Representing Black Britain: A History of Black and Asian Images on British Television


Sarita Malik

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • About the Series

    Culture, Representation and Identities is dedicated to a particular understanding of ‘cultural studies’ as an inherently interdisciplinary project critically concerned with the analysis of meaning. The series focuses attention on the importance of the contemporary ‘cultural turn’ in forging a radical re-think of the centrality of ‘the cultural’ and the articulation between the material and the symbolic in social analysis. One aspect of this shift is the expansion of ‘culture’ to a much wider, more inclusive range of institutions and practices, including those conventionally termed ‘economic’ and ‘political’.

    Paul du Gay is at the Faculty of Social Sciences at The Open University. Stuart Hall, is Emeritus Professor at the Open University and Visiting Professor at Goldsmiths College, the University of London.


    View Copyright Page


    How the ‘Black British’ experience has been constructed and made sense of on British TV over the years since World War II is a topic of recurring public interest. It has provided an object of policy debate and institutional reform; it has emerged as a topic of critical discussion and scholarly research; it has become a focus of political struggle, popular criticism and campaigning. Critics, academics, researchers and students in different fields have frequently made studies of its different aspects and will have much that is new and insightful to learn from this new study. What we may call ‘the race question’ – whether in the form of colour and biological, or cultural and ethnic difference – entered the mainstream political agenda with the rise of postwar migration and has never left the headlines.

    It would therefore be unthinkable for television – the mass medium of social interpretation, which ‘came of age’ during this same period – not to have played a critical role in how that issue came to be defined, understood and interpreted. At a certain moment, the question of how the issue was represented became a front-line issue in the new forms of cultural politics around race – the issue of ‘recognition’ and ‘the politics of representation’ coming to take their rightful place alongside, and without substituting, the politics of equality and social justice. During the 1970s and 1980s, when the question of ‘access’ to TV by neglected or marginalized social groups was pushed up the agenda by an active campaign, the question perforce became central to the institutional agendas of TV organizations, and to policymakers in a broader sense. From the beginning, it has been debated in the wider context of the recurring tensions which, over the years, have marked and disfigured racialized relationships between mainstream society and the so-called ‘ethnic minority communities’ within Britain.

    This study is therefore a timely and impressive contribution to that ongoing contestation. It is wide ranging in scope and ambition. It offers one of the very few over-arching ‘mappings’ of this field across what we may call the ‘high period’ of terrestrial TV broad-casting which – with the onset of narrow-casting and the digital age' – is rapidly coming to assume the shape of a distinct ‘era’. Of course, as Sarita Malik acknowledges in her introduction, her study cannot be comprehensive in the full sense. The subject is too wide to be easily encompassed by a single study; and the archives from which such a comprehensive history could be written are quite inadequate to the task – patchy, variable in quality and often, inexplicably, selective. That said, a very wide pathway has been carved here through the tangled mass of materials, in an attempt to establish significant patterns – of presences and absences, gaps and distortions – in the coverage. A very wide range of programming is referenced. This ‘survey’ aspect of the study – invaluable in itself – is complemented in each chapter by detailed, in-depth, case-studies of particular programmes so that the emerging generalizations about ‘patterns’ and the discussion of their causes and conditions of existence, are substantiated by concrete analysis. The result of combining these breadth-and-depth approaches is to enable us to understand more critically not only what was shown and seen, but how its meanings were actually constructed.

    What is more, this broader analysis of recurring and divergent patterns in the programming and significant moments of rupture and shift, are crosscut by a powerful understanding of the way the visual discourse of TV shapes ‘what is said’, and of the critical role which the television genres play in this practice of constructing meaning. In the case studies, the text mobilizes a number of critical concepts and engages a number of strategic debates in contemporary media studies and cultural studies fields, bringing them to bear on the main subject of the argument. As the study clearly shows, the ‘play’ of genre conventions (form) fundamentally reshapes and redistributes the meaning of what the programmes claim to represent (content). This approach has the added value of interrupting any temptation the critical narrative may otherwise have had to relapse into a ‘reflective’ or mimetic model of how television works.

    This rich analysis of programme materials and forms, which constitutes the analytic core and heart of the project, is solidly buttressed by two further pillars. On the one hand, it is set in the context of the shifting institutional framework of the television providers and of media policy more broadly, which throughout this period were adjusting both to the concrete demands for more, more adequate, and more complex coverage of ‘black experience’ (leading, for example, to the rise of ‘access television’, and later, to the minority interest brief for Channel 4), and to wider demands for access to the opportunities to work in television, and thus to influence from behind the screen what was (and was not) being shown on it (leading to a modest level of professional recruitment). This whole institutional and policy aspect demands a detailed institutional and political history of its own – but it is widely documented and integrated into the general story here. It is enriched and sustained by a series of interviews with key players which constitute a valuable cache of ‘primary materials’ lodged at the centre of the book.

    On the other hand the study provides a route-map for how we may set about ‘mapping’ the shifts within television and the television institutions against the broader socio-political history of race as it evolves in British society over the period. This is not only a reminder of how the climaterics of this tumultuous history made their impact within and on television. It also reminds that the medium is always located within a broader system of sociopolitical relations and forces – always part of a wider structure of cultural power. Television has been, throughout, attuned, in many indirect and often unconscious ways, to the changing cultural and political currents around race within which it operates. What is critical here is not simply the particular climaterics which have recurred, with predictable frequency and disturbing regularity, across the period – from Notting Hill and Southall, the ‘sus’ laws, policing and urban resistance, through the first wave of Pakibashing, to the uprisings of the early 80's, the murder of Stephen Lawrence the high drama of the Inquiry and its historic report, Oldham and Bradford – but also the broader currents of the political response to racialized disadvantage and social injustice: from assimilation, black power and anti-racism to multiculturalism to cultural diversity.

    What emerges from this study is the outline of what Sarita Malik calls the distinctive shape of ‘a racialized regime of representation’. This phrase is bound to be picked out and selectively ‘read’ by some critics; not least because, even after 400 years as a colonizing and imperial nation, the British still find it difficult, if not impossible, to tell the difference between ‘racial’ and ‘racist’. The subtlety of Sarita Malik's analysis eschews at every point any such vulgar and simplistic judgements as could be interpreted as suggesting all British television has been and is for evermore destined to be ‘racist’ – a phrase calculated to set alarm bells ringing deep in the collective unconscious of the British psyche. What the phrase means is that the Black British experience has been represented by British TV in very distinctive ways: ways which are different in certain critical respects (though not, of course, absolutely different), from the way other social groups and other cultural differences are represented. This ‘difference’ – itself changing in form over time – has something to do with a racialized nature of the way these people are collectively seen and their behaviour and experiences understood, signified and interpreted. What is distinctive – different – about this ‘regime of representation’ is the question at the centre of this challenging book.

    Stuart Hall


    I would like to thank Stuart Hall and June Givanni for their tireless support and guidance throughout the project, from PhD to publication. It is a real luxury to have such positive, attentive and knowledgeable mentors.

    Thank you very much to BFI Stills, Jason Baron at Channel 4 Picture Publicity, Carl Daniels at the Black Film Bulletin and to Richard Paterson and all those at the British Film Institute and Open University who helped the foundation research progress. To Julia Hall, Rosie Maynard and Seth Edwards at Sage Publications for their continuous patience and professionalism. To my PhD examiners, Jim Pines and Ken Thompson, for their positive response to my doctoral thesis which led to the book. Thank you to all those whom I interviewed whilst at the BFI, including Imruh Bakari, Colin Prescod, Henry Martin, Parminder Vir, Trevor Phillips, Treva Etienne, Terry Jervis, Samir Shah, Narendhra Morar, Farrukh Dhondy, Ruhul Amin and Yasmin Anwar. Their testimonies proved to be an important part of the book.

    To Katie Epstein, Andy Medhurst, Charlotte Brunsdon, Richard Dyer and Reece Augusite who all, in ways they may not have realised at the time, have helped and encouraged me and my work along the way. Special thanks to my friends for their support (they know who they are), to my parents, Saroj and Inder Malik, for their constant love and assurance, and to all my family. To my dearest Bob, who without pause or end, gives me support, motivation, time and love.

    Figure 1: The SS Empire Windrush, courtesy of Camera Press Ltd.

    Figure 2: Eastern Eye, London Weekend Television for Channel 4, Presenters Aziz Kurta & Shyama Perera, courtesy of Channel 4 Picture Publicity

    Figure 3: Mind Your Language, a picture of the cast, courtesy of London Weekend Television/Rex Features

    Figure 4: Sacha Baron Cohen as Ali G for Channel 4's ‘The 11 o'clock Show’ courtesy of Channel 4 Picture Publicity

    Figure 5: Linford Christie holding the Union Jack at the 1992 Barcelona Olympic Games © Mark Sherman

    Figure 6: Pressure ©1974 British Film Institute. All Rights Reserved. Image supplied by BFI Collections

    Figure 7: Bhaji on the Beach with Asha (Lalita Ahmed) and Ambrose (Peter Cellier) courtesy of Channel 4 Picture Publicity

    Figure 8: East is East, a shot of the cast, courtesy of Channel 4 Picture Publicity

  • Bibliography

    Ainley, Beulah (1998) Black Journalists, White Media. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books.
    Akomfrah, John (1983) ‘Black Independent Filmmaking: A Statement by the Black Audio Film Collective’, Artrage: Inter-Cultural Arts Magazine, 3/4, Summer.
    Alexander, Karen (1989) ‘Mothers, Lovers and Others’. Monthly Film Bulletin, 56, no. 669: 314–16.
    Annan, Lord (1977) Report of the Committee on the Future of Broadcasting, Annan Committee on Broadcasting. London: HMSO, Cmnd 6753.
    Anthias, Floya and Yuval-Davis, Nira (1992) Racialized Boundaries: Race, Nation, Gender, Colour and Class and the Anti-Racist Struggle. London and New York: Routledge.
    Anwar, Muhammad (1978) Who Tunes In To What?, London: Commission for Racial Equality.
    Anwar, Muhammad and Shang, Anthony (1982) Television in a Multi-Racial Society: A Research Report. London: Commission for Racial Equality.
    Baehr, Helen and Dyer, Gillian (1987) Boxed In: Women and Television. London: Pandora.
    Bailey, Ain (1994) ‘New Imaginings’ (Interview with Alrick Riley), Black Film Bulletin, 2(2) summer: 6–7.
    Bailey, David A. and Hall, Stuart (1992) ‘Critical Decade: An Introduction’, and ‘The Vertigo of Displacement: Shifts within Black Documentary Practices’ in Critical Decade: Black-British Photography in the 80s. Ten-8 Photo Paperback, 20 (3), Spring: 4–7, 14–23.
    Barker, Martin (1982) The New Racism. London: Junction Books.
    Barnett, Steven, Seymour, Emily and Gaber, Ivor (July 2000) ‘From Callaghan to Kosovo: Changing Trends in British Television News 1975–1999’. London: University of Westminster and Goldsmiths College.
    Barthes, Roland (1990) S/Z, trans. RichardMiller. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Bennett, Tony (1981) Poplar Culture: Themes and Issues 1. Milton Keynes: Open University Press: 77–86.
    Bennett, Tony (1986) ‘Introduction: Popular Culture and the ‘ “Turn to Gramsci” ’, in T.Bennett, C.Mercer and J.Woollacott (eds), Popular Culture and Social Relations. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Bennett, Tony, Boyd-Bowman, Susan, Mercer, Colin and Woollacott, Janet (1981) Popular Television and Film. London: BFI Publishing.
    Bhabha, Homi K. (1983) ‘The Other Question’, Screen, 24 (6): 18–36.
    Bhabha, Homi K. (1990) Nation and Narration. London: Routledge.
    Bhabha, Homi K. (1994) The Location of Culture. London: Routledge.
    Birt, John (1980) Press Release Launching London Weekend Television's London Minorities Unit. Broadcast, 1040, 14.1.80: 6.
    Blanchard, Simon (ed.) (1982) What's This Channel Four?London: Comedia.
    Bogle, Donald (1991) Toms, Coons, Mammies, Mulattoes and Bucks: An Interpretative History of Blacks in American Films. New York: Continuum.
    Bourne, Stephen (1998) Black in the British Frame: Black People in Film and Television 1896–1996. London and New York: Cassell.
    Brandt, George W. (1981) British Television Drama. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Briggs, Adam and Cobley, Paul (1998) The Media: An Introduction. London and New York: Longman.
    Briggs, Asa (1995) History of Broadcasting in the Uniterd Kingdom Vols 1–5. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Broadcasting Research Unit (1985) The Public Service Idea. London: Broadcasting Research Unit.
    Brown, Marina Salandy (ed.) (1983) Black Media Workers Association Register.
    Bryant, Steve (1989) The Television Heritage. London: BFI Publishing.
    CRE (1979) Broadcasting in a multi-Racial Society. London: Commission for Racial Equality.
    Cashmore, Ernest and Troyna, Barry (1982) Black Youth in Crisis. London: George Allen & Unwin.
    Central Office of Information (1997) Aspects of Britain: Ethnic Minorities. London: The Stationery Office.
    Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) (1982) The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 70s Britain. London: Hutchinson.
    Cham, M.B. and Andrade-Watkins, C. (eds) (1988) Blackframes: Critical Perspectives on Black Independent Cinema. Cambridge, MA: Celebration of Black Cinema, Inc. and MIT Press.
    Chambers, Iain (1986) The Metropolitan Experience. London and New York: Methuen.
    Chambers, Iain and Curti, Lidia (eds) (1996) The Post-colonial Question: Common Skies, Divided Horizons. London: Routledge.
    Coakley, Jay J. (1994) Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Publishing.
    Cohen, P. and Bains, S. (eds) (1988) Multi-Racist Britain. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Cohen, Philip and Gardner, Carl (eds) (1982) It Ain't Half Racist, Mum: Fighting Racism in the Media, Campaign Against Racism in the Media. London: Comedia.
    Cohen, Stanley (1972) Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods and Rockers. London: MacGibbon and Kee.
    Cohen, S. and Young, J. (eds) (1973) The Manufacture of News. London: Constable.
    Collings, Rex (ed.) (1992) Reflections: Selected Writings and Speeches of Enoch Powell. London: Bellew Publishing.
    Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) (1996) Channels of Diversity, Seminar Report.
    Corner, John (ed.) (1991) Popular Television in Britain: Studies in Cultural History. London: British Film Institute.
    Corner, John (1995) Television Form and Public Address. London: Edward Arnold.
    Cottle, Simon (ed.) (2000) Ethnic Minorities and the Media: Changing Cultural Boundaries. Buckingham and Philadelphia: Open University Press.
    Cripps, Thomas (1993) Making Movies Black; the Hollywood Message: Movies from World War Two to the Civil Rights Era. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Crusz, Robert (1985) ‘Black Cinemas, Film Theory and Dependent Knowledge’Screen, 26 (3–4): 152–6.
    Cumberbatch, Guy and Woods, Samantha (1996) Portrayals of Minority Groups on BBC Television. Key Research Findings 1 and 2 Communications Research Group, Aston University, Birmingham.
    Cumberbatch, Guy, Gauntlett, Sally, Richards, Maxine and Littlejohns, Victoria (2000) Top 10 TV: Ethnic Minority Group Representation on Popular Television. The Communications Research Group for the Commission for Racial Equality.
    Curran, James, Ecclestone, Jake, Oakley, Giles and Richardson, Alan (eds) (1986) Bending Reality: The State of the Media. London: Pluto Press.
    Curran, James and Seaton, Jean (1988) Power Without Responsibility: The Press and Broadcasting in Britain. London and New York: Routledge.
    Daniels, Therese and Gerson, Jane (eds) (1989) The Colour Black: Black Images in British Television. London: BFI Publishing.
    De Nitto, D. (1985) Film: Form and Feeling. New York: Harper and Row.
    Diawara, Manthia (1993) Black American Cinema. New York and London: Routledge, American Film Institute Readers Series.
    Donald, James and Rattansi, Ali (eds) (1992) ‘Race’, Culture and Difference. London: Sage Publications.
    Dowmunt, Tony (ed.) (1993) Channels of Resistance: Global Television and Local Empowerment. London: BFI Publishing.
    Dunant, Sarah (ed.) (1994) The War of the Words: The Political Correctness Debate. London: Virago.
    Dyer, Richard (1987) Heavenly Bodies: Film Stars and Society. London: Macmillan.
    Dyer, Richard (1993) The Matter of Images: Essays on Representation. London: Routledge.
    Dyer, Richard (1995) ‘The Colour of Entertainment’Sight and Sound, November: 28–31.
    Dyer, Richard (1997) White. London and New York: Routledge.
    Dyja, Eddie (ed.) (1997) BFI Film and Television Handbook 1998. London: BFI Publishing.
    Eagleton, T. (1991) Ideology: an Introduction. London: Verso.
    Ellis, John (1983) ‘Channel 4: Working Notes’, Screen, 24 (6): 37–51.
    Elsaesser, Thomas (1984) ‘Images For England (and Scotland, Ireland, Wales …). Monthly Film Bulletin, September.
    Erlrich, Cherry (1986) The Erlrich Report. London: BBC.
    Fanon, Frantz (1986) Black Skin, White Masks, trans. Charles LamMarkmann.London: Pluto Press (originally published in 1952).
    Fiske, John (1982) Introducing Communication Studies. London: Methuen.
    Foucault, Michel (1980) ‘Truth and Power’, in C.Gordon (ed.) Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–1977. New York: Harvester.
    Foucault, Michel (1982) ‘The Subject and Power’ in H.L.Dreyfus and P.Rabinow (eds), Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics. Brighton: Harvester.
    Frachon, Claire and Vargaftig, Marion (eds) (1995) European Television: Immigrants and Ethnic Minorities. London: John Libbey.
    Freud, Sigmund (1977) On Sexuality: Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality and Other Works, Volume 7. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Frith, Simon (ed.) (1988) Facing The Music: Essays on Pop, Rock and Culture. New York: Pantheon.
    Frith, S., Goodwin, A. and Grossberg, L. (eds) (1993) Sound and Vision: The Music Video Reader. Routledege, London.
    Fryer, Peter (1984) Staying Power: The History of Black People in Britain. London and Boulder, CO: Pluto Press.
    Fusco, Coco (1988) Young British and Black: A Monograph on the Work of the Sankofa Film/Video Collective and Black Audio Collective. New York: Hallwalls/Contemporary Arts Center.
    Gaines, Jane (1988) ‘White Privilege and Looking Relations: Race and Gender in Feminist Film Theory’, Screen: The Last ‘Special Issue’ on Race?, 29 (4), Autumn: 12–27.
    Gardner, Carl (in collaboration with Margaret Henry) (1979) ‘Racism: Anti-Racism and Access Television – The Making of ‘ “Open Door” ’, Screen Education, Vol. 31, Summer.
    Gardner, Carl (1984) ‘Populism, Relativism and Left Strategy’, Screen, 25 (1): 45–51.
    Garnham, Nick (1983) ‘Public Service Versus The Market’, Screen, 24 (1): 6–27.
    Ghani, Atif and Rashid, Ian (1994) ‘Beyond Destination, Beyond Identity’Fuse Magazine, 18(1): Winter.
    Giddens, A. (1990) The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Gillespie, Marie (1995) Television, Ethnicity and Cultural Change. London and New York: Routledge.
    Gilman, Sander (1985) Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Gilroy, Paul (1981–82) ‘You can't fool the youths … Race and class formation in the 1980s’, Race and Class, XXIII, 2–3, Autumn/Winter.
    Gilroy, Paul (1983) ‘C4 – Bridgehead or Bantustan?’, Screen, 24 (4–5), Jul-Oct: 130–6.
    Gilroy, Paul (1987) There Ain't No Black in the Union Jack: The Cultural Politics of Race and Nation. London: Hutchinson.
    Gilroy, Paul (1993a) The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness. London and New York: Verso.
    Gilroy, Paul (1993b) Small Acts: Thoughts on the Politics of Black Cultures. London: Serpent's Tail.
    Gilroy, P (2000) Between Camps: Nations, Cultures and the Allure of Race. Harmondsworth: Allen Lane, The Penguin Press.
    Gilroy, P., Grossberg, L. and McRobbie, A. (2000) Without Guarantees: In Honour of Stuart Hall. London and New York, Verso
    Givanni, June (compiled by) (1987) Black Film and Video List. London: BFI Publishing.
    Givanni, June (1994) ‘Return to the Beloved Country’. Black Film Bulletin, 2(2) Summer: 3.
    Givanni, June (ed.) (1995) Remote Control: Dilemmas of Black Intervention in British Film and TV. London: BFI Publishing.
    Gray, Herman (1995) Watching Race: Television and the Struggle for ‘Blackness’. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press.
    Greater London Council (GLC) (1986) Third Eye: Struggle for Black and Third World Cinema. London: Race Equality Unit, GLC.
    Green, Geffrey, P. (1987) ‘The High Society and Black Entertainers in the 1920s and 1930s’, New Community, 13(3): Spring.
    Grossberg, Lawrence, Nelson, Cary, Treichler, Paula A. (eds) (1992) Cultural Studies. London: Routledge.
    Gutch, Robin (1984) ‘Whose Telly Anyway?’, Screen, 25 (4–5), Jul/Oct: 122–6.
    Gutzmore, Cecil (1983) ‘Capital, “black youth” and crime’, Race and Class, Vol. XXV, 2: 13–30.
    Hall, S. (1972) ‘The social eye of Picture Post’, Working Papers in Cultural Studies, 2. Birmingham: University of Birmingham: 71–120.
    Hall, S (1973) ‘Encoding and decoding in the media discourse’, Stencilled paper 7. Birmingham: Centre For Contemporary Cultural Studies, University of Birmingham.
    Hall, S. (1975) ‘Television as a Medium and its Relation to Culture’, Media Series SP, 34. Birmingham: Centre For Contemporary Cultural Studies, University of Birmingham.
    Hall, S. and Jefferson, T. (eds) (1976) Resistance through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-war Britain. London: Hutchinson.
    Hall, S (1978) ‘Racism and Reaction’, in Five Views of Multi-Racial Britain. London: Commission of Racial Equality: 23–35.
    Hall, S. (1980) ‘Recent Developments in Theories of Language and Ideology: A Critical Note’ in S.Hall, D.Hobson, D.Lowe and P.Willis (eds), Culture, Media, Language: Working Papers in Cultural Studies (1972–1979). London: Hutchinson/CCCS: 157–62.
    Hall, S. (1981) ‘The Whites Of Their Eyes: Racist Ideologies and the Media’, in GeorgeBridges and RosalindBrunt (eds), Silver Linings: Some Strategies for the Eighties. London: Lawrence and Wishart: 28–52.
    Hall, S. (1982) ‘The Rediscovery of Ideology: The Return of the Repressed in Media Study’, in M.Gurevitch, J.Curran, T.Bennett and J.Woollacott (eds), Culture, Society and the Media. London: Methuen: 56–90.
    Hall, S. (1983) ‘The Great Moving Rights Show’, in S.Hall and M.Jacques (eds), The Politics of Thatcherism. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
    Hall, S. (1986) ‘On Postmodernism and Articulation: An Interview with Stuart Hall’, Journal of Communication Inquiry, 10 (2): 45–60.
    Hall, S. (1990) ‘Cultural Identity and Diaspora’, in JonathanRutherford (ed.), Identity: Community, Culture, Difference. London: Lawrence and Wishart: 222–37.
    Hall, S. (1991) ‘The Local and The Global: Globalization and Ethnicity’, in AnthonyKing (ed.), Culture, Globalization and the World System. London: Macmillan.
    Hall, S. (1992) ‘The Question of Cultural Identity’, in S.Hall, D.Held and T.McGrew (eds), Modernity and its Futures. Cambridge: Polity Press: 274–316.
    Hall, S. (1993) ‘Culture, Community, Nation’, Cultural Studies, 7 (3): 349–63.
    Hall, S. (1995) ‘The Local and the Global’, Vertigo, 5, Autumn/Winter: 28–30.
    Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage Publications in association with The Open University.
    Hall, S., Critcher, C., Jefferson, T., Clarke, J. and Roberts, R. (1978) Policing The Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and Order. London: Macmillan.
    Halloran, James D., Bhatt, Arvind and Gray, Peggy (1996) Ethnic Minorities and Television: A Study of Use, Reaction and Preferences: A Report for Channel Four. Leicester: Centre for Mass Communication Research, University of Leicester.
    Hardy, Forsyth (ed.) (1979) Grierson on Documentary. London: Faber and Faber.
    Harris, Geoffrey (1990) The Dark Side of Europe. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Hartmann, Paul and Husband, Charles (1974) Racism and the Mass Media: A Study of the Role of the Mass Media in the Formation of White Beliefs and Attitudes in Britain. London: Pavis Poynter.
    Hebdige, Dick (1988) Hiding in the Light: On Images and Things. London: Routledge.
    Henderson, Robert (1995) ‘Is it in the blood?’, Wisden Cricket Monthly, July, p. 9–10.
    Higson, Andrew (ed.) (1996) Dissolving Views: Key Writing on British Cinema. London and New York: Cassell.
    Hoare, Quintin and Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey (1971) Antonio Gramsci: Selections from Prison Notebooks. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
    Hoggart, Richard (1957) The Uses of Literacy. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
    Hood, Stuart (ed.) (1994) Behind The Screens: The Structure of British Television in The Nineties. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
    hooks, bell (1992) Black Looks: Race and Representation. London: Turnaround.
    hooks, bell (1996) ‘Talk Now, Pay Later’ (Review of Girl 6), Sight and Sound, June: 18–22.
    Horrox, Alan (1979) ‘Our People’, Screen Education, 31, Summer.
    Houston, Penelope (1994) Keepers of the Frame: The Film Archives. London: BFI Publishing.
    Husband, Charles (ed.) (1994) A Richer Vision: The Development of Ethnic Minority Media in Western Democracies. London/Paris: UNESCO.
    Independent Television Commission (1994), Television: The Public's View. London: ITC Research Publication.
    Independent Television Commission (1996) Television: Ethnic Minorities’ Views. London: ITC Research Publication.
    Institute of Race Relations (1979) ‘Police against Black People’, Race and Class, Pamphlet No. 6.
    Institute of Race Relations (1981) Southall: The Birth of a Black Community. London: Campaign Against Racism and Fascism/Southall Rights.
    Isaacs, Jeremy (1982) ‘Channel Four – A different sort of television?’, a lecture by the Chief Executive of Channel Four at the NFT, unpublished transcript, 19th January.
    Jamal, Mahmood (1985) ‘Dirty Linen’, Artrage, Autumn: 17.
    James, C.L.R. (1963) Beyond a Boundary. London: Hutchinson.
    James, C.L.R. (1977) The Future in the Present: Selected Writings. London: Alison and Busby.
    Jarvie, Grant (ed.) (1991) Sport, Racism and Ethnicity. London: The Falmer Press.
    Jhally, Sut and Lewis, Justin (1992) Enlightened Racism: The Cosby Show, Audiences and the Myth of the American Dream. Boulder, CO and Oxford: Westview.
    Julien, Isaac and MacCabe, Colin (1991) Diary of a Young Soul Rebel. London: BFI Publishing.
    Kabbani, Rana (1986) Europe's Myths Of Orient: Devise and Rule. London: Macmillan.
    Kershaw, H.V. (1981) The Street Where I Live. London: Book Club Associates.
    Killam, G.D. (1977) The Writings Of Chinua Achebe. London: Heinemann.
    Kohn, Marek (1995) The Race Gallery: The Return of Racial Science. London: Jonathan Cape.
    Kovel, J. (1988) White Racism: a Psychohistory. London: Free Association Books.
    Kureishi, Hanif (1988) Sometime with Stephen: A Diary – Sammie and Rosie Get Laid. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Lambert, Stephen (1982) Channel 4: Television With A Difference. London: BFI Publishing.
    Lukács, George (1963) The Meaning of Contemporary Realism. London: Merlin Press.
    McLuhan, Marshall and Powers, Bruce (1989) The Global Village: Transformations in World Life and Media in the 21st Century. New York: Oxford University Press.
    McNeill, William (1994) Reasserting the Polyethnic Norm in JohnHutchinson and Anthony D.Smith (eds), Nationalism. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press: 300–5.
    McQuail, Denis (1994) Mass Communication Theory: an Introduction. London and New Delhi: Sage Publications.
    McRobbie, Angela (ed.) (1989) Zoot Suits and Second-Hand Dresses: An Anthology of Fashion and Music. London: Macmillan.
    MacMurraugh-Kavanagh, M.K. (1997) ‘Drama’ into “News”: Strategies of Intervention in “The Wednesday Play” ’, Screen, 38 (3), Autumn: 247–59.
    MacShane, Denis (1979) ‘Reporting Race’, Screen Education, 31, Summer.
    Macpherson, William (1999) The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry: Report of an Inquiry by Sir William Macpherson of Cluny, London: The Stationery Office, HMSO.
    Majors, R. (1986) ‘Cool Pose: The proud signature of Black survival’, Changing Men: Issues in Gender, Sex and Politics, 17, Winter: 184–5.
    Malik. Sarita (1995) ‘The Perennial Search for Identity’, Black Film Bulletin, Vol. 3(4): 13–4.
    Malik, Sarita (1996) ‘Beyond “The Cinema of Duty”? The Pleasures of Hybridity: Black-British Film of the 1980s and 1990s’, in AndrewHigson (ed.) Dissolving Views: Key Writing on British Cinema. London and New York: Cassell: 202–215.
    Malik, Sarita (1997) ‘The New Multiculturalism’ (interview with Yasmin Anwar)Black Film Bulletin, 5(2/3) Summer/Autumn: 5–7.
    Malik, Sarita (1998) ‘The Construction of Black and Asian Ethnicities in British Film and Television’, in AdamBriggs and PaulCobley (eds), The Media: An Introduction. London: Longman: 308–21.
    Manuel, Preethi (1986) ‘The Representation of Blacks on British Television Drama 1984’, Paper presented to the 1986 International Television Studies Conference in London.
    Mead, C. (1985) Champion Joe Louis: Black Hero in White America. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
    Mercer, Kobena (Guest Editor) (1988) Black Film, British Cinema, ICA Document 7. London: Institute of Contemporary Art.
    Mercer, Kobena (1992) ‘ “1968”: Periodizing Politics and Identity’, in L.Grossberg, C.Nelson and P.A.Treichler (eds), Cultural Studies. London: Routledge: 424–49.
    Mercer, Kobena (1994) Welcome To The Jungle: Positions in Black Cultural Studies. London: Routledge.
    Mercer, Kobena and Julien, Isaac (1988) ‘Race, Sexual Politics and Black Masculinity: A Dossier’, in R.Chapman and J.Rutherford (eds), Male Order: Unwrapping Masculinity. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
    Montgomery, M., Durant, A., Fabb, N., Furniss, T. and Mills, S. (1992) Ways of Reading. London: Routledge.
    Morley, David (1992) Television Audiences and Cultural Studies. London and New York, Routledge.
    Morley, David and Brunsdon, Charlotte (1978) Everyday Television: ‘Nationwide’. London: BFI Publishing.
    Morley, David and Chen, Kuan-Hsing (eds) (1996) Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies. London and New York, Routledge.
    Mulvey, Laura (1975) ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema’, Screen, 16 (3), Autumn: 206–15.
    Neale, Steve (1979–80) ‘The Same Old Story: Stereotypes and Difference’, Screen Education, 32–3: 33–7.
    Neale, Steve (1981) Genre. London: BFI Publishing.
    Newcomb, Horace (ed.) (1997) Encyclopedia of Television. Chicago, IL: Museum of Broadcast Communications.
    Nichols, B. (ed.) (1976) Movies and Methods. Berkeley: University of California Press (originally published in 1969).
    Nichols, Bill (1990–91) ‘Embodied Knowledge and the Politics of Location’, Cineaction, 23, Winter: 14–21.
    Owusu, K. (1986) The Struggle for Black Arts in Britain: What Can We Consider Better Than Freedom?London: Comedia.
    Owusu, K. (1988) Storms of the Heart: an Anthology of Black Arts and Culture. London: Camden Press.
    Owusu, K. (2000) Black British Culture and Society: A Text Reader. London and New York: Routledge.
    Parekh, Bhikhu (1989) ‘The Rushdie Affair and the British Press’, Social Studies Review, November.
    Parekh, Bhikhu and Bhabha, Homi (1989) ‘Identities on Parade’, Marxism Today, June.
    Park, James (1982/3) ‘Four Films’, Sight and Sound, 52 (1): 8–12.
    Patterson, Sheila (1969) Immigration and Race Relations in Britain, 1960–67. London: Open University Press for IRR.
    Peach, Ceri (1969) West Indian Migration to Britain: A Social Geography. London: Open University Press for IRR.
    Perkins, T.E. (1979) ‘Rethinking Stereotypes’, in M.Barrett, P.Corrigan, A.Kuhn and J.Wolff (eds), Ideology and Cultural Production. London: Croom Helm.
    Petley, Julian (1989) ‘Possessed by Memory’ (Interview with Black Audio Film Collective), Monthly Film Bulletin, 56 (668) September: 260–1.
    Philips, Caryl (2000) Interview inBlack Film Bulletin, 8(1): 1–2.
    Phillips, Mike and Phillips, Trevor (1998) Windrush: The Irresistible Rise of Multi-Racial Britain. London: HarperCollins Publishers.
    Pieterse, Jan Nederveen (1992) White On Black: Images of Africa and Blacks in Western Popular Culture. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press.
    Pines, Jim (1975) Blacks in Film: A Survey of Racial Themes and Images in American Film. London: Studio Vista.
    Pines, Jim (1988) ‘The Cultural Context of Black-British Cinema’, in Mbye B.Cham and Andrade-Watkins, C. (eds), Blackframes: Critical Perspectives on Black Independent Cinema. Cambridge, MA: Celebration of Black Cinema Inc: The MIT Press: 26–36.
    Pines, Jim (ed.) (1992) Black and White in Colour: Black People in British Television Since 1936. London: BFI Publishing.
    Pines, Jim (1997) ‘British Cinema and Black Representation’ in RobertMurphy (ed.), The British Cinema Book. London: BFI Publishing: 207–16.
    Pines, Jim and Willemen, Paul (eds) (1989) Questions of Third Cinema. London: BFI Publishing.
    Powell, Enoch (1969) Freedom and Reality. Farnham: Elliot Right Way Books.
    Rai, Alok (1992) ‘Black Skin, Black Masks’, Framework38/39: 74–86.
    Ramdin, Ron (1999) Reimaging Britain: 500 Years of Black and Asian History. London and Sterling, VA: Pluto Press.
    Reid, Robert (1960) ‘An Experiment in Television Reporting’, The Listener, 1 December: 980–2.
    Renov, Michael (1993) Theorizing Documentary. London and New York: AFI Film Readers, Routledge.
    Richards, Michael and French, David (1996) ‘From Global Development to Global Culture?’, in D.French and M.Richards (eds), Contemporary Television: Eastern Perspectives. New Delhi and London: Sage Publication: 22–48.
    Robins, Kevin, (1991) ‘Tradition and Translation: National Culture in its Global Context’, in J.Corner and S.Harvey (eds), Enterprise and Heritage: Crosscurrents of National Culture. London: Routledge: 28–41.
    Robinson, Andrew (1985–86) ‘Boys from the Currystuff (an interview with Farrukh Dhondy), Sight and Sound, Winter: 14–18.
    Romney, Jonathan and Wootton, Adrian (eds) (1995) Celluloid Jukebox: Popular Music and the Movies since the 1950s. London: BFI Publishing.
    Rose, E.J.B. (1969) Colour and Citizenship: A Report on British Race Relations. London: Oxford University Press.
    Ross, Karen (1996) Black and White Media: Black Images in Popular Film and Television. Oxford: Polity Press.
    Runnymede Trust (2000) The Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain: The Parekh Report. London: Profile Books.
    Rushdie, Salman (1988) ‘Minority Literatures in a Multi-Cultural Society’, in KirtsenHolst Peterson and AnnaRutherford (eds), Displaced Persons. Sydney: Dangaroo Press: 32–42.
    Rushdie, Salman (1991) Imaginary Homelands. London: Granta.
    Rutherford, Jonathan (ed.) (1990) Identity: Community, Culture, Difference. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
    Said, Edward (1993) Culture and Imperialism. London: Vintage.
    Scannell, Paddy (1979) ‘The Social Eye of Television 1946–55’ in Media, Culture and Society, 1 (1), January: 97–106.
    Scannell, Paddy and Cardiff, David (1991) A Social History of British Broadcasting, Vol. One1922–1939. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Scarman, Lord (1981) The Brixton Disorders 10–12 April 1981. London: HMSO, Cmnd. 8427.
    Scarman, Lord (1983) The Scarman Report: The Brixton Disorders, 10–12 April, 1981. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Schlesinger, P. (1991) Media, State and Nation: Political Violence and Collective Identities. London: Sage Publications.
    Searle, Chris (1990) ‘Race before Wicket: Cricket, Empire and the White Rose’, in Race and Class, 31 (3), January-March: 31–60.
    Self, David (1984) Television Drama: An Introduction. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Seymour-Ure, Colin (1974) The Political Impact of the Mass Media. London: Constable.
    Sharma, Sanjay, Hutnyk, John and Sharma, Ashwani (eds) (1996) Dis-Orienting Rhythms: The Politics of the New Asian Dance Music. London: Zed Books.
    Shohat, Ella (1991) ‘Gender and Culture of Empire: Towards a Feminist Ethnography of the Cinema’, Quarterly Review of Film and Video, 13 (1–3): 45–84.
    Sivanandan, A. (1976) Race and Class, Vol. XVII, no. 4: Spring.
    Sivanandan, A. (1982) A Different Hunger: Writings on Race and Resistance. London: Pluto.
    Sivanandan, A. (ed.) (1983) ‘British Racism: The Road to 1984’, Race and Class, Vol. 25 (2), Autumn.
    Smith, Celina (ed.) (1996) Transmission Impossible! – Serving Ethnic Minority Audiences Into the 21st Century. Edinburgh International Television Festival, 1996: Session Report, November.
    Snead, James (1994) White Screens, Black Images – Hollywood From the Dark Side – James Snead, (ed. ColinMacCabe and CornelWest). London and New York: Routledge.
    Solomos, John (1989) Race & Racism in Contemporary Britain. Basingstoke: Macmillan Education.
    Sreberny-Mohammadi, Annabelle and Ross, Karen (1996) Black Minority Viewers and Television, Key Research Findings 3. Leicester: Centre for Mass Communication Research, Leicester University.
    Stern, Lesley (1982) ‘The Body as Evidence’, Screen, 23 (5), November-December: 38–60.
    Stevens, P. and Willis, C. (1979) ‘Race, Crime and Arrests’. Home Office Research Study, no. 58. London: HSMO.
    Steward, Sue and SherylGarratt (1984) Signed Sealed and Delivered: True Life Stories of Women In Pop. London and Sydney: Pluto Press.
    Strinati, D. (1995) An Introduction to Theories of Popular Culture. London: Routledge.
    Swallow, Norman (1966) Factual Television. London: Focal Press.
    Troyna, Barry (1981) Public Awareness and the Media: A Study of Reporting on Race. London: Commission for Racial Equality.
    Tumber, Howard (1982) Television and the Riots. London: British Film Institute/Broadcasting Unit.
    Twitchin, John (ed.) (1988) The Black and White Media Book. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books.
    Van Loon, Joost (1995) ‘Televising Black Youth: Myth, Race and Violence in Urban Riots’, unpublished paper, University of Wales College of Cardiff.
    Vahimagi, Tise (1994) British Television. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
    Waites, Bernard, TonyBennett and GrahamMartin (eds) (1981) Popular Culture. London and New York, Routledge.
    Wallace, Michele and Dent, Gina (eds) (1992) Black Popular Culture. Seattle, OR: Bay Press.
    Walmsley, A. (1992) The Caribbean Artists Movement 1966–72: A Literary and Cultural History. London: New Beacon Press.
    Wambu, Onyekachi and KevinArnold (1999) A Fuller Picture: The Commercial Impact of Six British Films with Black Themes in the 1990s. London: Black Film Bulletin and British Film Institute
    Werbner, Prina and Anwar, Muhammad (eds) (1991) Black and Ethnic Leaderships: The Cultural Dimensions of Political Action. London and New York: Routledge.
    West, Cornel (1990) ‘The New Cultural Politics of Difference’, in RussellFerguson, MarthaGever, TrinhT. Minh-ha and CornelWest (eds), Out There: Marginalization and Contemporary Cultures. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press in association with the New Museum of Contemporary Art: 19–36.
    White, Hayden (1972) ‘The Forms of Wildness: Archeology of an Idea’, in E.Dudley and M.E.Novak (eds), The Wild Man Within: An Image in Western Thought from the Renaissance to Romanticism. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press3–38.
    Williams, Raymond (1958) Culture and Society 1780–1950. Harmondworth: Penguin Books.
    Williams, Raymond (1974) Television, Technology and Cultural Form. London: Fontana.
    Williams, Raymond (1976) Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. London: Fontana.
    Williams, Raymond (1977) ‘A Lecture on Realism’, Screen, 18 (1), Spring.
    Wilson, Amrit (1978) Finding A Voice: Asian Women in Britain. London: Virago.
    Woffinden, Bob (1988) ‘Blacking Up, Blacking Down’, The Listener, 119 (3069), 30 June: 10–11.
    Young, Lola (1996) Fear of the Dark: ‘Race’, Gender and Sexuality in the Cinema. London and New York: Routledge.
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website