Rethinking Corrections: Rehabilitation, Reentry, and Reintegration


Lior Gideon & Hung-En Sung

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
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  • Dedication

    To my sons, Jonathan and Eithan: May you have the insight to be tolerant and understanding of others' needs.

    —L. Gideon

    To my parents and my wife for their never-ending support.

    —H.-E. Sung


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    Although the topic of rehabilitation, reentry, and reintegration is not a new one, it has become a more pressing issue worldwide. In American society alone, the number of offenders returning to the community after serving a term of prison incarceration has risen to around 700,000 annually, resulting in nearly 7 million formerly incarcerated people who are estimated to be released back to their home communities in the next decade. Fortunately, continuous experimentation in new rehabilitation approaches and the evaluation of these treatment and service innovations in the past two decades have yielded a very rich, albeit poorly integrated, body of research literature on successful policies, effective models, and best practices in corrections. This book fills a void in the literature for training future correctional professionals by providing an accessible collection of state-of-the-art empirical studies and theoretical discussions. It is hoped that readers of this book will be exposed to findings from the most recent and rigorous research and learn to develop critical thinking in the complex issues of rehabilitation, reentry, and reintegration, with help from some of the most prominent experts in the field.

    Acknowledging the complexity of the rehabilitation and reintegration process, this book seeks to present a more complete spectrum of these processes, beginning with the assessment stage, followed by specific intervention modalities, through a discussion of a theoretical model that defines and incorporates the three common concepts of rehabilitation, reentry, and reintegration. Specifically, this book explores the challenges experienced by convicted offenders during rehabilitation and reintegration and suggests relevant policy implications. The book uses a unique approach that examines what the public think our policy should be in regard to convicted offenders. At the same time, it presents an examination of convicted offenders from the beginning stages of incarceration—intake and risk and need assessment—through their release to the community, including the barriers they experience in the community, such as postrelease supervision and the need to obtain legitimate employment and adequate health care, negotiate their social surroundings, and rebuild family life. In the concluding chapter, a theoretical discussion is presented in an effort to clarify what rehabilitation, reentry, and reintegration are and how they are related to one another.

    The book has 16 chapters, including an introduction and conclusion to fit a semester-based course and thus to be used as a primary textbook. Each chapter focuses on a specific stage or aspect of the rehabilitation and reintegration process using original evidence-based conceptual material not published elsewhere. Each chapter is followed by discussion questions and supplementary readings that will promote critical thinking and class discussion. However, the astute reader will find each chapter in this book is also linked to the others. Consequently, the chapters of the book can be divided into six different sections:

    A key feature of the book is an integrative summary with conclusions regarding the main findings and concepts across all the chapters. In this summary chapter we suggest a theory that will clear the mist of confusion about what the different stages of the reentry process are.

    We wish you an invigorating experience that will reinforce your understanding of the topics discussed in this book, and if you are a first-time student of corrections, we hope this book will change how you think about corrections and offenders.



    The idea for this book came from another comparative corrections text that the first editor was working on. That text was not published but gave life to a new idea. The process was invigorating, and we had the opportunity to work with ambitious people; some were practitioners, some scholars, and some both. Their names appear on the chapters they contributed. Each one of them inspired us and taught us a great deal, from a different approach and perspective. However, we all share a common understanding that something must be done to address the current crisis in our correctional system and in the way we deal with criminals.

    Equally important to this project are the people who made it possible. We would like to thank Jerry Westby, Sage's executive editor, and his assistant, Eve Oettinger, as well as the editorial team for their impeccable work, including production editor Karen Wiley and copy editor Carol Anne Peschke. Jerry and Eve were our lighthouse in the stormy and fickle sea of scholarship. In particular, Jerry gave us a guiding hand in arranging contributions to the text, and he provided good advice and reassurance whenever the need arose. Jerry believed in our work and in this project, and this is all we could ask for. Eve was always available to us and was very quick to find solutions and answers to all our queries. With her very studious and insightful comments Carol provided us with invaluable support. Her masterful editing helped bridge the different voices of contributors, thus improving the chapters dramatically, and for that we are thankful. We also want to thank Marlene Lipson, our personal editor, for her preliminary work on some of the chapters. We were truly blessed by our team of editors!

    One of our many concerns was the review stage. This was not an easy task because each contributor has a different writing style, and sometimes these styles pulled in different directions. By now it is obvious that we succeeded in drawing them together. However, this would not have been possible without the input of our colleagues, who shared their ideas and criticism with one aim in mind: to improve this project. Their input was insightful and helped us and our contributors to revise their work while aligning the chapters to convey the idea of this book in a coherent fashion. In no particular order, we would like to express our gratitude to Karin Dudash, Cameron University; Kent Kerley, University of Alabama; Jessie Krienert, Illinois State University; Jodi Lane, University of Florida; Natasha Frost, Northeastern University; Deborah Baskin, California State University at Los Angeles; Jeb Booth, Salem State College; Terry Campbell, Kaplan University School of Criminal Justice; Sharon Green, Louisiana State University at Shreveport; Patricia Joffer, South Dakota University; Eric Metchik, Salem State College; Tom Rutherford, West Virginia University at Parkersburg; Gaylene Armstrong, Sam Houston State University; Shannon M. Barton, Indiana State University; Susan F. Brinkley, University of Tampa; and Peggy Maynes, Kaplan University and Iowa Department of Corrections. This book is the result of a truly peer-reviewed effort, and for this we are grateful.

    Special thanks to Lior Gideon's son, Jonathan Gideon, who searched the Web to find the photo that is now the cover of this book. Jonathan, you are amazing!

  • About the Editors

    Lior Gideon, Ph.D., is an associate professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York. He specializes in corrections-based program evaluation and focuses his research on rehabilitation, reentry, and reintegration, particularly by examining offenders' perceptions of their needs. His research interests also involve international and comparative corrections-related public opinion surveys and their effect on policy. Dr. Gideon has published several manuscripts on these topics and is completing his third book on offenders' needs during reintegration, to be published by Springer. Dr. Gideon earned his Ph.D. from the Institute of Criminology at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Maryland's Bureau of Governmental Research.

    Hung-En Sung, Ph.D., is an associate professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. He specializes in substance abuse and comparative analysis of crime and justice and has published extensively on these issues. In the area of substance abuse policy and practice, his current work focuses on the diversion and treatment of chronic offenders with co-occurring disorders and the practice and impact of faith-based substance abuse treatment. His comparative research has revolved around the impact of democratization on political corruption and the administration of criminal justice.

    About the Contributors

    Cynthia Calkins-Mercado, Ph.D., is an assistant professor of psychology at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York. Her research examines empirical evidence underlying legislation and policy on sex offenders. Dr. Mercado is also involved in a major study of the causes and context of sexual abuse of minors by Catholic clergy.

    Melissa Dahabieh has an M.A. in criminology from Simon Fraser University. Her research interests include risk management and community reintegration for high-risk sexual offenders. She works as a researcher for the government of Canada.

    Nadine Deslauriers-Varin is a Ph.D. student at the School of Criminology, Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, Canada. Her Ph.D. thesis aims to investigate innovations in modus operandi and offending patterns of high-risk sex offenders. She holds the prestigious Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarship. Her research focuses on police investigation and police interrogation.

    Beverly D. Frazier is an assistant professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. She earned her Ph.D. in social welfare from the University of Pennsylvania, where she completed a cross-sectional prisoner reentry study in Philadelphia. Dr. Frazier is also a nonresident fellow at the Center for African Studies and Program for Research on Religion and Urban Civil Society, both at the University of Pennsylvania, and has researched and written extensively on various aspects of prisoner reentry.

    Georgen Guerrero is a faculty member at Texas State University and earned his Ph.D. in criminal justice with a specialization in criminology from Sam Houston State University. His areas of expertise include criminology, juvenile delinquency, penology, and ethics. Dr. Guerrero's research focuses primarily on incarcerated populations and unethical practices by criminal justice practitioners. His research has led to several refereed publications in the areas of criminology, penology, and juvenile justice. In 2008 he was awarded the William L. Simon/Anderson Publishing Outstanding Student Paper Award and the Academy of Criminal Justice Affirmative Action Mini-Grant Award for his research in corrections. He is a member of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, American Society of Criminology, Southwestern Association of Criminal Justice, and Texas Association of Criminal Justice Educators. Dr. Guerrero has more than 10 years of field experience in several criminal justice agencies working in many supervisory and nonsupervisory positions, such as adult probation officer, juvenile probation officer, detention shift supervisor, and detention intake supervisor.

    Gail Y. Hsiao is a doctoral student at American University. She has a law degree from the National Cheng-Chi University and a master's degree in criminal justice from John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York. Ms. Hsiao is involved in several funded research projects on the treatment of substance abusers, the performance of victim service agencies, and the comparative analysis of public attitudes toward correctional policies.

    Elizabeth L. Jeglic, Ph.D., is an associate professor of psychology at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York. Her research interests include the treatment and assessment of sex offenders and sex offender legislation. Along with her colleague, Dr. Cynthia Calkins-Mercado, she recently received a National Institute of Justice Grant to study sex offender placement decisions in New Jersey.

    Andrea Leverentz is an assistant professor of sociology and the director of the graduate certificate program in forensic services at the University of Massachusetts, Boston. She earned her Ph.D. from the Department of Sociology at the University of Chicago. She previously worked in the office of the Illinois attorney general, where she conducted research on community development, delinquency prevention programs, and law enforcement responses to street gangs. Her primary research interests are ex-prisoner reentry, public attitudes toward crime and reentry, and communities and crime. Her current research addresses the reentry experiences of women and how communities construct the “crime problem.” Her work has appeared in the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency; in addition, she is completing a book manuscript on the social context of women's reentry from prison.

    Natalie Loveland earned her M.A. in criminal justice, with a specialization in criminology and deviance, from John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Her thesis, “Public's Perception on Prisoner Reentry, Reintegration, and Rehabilitation,” has been incorporated into this book. She trained as a police officer at the St. Johns River Community College, where she graduated as a squad leader and second academically in her graduating class. Currently she is a law enforcement officer with the Gainesville Police Department in Florida.

    Patrick Lussier, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the School of Criminology at Simon Fraser University. He is the co-director of the Centre for Research on Sexual Violence and a member of the Centre for Social Responsibility at Simon Fraser University. Lussier is the co-principal investigator of the Vancouver Longitudinal Study, which examines the psychosocial development of a cohort of at-risk children. His major research interest is the origins of aggression and violence. His research focuses on the risk factors and developmental pathways of sexual aggressors of women and children. His work has appeared in Criminology, Criminal Justice and Behavior, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Justice Quarterly, and Journal of Criminal Justice.

    Doris Layton MacKenzie is a professor in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Maryland and director of the Evaluation Research Group. She earned her Ph.D. from Pennsylvania State University; was on the faculty of the Louisiana State University, where she was honored as a Researcher of Distinction; and was awarded a visiting scientist position at the National Institute of Justice. As visiting scientist, she provided expertise to federal, state, and local jurisdictions on correctional boot camps, correctional policy, intermediate sanctions, research methodology, experimental design, statistical analyses, and evaluation techniques. As an expert in criminal justice, Dr. MacKenzie has consulted with state and local jurisdictions and has testified before U.S. Senate and House committees. She has an extensive publication record on such topics as examining what works to reduce crime in the community, inmate adjustment to prison, the impact of intermediate sanctions on recidivism, long-term offenders, methods of predicting prison populations, self-report criminal activities of probationers, and boot camp prisons. She has directed several funded research projects and has served as chair of the American Society of Criminology's Division on Corrections and Sentencing, vice president of the American Society of Criminology (ASC), and president of the Academy of Experimental Criminology (AEC). She has been elected fellow in the ASC and AEC. In 2007, she was awarded a Fulbright Research Scholar grant to study the new community corrections programs in China.

    Christian Maile is a doctoral student in the clinical forensic psychology program at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York. His research interests include the assessment and etiology of sex-offending behavior and the development and application of psychological techniques to enhance self-disclosure of sensitive information.

    Elizabeth Corzine McMullan is an assistant professor at Troy University. She has served as the key academic advisor to the Jacksonville Re-entry Center and Jacksonville Mental Health Court. She earned her Ph.D. in administration of justice with a graduate minor in educational research from the University of Southern Mississippi. Her work has been published in Women & Criminal Justice, the Journal of Interpersonal Violence, and the Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture.

    Rachel Porter, M.A., is a senior researcher at the Center for Court Innovation and teaches in the Department of Sociology at John Jay College as an adjunct professor. She is working toward her Ph.D. at the City University of New York graduate center in sociology.

    Mindy S. Tarlow is chief executive officer and executive director of the Center for Employment Opportunities (CEO). She began her association with CEO as a program director at the Vera Institute of Justice in 1994, where she managed the successful spin-off of CEO from Vera. Before joining CEO, Ms. Tarlow spent almost 10 years at the New York City Office of Management and Budget. Ms. Tarlow co-authored the mayor's Safe Streets, Safe City Omnibus Criminal Justice Program. She is a member of the National Advisory Board of the Vera Institute of Justice National Associates Program and the Prisoner Reentry Institute Advisory Board at John Jay College of Criminal Justice; a founding board member of the Workforce Professionals Training Institute; and vice president of the New York City Employment & Training Coalition. Most recently, Ms. Tarlow served on the Mayor's Commission for Economic Opportunity and the Governor's Transition Team on Criminal Justice. She is also an adjunct professor at New York University's Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service.

    Faye S. Taxman is a professor in the Administration of Justice Department, co-director of the Network for Justice Health, and director of the research program in evidence-based corrections and treatment at George Mason University. Dr. Taxman is recognized for her work in the development of seamless systems of care models that link criminal justice with other service delivery systems and in reengineering probation and parole supervision services and organizational change models. She is the senior author of Tools of the Trade: A Guide to Incorporating Science Into Practice, a publication of the National Institute on Corrections that provides a guidebook to implementation of science-based concepts. She is on the editorial boards of the Journal of Experimental Criminology and Journal of Offender Rehabilitation. She has published articles in the Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Journal of Research in Crime andDelinquency, Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, Journal of Drug Issues, Alcohol and Drug Dependence, and Evaluation and Program Planning. She received the University of Cincinnati award from the American Probation and Parole Association in 2002 for her contributions to the field. She is a fellow of the Academy of Experimental Criminology and a member of the Correctional Services Accreditation Panel of England. In 2008, the American Society of Criminology's Division of Sentencing and Corrections recognized her as a distinguished scholar. She has a Ph.D. from Rutgers University's School of Criminal Justice and a B.A. from the University of Tulsa.

    Chris Thomson has worked in the field of corrections for 30 years and has specialized in training staff to assess and supervise high-risk offenders in the community. He has been the coordinator for the Sex Offender Awareness Program at the Justice Institute of British Columbia, developing and implementing training programs for staff and nongovernment agencies dealing with sexual abusers. He taught as an adjunct professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in the Law and Police Sciences Department. He also served as a high-risk offender analyst for the British Columbia Corrections Branch and is currently an instructor in the Corrections and Community Justice Division at the Justice Institute of British Columbia.

    Wayne N. Welsh, Ph.D., is an expert in substance abuse treatment in criminal justice settings, corrections, violence, and organizational theory. Dr. Welsh has collaborated with state correctional agencies on several large, multisite studies of prison-based drug treatment. His projects include a National Institute of Justice-funded project to develop a model academic and justice research partnership with a state correctional agency. He subsequently led a quasiexperimental, multisite study that examined individual and programmatic factors associated with drug treatment outcomes. Dr. Welsh also conducted a randomized experiment examining drug treatment programs at the State Correctional Institution in Chester, Pennsylvania, a facility specializing in substance abuse treatment. His books include Criminal Violence: Patterns, Causes and Prevention, co-authored with Marc Riedel (Oxford University Press, 2008), and Criminal Justice Policy and Planning (LexisNexis/Anderson, 2008).

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