford University Press.(National Research Council. (1993). Understanding and preventing violence. Washington, DC: Author.1991). Sexual harassment in the military. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 15, 445–457. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767%2891%2990049-M, & (1993, February). Femicide in Israel: The social construction of a problem. Paper presented at the fifth International Interdisciplinary Congress on Women, San Jose, Costa Rica.([Page 245]Newburn, T., & Stanko, E. A. (Eds.). (1994). Just boys doing business? Men, masculinities and crime. London: Routledge.1994, May). Gender based violence and sexual assault in African women. Oxfam Report, 17–20.(1994). The impact of interviewer characteristics on response in a national survey of violence against women. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Statistical Association, Toronto., & (1995). British sex tourists in Thailand. In M.Maynard & J.Purvis (Eds.), (Hetero)sexual politics (pp. 42–46). London: Taylor and Francis.(1974). Is female to male as nature is to culture? In M. Z.Rosaldo & L.Lamphere (Eds.), Woman, culture and society (pp. 67–87). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.(1992). Broken promises, Sick people: An analysis of the Maori Women's Centre. Unpublished research paper, cited in M. Borst (1992).(1991, December). National bodies, unspeakable acts: The sexual politics of colonial policy-making. Journal of Modern History, 63(December), 647–680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/244384(1989). Sexual aggression in normal men: Incidence, beliefs and personality characteristics. Personality and Individual Differences, 10(3), 355–362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869%2889%2990109-8, , & (1994a). Masculinity, honour and confrontational homicide. In T.Newburn & E. A.Stanko (Eds.), Just boys doing business? Men, masculinities and crime (pp. 166–188). London: Routledge.(1994b). When men kill: Scenarios of masculine violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1983, November 11). Bringing an end to mutilation. New Statesman, 106, pp. 8–9.(1994, November). Violence against women in Brazil. Paper presented at Fighting Sexism North and South, War on Want Conference, London>.(1994). What is to be gained by looking white people in the eye? Culture, race, and gender in cases of sexual violence. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 19(4), 24–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/494944(1993). Giving birth to a new nation: A critique of the programme for the demographic renewal of Croatia. Rights of Women Bulletin, Spring, 13–15., & (1981). The socio-cultural context of rape: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Social Issues, 37(4), 5–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1981.tb01068.x(1990). Fraternity gang rape: Sex, brotherhood and privilege in campus. New York: New York University Press.(1992). Feminist methods in social research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1993, January). Nationalism and gender in postsocialist societies—Is nationalism female? Paper presented to Women and Politics Workshop, Politics Department, Queen's University, Belfast.(1988). Relativism and the search for human rights. American Anthropologist, 90(1), 56–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.1988.90.1.02a00040(1989). Prevention of child sexual abuse: Myth or reality. American Psychologist, October, 1266–1275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.10.1266, & (1980). Compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian existence. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 5(4), 631–660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/493756(1994). Women, culture and violence: A development, health and human rights issue. Leiden, Netherlands: Women and Autonomy Centre (VENA).(1978). Theories in marital violence: Evidence from a study of battered women. Victimology, 3, 11–31.([Page 246]Royal Ulster Constabulary. (1997). Belfast: Northern Ireland Information Office, Statistics Unit.1979). An evolutionary model of taste for risk. Economic Inquiry, 17, 585–596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-7295.1979.tb00549.x, & (1984). Sexual exploitation: Rape, child sex abuse, and workplace harassment. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1976). State bias and women's status. American Anthropologist, 78, 565–569. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.1976.78.3.02a00040(1969). ‘Honor’ crimes in contemporary Greece. British Journal of Sociology, 20, 205–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/588531(1994). Acts of abuse: Sex offenders and the criminal justice system. London: Routledge.(1990). Crime and deviance over the life course: The salience of adult social bonds. American Sociological Review, 55, 609–627. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095859, & (1988). Wife abuse, husband abuse, or mutual combat. In K.Yllö & M.Bograd (Eds.), Feminist perspectives on wife abuse (pp. 90–113). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1986). An investigation into the reasons for dowry murder in India. In M.Borst (Ed.), Women and domestic violence: An annotated bibliography. Leiden, Netherlands: Women and Autonomy Centre (VENA).(1991). Virgin territory: The male discovery of the clitoris. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 5(1), 25–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/maq.1991.5.1.02a00060(1987). The mindful body: A prolegomenon to future work in medical anthropology. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 1(1), 6–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/maq.1987.1.1.02a00020, & (1985). Female circumcision. American Journal of Nursing, 85, 684–687. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3425372(1996). Fraternity membership, rape myths, and sexual aggression on a college campus. Violence Against Women, 2, 148–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801296002002003, & (1991). Understanding sexual violence: A study of convicted rapists. Boston: Unwin Hyman.(1994). Crimes worse than death. Dublin: Attic.(1967). Circumcision and infibulation of females. Sudan Medical Journal, 5, 178–212.(1992). Every woman is in occupied territory: The politics of militarism and sexism and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Journal of Gender Studies, 1(4), 447–462. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09589236.1992.9960512(1985). Victorian clidoridectomy: Isacc Baker Brown and his harmless operative procedure. Feminist Issues, 5(1), 39–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02685571(1961). Morbid jealousy: Some clinical and social aspects of a psychiatric syndrome. Journal of Mental Science, 107, 687–753.(1992). The dangerousness of persons with misidentification syndromes. Bulletin of the American Academcy of Psychiatry and Law, 20, 77–86., , & (1993). Delusional misidentification and dangerousness: A neurobiologic hypothesis. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 38, 904–913., , , & (1983). Searching for meaning in misfortune: Making sense of incest. Journal of Social Issues, 39, 2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1983.tb00142.x, , & (1991). Personality and sexuality: Empirical relations and an integrative theoretical model. In K.McKinney & S.Sprecher (Eds.), Sexuality in close relationships (pp. 71–92). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (1984). Female circumcision: A critical appraisal. Human Rights Quarterly, 10, 437–486. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/761916(1987). The incidence and prevalence of women abuse in Toronto. Violence and Victims, 2, 33–47.(1990). Sociodemographic risk factors in wife abuse: Results from a survey of Toronto women. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 15(1), 39–58.([Page 247]1994). Enhancing the quality of survey data on violence against women: A feminist approach. Gender & Society, 8(1), 109–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124394008001007(1984). Human sperm competition. In R. L.Smith (Ed.), Sperm competition and the evolution of animal mating systems (pp. 601–659). Orlando, FL: Academic.(1978). The undetected rapist. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Claremont Graduate School.(1992). Male aggression against women: An evolutionary perspective. Human Nature, 3, 1–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02692265(1990). Inessential woman: Problems of exclusion in feminist thought. Boston: Women's Press.(1988). Hidden violence against women. In M.Maguire & J.Pointing (Eds.), Victims of crime: A new deal?Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.(1990). Everyday violence: How women and men experience sexual and physical danger. London: Pandora.(1996). Police advice to women in Britain. Violence Against Women, 2(1), 5–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801296002001002(Statistics Canada. (1993). Violence Against Women Survey questionnaire.Statistics Canada. (1994). Violence Against Women Survey. Public-use microdata file documentation and user's guide. Ottawa, Ontario: Ministry of Supply and Services.1977–1978). The battered husband syndrome. Victimology, 2(3–4), 499–509.(1990). Gender differences in reporting marital violence and its medical and psychological consequences. In M.Straus & R.Gelles (Eds.), Physical violence in American families: Risk factors and adaptations to violence in 8, 145 families (pp. 151–165). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction., & (1995). Race and the education of desire: Foucault's history of sexuality and the colonial order of things. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.(1980). Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: The Conflict Tactics (C.T.) Scales. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 41(1), 75–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/351733(1990). Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: The Conflict Tactics (CTS) Scales. In M.Straus & R.Gelles (Eds.), Physical violence in American families: Risk factors and adaptions to violence in 8, 145 families (pp. 29–47). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.(1996). The revised conflict tactics scales (CTS): Development and preliminary psychometric data. Journal of Family Issues, 17(3), 283–316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019251396017003001, , , & (1992). Let the good times roll: The sale of women's sexual labor around U.S. military bases in the Philippines, Okinawa and the southern part of Korea. New York: Free Press., & (Sudan Government. (1982). The Sudan fertility survey, 1979. Vol. 1: Principal report. Khartoum: Department of Statistics.1993). Transforming women into “pure” agnates: Aspects of female infibulation in Somalia. In V.Broch-Due, I.Rudie, & T.Bleie (Eds.), Carved flesh, cast selves: Gendered symbols and social practices (pp. 83–107). Oxford: Berg.(1993). Motives in sexual aggression: The Chinese context. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 8(4), 435–445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626093008004001, , & (1990). Mimesis and alterity: A particular history of the senses. New York: Routledge.(1983). Women's fight for the abolition of sexual mutilation. International Social Science Journal, 35(4), 747–756.(1983). Human rape: An evolutionary analysis. Ethology & Sociobiology, 4, 137–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0162-3095%2883%2990027-4, & (1992). The evolutionary psychology of men's coercive sexuality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 15, 363–421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00069120, & ([Page 248]1992). Violent men: An inquiry into the psychology of violence ((2nd ed.). Chicago: Aldine. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10135-0001993). Good violence and bad violence: Self-presentations of aggressors through accounts and war stories. In R. B.Felson & J. T.Tedeschi (Eds.), Aggression and violence: Social interactionist perspectives (pp. 193–208). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10123-008(1990). On the universality of human nature and the uniqueness of the individual: The role of genetics and adaptation. Journal of Personality, 58, 17–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1990.tb00907.x, & (1985). The social and political implications of female circumcision: The case of the Sudan. In E. W.Fernea (Ed.), Women and the family in the Middle East (pp. 148–159). Austin: University of Texas Press.(1994). Female circumcision as a public health issue. New England Journal of Medicine, 331(1), 712–716. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199409153311106(1995). Female genital mutilation: A call for global action ((2nd ed.). New York: Rainbow/Women Ink.1972). Parental investment and sexual selection. In B.Campbell (Ed.), Sexual selection and the descent of man, 1871–1971. Chicago: Aldine.(United Nations Draft Declaration. (1992). Draft declaration on violence against women in all its forms. (Report of the Secretary-General. Commission on the Status of Women, UNDOC. E/CN. 6/1992/4, Article 2, p. 4).1992). Female circumcision and gender identity: A questionable alliance?Social Science and Medicine, 35(6), 777–787. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2892%2990077-4(1968). On the pathogenesis of morbid jealousy. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 44(Suppl.), 202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1968.tb07505.x(1975). Sequelae of female circumcision. Tropical Doctor, 5, 163–169.(1991). Overcoming endemic violence against women in South Africa. Social Justice, 18(1–2), 209–229., & (1992). Violence in the streets: Anti-lesbian assault and harassment in San Francisco. In G.Herek & K.Berrill (Eds.), Hate crimes: Confronting violence against lesbians and gay men (pp. 65–75). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1992). Possessing the secrets of joy. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.(1986). Homicide: The social reality. Sydney: New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research.(1994, April). Ethnicity, nationalism and women. Paper presented to Centre for Research on Women Workshop, University of Ulster, Coleraine.(1993, February). Militarism, imperialism, colonialism and the trafficking of women: Military comfort women forced by Japanese soldiers. Paper presented at the fifth International Interdisciplinary Congress on Women, San Jose, Costa Rica.(1994). Child sexual abusers. Edinburgh: Scottish Office Central Research Unit., , & (1987). Sexual crimes and confrontation. London: Gower.(1989). Prevalence of child sex rings. Pediatrics, 83(4), 553–558.(1966). Adaptation and natural selection. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(1989). Controlling male aggression in intimate relationships. Law and Society Review, 23(4), 591–612. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3053849, & (1993, August). Recall of childhood trauma: A prospective study of women's memories of child sexual abuse. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Phoenix.(1976). Keywords: A vocabulary of culture and society. London: Oxford University Press.(1985). Competitiveness, risk-taking and violence: The young male syndrome. Ethology & Sociobiology, 6, 59–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0162-3095%2885%2990041-X, & ([Page 249]1992a). The man who mistook his wife for a chattel. In J.Barkow, L.Cosmides, & J.Tooby (Eds.) The adapted mind. New York: Oxford University Press., & (1992b). Who kills whom in spouse killings? On the exceptional sex ratio of spousal homicides in the United States. Criminology, 30, 189–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1992.tb01102.x, & (1993a). An evolutionary psychological perspective on male sexual proprietariness and violence against wives. Violence and Victims, 8, 271–294., & (1993b). Spousal homicide risk and estrangement. Violence and Victims, 8, 3–16., & (1994). Spousal homicide. Statistics Canada, 14(8) 1–15., & (1995). Familicide: The killing of spouses and children. Aggressive Behaviour, 21, 275–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1098-2337%281995%2921:4%3C275::AID-AB2480210404%3E3.0.CO;2-S, , & (1993). Uxoricide in Canada: Demographic risk patterns. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 35, 263–291., , & (1995). Lethal and nonlethal violence against wives. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 37, 331–361., , & (1997). An empirical test of the bodyguard hypothesis. In P.Gowaty (Ed.), Feminism and evolutionary biology (pp. 505–511). New York: Chapman & Hall. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-5985-6_21, & (1995). A Muslim perspective on female circumcision. Women & Health, 23(1), 1–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J013v23n01_01(1994). Women, the law, and sexual relativism in France: The case of excision. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 19, 939–974. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/494946(World Health Organization. (1979). Traditional practices affecting the health of women and children. (Technical Publication No. 2). Alexandria: WHO/EMRO.World Health Organization. (1986). A traditional practice that threatens health—Female circumcision. WHO Chronicle, 40(1), 31–36.1995). The moral animal. New York: Pantheon.(Wyatt, G. E., & Powell, G. J. (Eds.). (1988). Lasting effects of child sexual abuse. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.1993). Face-processing impairments and the capgras delusion. British Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 695–698. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.162.5.695, , , & (1994). Women and ethnic cleansing. Women Against Fundamentalism Journal, 5(1), 34–36.(
About the Editors[Page 271]
Rebecca Emerson Dobash is Professor of Social Research and Russell P. Dobash is Professor of Criminology in the Department of Social Policy and Social Work at the University of Manchester, U.K.; they are codirectors of the Violence Research Centre. They have coauthored several books, numerous government reports, and scores of articles in journals and scholarly anthologies. Their books include Violence Against Wives (1979); The Imprisonment of Women (1986); Women Viewing Violence (1992); Women, Violence and Social Change (1992); and Research Evaluation of Programmes for Violent Men (1997). Violence Against Wives won the World Congress of Victimology Award, and Women, Violence and Social Change won the American Society of Criminology's Distinguished Book Award for Comparative Research. They have also won the American Criminological Association's August Vollmer Award.
They have twice been scholars in residence at the Rockefeller Foundation Study and Conference Centre in Bellagio, Italy; have held fellowships and/or research grants from the Fulbright Foundation, the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation, the Economic and Social Research Council, and several British governmental departments; and have been International Fellows in Criminology at the University of Melbourne.
In over two decades of research on violence, they have collaborated with colleagues in many academic disciplines, worked with women's groups in several countries, and served as research advisors [Page 272]to agencies of the British, U.S., and Australian governments. Their current research includes study of convicted child sex abusers; an evaluation of criminal justice-based treatment programs for violent men; study of bodybuilding, steroids, and violence; a comparison of men's and women's accounts of violent events; and an international comparison of violence and homicide. As committed scholars, they believe that knowledge should play a role in formulating positive responses to important social issues and also in helping advance the process of social change.
About the Contributors[Page 273]
Janice Boddy is Professor of Anthropology at the University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. She is the author of Wombs and Alien Spirits: Women, Men, and the Zar Cult in Northern Sudan (1989) and of numerous articles and reviews, and she is coauthor of Aman: The Story of a Somali Girl (1994; translated into 14 languages). She is currently researching attempts by British colonial administrators during the first half of the 20th century to “civilize” Sudanese women's bodies by introducing biomedical and educational reform.
Martin Daly is Professor of Psychology and Biology at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. He is coauthor with Margo Wilson of the textbook Sex, Evolution and Behavior (2nd ed., 1983) and the research monograph Homicide (1988). He is coeditor-in-chief of the journals Behavior and Evolution and Human Behavior and has published the results of his research on nonhuman animal behavior, human behavior, and psychology in more than 100 journal articles and book chapters. He has been elected to the executive committees 1of the Animal Behavior Society, the International Society for Behavioral Ecology, and the Human Behavior and Evolution Society, of which he is a past president. He is a former J. S. Guggenheim Fellow, Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada.[Page 274]
Holly Johnson is a Senior Analyst at Statistics Canada and Project Manager of Statistics Canada's national Violence Against Women Survey. She has been working for the past 10 years on ways to improve statistical methods of measuring women's experiences of violence and fear of victimization and has authored a number of publications on this and other related topics. She is currently completing a doctoral dissertation in the Department of Social Policy and Social Work at the University of Manchester, U.K., on the social control of wife battering.
Liz Kelly is a feminist researcher and activist and Director of the Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit (CWASU), University of North London, which conducts research, training, and consultancy work in the areas of child sexual abuse and domestic violence. She has worked in the field of violence against women and children for more than 20 years and has been active in establishing and working in local services including refuges and rape crisis centers and in local, regional and national groups. She is the author of Surviving Sexual Violence 50 book chapters and journal articles. She chaired the Council of Europe Group of Specialists that produced a Plan of Action on violence against women.
Eva Lundgren is Professor of Feminist Studies in Sociology at the University of Uppsala, Sweden. She has carried out analyses of feminist theory, empirical investigations of sexualized violence, exorcism in contemporary Norway, the nature of counseling in the Norwegian State Church, and ritual abuse. She has worked on the dialectical relationship between theoretical development and empirical analyses and on interactions between gendered identity and the gendered body. She established and developed the first Norwegian Centre for Feminist Research in the Humanities in Bergen. She is the author of The Lost Daughter: Feminist Theology and Women's Liberation (1982); In the Grip of the Lord(s) (1985); Ministers in Passion and Sin (1987); God and All Other Men (1990); Violent Empiricism and Feminist Theory (1993); and Suffer the Little Children to Come Unto Me: Ritual and Sexual Abuse (1994).
Monica McWilliams is a Professor of Social Policy and Women's Studies and is course director of the M.A. degree in Women's Studies, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland. Her main areas of study are health and social service responses to domestic violence in Northern [Page 275]Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. She is the author of Bring It Out in the Open: Domestic Violence in Northern Ireland (1993), with J. McKiernan, and Taking Domestic Violence Seriously: Issues for the Criminal and Civil Justice System (1996), with L. Spence. Since 1996, she has served as the elected representative for the Northern Ireland Women's Coalition to the Multi-Party Peace Negotiations on the future of Northern Ireland, chaired by Senator George Mitchell, former speaker of the U.S. Senate. The Negotiations include ten political parties, who are considering the issues of future governance, decommissioning of arms; constitutional issues between Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Britain; and working toward building new relationships between them. In this capacity, she has been involved in discussions at the presidential level with the United States and South Africa. She also serves on the government working party on domestic violence and has worked to involve more women in decision making about political and social institutions and in challenging politicians to be more inclusive of women's voices in situations of political conflict.
Jill Radford is a Reader in Criminology and Women's Studies at the University of Teesside, U.K. She was with Rights of Women for nine years, at the same time teaching Criminology and Women's Studies at the Open University and the University of Westminster, U.K. She was one of the founding members of the British Sociology Association's Violence Against Women Study Group and has published extensively on this issue. She was a coeditor with Liz Kelly and Marianne Hester of Women, Violence and Male Power: Feminism, Activism, Research and Practice (1996) and with Diana E. H. Russell coedited Femicide: The Politics of Woman Killing (1992).
Margo Wilson is Professor of Psychology at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The results of her research on violence, especially violence against wives, have been published in numerous scientific journals and many edited volumes as well as a monograph (Homicide), coauthored with Martin Daly. She has been a Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioural Sciences (1989–90) and was coholder of the PNM endowed chair for visiting scholars at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (1996–1997). She is on the editorial boards of The Gang Journal, Homicide Studies, Human Nature, Theoretical Criminology, and Evolution & Human Behavior, [Page 276]of which she is coeditor-in-chief. She is currently President of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society (1997–1999) and is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada.