Reframing Bullying Prevention to Build Stronger School Communities
Publication Year: 2015
By reframing bullying prevention, you can make significant progress in addressing the underlying issues causing bullying and aggression in your school. In this resource, James Dillon digs into the work that busy educators often have little time for: translating rich and insightful research on the dynamics of change into practical terms. He probes deeply into the issues and why they persist in our schools to promote meaningful conversation among school staff and parents. Inside you'll find
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Section 1: The Need for Reframing Bullying Prevention
- Chapter 1: Bullying: From a Prank to an Outrage
- Chapter 2: The Frame Determines the Game
- Chapter 3: Bullying in the Frame/Game of Schools
- Chapter 4: How the Frame/Game Shapes Student Identity
- Chapter 5: The Promise of Reframing
- Chapter 6: Reframing Bullying Prevention: Building Community Spirit in Schools
- Section 2: The Process of Reframing Bullying Prevention
- Chapter 7: Guidelines for Reframing Bullying Prevention
- Chapter 8: Heart Strategies for Reframing Bullying Prevention
- Chapter 9: “Who” Strategies for Reframing Bullying Prevention
- Chapter 10: “Do” Strategies for Reframing Bullying Prevention
- Chapter 11: Checklists for Reframing Bullying Prevention: Building Community Spirit in Schools
- Chapter 12: Questions and Answers
A SAGE Company
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd.
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
Copyright © 2015 by Corwin
All rights reserved. When forms and sample documents are included, their use is authorized only by educators, local school sites, and/or noncommercial or nonprofit entities that have purchased the book. Except for that usage, no part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
All trademarks depicted within this book, including trademarks appearing as part of a screenshot, figure, or other image, are included solely for the purpose of illustration and are the property of their respective holders. The use of the trademarks in no way indicates any relationship with, or endorsement by, the holders of said trademarks.
Printed in the United States of America.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Dillon, James (James E.)
Reframing bullying prevention to build stronger school communities/James E. Dillon.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4833-6527-5 (pbk.: alk. paper) 1. Bullying in schools—Prevention. 2. Educational leadership. I. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Acquisitions Editor: Jessica Allan
Associate Editor: Kimberly Greenberg
Editorial Assistant: Cesar Reyes
Production Editor: Amy Schroller
Copy Editor: Janet Ford
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Rae Ann Goodwin
Indexer: Jean Casalegno
Cover Designer: Michael Dubowe
Marketing Manager: Amy Vader
“The truth knocks on your door and you say, ‘Go away I am looking for the truth,’ and it goes away.”—Robert Pirsig, Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance.
Five years ago, I retired as an elementary school principal. Since that time I have read and written a lot, and I am fortunate to still spend some time in schools, allowing me the great opportunity to be among students and dedicated educators.
Every time I visit a school, I recall what my first supervisor many years ago told me: “Never forget that the people who know the most are the people who are the closest to the students.” That single piece of advice guided my professional career before retirement and it continues to guide me today.
As a result, when I present to educators or write something for them to read, I do not pretend to know more than they do, because I don't. I engage with them because I have something that I didn't have for thirty-five years—more time to read, think, and reflect.
What I discovered from all my reading wasn't surprising; it didn't tell me anything I didn't already know from my experience with students and educators. Yet, what it did was to help me get the right words to understand what I had learned. So, when I stand in front of a group of educators I confess that since I don't have the daily experience of being in school with students, I know less than they do. I add, however, that because of the time I now have, I can offer them some ideas that just might help them reflect on and understand what they already know from their experiences. I ask them to take advantage of me, or to use me in a good sense, knowing that I can share some ideas or research that they probably would have eventually discovered, if only they had the time. I extend that same invitation to anyone who reads this book.
[Page vi]I share these thoughts, not out of any great humility, but because I am disturbed by the trend in education policy and practice to tell the people who know the most—the ones who work every day with students—that somehow they don't know enough. To convey to them that they have been doing things the wrong way and they need to do what other people, the experts, have determined is correct. Educators in schools who are closest to the students are now told to let others do the thinking for them. Unfortunately, too many educators believe that message and have accepted the idea that doing their job requires them to follow a program, a protocol, or a script that will make certain that they get it right. Consequently, time must be devoted to doing what others tell them to do, which leaves little or no time to do their own thinking.
Time constraints have always been and will always be a problem for any educator, but I am also disturbed by another current trend. This development was summed up by one school administrator who honestly admitted that because of all the mandates and regulations and the little time allocated for implementation, it was harder and harder to be kind to students and teachers. Today, not only do educators have no time to think on their own, now they have no time or freedom to do what their heart tells them to do.
These disturbing trends remind me of that quote about truth knocking on your door. After almost forty years of reflecting on that quote, I can step back and reflect on what is happening in schools and state what “truth” would say if you stood long enough at the door to listen to it. It would tell you that the truth is indeed inside and you were right to look for it, but the problem was that you were wearing the wrong glasses, somebody else's glasses, glasses that prevented you from finding your own truth. It would tell you that you can really only find the truth, when you look for it with your own eyes because it is in your own heart and mind.
Regardless of these trends and the mandates to change or else, I am convinced now more than ever that the truth for how we need to educate our students is already right inside the hearts and minds of the people who work and live in the schools: the students and the educators who serve them.
The truth in our minds is what we find when we think, reflect, share, and listen to ourselves and to our colleagues. The truth in our hearts is what we find when we act toward others with empathy, compassion, and kindness. I have written this book to help educators find their own truth about what it means to educate students.
This book is practical because it is not a program, protocol, or a set of procedures to follow to change or fix a school. It is a guide for thinking, reflecting, and sharing with others. It is practical because I believe that meaningful and lasting change requires people to change people. It is practical because it supports the type of change that happens when people's hearts and minds connect, the type of change that affirms people and brings them closer together.
[Page vii]What I offer in this book is what I discovered when I looked into my mind and my heart using forty years’ experience in education as my database. It is filled with stories that helped me make sense out of what I have seen, heard, and felt in schools. It is meant to help you use your own eyes and to use your own database of experiences to help you make sense out of the truth in your own heart and mind.
I hope it encourages you to explore your stories and those of your colleagues, but even more importantly to create new ones that your school community can write and tell every day. I hope and believe that your school community can create new stories filled with good times together and filled with enough time to think and to share and to be kind.[Page viii]
I am extremely grateful to Corwin for publishing two of my books; it is a special honor and a privilege to be given the opportunity to share my words and ideas with readers. I greatly appreciate the help and support that I received from the staff at Corwin in the process of bringing this book to life. Corwin consistently demonstrates a high degree of respect for its authors and their voices.
I especially want to thank my editor, Jessica Allan, who continues to offer support and encouragement, not just for my writing, but for all the work I do.
I am fortunate to still have frequent opportunities to work in schools on a regular basis. I continue to grow and learn from each interaction I have with students and with educators. I thank all of the principals, teachers, and students who have welcomed me into their schools.
I offer a very special thank you to my friend, colleague, and vice president of Measurement Incorporated (MI), Tom Kelsh. His unwavering support and encouragement has allowed me to continue to learn and grow as an educator and to be able to translate my work into two published books.
My other colleagues in the Albany office of Measurement Incorporated have created an ideal environment for professional dialogue and collaboration. I owe a great deal to all of them for welcoming me, listening to me, and sharing with me.
I am part of team at MI that provides professional development for the Regional Special Education and Technical Assistance Centers of New York State. Many of the key concepts offered in this book grew out of the work I have done as part of this team, so special thanks go to Kelly Valmore, Diana Straut, Vince Tarsio, and Tina Tierney for being such great teammates and colleagues. Each one of you does tremendous work and each of you is a model for openness and professionalism.
Sometimes developing a book proposal is almost as difficult as writing the book itself. Carla Corina, a colleague at MI, took the time to read my many draft proposals and offered insightful feedback, which helped me clarify and sharpen the ideas in my proposal.
[Page x]Casey Bardin is currently a school administrator at Shaker High School, who previously worked as a physical education teacher in the school where I was a principal. Casey has always been a “sponge” for new and exciting ideas in the field of education, psychology, and leadership, to name just a few subjects. Our conversations have been a tremendous help to me in developing many of the concepts I share in this book. His leadership and professionalism is great source of hope and optimism to remind me what is possible in schools.
My friend and colleague, Corrine Falope, continues to be an inspiration for me. Her deep love of learning and commitment to education continues to grow well after her retirement as an active teacher. She has shown me how a true educator never “retires,” but just grows wiser.
My work and friendship with Nancy Andress continues to guide everything I do professionally. Her support and belief in me has always given me the confidence to feel as if I have something to offer others beyond my own professional circle. Everyone should be so blessed to have this type of colleague and friend in their lives.
A key theme is this book is community. Some communities are so strong that they are more like families, however, not all families are always strong communities. I was fortunate to marry into a family that is also an extremely strong and nurturing community. I know firsthand the influence that someone of faith, generosity of spirit, and an optimistic outlook can have on generations of people. That person is my mother-in-law, Antoinette Lombardo, who raised 10 children (number four became my wife), twenty-five grandchildren, and four great grandchildren. I thank her for showing me the power of faith, hope, and love and how it can transform the lives of so many for the better. She is ninety years old and still going strong!
My four grown children, Ernie, Tim, Brian and Hannah are also my good friends. Their unconditional support and encouragement are always there for me in everything that I do. They manage to find the time and patience to listen to me talk (sometimes too much) about what I have written about or just read.
Finally, nothing I do or achieve is possible without the constant love and support of my wife, Louisa. She has the biggest and most giving heart of anyone I have ever known. Every day she teaches me what it means to value, care for, and love the people in your life.
About the Author
Bibliography[Page 299][Page 306]Adaptive Schools. (2013). Thinking collaboratively. Retrieved from http://www.thinkingcollaboratively.com2013). The art of coaching: Effective strategies for school transformation. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.(2011). The progress principle: Using small wins to ignite joy, engagement, and creativity at work. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press., & (1986). Hoosiers [DVD]. United States: MGM Home Entertainment. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Cdc13CU9Fc&list=FLn1sPEq8nRrTJOFeZxxCMSA&index=67(1952). Switching Jobs [Television series episode]. In (Director). I Love Lucy [DVD]. United States: Columbia Broadcasting System.(Director). (2013). Sticks and stones: Defeating the culture of bullying and rediscovering the power of character and empathy. New York, NY: Random House.(2007). Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: A longitudinal study and an intervention. Child Development, 78(1), 246–263., , & (2010, May). The moral life of babies. New York Times Magazine, 9, 44.(2013). Enacting cultural interests: How intergroup contact reduces prejudice by sparking interest in an out-group's culture. Psychological Science, 20(10), 1–11., & (2012). The power of belief—Mind-set and success [Vimeo by ]. TED X Manhattan Beach. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pN34FNbOKXc(2006). The difference isn't Black and White: Stereotype threat and the race gap on Raven's advanced progressive matrices. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(4), 979–985., & (2014). Helping versus being a helper: Invoking the self to increase helping in young children. Child Development, 85(5), 1836–1842., , & (The Center for Effective Discipline. (2010). U.S. Statistics on corporal punishment by state and race. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights. Retrieved from http://www.stophitting.com/index.php?page=statesbanning2001). Influence: science and practice ((4thed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.[Page 300] , , , & (2006). Reducing the racial achievement gap: A social-psychological intervention. Science, 313(5791), 1307–1310.2001). Good to great: Why some companies make the leap–and others don't. New York, NY: HarperBusiness.(2005). Appreciative inquiry: A positive revolution in change. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler., & (2012, May). Mitt Romney, bully. New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/news/amy-davidson/mitt-romney-bully(1977). Pawn or origin? Enhancing motivation in disaffected youth. Educational Leadership, 34(6), 444–448.(2012). Ed Deci: Promoting motivation for health and excellence [Video]. TED X Flour City. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VGrcets0E6I&index=13&list=FLn1sPEq8nRrTJOFeZxxCMSA(1996). Why we do what we do: Understanding self-motivation. New York, NY: Penguins Books., & (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78., & (2002). An overview of self-determination theory. Handbook of self-determination theory. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press., & (1940). Education today. New York, NY: G. P. Putnam.(1985). Democracy and education. Carbondale: APA, 6.30, p. 187: Southern Illinois University Press. (Original work published 1916)(2012). No place for bullying: Leadership for schools that care for every student. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2013a). Education builds character. Smartblog on Education. Retrieved from http://smartblogs.com/education/2014/06/09/education-builds-character/(2013b). Problem with success. Smartblog on Education. Retrieved from http://smartblogs.com/education/2013/07/02/a-problem-with-success/(2013c). Bullying prevention from the ground up. Smartblog on Education. Retrieved from http://smartblogs.com/education/2013/10/07/bullying-prevention-from-the-ground-up/(2013d). Best antidote to bullying: Community building [Washington, D.C. Commentary]. Education Week. Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2013/12/11/14dillon.h33.html(2014). Untying the Nots of bullying prevention. Principal, 93(3), 36–39.(2011). Academic tenacity: Mind-sets and skills that promote long-term learning. Gates Foundation, 1–40., , & (2012). Teaming: How organizations learn, innovate, and compete in the knowledge economy. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(2012). Teaching adolescents to become learners: The role of noncognitive factors is shaping school performance: A critical literature review. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research., , , , , , & (2012, February). Adolescent brain development and life without parole. Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-fassler-md([Page 301] , & (2006, September). The banality of heroism. Greater Good Magazine. Berkeley: University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved from http://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/the_banality_of_heroism2009). Positivity. New York, NY: Crown.(2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed ((30thanniversary ed.). New York, NY: Bloomsbury Academic. (Original work published 1968)2009). 21st century learning and learners (Report prepared for Western and Northern Canadian Curriculum Protocol). Calgary, Canada: Galileo Educational Network, University of Calgary. Retrieved from http://education.alberta.ca/media/, & (2001). Leading in a culture of change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(1999). The adaptive school: A sourcebook for developing collaborative groups. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon., & (2010). The checklist manifesto: How to get things right. New York, NY: Metropolitan Books.(2013, July). Slow Ideas. The New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2013/07/29/slow-ideas(2002). The tipping point: How little things can make a big difference. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.(2014). David and Goliath: Underdogs, misfits, and the art of battling giants. New York, NY: Little Brown.(2002). The “in crowd” and social cruelty with John Stossel [television series & DVD]. New York, NY: ABC News. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UrsHp-z08f8(Director). (2012, January). What's wrong with the teenage mind? Wall Street Journal Online. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/(2014, April). Raising a moral child. New York Times, Opinion Section.(2012, October). Unsolicited evaluation is the enemy of creativity [Web log post]. Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/201210/unsolicited-evaluation-is-the-enemy-creativity(2013). Free to learn: Why unleashing the instinct to play will make our children happier, more self-reliant, and better students for life. Philadelphia, PA: Basic Books.(2010). Wired to be inspired. In , , & (Eds.), The compassionate instinct. New York, NY: Norton.(2013). Focus: Use different ways of seeing the world for success and influence (eBook version). New York, NY: Hudson Street Press. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/Focus-Different-Seeing-Success-Influence-ebook/dp/B008BM4MM6/ref=tmm_kin_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&sr=&qid=, & (2013). Hardwiring happiness: The new brain science of contentment, calm, and confidence. New York: Random House.(2007). Made to stick: Why some ideas survive and others die. New York, NY: Random House., & (2010). Switch: How to change things when change is hard. New York, NY: Broadway Books., & (2013). Decisive. New York, NY: Crown Business., & (2012). Debate on Romney's memory of incident: Bullying activist says his claim could be true. Washington Post.([Page 302] (Director). (1995). Apollo 13 [DVD]. United States: MCA Universal Home Video. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hLZZ_y1xdJg1997). The short stories of Langston Hughes ( , Ed.). New York, NY: Hill and Wang.(2013). Improving acute stress responses: The power of reappraisal. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 51–56., , & (1999). October Sky [DVD]. United States: Universal Pictures.(Director). (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.(1997). The one best way: Frederick Taylor and the enigma of efficiency. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(2011a, June). My kid would never bully (girls group). NBC Dateline. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ask9x8gx9Dg&index=5&list=FLn1sPEq8nRrTJOFeZxxCMSA, & (2011b, June). My kid would never bully (boys group). NBC Dateline. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyBTap2wudo&index=6&list=FLn1sPEq8nRrTJOFeZxxCMSA, & (2010a). We are all bystanders. The Compassionate Instinct. New York: W.W. Norton., & (2010b). The compassionate instinct: The science of human goodness. New York, NY: W.W. Norton., , & (Eds.). (1960). The New Frontier speech. Retrieved from. http://www.wikiquote.org/(1992). I have a dream: Writings and speeches that changed the world ( , Ed.). San Francisco, CA: HarperCollins Publishers., (2011). Unmistakable impact: A partnership approach for dramatically improving instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2011). Changes in dispositional empathy in American college students over time: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15(2), 180–198., , & (2008). A sense of urgency. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press.(1992). Transforming power: Domination, empowerment and dominion. Albany: State University of New York at Albany.(2004). Don't think of an elephant!: Know your values and frame the debate: The essential guide for progressives. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green.(2006). Thinking points: Communicating our American values and vision: A progressive's handbook. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.(2011). Managing challenging behaviors in schools: Research-based strategies that work. New York, NY: Guilford Press., , , & (2011, March). Born to Learn [Video]. United States: 21st Century Learning Initiative. Retrieved from http://www.born-to-learn.org and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=falHoOEUFz0(Narrator). (2011, September). The drama! Teen conflict, gossip, and bullying in networked publics. A decade in Internet time: Symposium on the dynamics of the Internet and society. United Kingdom: Social Science Research Network. Abstract retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1926349 or http://ssrn.com/abstract=1926349, & ([Page 303] (1988). Contradictions of control. New York, NY: Routledge, Chapman and Hall.2014, June). One teacher's brilliant strategy to stop bullying. Reader's Digest.(2012). Moneyball [DVD]. United States: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xn7C6jgl0RI(Director). (2011, March). Understanding and responding to school bullying [Webinar]. In Safe and Supportive Schools Technical Assistance Center, American Institutes for Research. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education Office of Safe and Drug Free Schools. Available at http://safesupportivelearning.ed.gov/events/webinar/bullying-prevention, & (National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Indicators of school crime and safety. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/crimeindicators/crimeindicators2012/tables/table_11_5.aspNational Center for Education Statistics. (2014). Bullying in school statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d13/tables/dt13_230.50.asp2009). The IKEA effect: When labor leads to love. Harvard Business Review, 87(2), 30.(2006). Jacqueline Novogratz: Invest in Africa's own solutions [Video]. TED Talks: Ideas worth spreading. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8k_XH-ajLo0(1993). Bullying at school. Malden, MA: Blackwell.(2007). Olweus bullying prevention program teacher guide. Center City, MN: Hazelden., , , , , & (2008). Influencer: The power to change anything. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill., , , , & (2011). Change anything: The new science of personal success. New York, NY: Business Plus., , , , & (2011). Using social norms to reduce bullying: A research intervention among adolescents in five middle schools. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 14(5), 703–723., , & (2006). A whole new mind: Why right-brainers will rule the future. New York, NY: Riverhead Books.(2009). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York, NY: Riverhead Books.(2010). Two questions that can change your life [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.danielpink.com/archives/2010/01/2questionsvideo(2012). To sell is human: The surprising truth about moving others. New York, NY: Riverhead Books.(2013). Our motivations are unbelievably interesting [Video]. RSA Animation. Oxford, UK: Edge Initiatives. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=avnHUxSVfVM(1974). Zen and the art of motorcycle maintenance: An inquiry into values. New York, NY: Morrow.([Page 304] , , , &. (2007). Understanding and promoting autonomous self-regulation: A self-determination theory perspective. In & (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research and application (pp. 223–244). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.2011). Out of our minds: Learning to be creative. West Sussex, UK: Capstone.(2011). Bullying: The power of peers. Educational Leadership, 69(1), 10–16.(2011). Join the club: How peer pressure can transform the world. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.(2011). Prevention of school bullying: The important role of autonomy supportive teaching and the internalization of pro-social values. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 654–666., , & (1986). Origins and pawns in the classroom: Self-report and projective assessments of individual differences in children's perceptions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(3), 550–558., & (2011, February). Animation advocacy, Pixar style. New York Times, p. C1. Retrieved from A Rare Look at Pixar Studios http://www.youtube.com(2010). Bullying and the peer group: A review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 15, 112–120.(1996). Revisiting “The culture of the school and the problem of change.” New York: Teachers College Press.(2009). Helping: How to offer, give and receive help. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.(2010). Practical wisdom: The right way to do the right thing. New York, NY: Riverhead Books., & (Self-affirmation theory. (n.d.). Wikipedia. Retrieved July 28, 2014 from Wikimedia Foundation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-affirmation1996). Leadership for the schoolhouse: How is it different?: Why is it important? San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(2003, April 25). Mo Cheeks National Anthem [NBA Playoff Game on ESPN]. United States: National Broadcasting Company. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q4880PJnO2E&list=FLn1sPEq8nRrTJOFeZxxCMSA&index=72(Producer). (2007). Whoever tells the best story wins: How to use your own stories to communicate with power and impact. New York, NY: Amacom.(2009). Start with why: How great leaders inspire everyone to take action. New York, NY: Portfolio.(2014). Leaders eat last: Why some teams pull together and others don't. New York, NY: Penquin.(2012). Lead with a story: A guide to crafting business narratives that captivate, convince, and inspire. New York, NY: American Management Association.(2004). A touch of greatness [DVD]. United States: First Run Features. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jujtkzGiG9U&list=FLn1sPEq8nRrTJOFeZxxCMSA(Director). (2004). The wisdom of crowds: Why the many are smarter than the few and how collective wisdom shapes business, economies, societies, and nations. New York, NY: Doubleday.(2001). Peer influences and positive cognitive restructuring. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 9(4), 215–218.(2010). Mothers’ spanking of 3-year-old children and subsequent risk of children's aggressive behavior. Pediatrics, 125(5), 1057–1085., , , & ([Page 305] (2010). A student in distress: Moral frames and bystander behavior in school. Elementary School Journal, 110(4), 585–608.United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). What bullying is, what cyberbullying is, who is at risk, and how you can prevent and respond to bullying [website]. Washington, DC: author. Retrieved from http://www.stopbullying.gov/2007). A question of belonging: Race, social fit, and achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(1), 82–96., & (2011). A brief social-belonging intervention improves academic and health outcomes of minority students. Science, 331(6023), 1147–11451., & (2013). Mere belonging: The power of social connections. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 513–532., , , & (2012). Expandable selves. In & (Eds.), Handbook of Self and Identity (pp. 141–154). New York, NY: Guilford Press., , & (2013). How to get people to do stuff: Master the art and science of persuasion and motivation. Berkeley, CA: New Riders.(1985). Witness [DVD]. United States: Paramount Pictures Corp. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a7kLSk9-TRg(Director). (2012). Cyber savvy: Embracing digital safety and civility. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2002). Strangers to ourselves: Discovering the adaptive unconscious. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press(2011). Re-Direct: The surprising new science of psychological change. New York, NY: Little, Brown.(1982). Improving the academic performance of college freshman: Attribution therapy revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology I, 42(2), 367–376., & (1985). Improving the performance of college freshman with attributional techniques. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(1), 287–293., & (2013). The multiplier effect: Tapping the genius within our schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., , & (2001). Remember the Titans [DVD]. United States: Walt Disney Home Video. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uiqdA1B3_Nc(Director). (2014). Boring but important: A self-transcendent purpose for learning fosters academic self-regulation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(4), 559–580., , , , , , & (2011). Social-psychological interventions in education: They're not magic. Review of Educational Research, 81(2), 267–301., & (2013, December). How Stories Change the Brain. Greater Good Science Center. Berkeley: University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved from http://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/how_stories_change_brain(