Researching Sexual Violence against Women: Methodological and Personal Perspectives

Books

Edited by: Martin D. Schwartz

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Books under the General Editorship of Jon R. Conte, Ph.D.

    Hate Crimes: Confronting Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men edited by Gregory M. Herek and Kevin T. Berrill

    Legal Responses to Wife Assault: Current Trends and Evaluation edited by N. Zoe Hilton

    The Male Survivor: The Impact of Sexual Abuse by Matthew Parynik Mendel

    The Child Sexual Abuse Custody Dispute: Annotated Bibliography by Wendy Deaton, Suzanne Long, Holly A. Magaña, and Julie Robbins

    The Survivor's Guide by Sharice A. Lee

    Sexual Abuse in Nine North American Cultures: Treatment and Prevention edited by Lisa Aronson Fontes

    The Impact of Mandated Reporting on the Therapeutic Process:

    Picking Up the Pieces by Murray Levine, Howard J. Doueck, and Associates

    Intimate Betrayal: Understanding and Responding to the Trauma

    of Acquaintance Rape by Vernon R. Wiehe and Ann L. Richards

    Preventing Child Maltreatment Through Social Support: A Critical Analysis by Ross A. Thompson

    Researching Sexual Violence Against Women: Methodological and

    Personal Perspectives edited by Martin D. Schwartz

    Sibling Abuse: Hidden Physical, Emotional, and Sexual Trauma by Vernon R. Wiehe

    Children Acting Sexually Aggressively: Coming to Understand Them by Sharon K. Araji

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Preface

    We have witnessed in the 1990s two countervailing trends in research on rape, sexual harassment, and other violence against women. First, there has been an enormous backlash movement throughout North America, with many men and a few women arguing that feminists have greatly exaggerated the problem. Much of the attack has obscured the major issues in favor of hard-to-follow petty complaints about the nature of scholarly research design. At the same time, however, more and more scholars and students have turned their attention to this problem. The amount of research and data available to us has been increasing dramatically.

    These, then, are the two major reasons that this book of original essays has been written. The authors here unanimously reject the backlash movement and in general stand strongly behind the work that has been attacked. They believe that large numbers of women suffer from a variety of forms of sexual coercion. In fact, as we shall see below, one of the important things this book provides (in Part I) is an important resource for the reader who wishes to find out about the various studies that have been done on sexual assault on North American campuses.

    In Part II of this book, we look at the sociology of emotion, and particularly at the problem that researchers face in dealing with the emotions they experience while producing the research we applaud in Part I. Certainly everyone knows that academics can become rather passionate about frog warts, the techniques of Mayan architecture, or whether Bacon actually wrote some of Shakespeare's sonnets. Yet the potential for emotional upheaval and personal attack is much greater in the field of violence against women. Researchers must learn how to control or channel their own emotions. Particularly if they are women, they are sure to be challenged, attacked, ridiculed, sexualized, or accused of being lesbians (as if this is relevant) at the same time that they are literally mad with frustration at the events they are studying.

    How does one learn to deal with these problems? Why is a book like this necessary? A relative lack of mentors is one of the difficulties of conducting research in a new field, such as campus sexual assault. Most academic research programs can provide advice on when logistic regression is a better tool than discriminant function analysis, but few have mentors who can talk about how to handle your uncontrollable tears late at night after a day of conducting interviews with victimized women. Few think to prepare researchers on what to do with their emotions or how to handle sexual harassment in the field.

    Thus, the second part of this book consists of chapters by three experienced researchers who talk as much about their own emotions and their emotion work as their research. They discuss how they manage to continue as researchers and offer advice for people starting out in this very emotion-laden field.

    The third and final goal of this book is to help fill the gap in the methodological literature of studying sexual assault and sexual harassment of women. Although more and more studies are appearing, there still are few materials available to scholars entering this field to help them over hurdles of research design or even to just steel their nerve. Part III of this book introduces the reader to a variety of experienced researchers who explain how they resolved some important feminist research problems or discuss how their inability to resolve them left them wiser and willing to share this wisdom.

    In the material below, I will discuss each of these three points in more detail, along with the materials in this book.

    The Backlash against Sexual Assault Research

    Interestingly, the 1980s were fairly good times for feminist researchers into sexual assault. Led by Mary Koss, researchers discovered that there are numerous “hidden” victims who do not report their victimization either to the police or to health officials, making them invisible in official statistics. The findings of these researchers were new, different, to some minds a bit “racy,” and against the conventional wisdom. All in all, this is exactly what much of the news media looks for in a story. Some of this research got extensive media play.

    Unfortunately, many people do not want to believe that there are large numbers of women who have been victimized by men. Neil Gilbert (1991), for example, strongly attacked Koss, insisting that any discovery of hidden victims was a “phantom epidemic.” However, Gilbert's ability to make such claims suffered from two difficulties: He himself never studied or conducted any research on rape, and virtually all of the existing data did show that such victimization exists. This does not mean that there is no room here for dispute. There are disputes in every field. Thinking of any scientific advance that did not involve disputes between qualified scientists on each side contesting the “truth” is difficult. The difference here is that only one side has data. Those people who represent the backlash—who argue that there are not large numbers of victimized women—are for the most part people without data, without experience in survey research, and generally without any background whatsoever in the field. What they do have are a media system and a public ready and willing to believe anyone who argues that men are not victimizing women in large numbers (see, e.g., Podhoretz, 1991).

    What is most interesting about this is that all of North America is currently in the throes of a major political move that demands the harshest possible penalties against all types of offenders (Clear, 1994). Most Americans support executions, and even modern politicians argue that U.S. prison sentences—the longest in the world—are just a slap on offenders’ wrists. Meanwhile, perhaps the most sacred political symbol of the mid-1990s is the crime victim, with much of this antioffender rhetoric being invoked on the victim's behalf. In the United States, most states and the federal government have passed “victim rights” legislation, generally with the image of white women attacked by strangers as the movement's most potent image (Weed, 1995). Yet for some reason, many of these same politicians and their supporters are convinced that feminists are exaggerating when they insist that women are victimized by people they know.

    The key issue for Koss and others is that much rape is hidden, sometimes even from the victims themselves. Susan Estrich (1987) explains how this can happen. Few North Americans deny that there is such a thing as rape or that it should be punished. The problem is that many people feel there is, on the one hand, “real rape,” which is commonly portrayed as some greasy guy jumping out from behind a bush; then, there are other rapes that are not so “real.” Thus, unless the woman was of blameless character and attacked by a stranger, many people will simply deny that a rape has taken place. Women, who have grown up in the same society and heard the same messages as men all of their lives, may also doubt that an event can be termed rape if the woman invited the man to her apartment or voluntarily entered the dormitory room where the rape took place (Sanday, 1996).

    One of the issues that most annoyed critics such as Gilbert is that so many of Koss's respondents said that, although they were in a situation that met the legal definition of forcible rape, they did not say that the word rape applied to what happened. This shows, the argument goes, that feminists are trying to expand the definition of rape as part of their campaign to change the rules regarding how men and women relate to each other. Gilbert's specific attack, which brought him some small amount of fame and success, was to argue as truth the untested theoretical supposition that some people might have misunderstood one or two of Koss's questions.

    Still, no matter how much Gilbert, Podhoretz, and other men have tried, there is only a limited media market for a man who attacks women on this issue. Therefore, Katie Roiphe became the darling of the New York Times and much of the Eastern press for her extraordinary book, The Morning After (1993). The arguments in her book were based completely on Gilbert's, but they were put into a wrapping of a feminist attacking feminists. What was most interesting was not that this book was published at all but that Roiphe was featured everywhere, from the cover of the New York Times Sunday Magazine to many of the top conservative television talk shows. After all, this particular expert was a young graduate student in literature who had never held a job, had never done research, and had made no claim to have interviewed any women except her own personal friends at Harvard and Princeton. The book itself is based on misrepresentations, mistakes, and misunderstandings (Muehlenhard, Sympson, Phelps, & Highby, 1994). Why did America's media reach out to embrace someone who obviously knew little about the subject and ignore those who had long labored in the field? The “feminists against feminists” theme was again picked up by the media when Christine Hoff-Sommers (1994) continued the attack.

    In some ways, the same thing happened in Canada. Walter DeKeseredy describes his own work, in which he asked a national sample of college and university men and women about their experiences. This expensive research, partially designed to see if Koss's findings applied also in Canada, was at first covered heavily by the media because DeKeseredy and Kelly found widespread victimization of women on college campuses. Soon, however, some of Canada's top media figures began to argue that DeKeseredy's figures had to be wrong, evidently because they were too high. The researchers began to receive hate mail and threats.

    Research on Sexual Assault on College Campuses

    Why do we keep finding large numbers of victimized women, even in the face of a national media blitz arguing that these women could not possibly exist? In Chapter 1, Koss and Hobart Cleveland, both at the University of Arizona, explain that date rape exists mainly because society does not censure it and may in fact encourage it. They provide one of the better summaries of the most current data. Koss's original research is not discussed in great detail in this volume, but the chapter by Jacquelyn White and John Humphrey, of the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, discusses in detail one way to both replicate and improve on it. Virtually all studies of sexual violence have been based on cross-sectional research—usually by the use of anonymous questionnaires. Here, these two authors describe their rationale for and use of longitudinal research. Although they present quite a number of excellent rationales for this decision, perhaps the best is that by using multiple measures over a long period of time, such surveys tend to blunt any criticisms that the respondents may have been confused enough by any one single question to change the direction of the general findings. This, of course, is one of the key attacks on Koss made by Gilbert and Roiphe.

    In Chapter 3, DeKeseredy, of Carleton University in Ottawa, not only describes the Canadian national survey discussed above but also attempts to help researchers entering this field by discussing the ways in which he improved upon the original work.

    Perhaps the attack on Koss's findings that most hurt survivors and frontline advocates for victims was the claim by critics that most women were not even victimized or harmed by what Koss was measuring—that Koss was labeling as rape what the women themselves were calling a bad date. Patricia Frazier and Lisa Seales, of the University of Minnesota, address these attacks by Gilbert and Roiphe by reporting that in two different studies, women who were raped suffered from a great deal of distress whether or not they personally applied the word rape to their experiences. Denying the status of rape victim to women whose experiences do not fit the researcher's definition of “real rape,” as Gilbert and Roiphe would do, does not relieve these women of any distress and denies them the opportunity for help and support.

    Along the same lines, Victoria Pitts (Brandeis University) and Martin Schwartz argue that the most important factor in whether women report their experiences as rape might be the actions and support of their friends and relatives. In a study of what the “most helpful person” told women who had experiences that fit Ohio's definition of sexual assault, Pitts and Schwartz found that although all of these women were given love and support, the ones who were specifically told it was not their fault were the ones who reported their experiences as rape. Like Frazier and Seales, Pitts and Schwartz argue that blaming the victim, even in a loving way, denies these women the knowledge of how to direct their anger and keeps them from seeking help.

    Emotion and Rearching Violence against Women

    To anyone attending teaching workshops and discussions, it is apparent that many people think that proper training means that one can and should dispense with one's own feelings when working in a professional context. Even though most sociologists today take as a matter of faith that there is very little value-free research and teaching, they still generally hold that this does not mean that one can weep with one's students. Betsy Stanko, of Brunei University in England, another of the authors who has been studying rape since the 1970s, uses her chapter to move beyond the abstract description of her earlier work to discuss her own emotions—anger, pain, fear, sadness, and frustration. She suggests capturing one's emotions as data and talks about how to foster personal support.

    Susan Hippensteele is in a fairly unique position. A well-trained research psychologist who is a leader in the study of ethnoviolence, she is also a frontline activist who holds the title of victim advocate at the University of Hawaii. She analyzes the problem of simultaneously being both a committed activist and a careful research scientist. She shows us how difficult it is to isolate racism from sexism and homophobia and gives us some advice on how to follow in her footsteps.

    Christine Mattley, of Ohio University, argues that part of the continuum of violence against women in North America is the pornography industry, which includes what might be called “telephone fantasy workers.” In a unique field study, she managed to get employed by a telephone sex service and took almost 2,000 calls from clients. Here, she focuses on the emotions of the researcher: How do you deal with the (dis)courtesy stigma given to you by your employers and fellow employees back at the university? How does it feel to be sexualized, made the butt of jokes, and trivialized as a researcher because you have chosen to work with a deviant or stigmatized (albeit legal) group?

    Jennifer Huff's chapter complements Mattley's in many ways, although Mattley discusses her treatment in the academy whereas Huff discusses her treatment in the field. Specifically, Huff found that being sexually harassed by her research subjects made it difficult for her to gather data. Those who are experienced in the study of sexual harassment will recognize in her work some classic signs of self-blame, worry, and uncertainty about whether it might be easier to drop the project than to continue. She does not have a magic formula for ending sexual harassment, but she does feel that training in dealing with it should be a part of the standard training of field researchers.

    Doing Research on Violence against Women

    One of the most inappropriately used words in feminist research methods is participatory research. Many researchers, particularly in professional schools, have found it “catchy” to refer to research subjects as “coresearchers,” for example, when they are nothing of the sort. However, Claire Renzetti, editor of the top journal in this field, Violence Against Women, has accomplished perhaps the best-known feminist participatory research in the United States with her study of lesbian battering. Here she discusses in detail the advantages of her research method over standard positivist research for studying violence against women.

    Jody Miller, of the University of Missouri, St. Louis, takes many of these same questions and relates them to the issues discussed in the emotions research section. Miller has published research from her studies of violence against prostitutes in some of the field's top journals, and this piece is only superficially about prostitutes. She addresses a number of essential questions about feminist research, including her own reaction to stories of rape, the problem of middle-class women studying a deviant group, and the difficulty of following the advice of many feminist researchers.

    As a man who does research on campus sexual assaults, I have a particular interest in the chapter by Dawn Currie and Brian MacLean. Having heard for almost 20 years the received wisdom that this research is best done by women because female victims will not volunteer information to men, it has always interested me that this presumption has never been tested. Here, Currie and MacLean, two of Canada's best-known and most respected criminological researchers, address this presumption empirically and conclude that training is more important than the sex of the researcher. Yet they move far beyond this finding to show how, in our constant concern with a researcher's sex, we forget that research is gendered in many more complex ways.

    Kimberly Huisman, of the University of Southern California, takes on an important subject for field researchers. There is no question that the literature on violence against minority women is significantly weaker than the literature on violence against white women. Yet most researchers with an interest in this area are white. Can a white woman gain entry into a minority community? Should she? Will the data be of any value? Huisman draws on her experience in studying violence against Asian women to deal with these questions.

    Acknowledgments

    As with all works, thanks are due to a number of people for getting this project off the ground and together. Terry Hendrix of Sage watched it go through some interesting incarnations and drag on longer than anyone could possibly have imagined. Molly Leggett was an invaluable assistant not only because of her talent and intelligence but also because she always found the time to pitch in and help just when both she and I were at our busiest. Carol Blum, whom I got to know when she was planning the 1979 Take Back the Night March in Cincinnati, had nothing to do with this book, but everything to do with me. A number of people were kind enough to serve as blind referees for articles in this book, but I especially wish to thank Amanda Konradi, Kimberly Cook, Christine Mattley, Walter DeKeseredy, Molly Leggett, Lisa Clayton-Stockdale, and Jody Miller for their efforts. Finally, as usually happens when you get the very best people to write for you, many of the authors here really were too busy to write these chapters, and their willingness to stay with it and to produce such high-quality work shows their commitment to the idea behind the book, which itself is the idea behind the book!

  • References

    Abbey, A., Ross, L.T., & McDuffie, D. (1995). Alcohol's role in sexual assault. In R.R.Watson (Ed.), Drug and alcohol abuse reviews, Vol. 5: Addictive behaviors in women. Totawa, NJ: Humana.
    Abbey, A., Ross, L.T., McDuffie, D., & McAuslan, P. (1996). Alcohol and dating risk factors for sexual assault among college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 147–169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1996.tb00669.x
    Adler, P.A., & Adler, P. (1987). Membership roles infield research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Adler, P.A., & Adler, P. (1993). Ethical issues in self-censorship: Ethnographic research on sensitive topics. In C.M.Renzetti & R.M.Lee (Eds.), Researching sensitive topics (pp. 249–266). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Agar, M.H. (1977). Ethnography in the streets and in the joint: A comparison. In R.S.Weppner (Ed.), Street ethnography: Selected studies of crime and drug use in natural settings (pp. 143–156). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Ageton, S.S. (1983). Sexual assault among adolescents. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.
    American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (
    3rd ed. revised
    ). Washington, DC: Author.
    Amir, M. (1971). Patterns in forcible rape. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Anderson, M.L. (1993). Studying across difference: Race, class, and gender in qualitative research. In J.H.StanfieldII & R.M.Dennis (Eds.), Race and ethnicity in research methods (pp. 39–52). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Appelbaum, M.I., & McCall, R.B. (1983). Design and analysis in developmental psychology. In W.Kessen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, vol. 1. History, theory & methods (pp. 413–476). New York: John Wiley.
    Arias, I., & Beach, S.R. H. (1987). Validity of self-reports of marital violence. Journal of Family Violence, 2, 139–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00977038
    Asante, M.K. (1993). Malcolm X as cultural hero & other Afrocentric essays. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.
    Ashmore, R.D., & DelBoca, F.K. (1987). The development and validation of a structured inventory to assess the multiple components of gender-related verbal attitudes. Paper presented at the Nags Head Interdisciplinary Conference on Sex and Gender, Nags Head, NC.
    Babbie, E. (1995). The practice of social research
    7th ed.
    Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Baer, J.S., Kivlahan, D.R., & Marlett, G.A. (1995). High risk drinking across the transition from high school to college alcoholism. Clinical and Experimental Research, 19, 54–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1995.tb01472.x
    Barnes, G.E., Greenwood, L., & Sommer, R. (1991). Courtship violence in a Canadian sample of male college students. Family Relations, 40, 37–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/585656
    Barrett, M., & Macintosh, M. (1982). The anti-social family. London: Verso.
    Beattie, V. (1992). Analysis of the results of a survey on sexual violence in the UK. Cambridge, UK: Women's Forum.
    Beauchesne, E. (1995, August 18). Canada best place to live—with a catch. Ottawa Citizen, pp. A1–A2.
    Beck, A., Ward, C., Mendolsohn, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 53–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004
    Becker, J.V., Skinner, L.J., Abel, G.G., Axelrod, R., & Treacy, E.C. (1984). Depressive symptoms associated with sexual assault. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 10, 185–192.
    Bergen, R.K. (1993). Interviewing survivors of marital rape: Doing feminist research on sensitive topics. In C.M.Renzetti & R.M.Lee (Eds.), Researching sensitive topics (pp. 197–211). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Bernard, J. (1973). My four revolutions: An autobiographical history of the ASA. American Journal of Sociology, 78, 773–791. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/225402
    Bernard, M.L., & Bernard, J.L. (1983). Violent intimacy: The family as a model for love relationships. Family Relations, 32, 283–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/584688
    Billson, J.M. (1991). The progressive verification method: Toward a feminist methodology for studying women cross-culturally. Women's Studies International Forum, 14 (3), 201–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-5395%2891%2990111-T
    Blum, H.P. (1982). Psychoanalytic reflections on “the beaten wife syndrome”. In M.Kirkpatrick (Ed.), Women's sexual experiences: Explorations of the dark continent (pp. 263–267). New York: Plenum.
    Boeringer, S.B., Shehan, C., & Akers, R. (1991). Social contexts and learning in sexual coercion and aggression: Assessing the continuation of fraternity membership. Family Relations, 40, 58–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/585659
    Bograd, M. (1988). Feminist perspectives on wife abuse: An introduction. In K.Yllö & M.Bograd (Eds.), Feminist perspectives on wife abuse (pp. 11–26). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Bohmer, C., & Parrot, A. (1993). Sexual assault on campus: The problem and the solution. Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan.
    Bownes, I.T., O'Gorman, E.C., & Sayers, A. (1991a). Assault characteristics and posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 83, 27–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1991.tb05507.x
    Bownes, I.T., O'Gorman, E.C., & Sayers, A. (1991b). Psychiatric symptoms: Behavioral responses and post-traumatic stress disorder. Issues in Criminological and Legal Psychology, 17, 25–33.
    Boyle, K., & Anglin, M.D. (1993). “To the curb”: Sex bartering and drug use among homeless crack users in Los Angeles. In M.S.Ratner (Ed.), Crack pipe as pimp: An ethnographic investigation of sex-for-crack exchanges (pp. 159–186). New York: Lexington.
    Brownmiller, S. (1975). Against our will. New York: Bantam.
    Bryden, D.P., & Lengnick, S. (1996). Rape in the criminal justice system. Manuscript under review.
    Bumgartner, M.A. (1993). The myth of discretion. In K.Hawkins (Ed.), The uses of discretion (pp. 129–162). Oxford: Clarendon.
    Cancian, F.M. (1992). Feminist science: Methodologies that challenge inequality. Gender & Society, 6, 623–642. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124392006004006
    Chambers, G., & Millar, A. (1984). Investigating sexual assault. Edinburgh: HMSO.
    Chancer, L.S. (1987). The “before and after” of a group rape. Gender & Society, 1 (3), 239–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124387001003002
    Chancer, L.S. (1993, Winter). Prostitution, feminist theory, and ambivalence: Notes from the sociological underground. Social Text, 37, 143–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/466265
    Channels, N.L. (1993). Anticipating media coverage: Methodological decisions in criminal justice research. In C.M.Renzetti & R.M.Lee (Eds.), Researching sensitive topics (pp. 267–280). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Chesney-Lind, M. (1995, March). Towards a feminist praxis. Paper presented at the annual meetings of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, Boston.
    Clark, L., & Lewis, D. (1977). Rape: The price of coercive sexuality. Toronto: The Women's Press.
    Clear, T.R. (1994). Harm in American penology: Offenders, victims, and their communities. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Cohen, J.M. (1994). Public violence and public obligation: The fulcrum of reason. In M.A.Fineman & R.Mykituk (Eds.), The public face of private violence (pp. 349–381). London: Routledge.
    Collins, P.H. (1990). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. New York: Routledge, Chapman and Hall.
    Cook, J., & Fonow, M. (1984). Knowledge and women's interests: Issues of epistemology and methodology in feminist sociological research. Sociological Inquiry, 56, 2–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1986.tb00073.x
    Cooney, M. (1994). Evidence as partisanship. Law & Society Review, 28, 833–858. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3053999
    Crenshaw, K.W (1993). Beyond racism and misogyny: Black feminism and 2 Live Crew. In M.J.Matsuda, C.R.LawrenceIII, R.Delgado, K.W.Crenshaw (Eds.), Words that wound: Critical race theory, assaultive speech, and the first amendment (pp. 111–132). Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Crenshaw, K.W. (1994). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics and violence against women of color. In M.A.Fineman and R.Mykituk (Eds.), The public face of private violence (pp. 93–118). London: Routledge.
    Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center. (1992). Rape in America: A report to the nation. Arlington, VA: National Victim Center.
    Currie, D.H. (1988). At the crossroads: Feminism or science? In D.H.Currie (Ed.), From the margins to centre: Essays in women's studies research (pp. 176–192). Saskatoon: Social Research Unit.
    Currie, D.H. (1995). Student safety at the University of British Columbia: Preliminary findings of a study of student safety. Report submitted to the Provost. Vancouver: University of British Columbia.
    Currie, D.H., & MacLean, B.D. (1992). Women, men, and police: Losing the fight against wife battery in Canada. In D.H.Currie & B.D.MacLean, (Eds.), Rethinking the administration of justice (pp. 251–275). Halifax: Fernwood.
    Currie, D.H., & MacLean, B.D. (1993). Woman abuse in dating relationships: Rethinking women's safety on campus. Journal of Human Justice, 4 (2), 1–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02619524
    Curtis, L.A. (1976). Rape, race, and culture: Some speculations in search of a theory. In M.J.Walker & S.L.Brodsky (Eds.), Sexual assault: The victim and the rapist (pp. 117–134). Lexington, MA: Lexington.
    Deitz, P.E. (1978). Social factors in rapist behavior. In R.Rada (Ed.), Clinical aspects of the rapist (pp. 59–115). New York: Grune & Stratton.
    DeKeseredy, W.S. (1988). Woman abuse in dating relationships: The role of male peer support. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press.
    DeKeseredy, W.S. (1990). Male peer support and woman abuse: The current state of knowledge. Sociological Focus, 23 (2), 129–139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00380237.1992.10570559
    DeKeseredy, W.S. (1995). Enhancing the quality of survey data on woman abuse: Examples from a national Canadian study. Violence Against Women, 1, 158–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801295001002004
    DeKeseredy, W.S., & Kelly, K. (1993a). The incidence and prevalence of woman abuse in Canadian university and college dating relationships. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 18, 157–159. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3341255
    DeKeseredy, W.S., & Kelly, K. (1993b). Woman abuse in university and college dating relationships: The contribution of the ideology of familial patriarchy. Journal of Human Justice, 4, 25–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02619525
    DeKeseredy, W.S., & Kelly, K. (1995). Sexual abuse in Canadian university and college dating relationships: The contribution of male peer support. Journal of Family Violence, 10, 41–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02110536
    DeKeseredy, W.S., Kelly, K., & Baklid, B. (1992). The physical, sexual, and psychological abuse of women in dating relationships: Results from a pretest for a national study. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, New Orleans.
    DeKeseredy, W.S., & Schwartz, M.D. (1993). Male peer support and women abuse: An expansion of DeKeseredy's model. Sociological Spectrum, 13, 393–413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02732173.1993.9982041
    DeKeseredy, W.S., & Schwartz, M.D. (1994). Locating a history of some Canadian woman abuse in elementary and high school dating relationships. Humanity & Society, 18, 49–63.
    Delacoste, F., & Alexander, P. (Eds.). (1988). Sex work: Writings by women in the sex industry. London: Virago.
    Delgado, R., & Stefancic, J. (1995). Images of the outsider in American law and culture: Can free expression remedy systemic social ills? In R.Delgado (Ed.), Critical race theory: The cutting edge (pp. 217–227). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Delgado, R., & Yun, D. (1995). Pressure valves and bloody chickens: An assessment of four paternalistic arguments for restricting hate speech regulation. In L.Lederer & R.Delgado (Eds.), The price we pay: The case against racist speech, hate propaganda, and pornography (pp. 290–300). New York: Hill and Wang.
    Delmar, R. (1986). What is feminism? In J.Mitchell & A.Oakley (Eds.), What is feminism? A reexamination (pp. 8–33). New York: Pantheon.
    Derogatis, L.R. (1977). Manual for the SCL. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.
    Diana, L. (1985). The prostitute and her clients. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Dobash, R.E., & Dobash, R. (1979). Violence against wives: A case against the patriarchy. New York: Free Press.
    Dunlap, E., Johnson, B., Sanibria, H., Holliday, E., Lipsey, V., Barnett, M., Hopkins, W., Sobel, I., Randolph, D., & Chin, K. (1990, Winter). Studying crack users and their criminal careers. Contemporary Drug Problems, 455–473.
    Dutton, D.G., & Hemphill, K.J. (1992). Patterns of socially desirable responding among perpetrators and victims of wife assault. Violence and Victims, 7, 29–40.
    Dye, E., & Roth, S. (1990). Psychotherapist's knowledge about and attitudes toward sexual assault victim clients. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 14, 191–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01542487
    Easterday, L., Papademus, D., Schorr, L., & Valentine, C. (1977). The making of a female researcher. Urban Life, 6, 333–347.
    Edwards, R. (1990). Connecting method with epistemology: A white woman interviewing black women. Women's Studies International Forum, 13 (5), 477–490. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-5395%2890%2990100-C
    Ehrlich, H.J. (1990). Campus ethnoviolence and policy options. Baltimore, MD: National Institute Against Prejudice and Violence.
    Ehrlich, H.J. (1992). Campus ethnoviolence: A research review. Baltimore, MD: National Institute Against Prejudice and Violence.
    Eich, E. (1982). Theoretical issues in state dependent memory. In H.L.RoedigerIII & F.I. M.Craik (Eds.), Varieties of memory and consciousness (pp. 331–354). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Elliot, S., Odynak, D., & Krahn, H. (1992). A survey of unwanted sexual experiences among University of Alberta students. Research report prepared for the Council on Student Life, University of Alberta. University of Alberta: Population Research Laboratory.
    Elliott, D.S., & Ageton, S.S. (1980). Reconciling race and class differences in self-reported and official estimates of delinquency. American Sociological Review, 45, 95–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095245
    Ellis, C. (1991). Emotional sociology. Studies in Symbolic Interaction, 12, 123–145.
    Ellis, D., & DeKeseredy, W.S. (1996). The wrong stuff: An introduction to the sociological study of deviance (
    2nd ed.
    ). Toronto: Allyn & Bacon.
    Ellis, E.M., Atkeson, B.M., & Calhoun, K.S. (1981). An assessment of long-term reaction to rape. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 263–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.90.3.263
    Estrich, S. (1987). Real rape: How the legal system victimizes women who say no. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Faith, K., & Currie, D.H. (1993). Seeking shelter: A state of battered women. Vancouver: Collective Press.
    Feagin, J.R., & Vera, H. (1995). White racism. New York: Routledge.
    Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). (1994). Crime in the United States, 1993. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
    Fekete, J. (1994). Moral panic: Biopolitics rising. Montreal: Robert Davies.
    Fenstermaker, S. (1989). Acquaintance rape on campus: Attribution of responsibility and crime. In M.Pirog-Good & J.Stets (Eds.), Violence in dating: Emerging social issues (pp. 257–271). New York: Praeger.
    Fielding, N.G. (1993). Mediating the message: Affinity and hostility in research on sensitive topics. In C.M.Renzetti & R.M.Lee (Eds.), Researching sensitive topics (pp. 146–159). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Fine, M. (1993). The politics of research and activism: Violence against women. In P.B.Bart & E.G.Moran (Eds.), Violence against women: The bloody footprints (pp. 278–287). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Finkelhor, D. (1984). Child sexual abuse: New theory and research. New York: Free Press.
    Finkelman, L. (1992). Report of the survey of unwanted sexual experiences among students of U.N.B.-F. and S.T.U. University of New Brunswick: Counselling Services.
    Frank, E., Turner, S.M., & Stewart, B. (1980). Initial response to rape: The impact of factors within the rape situation. Journal of Behavioral Assessment, 2, 39–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01321431
    Frankenberg, R. (1993). White women, race matters: The social construction of whiteness. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Frazier, P. (1990). Victim attributions and post-rape trauma. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 298–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.59.2.298
    Frazier, P. (1991). Self-blame as a mediator of post-rape depressive symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 10, 47–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/jscp.1991.10.1.47
    Frazier, P., & Haney, B. (1996). Sexual assault cases in the legal system: Police, prosecutor, and victim perspectives. Law and Human Behavior, 20, 607–628.
    Frazier, P., & Schauben, L. (1994). Causal attributions and recovery from rape and other stressful life events. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 13, 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/jscp.1994.13.1.1
    Frohmann, L. (1991). Discrediting victims’ allegations of sexual assault: Prosecutorial accounts of case rejections. Social Problems, 38, 213–226. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800530
    Frohmann, L.G. (1992). Screening sexual assault cases: Prosecutorial decisions to file or reject rape complaints. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
    Fromuth, M.E., & Burkhart, B. (1996, March). The sexual abuse of women and girls: Backlash against the truth. Paper presented at symposium on violence against women, Southeastern Psychological Association, Norfolk, VA.
    Galton, E. (1975–1976). Police processing of rape complaints: A case study. American Journal of Criminal Law, 4, 15–30.
    Gavey, N. (1991). Sexual victimization prevalence among New Zealand university students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 464–466. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.59.3.464
    Gidycz, C.A., & Koss, M.P. (1991). Predictors of long-term sexual assault trauma among a national sample of victimized college women. Violence and Victims, 6, 175–190.
    Gidycz, C.A., Coble, C.N., Latham, L., & Layman, M.J. (1993). Sexual assault experience in adulthood and prior victimization experiences: A prospective analysis. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17, 151–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.60.2.167
    Gidycz, C.A., Hanson, K., & Layman, M.J. (1995). A prospective analysis of relationships among sexual assault experiences. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19, 5–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.60.2.167
    Gilbert, N. (1991). The phantom epidemic of sexual assault. The Public Interest, 103, 54–65.
    Gilbert, N. (1992). Realities and mythologies of rape. Society, 29, 4–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02695305
    Gilbert, N. (1993). Examining the facts: Advocacy research overstates the incidence of date rape and acquaintance rape. In D.R.Gelles & D.R.Loseke (Eds.), Current controversies on family violence (pp. 120–132). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Gilbert, N. (1994). Miscounting social ills. Society, 31, 18–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02693226
    Girelli, S.A., Resick, P.A., Marhoefer-Dvorak, S., & Hutter, C. (1986). Subjective distress and violence during rape: Their effects on long-term fear. Victims and Violence, 1, 35–46.
    Glassner, B., & Loughlin, J. (1987). Drugs in adolescent worlds: Burnouts to straights. New York: St. Martin's.
    Glenn, E.N. (1986). Issei, nisei, war bride: Three generations of Japanese American women in domestic service. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Godenzi, A. (1994). What's the big deal? We are men and they are women. In T.Newburn & E.A.Stanko (Eds.), Just boys doing business (pp. 135–152). London: Routledge.
    Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Goffman, E. (1989). On field work. (Transcribed and edited by L.H.Lofland). Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 18, 123–132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124189018002001
    Gorelick, S. (1991). Contradictions of feminist methodology. Gender & Society, 5 (4), 459–477. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124391005004002
    Gouldner, A. (1970). The coming crisis in western sociology. New York: Basic Books.
    Green, G., Barbour, R.S., Barnard, M., & Kitzinger, J. (1993). “Who wears the trousers?” Sexual harassment in research settings. Women Studies International Forum, 16, 627–637. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-5395%2808%2980007-6
    Greenwald, A.G. (1976). Within subjects designs: To use or not to use. Psychological Bulletin, 83, 314–320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.83.2.314
    Grillo, T., & Wildman, S.M. (1995). Obscuring the importance of race: The implications of making comparisons between racism and sexism (or other isms). In R.Delgado (Ed.), Critical race theory: The cutting edge (pp. 564–572). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Gruber, J.E. (1989). How women handle sexual harassment: A literature review. Sociology and Social Research, 74, 3–9.
    Gurney, J.N. (1985). Not one of the guys: The female researcher in a male-dominated setting. Qualitative Sociology, 8, 42–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00987013
    Gutek, B.A., & Koss, M.P. (1993). Changed women and changed organizations: Consequences of and coping with sexual harassment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 42, 28–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1993.1003
    Guttman, S. (1991) “It sounds like I raped you!” How date-rape re-education fosters confusion, undermines personal responsibility, and trivializes sexual violence. In O.Pocs (Ed.), Human sexuality (pp. 217–221). Guilford, CT: Dushkin.
    Hall, R. (1985). Ask any woman: A London inquiry into rape and sexual assault. London: Falling Wall.
    Hanmer, J., & Saunders, S. (1984). Well-founded fear: A community study of violence to women. London: Hutchinson.
    Hans, V.P., & Vidmar, N. (1986). Judging the jury. New York: Plenum.
    Hardesty, M.J. (1986). Plans and mood: A study in therapeutic relationships. In C.J.Couch, S.Saxton, & M.A.Katovich (Eds.), Studies in symbolic interaction, Supplement 2: The Iowa school (Part A) (pp. 209–230). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Harding, S. (Ed.). (1987). Feminism and methodology. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Harmon, P.A., & Check, J.V. P. (1989). The role of pornography in woman abuse. North York, Ontario: LaMarsh Research Programme on Violence and Conflict Resolution.
    Hatty, S. (1989). Violence against prostitute women: Social and legal dilemmas. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 24, 235–248.
    Heise, L.L., Pitanguy, J., & Germain, A. (1994). Violence against women: The hidden health burden. World Bank Discussion Paper No. 255. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
    Herman, D. (1988). The rape culture. In J.W.Cochran, D.Langton, & C.Woodward (Eds.), Changing our power (pp. 260–273). Dubuque, IO: Kendall/Hunt.
    Himelein, M.J. (1995). Risk factors for sexual victimization in dating: A longitudinal study of college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19, 31–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.60.2.167
    Hippensteele, S.K. (1996). Advocacy and student victims of sexual harassment. In B.Sandler and R.Shoop (Eds.), Sexual harassment on campus: A guide for administrators, faculty and
    students (pp. 293–313). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Hippensteele, S.K., & Chesney-Lind, M. (1995). Race and sex discrimination in the academy. Thought & Action: The NEA Higher Education Journal, 11 (2), 43–66.
    Hippensteele, S.K., Chesney-Lind, M., & Veniegas, R. (1996). On the basis of…: The changing face of harassment and discrimination in the academy. Women and Criminal Justice, 8 (1), 3–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J012v08n01_02
    Hochschild, A.R. (1979). Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure. American Journal of Sociology, 85, 551–575. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/227049
    Hochschild, A.R. (1983). The managed heart. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Hoff, L.A. (1988). Collaborative feminist research and the myth of objectivity. In K.Yllö & M.Bograd (Eds.), Feminist perspectives on wife abuse (pp. 269–281). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Hoff-Sommers, C. (1994). Who stole feminism? How women have betrayed women. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Holmstrom, L., & Burgess, A.W. (1978). The victim of rape: Institutional reactions. New York: Wiley.
    Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. (1992). Overcoming patriarchal constraints: The reconstruction of gender relations among Mexican immigrant women and men. Gender & Society, 6 (3), 393–415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124392006003004
    hooks, b. (1984). Feminist theory: From margin to center. Boston: South End Press.
    Hough, M., & Mayhew, P. (1983). The British crime survey. London: HMSO.
    Huesmann, L.R., & Eron, L. (1992). Childhood aggression and adult criminality. In J.McCord (Ed.), Facts, frameworks, and forecasts: Advances in criminological theory, vol. 3 (pp. 137–156). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.
    Huisman, K. (1996). Wife battering in Asian American communities: Identifying the service needs of an overlooked segment of the U.S. population. Violence Against Women, 2 (3), 260–283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801296002003003
    James, J., Withers, J., Haft, M., Theiss, S., & Owen, M. (1977). The politics of prostitution. Social Research Associates.
    Janoff-Bulman, R. (1979). Characterological versus behavioral self-blame: Inquiries into depression and rape. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1798–1809. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.37.10.1798
    Jensen, R. (1995). Pornographic lives. Violence Against Women, 1, 32–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801295001001003
    Johnson, C.B., Stockdale, M.S., & Saal, F. (1991). A persistence of men's misperceptions of friendly cues across a variety of interpersonal encounters. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 15, 463–475. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.35.020184.002333
    Johnson, J.M. (1983). Trust and personal involvements in fieldwork. In R.M.Emerson (Ed.), Contemporary field research (pp. 203–215). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.
    Jones, T., MacLean, B.D., & Young, J. (1986). The Islington Crime Survey: Crime, victimization and policing in inner-city London. Aldershot: Gower.
    Junger, M. (1987). Women's experiences of sexual harassment: Some implications for their fear of crime. British Journal of Criminology, 27, 358–383.
    Junger, M. (1990). The measurement of sexual harassment: Comparison of the results of three different instruments. International Review of Victimology, 1, 231–239.
    Kahn, A.S., Mathie, V.A., & Torgler, C. (1994). Rape scripts and rape acknowledgment. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 53–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1994.tb00296.x
    Kanin, E.J. (1985). Date rapists: Differential sexual socializations and relative deprivation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, 219–231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01542105
    Kanin, E.J., & Parcell, S.R. (1977). Sexual aggression: A second look at the offended female. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 6, 67–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01579249
    Katz, B.L. (1991). The psychological impact of stranger versus nonstranger rape on victims’ recovery. In A.Parrot & L.Bechhofer (Eds.), Acquaintance rape: The hidden crime (pp. 251–269). New York: John Wiley.
    Katz, B.L., & Burt, M.R. (1988). Self-blame in recovery from rape: Help or hindrance? In A.W.Burgess (Ed.), Rape and sexual assault II (pp. 151–168). New York: Garland.
    Kelly, K.D., & DeKeseredy, W.S. (1994). Women's fear of crime and abuse in college and university dating relationships. Violence and Victims, 9, 17–30.
    Kelly, L. (1988). Surviving sexual violence. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Kelly, L., Burton, S., & Regan, L. (1994). Researching women's lives or studying women's oppression? Reflections on what constitutes feminist research. In M.Maynard & J.Purvis (Eds.), Researching women's lives from a feminist perspective (pp. 27–48). London: Taylor & Francis.
    Kelly, L., & Radford, J. (1987). The problem of men: Feminist perspectives on sexual violence. In P.Scraton (Ed.), Law, order, and the authoritarian state (pp. 237–253). Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Kennedy, L., & Dutton, D.G. (1989). The incidence of wife assault in Alberta. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 21, 40–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079792
    Kikuchi, J.J. (1988, Fall). Rhode Island develops successful intervention program for adolescents. NCASA News, 26–27.
    Kilpatrick, D.G., Saunders, B.E., Veronen, L.J., Best, C.L., & Von, J.M. (1987). Criminal victimization: Lifetime prevalence, reporting to police, and psychological impact. Crime and Delinquency, 33, 479–489. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011128787033004005
    Kleiber, N., & Light, L. (1978). Caring for ourselves: An alternative structure for health care. Vancouver: University of British Columbia School of Nursing.
    Kleinman, S., & Copp, M.A. (1993). Emotions and fieldwork. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Koss, M.P. (1985). The hidden rape victim: Personality, attitudinal, and situational characteristics. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 9, 193–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1985.tb00872.x
    Koss, M.P. (1988). Hidden rape: Sexual aggression and victimization in a national sample in higher education. In A.W.Burgess (Ed.), Rape and sexual assault (Vol. 2, pp. 3–25). New York: Garland.
    Koss, M.P. (1992). The underdetection of rape: A critical assessment of incidence data. Journal of Social Issues, 48, 61–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1992.tb01157.x
    Koss, M.P. (1993). Detecting the scope of rape: A review of prevalence research methods. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 8, 198–222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626093008002004
    Koss, M.P., & Cleveland, H.H. (in press). Fraternities and athletics as predictors of date rape: Self-selection or different causal processes?Violence Against Women.
    Koss, M.P., & Cook, S.L. (1993). Facing the facts: Date and acquaintance rape are significant problems for women. In R.J.Gelles & D.R.Loeske (Eds.), Current controversies on family violence (pp. 104–119). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Koss, M.P., & Dinero, T.E. (1988). Predictors of sexual aggression in a national sample of college men. In V.Quinsey & R.Prentky (Eds.), Human sexual aggression: Current perspectives. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 528, 133–147.
    Koss, M.P., & Dinero, T.E. (1989a). Discriminant analysis of risk factors for sexual victimization among a national sample of college women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 242–250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.57.2.242
    Koss, M.P., & Dinero, T.E. (1989b). Predictors of sexual aggression among a national sample of male college students. Annals of New York Academy of Science, 528, 133–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1988.tb50856.x
    Koss, M.P., Dinero, T.E., Seibel, C.A., & Cox, S.L. (1988). Stranger and acquaintance rape: Are there differences in the victim's experiences. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 12, 1–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0003-066X.38.11.1161
    Koss, M.P., Figueredo, A.J., Bell, I., Tharan, M., & Tromp, S. (in press). Traumatic memory characteristics: A cross validated mediational model to response to rape among employed women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.
    Koss, M.P., & Gaines, J.A. (1993). The prediction of sexual aggression by alcohol use, athletic participation, and fraternity affiliation. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 8, 94–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626093008001007
    Koss, M.P., & Gidycz, C.A. (1985). Sexual Experiences Survey: Reliability and validity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50 (3), 455–457. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.50.3.455
    Koss, M.P., Gidycz, C.A., & Wisniewski, N. (1987). The scope of rape: Incidence and prevalence of sexual aggression and victimization in a national sample of higher education students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 162–170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.55.2.162
    Koss, M.P., Goodman, L.A., Browne, A., Fitzgerald, L.F., Keita, G.P., & Russo, N.F. (1994). No safe haven: Male violence against women at home, at work, and in the community. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10156-000
    Koss, M.P., & Oros, C.J. (1982). Sexual Experiences Survey: A research instrument investigating sexual aggression and victimization. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 455–457. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.50.3.455
    Koss, M.P., Woodruff, W.J., & Koss, P.G. (1991). Relation of criminal victimization to health perceptions among women medical patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 147–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.58.2.147
    Kosson, D.S., Kelly, J.C., & White, J.W. (in press). Psychopathy-related traits predict self-reported sexual aggression among college men. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.
    Kramer, T., & Green, B. (1991). Posttraumatic stress disorder as an early response to sexual assault. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6, 160–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626091006002002
    Ladner, J. (1987). Introduction to Tomorrow's tomorrow: The black woman. In S.Harding (Ed.), Feminism and methodology (pp. 74–83). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Lather, P. (1991). Getting smart. New York: Routledge.
    Layman, M., Gidycz, C., & Lynn, S. (1996). Unacknowledged versus acknowledged rape victims: Situational factors and posttraumatic stress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 124–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.105.1.124
    Ledwitz-Rigby, F. (1993). An administrative approach to personal safety on campus: The role of a President's Advisory Committee on woman's safety on campus. Journal of Human Justice, 4, 85–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02619529
    Lee, J. (1989). Our hearts are collectively breaking: Teaching survivors of violence. Gender & Society, 3, 541–549. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124389003004011
    Leonard, K.E. (1993). Drinking patterns and intoxication in marital violence: Review, critique, and future directions for research. In Alcohol and Interpersonal Violence. Research Monograph-24 NIH Publication No. 93–3496. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
    Levan, A. (1996). Violence against women. In J.Brodie (Ed.), Women and Canadian public policy (pp. 319–354). Toronto: Harcourt Brace.
    Lofland, J., & Lofland, L.H. (1984). Analyzing social settings: A guide to qualitative observations and analysis. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Lorde, A. (1984). Sister outsider. Freedom, CA: The Crossing Press.
    MacIvor, H. (1995, April). The biopolitical agenda. The Literary Review of Canada, pp. 20–21.
    MacKinnon, C.A. (1993), Feminism, Marxism, method, and the state: Toward a feminist jurisprudence. In P.B.Bart & E.G.Moran (Eds.), Violence against women: The bloody footprints (pp. 201–227). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    MacLean, B.D. (1989). The Islington Crime Survey 1985: A cross-sectional study of crime and policing in the London borough of Islington. Doctoral dissertation, University of London.
    MacLeod, L. (1980). Wife battering in Canada: The vicious circle. Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women, Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services.
    MacLeod, L., & DeKeseredy, W.S. (1996). Woman abuse: A sociological story. Unpublished manuscript.
    Maguire, P. (1987). Doing participatory research: A feminist approach. Amherst, MA: Center for International Education, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
    Makepeace, J. (1981). Social factor and victim-offender differences in courtship violence. Family Relations, 36, 87–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/584654
    Malamuth, N.M. (1986). Predictors of naturalistic sexual aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 953–962. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.50.5.953
    Malamuth, N.M. (1989). The attraction to sexual aggression scale: I. Journal of Sex Research, 26, 26–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498909551491
    Malamuth, N.M., & Brown, L.M. (1994). Sexually aggressive men's perceptions of women's communications: Testing three explanations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
    67, 669–712.
    Malamuth, N.M., & Dean, K.E. (1991). Attraction to sexual aggression. In A.Parrot & L.Bechhofer (Eds.), Acquaintance rape: The hidden crime (pp. 229–248). New York: John Wiley.
    Malamuth, N.M., Linz, D., Heavey, C.L., Barnes, G., & Acker, M. (1995). Using the confluence model of sexual aggression to predict men's conflict with women: A 10-year follow-up study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2, 353–369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.69.2.353
    Malamuth, N.M., Sockloskie, R.J., Koss, M.P., & Tanaka, J.S. (1991). Characteristics of aggressors against women: Testing a model using a national sample of college students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 670–681. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.59.5.670
    Mandoki, C.A., & Burkhart, B.R. (1989). Sexual victimization: A vicious cycle?Victims and Violence, 4, 179–190.
    Martin, P.Y., & Hummer, R.A. (1989). Fraternities and rape on campus. Gender & Society, 3, 457–473. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124389003004004
    Mattley, C. (1994). (Dis)courtesy stigma: Fieldwork among phone fantasy workers. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology Annual Meetings, Miami, FL.
    Maynard, M. (1994). Methods, practice and epistemology: The debate about feminism and research. In M.Maynard & J.Purvis (Eds.), Researching women's lives from a feminist perspective (pp. 10–26). London: Taylor & Francis.
    McCahill, T.W., Meyer, L.C., & Fischman, A.M. (1979). The aftermath of rape. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.
    McCann, L., & Pearlman, L. (1990). McPearl Belief Scale. South Windsor, CT: Traumatic Stress Institute.
    McIntosh, P. (1988). White privilege and male privilege: A personal account of coming to see correspondences through work in women's studies. Working Paper No. 189. Wellesley, MA: Center for Research on Women, Wellesley College.
    McMillen, L. (1990). An anthropologist's disturbing picture of gang rape on campus. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 43, A3.
    Mies, M. (1983). Towards a methodology of feminist research. In G.Bowles & R.Duelli-Klein (Eds.), Theories of women's studies (pp. 117–139). Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Miller, E. (1986). Street woman. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Miller, J. (1991). Prostitution in contemporary American society. In E.Grauerholz & M.A.Koralewski (Eds.), Sexual coercion: A sourcebook on its nature, causes and prevention (pp. 45–57). Lexington, MA: Lexington.
    Miller, J. (1993). “Your life is on the line every night you're on the streets”: Victimization and resistance among street prostitutes. Humanity & Society, 17, 422–446.
    Miller, J. (1995). Gender and power on the streets: Street prostitution in the era of crack cocaine. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 23, 427–452. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124195023004002
    Miller, J., & Schwartz, M.D. (1995). Rape myths and violence against street prostitutes. Deviant Behavior, 16, 1–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01639625.1995.9967984
    Mills, C.S., & Granoff, B.J. (1992). Date and acquaintance rape among a sample of college students. Social Work, 37, 504–506.
    Mohanty, C.T. (1991). Under western eyes: Feminist scholarship and colonial discourses. In C.T.Mohanty, A.Russo, & L.Torres (Eds.), Third world women and the politics of feminism (pp. 51–80). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Moran-Ellis, J. (1996). Close to home: The experience of researching child sexual abuse. In M.Hester, L.Kelly, & J.Radford (Eds.), Women, violence and male power (pp. 176–187). Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Morokoff, P.J. (1983). Toward the elimination of rape: A conceptualization of sexual aggression against women. In A.P.Goldstein (Ed.), Prevention and control of aggression (pp. 101–144). New York: Pergamon.
    Morris, A. (1987). Women, crime, and criminal justice. Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.
    Muehlenhard, C.L., & Cook, S.W. (1988). Men's self-reports of unwanted sexual activity. Journal of Sex Research, 24, 58–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498809551398
    Muehlenhard, C.L., Friedman, D.E., & Thomas, C.M. (1985). Is date rape justifiable? The effects of dating activity, who initiated, who paid, and men's attitudes toward women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 9, 297–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1985.tb00882.x
    Muehlenhard, C.L., & Hollabough, L.C. (1988). Do women sometimes say no when they mean yes? Prevalence and correlates of women's token resistance to sex. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 872–879. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.5.872
    Muehlenhard, C.L., & Linton, M.A. (1987). Date rape and sexual aggression in dating situations: Incidence and risk factors. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34, 186–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.34.2.186
    Muehlenhard, C.L., Powch, I.G., Phelps, J.L., & Highby, L.M. (1992). Definitions of rape: Scientific and political implications. Journal of Social Issues, 48, 23–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1992.tb01155.x
    Muehlenhard, C.L., & Rogers, C.S. (1993, August). Narrative descriptions of “token resistance” to sex. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.
    Muehlenhard, C.L., Sympson, S.C., Phelps, J.L., & Highby, B.J. (1994). Are rape statistics exaggerated? A response to criticism of contemporary rape research. Journal of Sex Research, 31, 143–153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224499409551742
    Murphy, J.E. (1984). Date abuse and forced intercourse among college students. Paper presented to the Midwestern Sociological Society, Chicago.
    Myers, M.B., Templer, D.I., & Brown, R. (1984). Coping ability of women who become victims of rape. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 73–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.52.1.73
    Niles, P.L., & White, J.W. (1989). Correlates of sexual aggression and their accessibility. Paper presented at the Southeastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
    Norris, J., Nurius, P.S., & Dimeff, L.A. (1996). Through her eyes: Factors affecting women's perceptions of resistance to acquaintance sexual aggression threat. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 123–145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.60.2.167
    Oakley, A. (1981). Interviewing women: A contradiction in terms. In H.Roberts (Ed.), Doing feminist research (pp. 30–61). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Olweus, D. (1993). Victimization by peers: Antecedents and longterm outcomes. In K.H.Rubin & J.B.Asendorpf (Eds.), Social withdrawal, inhibition, and shyness in childhood (pp. 315–341). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Omi, M., & Winant, H. (1994). Racial formation in the United States: From the 1960's to the 1990's (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Routledge.
    O'SulIivan, L.F. (1995, August). Consenting to noncoercive sex in heterosexual dating. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Boston.
    Paglia, C. (1993). New essays: Vamps and tramps. New York: Vintage.
    Pateman, C. (1988). The sexual contract. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Phillips, S.P., & Schneider, M.S. (1993). Sexual harassment of female doctors by patients. New England Journal of Medicine, 329, 1936–1939. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199312233292607
    Phoenix, A. (1987). Theories of gender and black families. In G.Weiner & M.Arnot (Eds.), Gender under scrutiny: New inquiries in education (pp. 50–61). London: Hutchinson Open University.
    Pierson, R.R. (1991). Violence against women: Strategies for change. Canadian Woman Studies, 11, 10–12.
    Pineau, L. (1989). Date rape: A feminist analysis. Law and Psychology, 8, 217–243.
    Pitts, V.L., & Schwartz, M.S. (1993). Promoting self-blame in hidden rape cases. Humanity & Society, 17, 383–398.
    Pizzey, E. (1974). Scream quietly or the neighbours will hear. New York: Penguin.
    Plass, M., & Gessner, J. (1983). Violence in courtship relationships: A southern sample. Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology, 11, 148–202.
    Podhoretz, N. (1991, October). Rape in feminist eyes. Commentary, 29–35.
    Pollard, J. (1993). Male-female dating relationships in Canadian universities and colleges: Sample design, arrangements for data collection and data reduction. Toronto: Institute for Social Research.
    Pollner, M., & Emerson, R.M. (1983). The dynamics of inclusion and distance in fieldwork relations. In R.M.Emerson (Ed.), Contemporary field research (pp. 235–252). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.
    Prescod, M. (1990). Discussion presented at the National Women's Studies Association annual conference. Akron, OH.
    Randall, M., & Haskell, L. (1995). Sexual violence in women's lives: Findings from the Women's Safety Project, a community-based survey. Violence Against Women, 1, 6–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801295001001002
    Rapaport, K., & Burkhart, B.R. (1984). Personality and attitudinal characteristics of sexually coercive college males. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93, 216–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.93.2.216
    Reinharz, S. (1992). Feminist methods in social research. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Renzetti, C.M. (1992). Violent betrayal: Partner abuse in lesbian relationships. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Renzetti, C.M. (1995). Studying partner abuse in lesbian relationships: A case for the feminist participatory research model. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 3, 29–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J041v03n01_03
    Resick, P. (1993). The psychological impact of rape. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 8, 223–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626093008002005
    Rhode, D.L. (1989). Justice and gender. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Riessman, C.K. (1987). When gender is not enough: Women interviewing women. Gender & Society, 1 (2), 172–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891243287001002004
    Roberts, C. (1989). Women and rape. New York: New York University Press.
    Roberts, J., & Mohr, R. (1994). Confronting sexual assault. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    Roiphe, K. (1993). The morning after: Sex, fear and feminism. Boston: Little Brown.
    Romero, M. (1988). Chicanas modernize domestic service. Qualitative Sociology, 11 (4), 19–333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00988969
    Ronai, C.R. (1992). The reflexive self through narrative: A night in the life of an erotic dancer/researcher. In C.Ellis & M.G.Flaherty (Eds.), Investigating subjectivity (pp. 102–124). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Rose, S., & Frieze, I.H. (1989). Young singles scripts for a first date. Gender & Society, 3, 258–268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124389003002006
    Rozee, P.D. (1993). Forbidden or forgiven: Rape in cross-cultural perspective. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17, 499–514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/494000
    Ruch, L.O., & Chandler, S. (1983). Sexual assault trauma during the acute phase: An exploratory model and multivariate analysis. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 174–185. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136643
    Ruch, L.O., Amedeo, S.R., Leon, J.J., & Gartrell, J.W. (1991). Repeated sexual victimization and trauma change during the acute phase of the sexual assault trauma syndrome. Women and Health, 17, 1–19.
    Russell, D.E. H. (1982a). The prevalence and incidence of forcible rape and attempted rape of females. Victimology: An International Journal, 17, 81–93.
    Russell, D.E. H. (1982b). Rape in marriage. New York: Macmillan.
    Russell, D.E. H. (1984). Sexual exploitation: Rape, child sexual abuse, and workplace harassment. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Russell, D.E. H. (1990). Rape in marriage (
    2nd ed.
    ). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Saal, F.E., Johnson, C.B., & Weber, N. (1989). Friendly or sexy? It may depend on who you ask. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 13, 263–276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.35.020184.002333
    Sacco, V.F., & Johnson, H. (1990). Patterns of criminal victimization in Canada. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
    Sales, E., Baum, M., & Shore, B. (1984). Victim readjustment following assault. Journal of Social Issues, 40 (1), 117–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1984.tb01085.x
    Samoluk, S.B., & Pretty, G.M. H. (1994). The impact of sexual harassment simulations on women's thoughts and feelings. Sex Roles, 30, 679–699. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01544670
    Samson, H.H.III, & Grant, K.A. (1990). Some implications of animal alcohol self-administration studies for human alcohol problems. Drug Alcohol Dependence, 25, 141–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0376-8716%2890%2990053-H
    Sanday, P.R. (1990). Fraternity gang rape. New York: New York University Press.
    Sanday, P.R. (1996). A woman scorned: Acquaintance rape on trial. New York: Doubleday.
    Santiago, J.M., McCall-Perez, F., Gorcey, M., & Beigel, A. (1985). Long-term psychological effects of rape in 35 victims. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 1338–1340.
    Scheppele, K.L., & Bart, P.B. (1983). Through women's eyes: Defining danger in the wake of sexual assault. Journal of Social Issues, 39 (2), 63–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1983.tb00141.x
    Schwartz, M.D., & DeKeseredy, W.S. (1994a). Male peer support, pornography and the abuse of women in dating relationships. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Miami, FL.
    Schwartz, M.D., & DeKeseredy, W.S. (1994b, December). “People without data” attacking rape: The Gilbertization of Mary Koss. Violence UpDate, 5, 8, 11.
    Seiber, J. (1993). The ethics and politics of sensitive research. In C.M.Renzetti & R.M.Lee (Eds.), Researching sensitive topics (pp. 14–26). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Selkin, J. (1978). Protecting personal space: Victim and resister reactions to assaultive rape. Journal of Community Psychology, 78, 263–268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1520-6629%28197807%296:3%3C263::AID-JCOP2290060309%3E3.0.CO;2-K
    Sessar, K. (1990). The forgotten nonvictim. International Review of Victimology, 1, 113–132.
    Shainess, N. (1979). Vulnerability to violence: Masochism as process. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 33, 174–189.
    Shim, Y. (1992). Sexual violence against women in Korea: A victimization survey of Seoul women. Paper presented at the conference on International Perspectives: Crime, Justice and Public Order, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Shotland, R.L. (1992). A theory of the causes of courtship rape: Part 2. Journal of Social Issues, 48, 127–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1992.tb01161.x
    Shotland, R.L., & Hunter, B.A. (1992, August). Women's “token resistance” and compliant sexual behaviors are related to uncertain sexual intentions and rape. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.
    Siegel, J.M., Golding, J.M., Stein, J.A., Burnam, M.A., & Sorenson, S.B. (1990). Reactions to sexual assault: A community study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5, 229–246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626090005002007
    Silverman, R.A. (1992). Street crime. In V.F.Sacco (Ed.), Deviance: Conformity and control in Canadian society (pp. 236–277). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Smith, D.E. (1974). Women's perspective as a radical critique of sociology. Sociological Inquiry, 44, 7–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1974.tb00718.x
    Smith, D.E. (1987). Women's perspective as a radical critique of sociology. In S.Harding (Ed.), Feminism & methodology (pp. 84–96). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Smith, M.D. (1987). The incidence and prevalence of woman abuse in Toronto. Violence and Victims, 2, 173–187.
    Smith, M.D. (1988). Women's fear of violent crime: An exploratory test of a feminist hypothesis. Journal of Family Violence, 3, 29–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00994664
    Smith, M.D. (1990). Patriarchal ideology and wife beating: A test of a feminist hypothesis. Violence and Victims, 5, 257–273.
    Smith, M.D. (1994). Enhancing the quality of survey data on violence against women: A feminist approach. Gender & Society, 18, 109–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124394008001007
    Solicitor General of Canada. (1985). Canadian urban victimization survey: Female victims of crime. Ottawa: Ministry of the Solicitor General.
    Soothill, K., & Walby, S. (1991). Sex crime in the news. London: Routledge.
    Sparks, R. (1982). Research on victims of crime: Accomplishments, issues and new directions. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Social Services.
    Spence, J.T., Helmreich, R.L., & Holahan, C.K. (1979). Negative and positive components of psychological masculinity and femininity and their relationship to self-reports of neurotic and acting out behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1673–1682. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.37.10.1673
    Stacey, J. (1988). Can there be a feminist ethnography?Women's Studies International Forum, 11 (1), 21–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-5395%2888%2990004-0
    Stanko, E.A. (1977). These are the cases that try themselves. Doctoral dissertation, City University of New York.
    Stanko, E.A. (1981–1982). The impact of victim assessment on prosecutors’ screening decisions: The case of the New York County District Attorney's office. Law & Society Review, 16, 225–240.
    Stanko, E.A. (1982). Would you believe this woman? In N.Rafter & E.A.Stanko (Eds.), Judge, lawyer, victim, thief: Women, gender roles and criminal justice (pp. 63–82). Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press.
    Stanko, E.A. (1985). Intimate intrusions. London: Routledge.
    Stanko, E.A. (1990). Everyday violence: How women and men experience sexual and physical danger. London: Pandora.
    Stanko, E.A. (1994). Challenging the problem of individual men's violence. In T.Newburn & E.A.Stanko (Eds.), Just boys doing business (pp. 32–45). London: Routledge.
    Stanko, E.A. (1996). Reading danger: Sexual harassment, anticipation and self-protection. In M.Hester, L.Kelly, & J.Radford (Eds.), Women, violence and male power (pp. 50–62). Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Steketee, G., & Austin, A. (1989). Rape victims and the justice system: Utilization and impact. Social Service Review, 63, 285–303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/603698
    Stockdale, M.S. (1993). The role of sexual misperceptions of women's friendliness in an emerging theory of sexual harassment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 42, 84–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1993.1006
    Straus, M.A. (1979). Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: The Conflict Tactics (CT) scales. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 41, 75–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/351733
    Straus, M.A., Gelles, R.J., & Steinmetz, S.K. (1981). Behind closed doors: Violence in the American family. New York: Anchor.
    Strauss, A.L. (1987). Qualitative analysis for social scientists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511557842
    Strickland, W. (1991, April). Institutional emotion norms and role satisfaction: Examination of a career wife population Paper presented at the meeting of the North Central Sociological Association meetings, Dearborn, MI.
    Struckman-Johnson, C. (1988). Forced sex on dates: It happens to men, too. Journal of Sex Research, 24, 234–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498809551418
    Tolich, M. (1993). Alienating and liberating emotions at work. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 22 (3), 361–381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124193022003004
    Tromp, S., Koss, M.P., Figueredo, A.J., & Tharan, M. (1995). Are rape memories different? A comparison of rape, other unpleasant, and pleasant memories among employed women. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, 607–627. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490080406
    Turk, C.L., & Muehlenhard, C.L. (1991, June). Force versus consent in definitions of rape. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sex Midcontinent Region, Kansas City, MO.
    U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. (1994). Uniform crime reports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. House of Representatives. (1977). Suspension of the National Crime Survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    Ullman, S., & Siegel, J.M. (1993). Victim-offender relationship and sexual assault. Violence and Victims, 8, 121–134.
    United Nations. (1995). Human development report 1995. Toronto: Oxford University Press.
    Veit, C.T., & Ware, J.E., Jr. (1983). The structure of psychological distress and well-being in general populations. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 730–742. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.51.5.730
    Waldner-Haugrud, L.K. (1995). Sexual coercion on data: It's not just rape. Update on Law-Related Education, 19, 661–676.
    Waldner-Haugrud, L.K., & Magruder, B. (1995). Male and female sexual victimization in dating relationships: Gender differences in coercion techniques and outcomes. Violence and Victims, 10, 203–216.
    Walker, L., & Browne, A. (1985). Gender and victimization by intimates. Journal of Personality, 53, 179–195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1985.tb00363.x
    Warren, C.A. B. (1988). Gender issues infield research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Warren, C.A. B., & Rassmussen, P.K. (1977). Sex and gender in fieldwork research. Urban Life, 6, 359–369.
    Warshaw, R. (1988). I never called it rape. New York: Harper & Row.
    Weed, F.J. (1995). Certainty of justice: Reform in the crime victim movement. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
    Weis, K., & Borges, S.S. (1973). Victimology and rape: The case of the legitimate victim. Issues in Criminology, 8, 71–115.
    Weniger, R.H. (1978). Factors affecting the prosecution of rape: A case study of Travis County, Texas. Virginia Law Review, 64, 357. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1072553
    White, J.W., & Bondurant, B. (1996). Gendered violence in intimate relationships. In J.T.Wood (Ed.), Gendered relationships. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
    White, J.W., Donat, P.L. N., & Humphrey, J.H. (1996). Rape in our culture: A closer examination of the attitudes underlying sexual assault among acquaintances. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 8, 27–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J056v08n01_03
    White, J.W., & Farmer, R.F. (1992). Research methods: How they shape our view of sexual violence. Journal of Social Issues, 48, 45–60.
    White, J.W., & Humphrey, J.A. (1991). Young people's attitudes toward rape. In A.Parrot & L.Bechhofer (Eds.), Acquaintance rape: The hidden crime (pp. 197–210). New York: John Wiley.
    White, J.W., & Humphrey, J.A. (1994). Woman's aggression in heterosexual conflicts. Aggressive Behavior, 20, 195–202.
    White, J.W., Humphrey, J.A., & Farmer, R. (1989). Behavioral correlates of self-reported sexual coercion. Washington, DC: Southeastern Psychology Association.
    White, J.W., & Koss, M.P. (1991). Courtship violence: Incidence in a national sample of higher education students. Violence and Victims, 6, 247–256.
    Wieder, G.B. (1985). Coping ability of rape victims: Comments on Myers, Templer, and Brown. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 429–430. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.53.3.429
    Williams, K.M. (1978). The role of the victim in the prosecution of violent crime. Washington, DC: Institute of Law and Social Research.
    Williams, L.S. (1984). The classic rape: When do victims report?Social Problems, 31 (A), 457–467. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800390
    Wolf, N. (1993). Fire with fire. London: Chatto & Windus.
    Yllö, K. (1988). Political and methodological debates in wife abuse research. In K.Yllö & M.Bograd (Eds.), Feminist perspectives on wife abuse (pp. 28–50). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

    About the Authors

    HOBART H. CLEVELAND was formerly a practicing attorney and is currently a doctoral student in Family Studies at the University of Arizona. His primary scholarly interest is male sexual aggression, including its causes, prevention, and treatment.

    DAWN H. CURRIE is Associate Professor of Sociology and Chair of Women's Studies at the University of British Columbia, where she teaches both feminist sociology and women's studies. Her areas of research and publication include feminist research, social justice, and feminist cultural studies. She is currently completing a book-length manuscript on fashion magazines and their adolescent readers. This interest in women's fashion is being extended through fieldwork in Sri Lanka on garment workers. She completed her PhD in Sociology at the London School of Economics in 1988.

    WALTER S. DeKESEREDY is Professor of Sociology at Carleton University in Ottawa. He has published dozens of journal articles and book chapters on woman abuse and left realism. He is the author of Woman Abuse in Dating Relationships: The Role of Male Peer Support; with Ronald Hinch, coauthor of Woman Abuse: Sociological Perspectives; with Desmond Ellis, coauthor of the second edition of The Wrong Stuff: An Introduction to the Sociological Study of Deviance; with Martin Schwartz, coauthor of Contemporary Criminologyand Sexual Assault on the College Campus: The Role of Male Peer Support (forthcoming); and with Linda MacLeod, coauthor of Woman Abuse: A Sociological Story (forthcoming). In 1995, he received the Critical Criminologist of the Year Award from the American Society of Criminology's Division on Critical Criminology. In 1993, he received Carleton University's Research Achievement Award. Currently, he is coeditor of Critical Criminology: An International Journal and serves on the editorial board of Women & Criminal Justice.

    PATRICIA A. FRAZIER is Associate Professor in the Counseling and Social Psychology Programs in the Department of Psychology at the University of Minnesota. She received a PhD in Counseling Psychology and Social Psychology from the University of Minnesota in 1988. Her research interests include sexual assault, sexual harassment, coping with stressful life events, and the interface between psychology and law.

    SUSAN K. HIPPENSTEELE is a research psychologist and the victim's advocate for students, faculty, and staff at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Active in antidiscrimination research and policy development as a graduate student, she was hired as the first victims’ advocate for this 20,000-student campus shortly after earning her PhD in Psychology in 1991. Her current research examines student and faculty experiences with campus ethnoviolence, emphasizing the relationships among victims’ experiences with racism, sexism, and homophobia in multiple minority settings. She also works as a consultant to plaintiff attorneys and to universities and colleges developing victim advocacy and support programs on campus.

    JENNIFER K. HUFF is a graduate of both the sociology masters program and the Honors Tutorial College undergraduate program at Ohio University. Currently, she is acquiring additional perspective and expanding her knowledge of social services through her work for a state agency that helps consumers with disabilities obtain employment.

    KIMBERLY A. HUISMAN is working on her PhD at the University of Southern California. Her research interests include violence against women, gender, race, and ethnicity.

    JOHN A. HUMPHREY is Professor of Sociology at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. His research has focused on interpersonal violence, including criminal homicide and suicide, alcohol and other drug abuse, and sexual aggression. He has been coprincipal investigator with Jacquelyn W. White of a longitudinal study of the risk of sexual and physical assault among undergraduates.

    MARY P. KOSS is Professor of Family and Community Medicine, Psychiatry, and Psychology in the Arizona Prevention Center at the University of Arizona (Tucson). She is the cochair of the American Psychological Association Task Force on Male Violence Against Women, which published No Safe Haven: Violence Against Women at Home, at Work, and in the Community, winner of the 1994 Washington EdPress award for outstanding book on a social concern. She is coauthor, with Mary Harvey, of The Rape Victim: Clinical and Community Interventions, and her national study on college students’ experiences with sexual aggression is the subject of Robin Warshaw's INever Called It Rape. She is associate editor of Violence and Victims and consulting editor to many more journals, including, among others, Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, Gender and Health, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Violence Against Women, and Criminal Behavior and Law.

    BRIAN D. MACLEAN currently teaches criminology at the Richmond campus of Kwantlen University College. He completed his PhD in Sociology at the London School of Economics and Political Science, where he was a Commonwealth Scholar. He has authored, coauthored, or edited 12 books and over 35 articles in books and scholarly journals on the subject of crime and society. He is the founding editor or coeditor of three journals and has published over 40 editions of various academic periodicals. In 1992, with Dragan Milovanovic, he was awarded the Distinguished Achievement Award from a division of the American Society of Criminology.

    CHRISTINE MATTLEY teaches sociology at Ohio University. She received her PhD from Washington State University in 1984 and has published on the self and self-concept in such journals as Symbolic Interaction and Journal of Family Violence. Her current research focuses on emotion, emotion-work and the self, and the emotion-work of sex workers.

    JODY MILLER is Assistant Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Missouri at St. Louis. Her research interests are gender, adolescence, and delinquency. She is currently involved in a study of female gang involvement in “new” gang cities. She has numerous publications, including “Gender and Power on the Streets: Street Prostitution in an Era of Crack Cocaine” in the Journal of Contemporary Ethnography.

    VICTORIA L. PITTS is completing her PhD in sociology at Brandeis University. She has published in Justice Quarterly, Humanity & Society, and Race, Class and Gender in Criminology: The Intersections. She has taught for Bradford College.

    CLAIRE M. RENZETTI is Professor and Chair of Sociology at St. Joseph's University, Philadelphia. She is editor of Violence Against Women: An International, Interdisciplinary Journal (Sage) and of the book series, Gendered Justice: Women, Crime and Law. With Jeffrey Edleson, she coedits the Sage Violence Against Women Book Series. She has published eight books and numerous book chapters and journal articles. Her current research interest is women's use of violence.

    MARTIN D. SCHWARTZ is Professor of Sociology at Ohio University. He has written more than 60 articles, chapters, edited books, and books on a variety of topics in such journals as Criminology, Deviant Behavior, Justice Quarterly, and Women and Politics. He has been teaching women's studies courses on violence against women since the late 1970s. A former president of the Association for Humanist Sociology, he is the winner of a lifetime achievement award from the Division on Critical Criminology of the American Society of Criminology and has never been convicted of a major felony. He is the coauthor of Contemporary Criminology, Sexual Assault on the College Campus: The Role of Male Peer Support, and Corrections: An Issues Approach, now in its 4th edition, and the coeditor of Race, Class and Gender in Criminology: The Intersections. He serves as deputy editor of Justice Quarterly and on the editorial boards of a number of publications, including Violence Against Women; Race, Class & Gender; and Teaching Sociology.

    LISA M. SEALES is a doctoral student in the Counseling Psychology Program at the University of Minnesota—Twin Cities. Her research interests lie in the areas of interpersonal relationships, gender stereotyping, and family systems.

    ELIZABETH A. STANKO, Reader in Criminology, worked for 13 years teaching sociology and women's studies at Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts, moving to London in 1990 to take her position at Brunei University's Law Department. She is the author of Everyday Violence (1990) and Intimate Intrusions (1985) and an editor of texts on gender and crime (most recently, Just Boys Doing Business: Men, Masculinities and Crime with Tim Newburn, 1994). She has published widely on issues of prosecutorial discretion, violence, violence against women, and crime prevention. She is currently writing The Good, the Bad and the Vulnerable, a critique of victimization, to be published by Sage in 1997.

    JACQUELYN W. WHITE is Professor of Psychology at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Her research focuses on interpersonal violence, specifically violence against women in intimate relationships. She has been coprincipal investigator with John A. Humphrey on a longitudinal study of sexual and physical assault among undergraduates.


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website