Regional Politics: America in a Post-City Age
Publication Year: 1996
Bringing together the thoughts of outstanding contributors, Regional Politics presents a comparative study on the emerging regional nature of local and urban politics. Recent studies tend to focus on the politics and power of internal cities or on suburban areas that have gained incredible strength in the past decade. However, this important volume explores how politics work in the extended metropolis or “functional city”--which includes and surrounds the urban core and whose economy, society, and politics are integrally joined. Contributors center on detailed case studies of 10 cities with a look at the development of regional patterns, an analysis of the impact regionalism has on urban politics, and an outline for an overall approach. The comprehensive and state-of-the-art expertise presented in this volume makes Regional ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction: Regional Patterns in a Post-City Age
- Old and New Studies of Regionalism
- Why Regions?
- Interdependence Amid Disparity
- Patterns of Institutional Refraction
- The Functional City and Regional Politics
Part I: Avoidance and Conflict
- Chapter 2: New York: The Politics of Conflict and Avoidance
- The Political Economy of Regional Change
- The Postindustrial Economy and Regional Interests
- The Postindustrial Region and Governmental Cooperation
- Political Entrepreneurship and Regional Cooperation
- The Only Planning Game in Town: The Port Authority and Regional Politics
- The Consequences of Noncooperation: Policy Voids and Inequality
- Chapter 3: Los Angeles: Politics without Governance
- I. The Environment of Greater Los Angeles
- II. Political Organizations of Greater Los Angeles
- III. Regional Decision Making
- IV. Toward Regional Government?
- Chapter 4: St. Louis: A Politically Fragmented Area
- Whither Regional Governance?
- The St. Louis Area “Functional City”
- A Profile of the St. Louis Area
- St. Louis as a Case Study
- Regional Cooperation or More Fragmentation: The Power of the Fisc?
- Regional versus Local Governance: An Ongoing Tension
- Governmental Reform Using the Missouri Constitution
- Toward Comprehensive Governance Reform in St. Louis
- Enter the Courts: The Legality of Governance Reorganization in St. Louis
- Resolution Absent Reform
- Governance Reform again?: The 1990 Board of Electors Plan
- Enter Incremental Reform: A Boundary Commission
- Existing “Governance” Arrangements in the St. Louis Area
- The Present Status of Governance and Fiscal Reform in St. Louis
- What's Next for Reform in St. Louis?
Part II: Mutual Adjustment
- Chapter 5: Washington, D.C.: Cautious and Constrained Cooperation
- Profile of the Washington Region
- The MWCOG: Regional Cooperation, within Limits
- Law Enforcement: A Case Study in Cooperation
- The Impact of the Federal Government on Regionalism in its Own Backyard
- Chapter 6: Louisville: Compacts and Antagonistic Cooperation
- Defining the Functional City: A Regional Profile
- Regional Development
- Regional Governance
- Assessing the Compact
- The Compact: Metropolitan Government or Governance?
- Chapter 7: Pittsburgh: Partnerships in a Regional City
- A Short History of the Pittsburgh Regional Political Economy: From Gateway to Steel to Corporate Headquarters
- Annexation, Planning, and Consolidation of the Metropolitan Landscape
- Partnership and Renaissance I: 1943–1970
- Community Mobilization and the Interlude (1970–1977)
- Manufacturing Declines and the Regional Economy Restructures
- Renaissance II: Downtown and Neighborhoods (1978–1988)
- Renaissance III: High Technology and Services (1982 to the Present)
- Growing New Regional Economies: Partnerships in a Global Economy
Part III: Metropolitan Government
- Chapter 8: Miami: Experiences in Regional Government
- Miami/Dade County in the 1990s
- Metropolitan Dade County: Fulfillment of a Promise?
- Metropolitan Dade County—A Success?
- The “Other Region”
- Chapter 9: Minneapolis-St. Paul: Structuring Metropolitan Government
- Positioning for Global Competition
- Growing Central City/Suburban Disparities
- The Great Hopes for Metropolitan Governance
- The Great Hopes Gone Sour
- Regime Change and the Metropolitan Crisis
- Tinkering with the System in the 1990s
- Chapter 10: Jacksonville: Consolidation and Regional Governance
- Perceptions and Prescriptions of Jacksonville Reformers (The Intervention)
- Changing Socioeconomic, Political, and Power Profiles of the Jacksonville Metropolis (Pre- and Post-Intervention Consequences)
- Chapter 11: Portland: The Metropolitan Umbrella
- Political-Economic Context
- The Metropolitan Governance Context
- More Metropolitan Umbrellas?
Part IV: Conclusion
Urban Affairs Annual Review[Page ii]
A semiannual series of reference volumes discussing programs, policies, and current developments in all areas of concern to urban specialists.
Susan E. Clarke, University of Colorado at Boulder Dennis R. Judd, University of Missouri at St. Louis
The Urban Affairs Annual Review presents original theoretical, normative, and empirical work on urban issues and problems in volumes published on an annual or bi-annual basis. The objective is to encourage critical thinking and effective practice by bringing together interdisciplinary perspectives on a common urban theme. Research that links theoretical, empirical, and policy approaches and that draws on comparative analyses offers the most promise for bridging disciplinary boundaries and contributing to these broad objectives. With the help of an international advisory board, the editors will invite and review proposals for Urban Affairs Annual Review volumes that incorporate these objectives. The aim is to ensure that the Urban Affairs Annual Review remains in the forefront of urban research and practice by providing thoughtful, timely analyses of cross-cutting issues for an audience of scholars, students, and practitioners working on urban concerns throughout the world.
INTERNATIONAL EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD
- Robert Beauregard, University of Pittsburgh
- Sophie Body-Gendrot, Université Paris, IV-Sorbonne
- M. Christine Boyer, Princeton University
- Susan Fainstein, Rutgers University
- Luis R. Fraga, Stanford University
- Gary Gapped, University of Akron
- David W. Harvey, Johns Hopkins University
- Desmond S. King, St. John's College Oxford
- Larry C. Ledebur, Wayne State University
- Terry McGee, University of British Columbia
- Margit Mayer, Freie Universität Berlin
- David C. Perry, State University of New York at Buffalo
- Michael Preston, University of Southern California
- Neil Smith, Rutgers University
- Daphne Spain, University of Virginia
- Clarence Stone, University of Maryland
- Avis Vidal, New School for Social Research
Recent Volumes[Page iii]
- CITIES IN THE 21st CENTURY
Edited by Gary Gappert and Richard V. Knight
- THE GREAT HOUSING EXPERIMENT
Edited by Joseph Friedman and Daniel H. Weinberg
- CITIES AND SICKNESS: Health Care in Urban America
Edited by Ann Lennarson Greer and Scott Greer
- CITIES IN TRANSFORMATION: Class, Capital, and the State
Edited by Michael Peter Smith
- URBAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Edited by Richard D. Bingham and John P. Blair
- HIGH TECHNOLOGY, SPACE, AND SOCIETY
Edited by Manuel Castells
- URBAN ETHNICITY IN THE UNITED STATES: New Immigrants and Old Minorities
Edited by Lionel Maldonado and Joan Moore
- CITIES IN STRESS: A New Look at the Urban Crisis
Edited by M. Gottdiener
- THE FUTURE OF WINTER CITIES
Edited by Gary Gappert
- DIVIDED NEIGHBORHOODS: Changing Patterns of Racial Segregation
Edited by Gary A. Tobin
- PUBLIC INFRASTRUCTURE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
Edited by Jay M. Stein
- ECONOMIC RESTRUCTURING AND POLITICAL RESPONSE
Edited by Robert A. Beauregard
- CITIES IN A GLOBAL SOCIETY
Edited by Richard V. Knight and Gary Gappert
- GOVERNMENT AND HOUSING: Developments in Seven Countries
Edited by Willem van Vliet—and Jan van Weesep
- LEADERSHIP AND URBAN REGENERATION: Cities in North America and Europe
Edited by Dennis Judd and Michael Parkinson[Page iv]
- BIG CITY POLITICS IN TRANSITION
Edited by H. V. Savitch and John Clayton Thomas
- URBAN LIFE IN TRANSITION
Edited by M. Gottdiener and Chris G. Pickvance
- THE PENTAGON AND THE CITIES
Edited by Andrew Kirby
- MOBILIZING THE COMMUNITY: Local Politics in the Era of the Global City
Edited by Robert Fisher and Joseph Kling
- GENDER IN URBAN RESEARCH
Edited by Judith A. Garber and Robyne S. Turner
- BUILDING THE PUBLIC CITY: The Politics, Governance, and Finance of Public Infrastructure
Edited by David C. Perry
- NORTH AMERICAN CITIES AND THE GLOBAL ECONOMY: Challenges and Opportunities
Edited by Peter Karl Kresl and Gary Gappert
- REGIONAL POLITICS: America in a Post-City Age
Edited by H. V. Savitch and Ronald K. Vogel
- AFFORDABLE HOUSING AND URBAN REDEVELOPMENT IN THE UNITED STATES
Edited by Willem van Vliet—
Copyright © 1996 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
For information address:
SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
Greater Kailash I
New Delhi 110 048 India
Printed in the United States of America
ISBN 0-8039-5890-0 (hardcover)
ISBN 0-8039-5891-9 (paperback)
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Sage Production Editor: Diana E. Axelsen
96 97 98 99 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
For both of us, this volume has grown out of an abiding interest in two distinct though interrelated issues: first, the evolution of metropolitan regions and, second, the impact of political institutions on regional economies. This current work seeks to link both aspects through an investigation of the political economy of ten metropolitan regions. We have found these linkages to be strong and enduring, through in many ways unpredictable. What works in one region may not necessarily work in another or may result in radically different outcomes. Yet despite the diversity, we have also been able to discern common patterns, and we believe we have captured these patterns through a framework suggest in Chapter 1 and the perspectives offered in Chapter 12. We trust the reader will connect this material to the case studies in the remaining chapters.
The cases were chosen because they cover a spectrum of experience in regional institutions and political economy. The authors of these cases present a rich tapestry of metropolitan America, one that reveals the reciprocating influences of politics and economics and imparts distinct themes. Some regions are engulfed by endemic conflict. In their chapter on New York, Bruce Berg and Paul Kantor demonstrate how regional institutions attempt to manage economic tensions between states and localities. In that highly competitive region, institutions have become a product of the very conflicts they were supposed to control and, at times, have collapsed. In his chapter on Los Angeles, Alan Saltzstein shows how regional conflicts emerge out of attempts to control air pollution. He also points up the importance of transportation and the concomitant frictions over efforts to bring about clean air. In their chapter on St. Louis, Donald Phares and Claude Louishomme underscore how an intensely fragmented region attempts to cope with tax issues, competition for industry and resultant “place wars.” Here, attempts to bring about institutional reform fall before the courts and a turbulent political process.
Other metropolitan regions spawn a different, more gentile theme. Jeffrey Henig, Donald Brunori and Mark Ebert show how Washington, D.C.'s region focused attention away from the volatile issues and toward technical cooperation in police services. Despite the fragility of the [Page xii]District of Columbia's regional institutions, they have managed to hang on by siphoning federal support and curtailing the political agenda. Louisville and Pittsburgh deflect conflict in much the same way, though with one important difference—these regions focus on economic development. H. V. Savitch and Ronald Vogel show how Louisville's Compact brought some temporary relief to struggles over tax revenue, while Louise Jezierski turns to the role of the Allegheny Conference in promoting regional cooperation. In Louisville and Pittsburgh, powerful elites used institutions to bridge social cleavage.
Finally, the cases demonstrate that some regional institutions do work—albeit with occasional setbacks, limits and a narrow political scope. Miami, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Jacksonville, and Portland adopted different kinds of institutions to accommodate regional pressures and promote regional cooperation. Genie Stowers points up the very limited nature of Miami's metro system, which is best understood as a “regional county.” Bert Swanson shows that consolidated Jacksonville cannot become a more encompassing regional institution and has failed to slow the growing disparities between the center and the suburbs. John Harrigan chronicles the story of the Minneapolis-St. Paul model (“widely praised but never copied”) and now showing signs of distress. Arthur Nelson demonstrates the circumscribed role of Portland's metropolitan service district.
All told, the cases enable us to understand the dynamics of regional politics and draw conclusions about strategies for regional cooperations. We are grateful to the contributing authors for their care, skill, and diligence. Without their expertise and insight, we could not have proceeded. They should not, however, be held accountable for our interpretations of their cases.
We also thank John Mollenkopf of the City University of New York's Graduate Center, for greeting our work, encouraging its completion, and inviting us to present some of our findings to a conference sponsored by the Social Science Research Council and the Department of Housing and Urban Development. The Conference, held in Washington during December 1994, enabled us to crystallize our ideas and expose them to the probing criticism of other colleagues. Hank Savitch extends his special appreciation to Dave Rusk for his comradeship, intellectual acuity, and his stubborn search for regional solutions. Ron Vogel acknowledges the tremendous intellectual debt he owes Bert Swanson at the University of Florida and is grateful for the opportunity to turn the table on his former mentor in his new capacity as editor. Dennis Judd and Susan Clarke, series [Page xiii]editors, were always patient. They consistently probed us to push our findings to the limit and helped put many of the pieces together.
Several Graduate Research Assistants worked steadfastly and artfully to gather data and make some sense of it. David Collins, now research Director for the Committee on Prevention, Education and Substance, and Kevin Dupont helped us immeasurably for more than two years. Suzanne Sexton and Geetha Suresh furnished us with some last-minute talent in putting the index together.
[Page xiv]To my students in New York, Louisville, and Paris—HVS
To my wife, Jeanie—RKV
About the Authors[Page 307]
Bruce Berg is Associate Professor of Political Science at Fordham University. His present research interests focus on intergovernmental relations, interest groups, and health policy. He has published articles on these and related topics in Administration and Society, Policy Studies Review, and other journals.
David Brunori is the legal editor of State Tax Notes magazine. His research interests include state and local tax and budget issues. He earned his M.A. in political science from The George Washington University and his J.D. from the University of Pittsburgh.
Mark Ebert, an attorney, is a doctoral student in political science at The George Washington University. He has a master's degree in Public Administration and was a Banneker Fellow at the George Washington University Center of Washington Area Studies. His research interests include state and local government and political socialization.
John J. Harrigan is Professor of Political Science at Hamline University, St. Paul, Minnesota. He coauthored, with William C. Johnson, Governing the Twin Cities Region and is the author of Political Change in the Metropolis, Politics and Policy in States and Communities, Politics and the American Future, and Empty Dreams, Empty Pockets: Class and Bias in American Politics.
Jeffrey Henig is Professor of Political Science and Director of the Center for Washington Area Studies at The George Washington University. He is the author of Neighborhood Mobilization: Redevelopment and Response (1982), Public Policy and Federalism (1985), and Rethinking School Choice (1994). His articles on such topics as neighborhood organizations, gentrification, privatization, and the politics of school reform have appeared in scholarly journals including Urban Affairs Quarterly, Journal of Urban Affairs, Political Science Quarterly, and World Politics.
[Page 308]Louise Jezierski is Assistant Professor of Sociology and the Program in Urban Studies at Brown University. She was a Fellow at UCLA's Institute for American Cultures, Chicano Studies Research Center during 1992. She is writing a book, Imagination and Consent: Reinventing the Post-Industrial City, based on her research on the politics of the postindustrial urban transformation of Cleveland and Pittsburgh. Her other major interest is urban race and ethnic relations. She has published articles on public-private partnerships and neighborhood movements, regional development, postmodern urban theory, and the role of women in the transformation of industrial cities to service and high-technology economies. Her Ph.D. in sociology is from the University of California, Berkeley.
Paul Kantor is Professor of Political Science at Fordham University. He has written numerous articles, reviews, and books in the fields of urban politics, public policy, and political economy. Most recently, he coauthored, with Dennis R. Judd, Enduring Tensions in Urban Politics (1992) and wrote The Dependent City Revisited: The Political Economy of Urban Economic and Social Policy (1995). His current research focuses on the political economy of comparative urban development in the United States and Western Europe. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago.
Claude Louishomme was formerly Director of Real Estate and Community Development for the Economic Council of St. Louis County. He also served as lead administrator for the selection of gaming developers in unincorporated areas of St. Louis County. He is a graduate student at the University of Missouri—St. Louis, pursuing a doctoral degree in political science with an emphasis on public policy, public administration, and urban politics.
Arthur C. Nelson is Professor of City Planning, Public Policy, and International Affairs at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He is widely published in the areas of regional development planning, urban and regional development patterns, resource land preservation and management, infrastructure planning and finance, growth management, and urban revitalization. He serves as an Editor of the Journal of the American Planning Association and Associate Editor of the Journal of Urban Affairs. His clients have included numerous federal agencies as well as [Page 309]regional, state, and local governments. He earned his doctorate in urban studies from Portland State University.
Donald Phares is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the University of Missouri—St. Louis, and Director of the North American Institute for Comparative Urban Research, which coordinates research and conferences on cross-country urban issues. He is the author of three books and the editor of two, and he has authored or coauthored more than 100 professional articles and technical/governmental reports. He served as coeditor of Urban Affairs Quarterly and was on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Urban Affairs. He has been a consultant on government finance and urban policy issues for numerous public and private organizations, foundations, and universities.
Alan L. Saltzstein is Professor of Political Science and Coordinator of Public Administration Programs at California State University, Fullerton. He is the author of Public Employees and Policymaking and several articles dealing with urban politics and personnel policy making in cities, and he has also written on Los Angeles city politics. His work has appeared in the Western Political Quarterly, Social Science Quarterly, American Review of Public Administration, and State and Local Government Review. He holds a Ph.D. in political science from UCLA.
H. V. Savitch is Professor of Urban Policy and Management at the Center for Urban and Economic Research, College of Business and Public Administration, University of Louisville. He has published three books on various aspects of urban affairs, including neighborhood politics, national urban policy, and comparative urban development. His Post Industrial Cities (1989) was nominated for the best volume on urban politics by the American Political Science Association. He has coedited Big Cities in Transition (with John Thomas) and is coeditor of the Journal of Urban Affairs. His articles have appeared or are forthcoming in Polity, Journal of the American Planning Association, Economic Development Quarterly, Urban Affairs Quarterly, National Civic Review, and the International Journal of Urban and Regional Research.
Genie Stowers is Associate Professor of Public Administration at San Francisco State University. She has published frequently on Miami and Miami politics and is completing work on a book about Cuban American [Page 310]political development. Her research interests are in the areas of urban politics and policy, women and public policy, and ethnic politics. She is especially interested in the question of how politically marginalized groups develop and use power and how they work for changes in public policy.
Bert Swanson is a member of the Political Science and Urban Studies faculty and former director of the Institute of Government at the University of Florida. He served as a consultant on the charter revision of New York City and as Executive Director of the Advisory and Evaluation Committee on Decentralization for the New York City Board of Education. He has assisted public officials at the federal, state, and local levels in the areas of health, education, housing, race relations, disaster response, and civil disturbances. He is coauthor of The Rulers and the Ruled: Political Power and Impotence in American Communities, which won the Woodrow Wilson Foundation Award for the best book on political science published in 1964. He is the author or coauthor of numerous other books in community studies, racial and ethnic relations, and other areas. He received his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Oregon.
Ronald K. Vogel is Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Louisville. His research focuses on regional economic development and governance. He is the author of Urban Political Economy: Broward County, Florida (1992) and editor of the Handbook of Research on Urban Politics and Policy (forthcoming). He serves on the Executive Council of the Urban Politics section of the American Political Science Association.