Rethinking Violence Against Women
This cutting-edge volume advances theories, methodologies and policy analyses relating to various forms of violence against women. Topics covered include: the nature, importance and variety of cultural contexts in which violence occurs, is reproduced and may be challenged or changed; the nature and variety of sexualized violence; and a range of theoretical perspectives on perpetrators of violence. Taking an interdisciplinary focus on issues that affect community and state responses, the book includes individual accounts, and incorporates themes related to authority, sexual proprietariness, asymmetry of violence, socialization, patterns and deviations of victims and offenders, and social and cultural contexts.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Cross-Border Encounters: Challenges and Opportunities
- Violence(s), Concepts, and Definitions
- Working across Disciplines
- Methods of Study
- The Importance of Context
- The Extent of Violence against Women
- Physical and Sexual Attacks on the Body: Definitions of “What Counts,” “Marking” the Body, and “Making” the Person
- Intimate Violence in the Context of Violence in the Wider Society
- The Violent Event, Masculinity, and the Context of Male Culture
- Constructing Gender Through Violence, Enacting Gender Through Violence
- Chapter 2: Rethinking Survey Research on Violence against Women
- Traditional Crime-Victim Surveys
- The Conflict Tactics Approach
- The Violence against Women Survey
- Constructing Definitions of Violence
- The Prevalence of Violence against Women
- Test of a Theory of Assaults on Wives
- Chapter 3: Sexual Violence against Women and Girls: An Approach to an International Overview
- Emergence and Development of Issues
- Power and Male Domination
- Offenders and Male Sexual Aggression
- Impacts and Consequences
- Institutional and Social Responses
- Normalization and Resistance
- Chapter 4: Violence Embodied? Circumcision, Gender Politics, and Cultural Aesthetics
- Practices and the Literature
- Marriageability and Identity: Toward a Concept of Embodiment
- On the Politics of Aesthetics
- Chapter 5: Violence against Women in Societies under Stress
- What Constitutes Violence against Women in Conflictual Societies?
- Violence against Women in Conflict Situations
- Violence against Women in the Family
- Political Conflict and Domestic Violence: The Example of Northern Ireland
- Chapter 6: Violent Men and Violent Contexts
- Violent Acts and Violent Actors
- The Constellation of Violence: Violence, Injuries, and Controlling Behaviors
- Men, Masculine Identity, and Violence
- Chapter 7: The Hand That Strikes and Comforts: Gender Construction and the Tension between Body and Symbol
- The Symbols of Violence or the Aesthetics of the Gender Battle? A Symbolic Field Based on Bodily Movement and Contact
- The Masculine Symbolic Trinity: The Hand, the Strap, and the Phallus
- Women's Sexual Morphology of Touch as a Symbolic Basis
- Striking and Comforting—Or the Hand as a Constitutive Category
- A Violent Sex Life: Regulative Flexibility and Basic Constitutive Patterns
- “The Stone” and “The Sea”: “Different” or “The Same”?
- “Different” Contents—“The Same” Function?
- The Division between the Bodily and the Symbolic “Self”—The Strategy of the Abused Woman
- The Body as a Category for Change?
- Conclusion: A More Open Approach to Gender Theory?
- Chapter 8: Lethal and Nonlethal Violence against Wives and the Evolutionary Psychology of Male Sexual Proprietariness
- Psychological Links between Sexual Proprietariness and Violence
- An Evolutionary Psychological Framework for Understanding Links between Male Sexual Proprietariness and Violence against Wives
- Hypotheses about Patterned Variations in Male Sexual Proprietariness and Violence
- Violence against Wives and Children
- Concluding Remarks
Sage Series on Violence against Women[Page ii]
Claire M. Renzetti
St. Joseph's University
Jeffrey L. Edleson
University of Minnesota
In this series …
I AM NOT YOUR VICTIM: Anatomy of Domestic Violence by Beth Sipe and Evelyn J. Hall
WIFE RAPE: Understanding the Response of Survivors and Service Providers by Raquel Kennedy Bergen
FUTURE INTERVENTIONS WITH BATTERED WOMEN AND THEIR FAMILIES edited by Jeffrey L. Edleson and Zvi C. Eisikovits
WOMEN'S ENCOUNTERS WITH VIOLENCE: Australian Experiences edited by Sandy Cook and Judith Bessant
WOMAN ABUSE ON CAMPUS: Results From the Canadian National Survey by Walter S. DeKeseredy and Martin D. Schwartz
RURAL WOMAN BATTERING AND THE JUSTICE SYSTEM: An Ethnography by Neil Websdale
ATHLETES AND ACQUAINTANCE RAPE by Jeffrey R. Benedict
SAFETY PLANNING WITH BATTERED WOMEN: Complex Lives/Difficult Choices by Jill Davies, Eleanor Lyon, and Diane Monti-Catania
RETHINKING VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN edited by R. Emerson Dobash and Russell P. Dobash
EMPOWERING SURVIVORS OF ABUSE: Health Care for Battered Women and Their Children edited by Jacquelyn Campbell
BATTERED WOMEN, CHILDREN, AND WELFARE REFORM: The Ties That Bind edited by Ruth A. Brandwein
Copyright © 1998 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Main entry under title:
Rethinking violence against women / edited by R. Emerson
Dobash and Russell P. Dobash.
p. cm. – (Sage series on violence against women; v. 9)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7619-1186-3 (cloth: acid free paper)
ISBN 0-7619-1187-1 (pbk.: acid free paper)
1. Women–Crimes against. 2. Sexual harassment of women. 3. Family violence. 4. Wife abuse. 5. Women–Social conditions. I. Dobash, R. Emerson. II. Dobash, Russell. III. Series.
HV6250.4.W65 R47 1998
98 99 00 01 02 03 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: C. Terry Hendrix
Editorial Assistant: Fiona Lyon
Production Editor: Diana E. Axelsen
Editorial Assistant: Denise Santoyo
Typesetter/Designer: Rose Tylak
Indexer: Trish Wittenstein
This anthology benefited from two conferences funded by the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation in 1993 and 1995, where scholars from diverse disciplines had an opportunity to discuss their work and current thinking about violence against women. For that early part of the project, we wish to thank Karen Colvard and Joel Wallman of the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation. We also wish to thank all the authors for their commitment to this project and willingness to continue as it grew and changed; Dorothy Anderson, who faithfully and professionally recorded the proceedings of the first conference in Carmona, Spain; and Lauren McAllister, who had more than her fair share of technological blips processing text and computer discs on the way to the final manuscript. We also wish to acknowledge support from the Scottish office, the Home Office, the Rockefeller Foundation, NATO, and the Carnegie Foundation. The final collection and the contents herein are the sole responsibility of the editors and authors.
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About the Editors[Page 271]
Rebecca Emerson Dobash is Professor of Social Research and Russell P. Dobash is Professor of Criminology in the Department of Social Policy and Social Work at the University of Manchester, U.K.; they are codirectors of the Violence Research Centre. They have coauthored several books, numerous government reports, and scores of articles in journals and scholarly anthologies. Their books include Violence Against Wives (1979); The Imprisonment of Women (1986); Women Viewing Violence (1992); Women, Violence and Social Change (1992); and Research Evaluation of Programmes for Violent Men (1997). Violence Against Wives won the World Congress of Victimology Award, and Women, Violence and Social Change won the American Society of Criminology's Distinguished Book Award for Comparative Research. They have also won the American Criminological Association's August Vollmer Award.
They have twice been scholars in residence at the Rockefeller Foundation Study and Conference Centre in Bellagio, Italy; have held fellowships and/or research grants from the Fulbright Foundation, the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation, the Economic and Social Research Council, and several British governmental departments; and have been International Fellows in Criminology at the University of Melbourne.
In over two decades of research on violence, they have collaborated with colleagues in many academic disciplines, worked with women's groups in several countries, and served as research advisors [Page 272]to agencies of the British, U.S., and Australian governments. Their current research includes study of convicted child sex abusers; an evaluation of criminal justice-based treatment programs for violent men; study of bodybuilding, steroids, and violence; a comparison of men's and women's accounts of violent events; and an international comparison of violence and homicide. As committed scholars, they believe that knowledge should play a role in formulating positive responses to important social issues and also in helping advance the process of social change.
About the Contributors[Page 273]
Janice Boddy is Professor of Anthropology at the University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. She is the author of Wombs and Alien Spirits: Women, Men, and the Zar Cult in Northern Sudan (1989) and of numerous articles and reviews, and she is coauthor of Aman: The Story of a Somali Girl (1994; translated into 14 languages). She is currently researching attempts by British colonial administrators during the first half of the 20th century to “civilize” Sudanese women's bodies by introducing biomedical and educational reform.
Martin Daly is Professor of Psychology and Biology at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. He is coauthor with Margo Wilson of the textbook Sex, Evolution and Behavior (2nd ed., 1983) and the research monograph Homicide (1988). He is coeditor-in-chief of the journals Behavior and Evolution and Human Behavior and has published the results of his research on nonhuman animal behavior, human behavior, and psychology in more than 100 journal articles and book chapters. He has been elected to the executive committees 1of the Animal Behavior Society, the International Society for Behavioral Ecology, and the Human Behavior and Evolution Society, of which he is a past president. He is a former J. S. Guggenheim Fellow, Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada.[Page 274]
Holly Johnson is a Senior Analyst at Statistics Canada and Project Manager of Statistics Canada's national Violence Against Women Survey. She has been working for the past 10 years on ways to improve statistical methods of measuring women's experiences of violence and fear of victimization and has authored a number of publications on this and other related topics. She is currently completing a doctoral dissertation in the Department of Social Policy and Social Work at the University of Manchester, U.K., on the social control of wife battering.
Liz Kelly is a feminist researcher and activist and Director of the Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit (CWASU), University of North London, which conducts research, training, and consultancy work in the areas of child sexual abuse and domestic violence. She has worked in the field of violence against women and children for more than 20 years and has been active in establishing and working in local services including refuges and rape crisis centers and in local, regional and national groups. She is the author of Surviving Sexual Violence 50 book chapters and journal articles. She chaired the Council of Europe Group of Specialists that produced a Plan of Action on violence against women.
Eva Lundgren is Professor of Feminist Studies in Sociology at the University of Uppsala, Sweden. She has carried out analyses of feminist theory, empirical investigations of sexualized violence, exorcism in contemporary Norway, the nature of counseling in the Norwegian State Church, and ritual abuse. She has worked on the dialectical relationship between theoretical development and empirical analyses and on interactions between gendered identity and the gendered body. She established and developed the first Norwegian Centre for Feminist Research in the Humanities in Bergen. She is the author of The Lost Daughter: Feminist Theology and Women's Liberation (1982); In the Grip of the Lord(s) (1985); Ministers in Passion and Sin (1987); God and All Other Men (1990); Violent Empiricism and Feminist Theory (1993); and Suffer the Little Children to Come Unto Me: Ritual and Sexual Abuse (1994).
Monica McWilliams is a Professor of Social Policy and Women's Studies and is course director of the M.A. degree in Women's Studies, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland. Her main areas of study are health and social service responses to domestic violence in Northern [Page 275]Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. She is the author of Bring It Out in the Open: Domestic Violence in Northern Ireland (1993), with J. McKiernan, and Taking Domestic Violence Seriously: Issues for the Criminal and Civil Justice System (1996), with L. Spence. Since 1996, she has served as the elected representative for the Northern Ireland Women's Coalition to the Multi-Party Peace Negotiations on the future of Northern Ireland, chaired by Senator George Mitchell, former speaker of the U.S. Senate. The Negotiations include ten political parties, who are considering the issues of future governance, decommissioning of arms; constitutional issues between Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Britain; and working toward building new relationships between them. In this capacity, she has been involved in discussions at the presidential level with the United States and South Africa. She also serves on the government working party on domestic violence and has worked to involve more women in decision making about political and social institutions and in challenging politicians to be more inclusive of women's voices in situations of political conflict.
Jill Radford is a Reader in Criminology and Women's Studies at the University of Teesside, U.K. She was with Rights of Women for nine years, at the same time teaching Criminology and Women's Studies at the Open University and the University of Westminster, U.K. She was one of the founding members of the British Sociology Association's Violence Against Women Study Group and has published extensively on this issue. She was a coeditor with Liz Kelly and Marianne Hester of Women, Violence and Male Power: Feminism, Activism, Research and Practice (1996) and with Diana E. H. Russell coedited Femicide: The Politics of Woman Killing (1992).
Margo Wilson is Professor of Psychology at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The results of her research on violence, especially violence against wives, have been published in numerous scientific journals and many edited volumes as well as a monograph (Homicide), coauthored with Martin Daly. She has been a Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioural Sciences (1989–90) and was coholder of the PNM endowed chair for visiting scholars at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (1996–1997). She is on the editorial boards of The Gang Journal, Homicide Studies, Human Nature, Theoretical Criminology, and Evolution & Human Behavior, [Page 276]of which she is coeditor-in-chief. She is currently President of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society (1997–1999) and is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada.