Reducing Adolescent Risk: Toward an Integrated Approach
Publication Year: 2003
Reducing Adolescent Risk: Toward an Integrated Approach focuses on common influences that result in a number of interrelated risk behaviors in order to design more unified, comprehensive prevention strategies. Edited by Daniel Romer, this book summarizes presentations and discussions held at the Adolescent Risk Communication Institute of the University of Pennsylvania Annenberg Public Policy Center. Concentrating on common causes for varied risk behaviors, a group of leading researchers and intervention specialists from different health traditions synthesize current knowledge about risks to adolescent health in several areas, including drugs and alcohol, tobacco, unprotected sex, suicide and depression, and gambling. Primarily intended for graduate students, scholars, and researchers in psychology, sociology, social work, and public health, Reducing Adolescent Risk is also an extraordinary resource for policy ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Adolescents as Decision Makers
- Section A: Differing Views of Adolescent Decision Making
- Chapter 2: Changing Views on the Nature and Prevention of Adolescent Risk Taking
- Chapter 3: Is Decision Making the Right Framework for Research on Adolescent Risk Taking?
- Chapter 4: The Two Faces of Adolescent Invulnerability
- Section B: Affect, Risk Perception, and Behavior
- Chapter 5: Risk Perception: Construct Development, Links to Theory, Correlates, and Manifestations
- Chapter 6: Affect, Analysis, Adolescence, and Risk
- Chapter 7: Toward an Understanding of the Role of Perceived Risk in HIV Prevention Research
- Chapter 8: Alcohol and Illicit Drugs: The Role of Risk Perceptions
- Chapter 9: Adolescents' Risk Perceptions and Behavioral Willingness: Implications for Intervention
- Section C: Problem-Solving Approaches
- Chapter 10: A Problem-Solving Approach to Preventing Early High-Risk Behaviors in Children and Preteens
- Chapter 11: Contemporary School-Based Prevention Approaches and the Perceived Risks and Benefits of Substance Use
- Chapter 12: Decision-Making Competence and Risk Behavior
- Chapter 13: Time Perspective: A Potentially Important Construct for Decreasing Health Risk Behaviors Among Adolescents
- Chapter 14: The Influence of School Atmosphere and Development on Adolescents' Perceptions of Risk and Prevention: Cynicism versus Skepticism
Part II: Common Pathways and Influences on Adolescent Risk Behavior
- Section A: Multiple-Problem Youth
- Chapter 15: Preventing Multiple Problem Behaviors in Adolescence
- Chapter 16: Screening and Early Intervention for Antisocial Youth within School Settings as a Strategy for Reducing Substance Use
- Chapter 17: Preventive Interventions for Externalizing Disorders in Adolescents
- Section B: Personality and Other Predispositions
- Chapter 18: Genetic Basis of Substance Use and Dependence: Implications for Prevention in High-Risk Youth
- Chapter 19: Health Risk Takers and Prevention
- Chapter 20: Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression: Implications for Adolescent Risk Behavior in General
- Section C: Peers and Parents
- Chapter 21: EMOSA Sexuality Models, Memes, and the Tipping Point: Policy and Program Implications
- Chapter 22: Sustaining and Broadening Intervention Effect: Social Norms, Core Values, and Parents
- Section D: Media Interventions
- Chapter 23: Adolescent Risk Behavior Research and Media-Based Health Messages
- Chapter 24: Using Beliefs About Positive and Negative Consequences as the Basis for Designing Message Interventions for Lowering Risky Behavior
Part III: Perspectives from Different Risk Research Traditions
- Section A: Gambling
- Chapter 25: Adolescent Gambling: Risk Factors and Implications for Prevention, Intervention, and Treatment
- Chapter 26: Understanding Youth Gambling Problems: A Conceptual Framework
- Chapter 27: A Perspective on Adolescent Gambling: Relationship to Other Risk Behaviors and Implications for Prevention Strategies
- Chapter 28: Why Pay Attention to Adolescent Gambling?
- Section B: Sexual Behavior
- Chapter 29: Risk and Protective Factors Affecting Teen Pregnancy and the Effectiveness of Programs Designed to Address Them
- Chapter 30: Healthy Sexual Development: Notes on Programs That Reduce the Risk of Early Sexual Initiation and Adolescent Pregnancy
- Chapter 31: Adolescent Sex and the Rhetoric of Risk
- Section C: Suicide
- Chapter 32: Suicide Risk Among Adolescents
- Chapter 33: Some Strategies to Prevent Youth Suicide
- Chapter 34: Implications of Focusing on Black Youth Self-Destructive Behaviors Instead of Suicide When Designing Preventive Interventions
- Section D: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drugs
- Chapter 35: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana Use Among Youth: Same-Time and Lagged and Simultaneous-Change Associations in a Nationally Representative Sample of 9- to 18-Year-Olds
Part IV: Overarching Approaches and Recommendations for Future Research
To my daughter Adrienne and all young people making the transition to adulthood.
Copyright © 2003 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
Sage Publications Ltd.
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
Sage Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
B-42, Panchsheel Enclave
Post Box 4109
New Delhi 110 017 India
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Reducing adolescent risk: Toward an integrated approach / Daniel Romer, editor.
Papers presented at a conference held at the Adolescent Risk Communication Institute of the University of Pennsylvania Annenberg Public Policy Center in June 2002.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7619-2835-9 (hc) ISBN 0-7619-2836-7 (pb)
1. Risk-taking (Psychology) in adolescence-Prevention-Congresses. I. Romer, Daniel, 1946-RJ506.R57R43 2003
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
03 04 05 06 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: James Brace-Thompson
Editorial Assistant: Karen Ehrmann
Copy Editor: Linda Gray
Production Editor: Denise Santoyo
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Indexer: Pamela Van Huss
Cover Designer: Sandy Sauvajot
The Annenberg Public Policy Center (APPC) thanks the Annenberg Foundation and the Annenberg Foundation at Sunnylands Trust for their support of the conference on which this book is based. In addition, we thank the American Academy of Political and Social Science for cosponsoring the conference with the Annenberg Adolescent Risk Communication Institute of the University of Pennsylvania. Thanks also go to the seven session leaders of the conference who helped to organize their sessions and recruit panel members: Madelyn Gould, Mark Griffiths, John Jemmott, Lloyd Johnston, Douglas Kirby, Susan Millstein, and Paul Slovic. Although we were unable to include papers from all the panelists and session leaders, their participation produced a most stimulating and exciting meeting. The many attendees from government agencies and foundations (listed in Appendix B) were not only an excellent audience but also contributed greatly to the discussions. Kenneth Bollen of the University of North Carolina also consulted with us on the design of the causal modeling discussed in Chapter 1. Thanks also go to Linda Gray for her patience and dedication to editing the volume. Finally, we thank Belkys López and Nikki Dooner for their help in bringing this volume together and the following members of the APPC staff who helped to make the conference a success: Richard Cardona, Kyle Cassidy, Joshua Gesell, Deborah Porter, Carmen Renwick, and Debra Williams.[Page xii]
In January of 2001, the Annenberg Foundation provided an endowment to the Annenberg Public Policy Center (APPC) of the University of Pennsylvania to establish the Adolescent Risk Communication Institute (ARCI). The purpose of this new center is to synthesize what is known about effective strategies to reduce adolescent risk behavior and to encourage healthy youth development. In addition, ARCI was created to encourage new research that could lead to more effective strategies for healthy adolescent development and to communicate the findings to the policy community as well as to parents, youth, and persons who care for and educate young people.
As Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Director of the APPC, and Daniel Romer, Research Director of ARCI, considered how best to launch the new Institute, they considered it critical to recognize that the United States does not have a comprehensive youth development strategy. The schools are perhaps the most important venue for the training and development of the young. However, there has only recently been an attempt to fashion a nationwide strategy to promote the educational attainment of youth. The primary responsibility for the health and development of young people lies with the states. However, the states differ dramatically in programs and resources dedicated to young people's development and well-being. A diverse array of governmental departments take responsibility for youth development, but their programs have developed along separate paths with little common purpose.
Despite the fractured state of programming for youth, there is increased interest in developing more comprehensive strategies. The National Governors Association (NGA) has created a Youth Policy Network that is encouraging states to look for ways to integrate their youth-related programs. Seventeen states (including New York, California, and Massachusetts) have begun this process with help from the NGA as well as other national youth-oriented organizations (Ferber, Pittman, & Marshall, 2002). These efforts are increasingly looking for ways to involve schools, state agencies, and community-based organizations in a unified strategy to encourage positive youth development. In addition, policymakers look to the research community to provide guidance regarding the most effective approaches.
To achieve the goal of more coherent youth policy, the research community and federal agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Department of Education will be increasingly called on to identify strategies that can help states and the federal government create comprehensive programs.
[Page xiv]Unfortunately, research-based recommendations for healthy development are usually focused on single outcomes with few comprehensive strategies. For example, recommendations from both Healthy People (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000b) and Healthy Youth (Fleming, Towey, & Jarosik, 2001) contain a plethora of worthy objectives spanning a wide range of youth outcomes, such as reduced drug, alcohol, and cigarette use; healthier approaches to sex; and reduced reliance on violent methods of problem solving. However, each is discussed as a separate problem with separate strategies.
Strategies to achieve healthy outcomes also rely heavily on the schools and medical providers to deliver health education programs. However, the federal government has recently embarked on a policy of increased emphasis on educational achievement to improve the academic readiness of the nation's youth. The No Child Left Behind program focuses on academic testing as early as third grade and imposes financial penalties on schools that fail to meet testing goals. Although the legislation concentrates heavily on poor and disadvantaged schools, the effects of this initiative will be felt across the educational spectrum. With this increased pressure on academic performance in schools, there will be even less room in the school day for health-related curricula. If they do not already, schools will soon lack the time in the school day to continue behavior-specific prevention curricula.
Another common strategy is the use of mass media campaigns to reach youth and parents regarding risky behavior. We now have major campaigns to discourage cigarette smoking, illicit drug use (especially marijuana), and childbirth before marriage. However, we often see messages that seem to ignore possible effects on other risk behaviors: for example, antismoking and drug messages that model young people's suicide behavior. There is also little recognition of the well-established pathway from cigarettes and alcohol to marijuana (see Hornik, this volume).
Despite evidence of comorbidity for major health risks, our interventions continue to be developed for single outcomes. So we asked, What do we know about interventions that might be able to reduce adolescent risk and increase resilience across behaviors?
To answer this question, we brought experts together from seven fields to discuss the pathways to risk behavior in their domain and possible strategies to reduce multiple risks. Our risk domains included traditional ones, such as tobacco, drugs, and alcohol as well as the prevention of risky sexual behavior. But we also included some relatively understudied domains, such as suicide and gambling. Indeed, gambling has not yet been recognized as a serious health threat to youth in the United States (National Research Council, 1999). However, we thought it would be helpful to learn more about this behavior because it might serve as a test case of the temptation to “reinvent the wheel” in developing interventions for this behavior.
Indeed, if the past is any guide, the nation's approach to preventing the risks of this behavior in youth will be to develop a new set of interventions that compete with the other programs that currently take up time in the school curriculum and in medical care settings.
Suicide was selected not only because it is a leading cause of death among youth, but also because it is related to a range of conditions and behaviors that concern youth. Suicide is a major form of violent death that often involves firearms. It is also [Page xv]a major consequence of mental illness, especially depression, which is prevalent in youth and comorbid with many other adolescent risk behaviors (see Gould, this volume, and Alloy, Zhu, & Abramson, this volume). Hence, it was felt that a focus on this behavior would provide a useful lens through which to understand a range of youth behaviors that pose a serious risk to healthy youth development.
We invited researchers who study sexual risks not only because the problem is serious but also to gain a greater understanding of comprehensive strategies that might be effective for these risks. This field is fragmented by the division between the older and more established family-planning approaches to pregnancy prevention and the newer effort to reduce exposure to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially HIV. In addition, there is a major split among policymakers about the best way to encourage safer sexual behavior in youth. Welfare reform legislation has emphasized “abstinence first” programs that on their face appear to encourage behavior that can reduce both pregnancy and STDs. However, it is not clear that such a strategy can be effective for all youth at all ages, just as a “Just Say No” approach has only limited success for other risk behaviors considered normative for adults but not for youth. Hence, we invited researchers from both fields to discuss what is known about sexual risks and potential intervention strategies that lead to comprehensive interventions.
Finally, we asked researchers who study risk perception and decision making in adolescents to review the state of the art in this field. Many intervention strategies presuppose that adolescents can be educated to make better decisions about risky activities. However, there remains considerable controversy within this field as to whether adolescents adequately perceive the risk of many harmful behaviors (e.g., tobacco use) and if they adequately integrate their understanding of risk into decisions about engaging in risky behavior. To the degree that adolescents are seen as rational actors, there is hope that they can be influenced to make adaptive decisions. At the same time, there are serious concerns that young people will become addicted, for example, to tobacco, before they adequately understand the risks of this activity.
The list of presenters at the conference is in Appendix A. In addition to the presenters, many representatives from federal agencies and foundations attended the meeting and contributed to the discussion and proceedings. Their names and affiliations are contained in Appendix B. The papers we include in this volume contain a wealth of references to the scholarly and policy literature; these are located at the end of the book.Overview of Chapter Organization
Although the conference was organized around seven risk topics, we present many of the papers written for the conference according to the common themes that connect them, irrespective of the session in which they were presented. In the first chapter, Daniel Romer presents findings from a national survey of youth conducted by ARCI to inform the conference about potential relationships between the risk behaviors discussed at the meeting. The results of this analysis indicate not only that [Page xvi]risk behaviors are related but that interventions to reduce this comorbidity may have a large effect across a wide range of behaviors. In addition, he shows that young people are aware of the co-occurrence of risk behavior and associate much of it with popular peers. These findings suggested that the ultimate aim of the conference, to identify comprehensive approaches to risk reduction, had considerable promise. However, simply telling young people not to engage in these behaviors is unlikely to be a successful strategy. Therefore, strategies that address the reasons for the appeal of risk behavior and that provide healthier alternatives will have greater chances for success.Adolescents as Decision Makers
In Part I, Section A, we focus on the papers that addressed questions surrounding adolescents as decision makers. One enduring question concerning adolescents is whether they even consider the risks of their behavior before they engage in it. James Byrnes considers this and other questions regarding adolescent decision making and emphasizes the need to consider both the risky situations that adolescents find themselves in and their capacities for making good decisions in those situations. Laurence Steinberg proposes a definition of mature decision making and questions whether adolescents can fully master these skills. Daniel Lapsley addresses the question of whether young people are subject to belief in certain fables that encourage risky behavior. He takes a more optimistic tack by observing that adolescents are often protected from certain harmful conditions, such as depression, by the belief in optimistic fables. Hence, to the degree that adolescents believe in fables at all, the effects of these beliefs need not be harmful.
In Section B of Part I, Susan Millstein and Paul Slovic argue for the importance of affect in adolescent decision making. Millstein suggests that risk judgments may not have much influence on adolescents unless the risks reach a critical affective threshold. As a result, many risk judgments may be unrelated to behavior. Slovic explores the importance of the “affect heuristic” as a process that influences risk judgments and behaviors. Use of this heuristic encourages people to use their feelings toward a behavior rather than a reasoned analysis of risks as the basis for deciding to try the behavior. Advertising and promotion can create positive images of many risky behaviors likely to elicit favorable feelings. In addition, many of these behaviors are seen as popular and confer the appearance of adult status. As a result, young people are likely to give them a try. Unfortunately, the addictive properties of some risk behaviors can make this a hazardous strategy.
Other authors argue forcefully that many adolescents are sensitive to risk information and will moderate their behavior in line with risk perceptions under certain conditions. Martin Fishbein argues that risk judgments do affect intentions and that one can observe this relationship if one measures risk perceptions appropriately. He presents examples of sexual behavior that illustrate this relationship. In the realm of drugs and alcohol, Lloyd Johnston discusses the role of fads and other changes in popular culture that appear to induce widespread changes in drug use despite little or no change in personality predispositions or availability of drugs. He argues that perceptions of the risks of drugs have been a powerful [Page xvii]mediator of these changes. These wider social influences also need to be understood to design effective interventions for the prevention of risk behavior in youth. In addition, he shows that some correlates of drug use (such as lack of attachment to school) may influence a wide range of drug use tendencies. Finally, Meg Gerrard, Frederick Gibbons, and Michelle Gano argue that risk perceptions are most likely to influence the behavior of adolescents who are willing to try a new behavior (but have not yet done so) and hence who are open to information about the consequences of those behaviors.
The authors in Section C of Part I present evidence that adolescents who approach complex decisions with more adaptive decision-making skills are more likely to make healthy choices than those whose decision-making skills are weak or simplistic. Myrna Shure reviews a long line of research that she pioneered to identify decision-making skills that can be taught in the primary grades and that lead to more adaptive behavior as children age. Kenneth Griffin argues that teaching these skills in combination with risk-specific information can be an effective strategy to insulate youth from risky peer influences. Andrew Parker and Baruch Fischhoff argue that basic decision-making skills are correlated with safer behavior across a range of risk domains, including substance use, unprotected sex, and delinquent behavior.
Geoffrey Fong and Peter Hall discuss the importance of sensitivity to delayed effects of risk behaviors and present evidence that young people who are taught to appreciate these delays will be more likely to persist in maintaining healthy behavior. Finally, Maria LaRusso and Robert Selman argue that school social environments are powerful influences on the decision maturity of middle school youth. Schools with chaotic and arbitrary discipline policies create cynicism regarding health advice and fail to provide credible guidance for youths who face challenges negotiating decisions about risky behavior.Common Pathways and Influences on Adolescent Risk Behavior
In Part II, we feature authors who focus on intervention strategies that exploit common pathways to risk behavior. In Section A of Part II, Anthony Biglan and Christine Cody review the findings of a project that synthesized what is known about multiple-problem youth. These youth follow developmental paths characterized by multiple risky behaviors, such as substance use, aggressive and antisocial behavior, and risky sexual behavior. These individuals account for a large proportion of the risk behavior engaged in by youth. However, these youth can be identified early (primarily by their aggressive tendencies in the elementary grades) and potentially helped to avoid some of the hazardous effects of their behavior. Herbert Severson, Judy Andrews, and Hill Walker also advocate early detection with the help of teachers who can be a valuable aid in identifying multiple-problem youth. Their research suggests that teachers can be trained to use objective assessment tools and that once identified, problem youth can be helped to find more adaptive ways of interacting with peers and teachers in school and other settings. Finally, Kenneth Winters, Gerald August, and Willa Leitten describe an intensive [Page xviii]intervention currently under investigation to identify and help multiple-problem youth to avoid their likely maladaptive developmental paths.
In Section B of Part II, two chapters provide an overview of what is known about predispositions to engage in a range of risk behaviors. Caryn Lerman, Freda Patterson, and Alexandra Shields review the latest developments in genetics regarding addictive behaviors. Although they conclude that it is unlikely that there is a single gene for addiction, several traits are likely to be inherited that predispose persons to seek experiences that are addictive. They focus on sensation seeking and impulsiveness as paradigms of such traits. They also discuss some of the ethical issues that will arise once it becomes possible to identify risk-predisposing traits in children. Lewis Donohew and his coauthors review the extensive evidence for the role of sensation seeking as a trait that predisposes young people to seek risky experiences. He focuses on the implications of this relationship for the design of persuasive messages to discourage these outlets for sensation seekers.
Depression is a major risk factor for suicide and is itself an important mental health problem in adolescents. Lauren Alloy, Lin Zhu, and Lyn Abramson review recent research on the developmental precursors of depression and some potential interventions to prevent depression in young people. If successful, such interventions might also be able to help depressed persons overcome the need to abuse substances such as tobacco and alcohol.
Peers and the family, the focus of Section C of Part II, are important influences on adolescent risk behavior. Joseph Rodgers discusses the role of social contagion among teens as a mechanism for the spread of risky behaviors. The same mechanisms appear to underlie the social transmission of a range of risk behaviors, including tobacco use and sexual initiation. If these transmission processes could be postponed to even a little later in development, the reductions in risk behavior initiation could be sizable. Bonita Stanton and James Burns discuss the importance of including parents in interventions because their influence through mechanisms such as parental monitoring of behavior can affect a wide range of risk behaviors, including unprotected sex, violence, and drug use.
Mass media are an important influence on young people. In Section D of Part II, Barbara Delaney, from the Partnership for a Drug Free America, discusses the research strategies used to develop antidrug messages for the national campaigns that her organization has sponsored for over a decade. Joseph Cappella, Marco Yzer, and Martin Fishbein amplify the need to identify strong arguments that can persuade youth to avoid risk behavior and provide examples of some methods to accomplish this goal.Perspectives from Different Risk Research Traditions
Part III provides perspectives on the challenges posed by several of the major risk behaviors discussed at the conference. In Section A of Part III, the first team of authors focuses on the relatively understudied behavior of problem gambling. Mark Griffiths summarizes the state of knowledge about this behavior from the perspective of the United Kingdom, where access to gambling by young people is less restricted than in the United States. As a result, it is possible to observe some of [Page xix]the potential abuses that greater access to gambling devices such as slot machines has on young people. This is particularly of concern because gambling restrictions in the United States have progressively been lifted to the point where access in venues such as the Internet is open to anyone. In addition, just as substance use can become addictive, there is evidence that gambling has the potential to induce the same type of dependencies on its frequent users. As we saw in the analysis of comorbidity among substance use and gambling in Chapter 1, gambling has many of the same precursors as substance use and may be able to be treated with some of the same strategies. Jeffrey Derevensky, Rina Gupta, Laurie Dickson, Karen Hardoon, and Anne-Elyse Deguire highlight the overlap in precursors and risk factors between problem gambling and other risk behaviors. They also suggest some ways of conceptualizing problem gambling within a risk-resilience framework. Marc Potenza discusses some of the potential interventions that might be tested to prevent youth addiction to gambling, and Rachel Volberg reviews some recent research concerning the prevalence of the behavior and some ways that states with fewer restrictions on gambling have attempted to shield youth from its effects.
The sessions devoted to sexual behavior at the conference, the focus of Section B of Part III, were perhaps the most contentious regarding appropriate strategies for prevention. Douglas Kirby provides an overview of the many intervention approaches to safer sexual behavior that have been tested. He concludes that whether one focuses on abstinence or safer sex as strategies, the important factor that seems to underlie successful interventions is increasing attachment to adults and peers who foster healthy norms for youth behavior. Across a wide range of interventions, attachment to adults in prosocial activities, such as community service, seems to have lasting impact on reducing risky sexual behavior.
Despite Kirby's optimistic assessment, the other authors find much that is problematic in current approaches to prevention in the sexual arena. Mignon Moore and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn review the research and find that programs with a comprehensive approach that includes access to contraception and information about a variety of options for sexual health are the most successful. In addition, they suggest that a focus on healthy youth development rather than on risk avoidance characterizes the successful programs. They also argue that the current emphasis on abstinence-first programs by the federal government places concerns about sexual morality above sexual health. Dennis Fortenberry argues that the emphasis on sexual risk stigmatizes a natural and important behavior in which youth will eventually be expected to engage. He argues that a middle ground in our search for effective strategies must be found that can encourage healthy regard for sex while also promoting greater safety in the way sexual relations are conducted.
Although suicide is the third leading cause of death in youth under age 25 and the second leading cause for college students, it remains an understudied problem in prevention research. In Section C of Part III, Madelyn Gould reviews what is known about the major precursors and influences on suicide. She also notes some of the important ways in which these precursors overlap with other risk behaviors. Furthermore, because mental disorders such as depression are major risk factors, the prevention of suicide dovetails with efforts to promote mental health and to reduce the stigma of seeking help for mental disorders.
[Page xx]David Brent discusses several intervention approaches for reducing adolescent suicide. He focuses on gun access as an important precursor to suicide. Nearly all the increase in youth suicide over the past 50 years has been related to increases in the use of firearms as a means of death. He discusses some ways in which removal of access to firearms for vulnerable youth may be able to save lives and avoid nonfatal injuries. Sean Joe discusses the problem of recent increases in suicide among African American youth. He argues that this phenomenon may be linked to changes in the status of African American youth that have led to greater tendencies for individuals to blame themselves rather than external conditions for failure.
Finally, in Section D of Part III, Robert Hornik reports some findings from the national evaluation of the United States antidrug campaign. He finds that the gateway hypothesis for tobacco and alcohol use as precursors to marijuana use is still quite viable. Very few youth begin to use marijuana without first smoking cigarettes or drinking alcohol. An effective strategy for reducing marijuana initiation could be reducing cigarette smoking. Similar effects should be observed from encouraging the safer use of alcohol.Overarching Approaches and Recommendations for Future Research
In Part IV, we feature some of the presenters who focused on more global strategies for risk reduction. The approach that seeks to encourage engagement in positive activities and the creation of healthy environments (positive youth development) is discussed by Brian Flay as a strategy to reduce a range of risky behaviors. He argues that for such programs to succeed, they will need to change entire social units such as schools and communities. In addition, Jodie Roth and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn review the evidence concerning community-based programs for positive youth development. Their review finds that programs that were more successful in influencing multiple risk behaviors also increased attachment to the community and instilled positive norms for healthy behavior. Finally, Ralph DiClemente, Gina Wingood, and Richard Crosby survey recent developments in multilevel approaches that seek to change not only the individual but also higher levels of social connection, such as the family and community. They argue that such interventions will have greater endurance and success than ones that focus only on individual change.
In the last chapter, Kathleen Jamieson and Daniel Romer review the major implications of the conference proceedings for future research and policy development. They identify four major findings from the conference that should be pursued in future research to identify comprehensive intervention strategies and a unified policy for healthy youth development.
Appendix A: Reducing Adolescent Risk: Conference Schedule June 27–30, 2002Thursday, June 27, 2002Session 1: General Risk Perception and Behavior
Session 2: Suicide
- Session Leader: Susan Millstein, University of California, San Francisco
- James Byrnes, University of Maryland
- Meg Gerrard, Iowa State University
- Bonnie Halpern-Felsher, University of California, San Francisco
- Daniel Lapsley, Ball State University
- Andrew Parker, Virginia Tech University
- Robert Selman, Harvard University
- Myrna B. Shure, Drexel University
- Laurence Steinberg, Temple University
Friday, June 28, 2002Breakfast
- Session Leader: Madelyn Gould, Columbia University
- Lauren Alloy, Temple University
- Aaron T. Beck, University of Pennsylvania
- Alan L. Berman, American Association of Suicidology
- David Brent, Western Psychiatric Institute
- Jane Gillham, University of Pennsylvania
- Ian Gotlib, Stanford University
- Lawrence Greenhill, Columbia University [Page 380]
- Sean Joe, School of Social Work, University of Pennsylvania
- Steve Stack, Wayne State University
Session 3: Gambling
- Invited Speaker: Caryn Lerman, Director, Tobacco Research Program at the Leonard & Madlyn Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania
- Session Leader: Mark Griffiths, Nottingham University, United Kingdom
- Jeffrey Derevensky, McGill University
- Richard I. Evans, University of Houston
- Marc Potenza, Yale University School of Medicine
- Rachel Volberg, University of Massachusetts
- Ken C. Winters, University of Minnesota
Session 4: Tobacco
- Invited Speaker: Aaron T. Beck, Professor Emeritus, University of Pennsylvania
Session 5: Pregnancy
- Session Leader: Paul Slovic, University of Oregon
- Brian Flay, University of Illinois, Chicago
- Geoffrey Fong, University of Waterloo
- Lyndon Haviland, The American Legacy Foundation
- Caryn Lerman, University of Pennsylvania
- Daniel McGoldrick, Tobacco Free Kids
- Connie Pechmann, University of California, Irvine
- Herbert Severson, Oregon Research Institute
- Neil Weinstein, Rutgers University
Saturday, June 29, 2002Session 6: HIV/STD
- Session Leader: Douglas Kirby, Education Training Research Associates
- Jane Brown, University of North Carolina
- Jacqueline Darroch, Alan Guttmacher Institute
- James Jaccard, SUNY Albany [Page 381]
- Rebecca Maynard, University of Pennsylvania
- Mignon Moore, Columbia University
- Marisa Nightingale, The National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy
- Joseph Rodgers, University of Oklahoma
- Diane Scott-Jones, Boston College
- Session Leader: John Jemmott, The Annenberg School for Communication
- Ralph DiClemente, Emory University
- Martin Fishbein, The Annenberg School for Communication
- Dennis Fortenberry, Indiana University
- Loretta Jemmott, University of Pennsylvania
- Robert Johnson, New Jersey Medical School
- Sara Kinsman, Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania
- Freya Sonenstein, Urban Institute
- Bonita Stanton, West Virginia University
- Antonia Villarruel, University of Michigan
- Gina Wingood, Emory University
Session 7: Alcohol/Drugs
- Invited Speaker: David Shaffer, Irving Phillips Professor of Child Psychology, Columbia University
- Session Leader: Lloyd Johnston, University of Michigan
- Anthony Biglan, Oregon Research Institute
- Joseph Cappella, The Annenberg School for Communication
- Barbara Delaney, Partnership for a Drug-Free America
- Lewis Donohew, University of Kentucky
- Kenneth Griffin, Cornell Medical School
- George Hacker, The Center for Science in the Public Interest
- Robert Hornik, The Annenberg School for Communication
- Michael Windle, University of Alabama at Birmingham
Appendix B: Conference Attendees, June 27 – June 30, 2002[Page 382]
- CARMEN ANDERSON
- Program Officer, Children, Youth & Families
- The Heinz Endowment
- ELIJAH ANDERSON
- Board of Directors
- American Academy of Political and Social Science
- JANET AUDRAIN
- Assistant Professor
- Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania
- DAN BARRETT
- The Annenberg School for Communication
- University of Pennsylvania
- COURTNEY BENNETT
- Program Officer
- The David and Lucile Packard Foundation
- TYRONE BENTLEY
- Developmental Pediatric Fellow Children's Seashore House/C.H.O.P.
- ALAN L. BERMAN
- Executive Director American Association of Suicidology
- LINDA BLOCK
- Health Communication Specialist Centers for Disease Control
- LISA BOLTON
- Associate Professor of Marketing Wharton, University of Pennsylvania
- NICOLETTE BOREK
- Division of Mental Disorders,
- Behavior Research and AIDS
- National Institute of Mental Health
- RHONDA BOYD
- University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
- GREG BROWN
- Assistant Professor
- Department of Psychiatry
- University of Pennsylvania
- ELAINE CASEY
- Program Officer
- The Pew Charitable Trusts
- ROSE CHENEY
- Executive Director
- Firearm Injury Center at Penn
- University of Pennsylvania
- MIKE CODY
- Annenberg School
- University of Southern California
- LINDA CROSSETT
- Acting Chief of Research Application Branch
- Centers for Disease Control
- MAURA DUNFEY
- Research & Communications Coordinator
- Firearm Injury Center at Penn
- University of Pennsylvania
- JEANETTE FRIEDMAN
- Caron Foundation
- LYNNE HAVERKOS
- Program Director
- National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
- FREDERICK HELDRING
- Executive Director
- American Academy of Political and Social Science
- GREGG HENRIQUES
- Assistant Professor
- Department of Psychiatry
- University of Pennsylvania
- JUDY HERRMAN
- University of Delaware
- Center for Community
- Development & Family Policy
- NICOLE HEWITT
- Center for Health Behavior and Communication Research
- The Annenberg Public Policy Center University of Pennsylvania
- JANET HSU
- Center for Health Behavior and Communication Research
- The Annenberg Public Policy Center
- University of Pennsylvania
- JOAH IANNOTTA
- National Academy of Science
- CAROLE JOHNSON
- Program Officer
- The Pew Charitable Trusts
- LINDA KOENIG
- Assistant Chief for Behavioral Science
- Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention
- Centers for Disease Control
- KITTY KOLBERT
- The Annenberg School for Communication
- University of Pennsylvania
- DEMIE KURZ
- Codirector, Women's Studies Program
- University of Pennsylvania
- MARIA LARUSSO
- Graduate School of Education
- Harvard University
- RAY LORION
- Chair & Professor of Psychology in Education
- Graduate School of Education
- University of Pennsylvania
- JANE MACHIN
- Wharton, University of Pennsylvania
- JOE MCLLHANEY
- The Medical Institute, Austin, TX
- MARY ANN MEYERS
- Board of Directors American Academy of Political and Social Science
- LYNN MILLER
- Annenberg School
- University of Southern California
- KLAUS NAUDÉ
- Board of Directors
- American Academy of Political and Social Science
- SUSAN NEWCOMER
- Demographic & Behavioral Sciences Branch
- National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
- JAMES NONNEMAKER
- Research Economist
- RTI International
- FREDA PATTERSON
- Project Manager
- Tobacco Use Research Center
- JANE LESLIE PEARSON
- Chief, Preventive Interventions Programs
- National Institute of Mental Health
- ROBERT W. PEARSON
- Executive Director
- American Academy of Political and Social Science
- JAROSLAV PELIKAN
- Board of Directors
- American Academy of Political and Social Science
- WILLO PEQUEGNAT
- Chief, Prevention Translational
- Research Program
- National Institute of Mental Health
- LOUIS H. POLLAK
- Board of Directors
- American Academy of Political and Social Science
- LESHAWNDRA PRICE
- National Institute of Mental Health
- JANE PRITZL
- Division of Adolescent and School Health
- Centers for Disease Control
- KAREN REIVICH
- University of Pennsylvania
- KELLY SCHMITT
- Assistant Director, Education and Research
- Sesame Street Research
- DON SCHWARZ
- Associate Professor & Vice Chair of Pediatrics
- Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania
- MELISSA SEIDE
- Program Manager
- Firearm Injury Center at Penn
- University of Pennsylvania
- BELINDA SIMS
- Chief, Preventive Interventions Program
- National Institute of Mental Health
- JANET ST. LAWRENCE
- Chief of Behavioral Interventions & Research Branch
- Division of STD Prevention
- Centers for Disease Control
- GLADYS THOMAS
- Center Administrator, Center for Health Behavior and Communication Research
- Annenberg Public Policy Center
- University of Pennsylvania
- MARCO YZER
- The Amsterdam School of Communication Research
- University of Amsterdam
References[Page 385]2000). Postponing sexual intercourse among urban junior high school students: A randomized controlled evaluation. Journal of Adolescent Health, 27(4), 236–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X%2800%2900102-6, , , , , , et al. (2001). What do we know about gambling and problem gambling in New Zealand? (Report No. 7 of the New Zealand Gaming Survey). Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Internal Affairs.(1999). Gambling and problem gambling in the community: An international overview and critique. Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Internal Affairs. Retrieved December 13, 2002, http://www.dia.govt.nz/Pubforms.nsf/URL/report1.pdf/$file/report1.pdf., & (1998). Changing teaching practices to promote achievement and bonding to school. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68(4), 542–552. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0080363, , , , , & (2002). Problem solving training as a form of crisis prevention. In S. E.Brock & P. J.Lazurus (Eds.), Best practices in crisis prevention and intervention in the schoolsBethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists., & (1997). Fertility, family planning, and women's health: New data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Vital and Health Statistics, 23(19), 1–114., , , , & (2002). Cognitive vulnerability-stress models of depression in a self-regulatory and psychobiological context. In I. H.Gotlib & C. L.Hammen (Eds.), Handbook of depression (pp. 268–294). New York: Guilford., , , , , & (1998). Suicidality and cognitive vulnerability to depression among college students: A prospective study. Journal of Adolescence, 21, 473–487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jado.1998.0167, , , , , , et al. (2000). The hopelessness theory of suicidality. In T. E.Joiner & M. D.Rudd (Eds.), Suicide science: Expanding boundaries (pp. 17–32). Boston: Kluwer Academic., , , , , & , et al. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358–372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.96.2.358, , & (1991). Manual for the Teacher's Report Form and 1991 profile. Burlington: University of Vermont.(1983). Manual for the child behavior checklist and revised child behavior profile. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry., & (1994). Perceived family functioning and adolescent suicidal behavior. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 498–507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199405000-00008, , & ([Page 386]2001). Subjective risk and health protective behavior: Cancer screening and cancer prevention. In A.Baum, T. A.Revenson, & J. E.Singer (Eds.), Handbook of health psychology (pp. 727–746). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., , & (1975). Specious reward: A behavioral theory of impulsiveness and impulse control. Psychological Bulletin, 82, 463–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076860(1992). Self-control. In G. F.Loewenstein & J.Elster (Eds.), Choice over time (pp. 177–209). New York: Russell Sage., & (1985). From intentions to actions. In J.Kuhl & J.Beckman (Eds.), Action control from cognition to behavior. New York: Springer-Verlag.(1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall., & (1984). Delinquent behavior, drugs, and alcohol: What is the relationship? Today's Delinquency, 3(1), 19–47.(1979). Social learning and deviant behavior: A specific test of a general theory. American Sociological Review, 44, 636–655. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094592, , , & (Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1994). Sex and America's teenagers. New York: Author.1967). Peer influences on adolescent drinking. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 28, 444–453., & (1997). Preventing teen pregnancy and academic failure: Experimental evaluation of a developmentally based approach. Child Development, 68, 729–742. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1132122, , & (1997). Preventing teen pregnancy and academic failure: Experimental evaluation of a developmentally-based approach. Child Development, 64(4), 729–742. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1132122, , , & (1990). School-based prevention of teen-age pregnancy and school dropout: Process evaluation of the national replication of the Teen Outreach Program. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18(4), 505–524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00938057, , & (1999). The Temple-Wisconsin Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression (CVD) Project: Conceptual background, design, and methods. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 13, 227–262., & (2000). The Temple-Wisconsin CVD Project: Lifetime history of Axis I psychopathology in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 403–418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.109.3.403, , , , , , et al. (1997). Self-referent information processing in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression. Cognition and Emotion, 11, 539–568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026999397379854a, , , , & (The Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression (CVD) Project: Current findings and future directions. In L. B.Alloy & J. H.Riskind (Eds.), Cognitive vulnerability to emotional disorders. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., , , & (in press).2001). Developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability to depression: Parenting, cognitive, and inferential feedback styles of the parents of individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25, 397–423. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005534503148, , , , , , et al. (1992). Illusion of control: Invulnerability to negative affect and depressive symptoms after laboratory and natural stressors. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 234–243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.101.2.234, & (1992). Attributional style as a vulnerability factor for depression: Validation by past history of mood disorders. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 16, 391–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01183164, , & (1995). Positive actions for living. Twin Falls, ID: Positive Actions.([Page 387]1999). Developing, implementing, and evaluating a condom promotion program targeting sexually active adolescents. AIDS Education and Prevention, 11(6), 497–512., , , , , & (American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.American Social Health Association. (1998). STDs in America: How many cases and at what cost?Menlo Park, CA: Author.American Society of Human Genetics Board of Directors and the American College of Medical Genetics Board of Directors. (1995). ASHG/ACMG Report. Points to consider: Ethical, legal, and psychosocial implications of genetic testing in children and adolescents. American Journal of Human Genetics, 57, 1233–1241.Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. § 12101 et seq. (West (1993).1987). The impact of family planning program activity on fertility. Family Planning Perspectives, 19(4), 152–157. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2135160, & (1991). Infectious diseases of humans: Dynamics and control. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press., & (1992). Suicidal attempts among older adolescents: Prevalence and co-occurrence with psychiatric disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 655–662. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199207000-00012, & (1991). Surveillance of attempted suicide among adolescents in Oregon, 1988. American Journal of Public Health, 81, 1067–1069. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.81.8.1067, , , , , & (1999). Comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 40, 57–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00424, , & (2001). The comparative costs and benefits of programs to reduce crime. Olympia: Washington State Institute for Public Policy., , , & (1999). Psychological autopsy study of suicides by people aged under 35. British Journal of Psychiatry, 175, 168–174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.175.2.168, , , & (1993). Death without warning? A clinical postmortem study of suicide in 43 Israeli adolescent males. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 138–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1993.01820140064007, , , , , , & (1993). Anxiety, impulsivity, and depressed mood in relation to suicidal and violent behavior. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 87, 1–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1993.tb03321.x, , & (1999). Social and behavioral determinants of the epidemiology of STDs: Industrialized and developing countries. In K. K.Holmes, P. F.Sparling, P.Mardh, et al. (Eds.), Sexually transmitted diseases (pp. 39–76). New York: McGraw-Hill., & (1995). Interactions among HIV, other sexually transmitted diseases, socioeconomic status, and poverty in women. In A.O'Leary & L. S.Jemmott (Eds.), Women at risk: Issues in the primary prevention of AIDS (pp. 13–42). New York: Plenum., & (1997). Biologic alterations in the brainstem of suicides. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 20, 581–593. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0193-953X%2805%2970331-2, , & (1985). Shaping adolescent gambling behavior. Adolescence, 20, 935–938., , & (1979). Continuity of individual adaptation from infancy to kindergarten: A predictive study of ego-resiliency and curiosity in preschoolers. Child Development, 50, 950–959. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129319, , & (1990a). Contraceptive use, sensation seeking and adolescent egocentrism. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 19, 171–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01538720([Page 388]1990b). Drunk driving, sensation seeking and egocentrism among adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 541–546. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869%2890%2990035-P(1992). Reckless behavior in adolescence: A developmental perspective. Developmental Review, 12, 339–373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0273-2297%2892%2990013-R(1994). Sensation seeking: A new conceptualization and a new scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 16, 289–296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869%2894%2990165-1(1987). Coping strategies, self perceptions, hopelessness, and perceived family environments in depressed and suicidal children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 361–366. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.55.3.361, , & (1986). Biological factor in suicide. In A.Roy (Ed.), Suicide. (pp. 47–71). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins., , & (Which adolescents are most receptive to tobacco industry marketing? Implications for counter-advertising campaigns. Health Communication., , , , , & (in press).Australian Productivity Commission. (1999). Australia's gambling industries. Melbourne, Australia: Author.Ayers, W., Dohrn, B., & Ayers, R. (Eds.). (2001). Zero tolerance: Resisting the drive for punishment in our schools. New York: New Press.1984). Monitoring the Future: Questionnaire responses from the nation's high school seniors, 1982. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research., , & (1990). Explaining the recent decline in cocaine use among young adults: Further evidence that perceived risks and disapproval lead to reduced drug use. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 31, 173–184. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2137171, , & (1998). Explaining the recent increases in students' marijuana use: The impacts of perceived risks and disapproval from 1976 through 1996. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 887–892. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.88.6.887, , & (1988). Explaining the recent decline in marijuana use: Differentiating the effects of perceived risks, disapproval, and general lifestyle factors. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 29, 92–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2137183, , , & (1998). Linking etiology and treatment for adolescent substance abuse: Toward a better match. In R.Jessor (Ed.), New perspectives on adolescent risk behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press., , & (1992). Adolescents' multisubstance use patterns: The role of heavy alcohol and cigarette use. American Journal of Public Health, 82, 1220–1224. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.82.9.1220(1988). Adolescence is not a medical condition: On life as illness and the misuse of medical metaphors. Minnesota Medicine, 71, 131–133., & (1995). The validity of an alternative five-factor measure of personality in cocaine users. Psychological Assessment, 7, 148–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-35126.96.36.199(1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1989). Perceived self-efficacy in the exercise of control over AIDS infection. In V. M.Mays, G. W.Albee & S. F.Schneider (Eds.), Primary prevention of AIDS: Psychological approaches. Primary prevention of psychopathology (Vol. 13, pp. 128–141). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1991). Social cognitive theory of moral thought and action. In W. M.Kurtines & J. L.Gewirtz (Eds.), Handbook of moral behavior and development (pp. 45–103). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1994). Social cognitive theory and exercise of control over HIV infection. In R. J.Clemente & J. L.Peterson (Eds.), Preventing AIDS: Theories and methods of behavioral interventions (pp. 25–29). New York: Plenum.(1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman.(1988). The effects of school based substance abuse education: A meta-analysis. Journal of Drug Education, 18, 243–265. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/8U40-WP3D-FFWC-YF1U([Page 389]1993). Role of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in novelty-maintained place preference. Experimental Clinical Pharmacology, 1, 101–109., , , , , & (1996). Psychobiology of novelty-seeking and drug-seeking behavior. Brain and Behavior, 77(1–2), 23–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0166-4328%2895%2900203-0, , & (2002). Relationship of alcohol use to delinquency and illicit drug use in adolescents: Gender, age, and racial/ethnic differences. Journal of Drug Issues, 32, 153–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002204260203200107, , & (1974). A hundred cases of suicide: Clinical aspects. British Journal of Psychiatry, 125, 355–373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.125.4.355, , , & (1977). Do newspaper reports of coroners' inquests incite people to commit suicide? British Journal of Psychiatry, 131, 258–532., , & (1969). Good behavior game: Effects of individual contingencies for group consequences on disruptive behavior in a classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 119–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1969.2-119, , & (1996). Reducing the risk: Building skills to prevent pregnancy, STD & HIV ((3rd ed.). Santa Cruz, CA: Education Training Research.1982). Social image factors as motivators of smoking initiation in early and middle adolescence. Child Development, 53, 1499–1511. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130077, , , & (1997). The relationship between student's sense of their school as a community and their involvement in problem behavior. American Journal of Public Health, 87(12), 1997–2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.87.12.1997, & (1996). Prevention effects of the child development project: Early findings from an ongoing multi-site demonstration trial. Journal of Adolescent Research, 11(1), 12–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0743554896111003, , , & (1965). Parental control and parental love. Children, 12, 230–234.(1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 1, 56–95.(2001. Promising the future: Virginity pledges and first intercourse. American Journal of Sociology, 106(4), 859–912. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/320295, &1996). Risk factors for serious suicide attempts among youths aged 13 through 24 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(9), 1174–1182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199609000-00015, , & (1997). Precipitating factors and life events in serious suicide attempts among youths aged 13 through 24 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(11), 1543–1551., , & (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York: Harper & Row.(1990). Relationship between hopelessness and ultimate suicide: A replication with psychiatric patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 190–195., , , , & (1974). The health belief model and personal health behavior. Health Education Monographs, 2, 324–473.(Older partners and STD prevalence among pregnant African American teens. Sexually Transmitted Diseases., , , , & (in press).1984). Children's recognition of consumption symbolism in children's products. Journal of Consumer Research, 10, 386–397. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/208977, , & (1998). Adolescent suicide. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 45, 365–380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-3955%2805%2970012-2, & (1996). Population and familial association between the D4 dopamine receptor gene and measures of novelty seeking. Nature Genetics, 12, 81–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng0196-81, , , , , & ([Page 390]1999). Predicting conduct problems: Can high-risk children be identified in kindergarten and Grade 1? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(4), 470–480. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.67.4.470, , , , , & (1994). Establishing a nicotine threshold for addiction. New England Journal of Medicine, 331, 123–125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199407143310212, & (2001). The nature of nicotine addiction. In P.Slovic (Ed.), Smoking: Risk, perception, & policy (pp. 159–187). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232652(2002). Slower metabolism and reduced intake of nicotine from cigarette smoking in Chinese-Americans. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 94(2), 108–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/94.2.108, , , & (1997). All kids are our kids: What communities must do to raise caring and responsible children and adolescents. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(1993). A psychometric study of adolescent risk perception. Journal of Adolescence, 16, 153–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jado.1993.1014, , & (1999). A genome-wide search for loci contributing to smoking and alcoholism. Genetic Epidemiology, 17(Suppl 1), S55–S60., , , & (1967). The morbidity of cardiac nondisease in schoolchildren. New England Journal of Medicine, 276(18), 1008–1013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM196705042761804, & (2002). The science of character education. In W.Damon (Ed.), Bringing in a new era in character education (pp. 43–63). Stanford: Hoover Institution Press.(1988). Fictional depiction of suicide in television films and imitation effects. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 982–986.(1995). A population perspective: Suicide prevention in adolescents (age 12–18). Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 25, 143–154., & (1988). Interactive tasks and the implicit-explicit distinction. British Journal of Psychology, 79, 251–272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1988.tb02286.x, & (1993). Perceived consequences of risky behaviors: Adults and adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 29, 549–563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.529, , , , & (1997). Adolescents' decisions about risks: A cognitive perspective. In J.Schulenberg, J. L.Maggs, & K.Hurrelmann (Eds.), Health risks and developmental transitions during adolescence (pp. 110–135). New York: Cambridge University Press., & (1991). Teaching adolescents decision-making. In J.Baron & R. V.Brown (Eds.), Teaching decision-making to adolescents (pp. 19–60). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., , , & (1991). Media influence on attitudes toward suicide. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 21, 374–384., , , , & (2000). Family-based study of the association of the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) with habitual smoking. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 90, 299–302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291096-8628%2820000214%2990:4%3C299::AID-AJMG7%3E3.0.CO;2-Y, , , , , & (1993). Genetic counseling for families with inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer. JAMA, 269(15), 1970–1974. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1993.03500150082032, , , , , , et al. (2001). [Expert report in the case of United States of America vs. Philip Morris, Incorporated et al.]. Civil Action No. 99-CV-2496 (GK).(2000). A randomized control trial of a community intervention to prevent adolescent tobacco use. Tobacco Control, 9, 24–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tc.9.1.24, , , , & (The prevention of multiple problems of youth. New York: Guilford Press., , , , , , et al. (in press).1990). Social and behavioral factor associated with high-risk sexual behavior among adolescents. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 13(3), 245–261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00846833, , , , , , et al. ([Page 391]1994). Contextual effects on the sexual behavior of adolescent women. Journal of Marriage and the Family 1994, 56(2), 387–404. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353107, , & (1985). The influence of male and female best friends on adolescent sexual behavior. Adolescence, 20, 21–32., & (1996). Childhood and adolescent depression: A review of the past 10 years: Part I. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1427–1439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199611000-00011, , , , , , et al. (1992). The adaptive nature of cognitive immaturity. American Psychologist, 47, 46–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.47.1.46, & (1993). The Partnership for a Drug-Free America: Secondary school students, college students, and young adults 1975–1992: Vol 1. Secondary school students. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse., , , , & (1997). Development of health risk prototypes during adolescence: Family and peer influence. Journal of Family Psychology, 11, 271–288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3184.108.40.2061, , , , & (1974). Adolescence and formal operations. Human Development, 17, 344–363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000271357, & (1992). Stages of drug use: A community survey of Perth teenagers. British Journal of Addiction, 87, 215–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1992.tb02695.x, & (1962). On adolescence. New York: Free Press.(2001). Exercise among blue-collar workers: Application of the theory of planned behavior. Research Nursing Health, 24, 481–493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nur.10008, , & (1990). Allelic association of human dopamine D2 receptor gene in alcoholism. JAMA, 263(15), 2055–2060. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1990.03440150063027, , , , , , et al. (1990). Youth suicide: Risk factors assessment, and treatment of adolescent and young adult suicidal patients. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 13, 511–556.(1973). Suicide and newspapers: A replicated study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 468–471., & (1999). A STD/HIV prevention trial among adolescents in managed care. Pediatrics, 103(1), 107–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.103.1.107, , , , , & (1982). Imitative suicides: A national study of the effect of television news stories. American Sociological Review, 47, 802–809. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095217, & (1990). Population and pedigree studies reveal a lack of association between the dopamine D2 receptor gene and alcoholism. JAMA, 264(24), 3156–3160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1990.03450240058040, , , , , & (2002). A behavioral intervention to prevent sexually transmitted diseases/human immunodeficiency virus in a Marine Corps sample. Military Medicine, 167(2), 145–150., , , & (1989). Exposure and affect: Overview and meta-analysis of research, 1968–1987. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 265–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.106.2.265(2000). Genetic polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase in Europeans: The ADH2*2 allele decreases the risk for alcoholism and is associated with ADH3*1. Hepatology, 31(4), 984–989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/he.2000.5978, , , , , , et al. (2000). Preventing drug abuse in schools: Social and competence enhancement approaches targeting individual-level etiologic factors. Addictive Behaviors, 25, 887–897. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603%2800%2900119-2(1995). Long-term follow-up results of a randomized drug abuse prevention trial in a white middle-class population. JAMA, 273, 1106–1112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1995.03520380042033, , , , & (1990). Preventing adolescent drug abuse through a multi-modal cognitive-behavioral approach: Results of a 3-year study. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 58(4), 437–446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.58.4.437, , , , & ([Page 392]1999). Preventing drug abuse. In A. J.Reynolds, R. P.Weissberg, & H. J.Walberg (Eds.), Positive outcomes in children and youth: Promotion and evaluation (pp. 197–228). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & (1998). Alcohol and marijuana use among rural youth: Interaction of social and intrapersonal influences. Addictive Behaviors, 23, 379–387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603%2898%2900006-9, , , , & (1994). Multimethodological approach to examining risk-taking. Current Psychology: Developmental, Learning, Personality, Social, 13, 289–302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02686889, , & (1983). The increasing rate of suicide by firearms. New England Journal of Medicine, 308, 872–874. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198304143081504(1986). Firearm and youth suicide. American Journal of Public Health, 76, 1240–1242. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.76.10.1240, & (2000). Associations of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors with sexual risk and sexually transmitted diseases in teen clinic patients. Journal of Adolescent Health, 27(2), 102–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X%2899%2900113-5, , , , , & (1985). No magic bullet: A social history of venereal disease in the United States since 1880. New York: Oxford University Press.(1998). Co-occurrence of health-risk behaviors among adolescents in the United States. Journal of Adolescent Health, 22, 209–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X%2897%2900161-4, & (1999). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult male criminal outcomes. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56(3), 215–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.56.3.215, , & (1995). Risk factors for adolescent suicide and suicidal behavior: Mental and substance abuse disorders, family environmental factors, and life stress. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 25, 52–63.(2000). Compliance with recommendations to remove firearms by families participating in a clinical trial for adolescent depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 1220–1226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200010000-00007, , , , & (1999). Age- and sex-related risk factors for adolescent suicide. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1497–1505. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199912000-00010, , , , & (1996). Suicidal behavior runs in families: A controlled family study of adolescent suicide victims. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 1145–1152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830120085015, , , & (1994). Personality disorder, personality traits, impulsive violence, and completed suicide in adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 1080–1086. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199410000-00003, , , , , , & (1986). Psychopathology and its relationship to suicidal ideation in childhood and adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 25, 666–673. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-7138%2809%2960292-2, , , , , & (1989). An outbreak of suicide and suicidal behavior in a high school. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28(6), 918–924. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-198911000-00017, , , , , & (2002). Familial pathways to early-onset suicide attempts: A high-risk study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(9), 801–807. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.59.9.801, , , , , , et al. (1987). Alcohol, firearms, and suicide among youth: Temporal trends in Allegheny County, PA, 1960–1983. Journal of the American Medical Association, 257, 3369–3372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1987.03390240075026, , & (1991). The presence and accessibility of firearms in the homes of adolescent suicides: A case-control study. JAMA, 266, 2989–2995. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1991.03470210057032, , , , , & ([Page 393]1988). Risk factors for adolescent suicide: A comparison of adolescent suicide victims with suicidal inpatients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 581–588. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1988.01800300079011, , , , , , & (1993). Psychiatric risk factors for adolescent suicide: A case control study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(3), 521–529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199305000-00006, , , , , , et al. (1993). Stressful life events, psychopathology and adolescent suicide: A case control study. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 23(3), 179–187., , , , , , & (1993). Firearms and adolescent suicide: A community case control study. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 147, 1066–1071., , , , , & (1994). Familial risk factors for adolescent suicide: A case-control study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 89, 52–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1994.tb01485.x, , , , , , et al. (1991). Nicotine dependence, major depression, and anxiety in young adults. Archive of General Psychiatry, 48, 1069–1074. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1991.01810360033005, , & (1993). Social context and adolescent behavior: The impact of community on the transition to sexual activity. Social Forces, 71, 713–740., , & (2001). The influence of neighborhood disadvantage, collective socialization, and parenting on African American children's affiliation with deviant peers. Child Development, 72, 1231–1246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00344, , , , , , & (1999). Understanding substance abuse prevention: Toward the 21st Century, a primer on effective programs. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention., & (2001). Factors associated with frequent and infrequent HIV testing. Substance Use & Misuse, 36(12), 1593–1609. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/JA-100107571, , , , & (2001). Resilience education. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., , & (2001). Consistency and change in correlates of youth substance use, 1976–1997 (Monitoring the future occasional paper No. 49). Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research. (Available at http://www.monitoringthefuture.org)., , , , & (1994). Predictors of lottery gambling among American college students. Journal of Social Psychology, 134, 339–347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1994.9711738, & (1986). Understanding and preventing relapse. American Psychologist, 41, 765–782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.41.7.765, , , & (1982). Extent of drug use as a function of number of risk factors. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91, 237–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.91.4.273, , & (2000). Understanding the links among school misbehavior, academic achievement, and cigarette use: A national panel study of adolescents. Prevention Science, 1(2), 71–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010038130788, , , , & (2002). Trust in schools: A core resource for improvement. New York: Russell Sage., & (1995). Investigation of variables related to student achievement. Mid-Western Educational Researcher, 8(2), 23–29., , & (1999). High prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in urban adolescent females despite moderate risk behaviors. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 180, 1624–1631. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/315080, , , , , , et al. (1999). Black suicide in U.S. metropolitan areas: An examination of the racial inequality and social integration-regulation hypotheses. Social Forces, 77, 1049–1081., , & ([Page 394]1987). Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence. American Journal of Sociology, 92, 1287–1335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/228667(1996). Ethnographic insights on social context and adolescent development among inner city African-American teens. In R.Jessor, A.Colby, & R.Schweder (Eds.), Ethnography and human development. Chicago: University of Chicago Press., , & (1975). A temperament theory of personality development. New York: John Wiley., & (1998). Predictors of AIDS-preventive behavioral intentions among adult heterosexuals at risk for HIV-infection: Extending current model measures. AIDS Education and Prevention, 10(2), 149–172., , , , & (1998). The nature and development of decision-making: A self-regulation model. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(2001). Cognitive development in instructional contexts ((2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.The development of self-regulated decision-making. In J. E.Jacobs & P. A.Klaczynski (Eds.), The development of judgment and decision-making in children and adolescents. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(in press).1997). The role of contextual and personal factors in children's risk-taking. Developmental Psychology, 33, 814–823. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-16220.127.116.114, & (1999). Learning to make good decisions: A self-regulation perspective. Child Development, 70, 1121–1140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00082, , & (1999). Gender differences in risk-taking: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 367–383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.125.3.367, , & (1995). Behavior problems in preschool children: A review of recent research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 113–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1995.tb01657.x(1998). Access to methods of suicide: What impact? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 31, 8–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00048679809062700, & (1995). The impact of firearm control legislation on suicide in Queensland: Preliminary findings. Medical Journal of Australia, 162, 583–585., & (1992). Social competence promotion with inner-city and suburban young adolescents: Effects of social adjustment and alcohol use. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 60, 56–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.60.1.56, , , , , & (2001). Using theory to select messages in antidrug media campaigns: Reasoned action and media priming. In R.Rice & C. K.Atkins (Eds.), Public communication campaigns (pp. 214–230). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452233260, , , , & (1994). Gun control and suicide in Ontario. Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 606–608., & (1977). Psychopathology and sensation seeking in “downers,” “speeders,” and “trippers”: A study of the relationship between personality and drug choice. International Journal of the Addictions, 12(4), 591–601., & (1997). Personality differences predict health-risk behaviors in young adulthood: Evidence from a longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1052–1063. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1682, , , , , , et al. (1987). “Moving against the world”: Life course patterns of explosive children. Developmental Psychology, 23, 308–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1622.214.171.1248, , & (1999). Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs. Seattle: University of Washington, School of Social Work, Social Development Research Group., , , , & (1992). AIDS and absolutism: The demand for perfection in prevention. New England Journal of Medicine, 327, 492–493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199208133270711, & ([Page 395]2000a). (Im)maturity of judgment in adolescence: Why adolescents may be less culpable than adults. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 18, 1–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bsl.416, & (2000b). Researching adolescents' judgment and culpability. In T. G.Grisso & R. G.Swartz (Eds.), Youth on trial: A developmental perspective on juvenile justice (pp. 325–343). Chicago: University of Chicago Press., & (2002, April). Age differences in psychosocial capacities underlying competence to stand trial. Paper presented at the biennial meetings of the Society for Research on Adolescence, New Orleans, LA., , & (1993). JOBSTART: Final report on a program for school dropouts. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation., , , & (CDC AIDS Community Demonstration Projects Research Group. (1999). Community-level HIV intervention motivates behavior change in five cities. American Journal of Public Health, 89(3), 336–345. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.89.3.336Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1993). Division of STD/HIV Prevention Annual Report, 1992. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1995). Youth risk behavior surveillance– United States, 1993. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 44(SS01), 1–56.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1996). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance– United States, 1995. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 45(SS04), 1–84.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1998a). HIV prevention through early detection and treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases–United States. Recommendations of the advisory committee for HIV and STD prevention. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 47, 1–24.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1998b). Suicide among African-American youths– United States, 1980–1995. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 47, 193–196.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1998c). Youth risk behavior surveillance– United States, 1997. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 47(SS03), 1–89.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000a). CDC Surveillance Summaries. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2000, 49(SS05).Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000b). HIV-related knowledge and stigma– United States, 2000. JAMA, 284(24), 3118–3119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.284.24.3118Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000c). Youth risk behavior surveillance– United States, 1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 49(SS05), 1–96.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002a). Annual smoking-attributable mortality: Years of potential life lost, and economic costs–United States, 1995–1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 51(14), 300–303.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002b). CDC surveillance summaries: Youth risk behavior survey, 2001. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 51(SS04).Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002c). CDC wonder mortality data request screen. Office of Statistics and Programming. Retrieved April 10, 2002, from http://wonder.cdc.gov/mortsql.hgtml.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002d). Trends and cigarette smoking among high school students–United States, 1991–2001. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 51(19), 409–412.2000). Psychosocial factors as predictors of unsafe sexual practices among young adults. AIDS Education and Prevention, 112(2), 141–153., , & (1997). Public policy and youth smokeless tobacco use. Southern Economic Journal, 64(2), 503–516. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1060863, , & (1994). Family connections: Treatment foster care for adolescents with delinquency. Eugene, OR: Castalia.(1998). Comparison of two community alternatives to incarceration for chronic juvenile offenders. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 66(4), 624–633. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.66.4.624, & ([Page 396]2003). Neurodevelopment, impulsivity and adolescent gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 19(1), 55–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021275130071, & (1996). Legal issues in HIV medicine. Medical Journal of Australia, 165(3), 147–149.(1998, August). Improving the socio-emotional functioning of African American girls: An investigation based on culturally and gender specific intervention programs. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association of Black Psychologists. Atlanta, GA.(1999). Interaction between the functional polymorphisms of the alcohol-metabolism genes in protection against alcoholism. American Journal of Human Genetics, 65(3), 795–807. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/302540, , , , , , et al. (1995). The natural history of drug use from adolescence to the mid-thirties in a general population sample. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 41–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.85.1.41, & (2002). Progression to established smoking: The influence of tobacco marketing. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 22(4), 228–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797%2802%2900420-8, , , & (1987). The epidemiology of ectopic pregnancy. Epidemiology Review, 9, 70–94., , & (1997). Parents' and school psychologists' perspectives on parent involvement activities. School Psychology Review, 26, 111–130., , , & (1989). Using alcohol expectancies to predict adolescent drinking behavior after one year. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57(1), 93–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.57.1.93, , , (2002). Prevalence of DSM-IV alcohol diagnoses and symptoms in adolescent community and clinical samples. Journal of American Academy of Children and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(5), 546–554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200205000-00012, , , & (2001). Novel and previously reported single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human 5-HT(1B) receptor gene: No association with cocaine or alcohol abuse or dependence. American Journal of Medicine and Genetics, 105(6), 489–497. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.1473, , , , , & (1995). Population screening for genetic susceptibility. British Medical Journal, 311, 35–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.311.6996.35(Measuring risks and outcomes in substance use disorders prevention research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology., & (in press).2002). Group cognitive-behavioral treatment for depressed adolescent offspring of depressed parents in a health eminence organization. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 41, 305–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200203000-00010, , , , , , et al. (1998). Can intervention early prevent crime later? The Abecedarian project compared with other programs. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 13(2), 319–343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006%2899%2980042-8, & (The impact of parenting on African American adolescents' risk cognitions and risk behavior: A study of moderation and mediation. Manuscript submitted for publication., , , & (under review).2000). Executive order to prohibit discrimination in federal employment based in genetic information. Retrieved February 12, 2001, from http://www.nhgri.nih.gov/NEWS/Executive_order.(1996). Mapping genes for human personality. Nature Genetics, 13, 3–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng0196-3, , & ([Page 397]1995). Risk perception: Differences between adolescents and adults. Health Psychology, 14, 217–222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6126.96.36.199, , , & (1996). Prevention of violence and antisocial behaviour. In R. D.Peters & R. J.McMahon (Eds.), Preventing childhood disorders, substance abuse, and delinquency (pp. 1–18). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1993). The science of prevention. American Psychologist, 48(10), 1013–1022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.10.1013, , , , , , et al. (2000). Are adolescent smokers dependent on nicotine? A review of the evidence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 59(Suppl. 1), S83–S95., , , & (1988). Hopelessness, social desirability, depression, and parasuicide in two college student samples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 131–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.56.1.131(1999). Shattuck Lecture: Medical and societal consequences of the Human Genome Project. New England Journal of Medicine, 341(1), 28–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199907013410106(2001). Gambling and problem gambling in South Africa: A national study. Cape Town, South Africa: University of Cape Town, National Centre for the Study of Gambling., & (1996). The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene: A genetic risk factor in smoking. Pharmacogenetics, 6, 73–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00008571-199602000-00006, , , , , & (1999). Homozygosity at the dopamine DRD3 receptor gene in cocaine dependence. Molecular Psychiatry, 4(5), 484–487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4000542, , , , , , & (1997). Cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1): Association with i. v. drug use. Molecular Psychology, 5(2), 128–130., , , , , , & (2001). The additive effect of neurotransmitter genes in pathological gambling. Clinical Genetics, 60(2), 107–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-0004.2001.600204.x, , , , , , et al. (Committee for Children. (1992). Second Step: Violence prevention curriculum for preschool-grade 9. Seattle, WA: Author.1998). New perspectives on depression during adolescence. In R.Jessor (Ed.), New perspectives on adolescent risk behavior (pp. 319–364). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press., , & (2000). Youth development in community settings. In Public/Private Ventures (Ed.), Youth development: Issues, challenges and directions (pp. 281–324). Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures., , & (2002). The theory of planned behavior and healthy eating. Health Psychology, 21, 194–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6188.8.131.52, , & (1996). The role of social cognitions in health behaviours. In M.Conner & P.Norman (Eds.), Predicting health behaviour: Research and practice with social cognition models (pp. 1–22). London: Open University Press., & (1992). Why children start smoking cigarettes: Predictors of onset. British Journal of Addiction, 87, 1711–1724. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1992.tb02684.x, , & (1996). A genetic linkage study of the D2 dopamine receptor locus in heavy drinking and alcoholism. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169(2), 243–248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.169.2.243, , , , , , et al. (2000). A motivational perspective on risky behaviors: The role of personality and affect regulatory processes. Journal of Personality, 68, 1059–1088. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.00126, , & (1999). Genital herpes. In K. K.Holmes, P. F.Sparling, P.Mardh, etal. (Eds.), Sexually transmitted diseases (, & ([Page 398]3rd ed., pp. 285–312). New York: McGraw-Hill.2000). Fluoxetine in adolescents with major depression and an alcohol use disorder: An open-label trial. Addictive Behaviors, 25, 1–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603%2899%2900065-9, , , , , , et al. (1997). Fluoxetine in depressed alcoholics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 700–705. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1997.01830200024004, , , , , , et al. (1995). Early initiation of sexual intercourse: The influence of psychosocial unconventionality. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 5(1), 93–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327795jra0501_5, , , & (1997). Problem and pathological gambling in America: The national picture. Columbia, MD: National Council on Problem Gambling., , , & (2001). Safer choices: Reducing teen pregnancy, HIV and STDs. Public Health Reports, 116 (Suppl. 1), 82–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/phr/116.S1.82, , , , , , et al. (1999). Short-term impact of safer choices: A multi-component school-based HIV, other STD, and pregnancy prevention program. Journal of School Health, 69(5), 181–188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.1999.tb06383.x, , , , , , et al. (2000). Effect of Draw the Line/Respect the Line on sexual behavior in middle schools. Unpublished manuscript, Education Training Research, Santa Cruz, CA., , , , & (2002). Genetic contributions to addiction. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 435–462. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135142(1991). The epidemic theory of ghettos and neighborhood effects on dropping out and teenage childbearing. American Journal of Sociology, 96, 1226–1259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/229654(1996). The role of overt aggression, relational aggression and prosocial behavior in the prediction of children's future social adjustment. Child Development, 67, 2317–2327. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131625(2001). Condom use and correlates of African American adolescent females' infrequent communication with sex partners about preventing sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy. Health Education and Behavior, 29, 219–231., , , , , , et al. (2002). African American adolescent females' activity in community organizations is associated with STD/HIV-protective behaviors: A prospective analysis. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 56, 549–550. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.56.7.549, , , , , , & (2002b). Low parental monitoring predicts subsequent pregnancy among African American adolescent females. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 15, 43–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1083-3188%2801%2900138-3, , , , , , & (2003). Infrequent parental monitoring predicts STD acquisition among low-income African American adolescent females. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 157: 169–173., , , , & , (Infrequent parental monitoring predicts sexually transmitted infections among low-income African American adolescent females. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine., , , , & (in press).2000). Correlates of unprotected vaginal sex among African American female teens: The importance of relationship dynamics. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 154, 893–899., , , , , & ([Page 399]2002). Social capital as a predictor of adolescents' sexual risk behavior: A state-level exploratory study. Manuscript submitted for publication., , , , & (The development of depressogenic cognitive styles: The role of negative childhood life events and parental inferential feedback. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly., , , & (in press).1995). Adolescent substance use disorder with conduct disorder and comorbid conditions. In E.Rahdert & D.Czechowicz (Eds.), Adolescent drug abuse: Clinical assessment and therapeutic interventions (Research Monograph 156, pp. 49–111). Rockville, MD: National Institute of Drug Abuse., & (2000). A haplotype at the DBH locus, associated with low plasma dopamine betahydroxylase activity, also associates with cocaine-induced paranoia. Molecular Psychiatry, 5(1), 56–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4000657, , , , , , et al. (2001). Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a community sample of older adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1037–1044. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200109000-00012, , , , , & (1982). An overview of compulsive gambling. In P. A.Carone, S. F.Yolles, S. N.Kieffer, & L. W.Krinsky (Eds.), Addictive disorders update (pp. 107–124). New York: Human Sciences Press.(1985). When luck runs out: Help for compulsive gamblers and their families. New York: Facts on File., & (2000). Firearms and suicide: The American experience, 1926–1996. Death Studies, 24, 705–719. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/074811800750036587, & (2001). Cocaine dependence: A disease of the brain's reward centers. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 21(3), 111–117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0740-5472%2801%2900192-1, & (1998). Youth violence in the United States: major trends, risk factors, and preventive approaches. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 259–272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797%2898%2900009-9(1994). Teacher-ratings and self-ratings of social competency in adolescents with low- and high-depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22, 477–485. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02168086, , & (2002). Proactive approaches for identifying and treating children at risk for academic failure. In K.Lane, F.Gresham, & T.O'Shaughnessy (Eds.), Interventions for children with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Boston: Allyn & Bacon., , & (1994). Descartes' error. New York: Putnam.(1990). Reproductive health counseling for young men: What does it do? Family Planning Perspectives, 22(3), 115–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2135642, , , , & (2000). Changing emphases in sexuality education in the U.S. public secondary schools, 1988–1999. Family Planning Perspectives, 32(5), 204–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2648173, , & (1996). The association of sexual assault and attempted suicide within the community. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 550–555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830060096013, , , & (1989). An epidemiologic study of risk factors in two teenage suicide clusters. JAMA, 262, 2687–2692. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1989.03430190071034, , , , & (1998). Affective style and affective disorders: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Cognition and Emotion, 12(3), 307–330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026999398379628(1980a). Black suicide and the relational system: Theoretical and empirical implications of communal and family ties. Research in Race and Ethnic Relations, 2, 43–71.([Page 400]1980b). Suicide among young blacks: Trends and perspectives. Phylon, 43, 223–229. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/274785(1982). Black suicide and social support system: An overview and some implications for mental health practitioners. Phylon, 43, 307–314. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/274753(1989). The selfish gene. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.(2002). A typology for campus-based alcohol prevention: Moving toward environmental management strategies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, S14, 14–147., & (1979). Premarital sexuality: Attitudes, relationships, behavior. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press., & (1981). Personality and other factors associated with gambling addiction. International Journal of the Addictions, 16, 149–156., , & (1996). Novelty-seeking in rats: Biobehavioral characteristics and possible relationship with the sensation-seeking trait in man. Neuropsychobiology, 34(3), 136–145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000119305, , , , & (1987). Children's social problem solving skills, behavioral adjustment, and interventions: A meta-analysis evaluating theory and practice. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 8, 391–409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0193-3973%2887%2990029-3, & (Department for Culture, Media and Sport Gambling Review Body. (2001). U.K. gambling review report. Norwich, UK: Stationery Office.2000a). Prevalence estimates of adolescent gambling: A comparison of the SOGS-RA, DSM-IV-J, and the GA 20 Questions. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16(2/3), 227–251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009485031719, & (2000b). Youth gambling: A clinical and research perspective. e-Gambling: The Electronic Journal of Gambling Issue, 2, 1–10., & (1998, August). Cognitive behavioral training seminar in prevention of depression and anxiety in college students. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association Meeting, San Francisco, CA., , , , & (1999). The effectiveness of school-based interventions for preventing and reducing violence. Center for Evaluation Research and Methodology, Vanderbilt University. Retrieved June 25, 2002, from http://harmfish.org/pub/arss99sd.pdf., , & (2002). The prevention of youth gambling problems: A conceptual model. Journal of Gambling Studies, 18(2), 97–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1015557115049, , & (1999). Prevention and harm reduction for chemical dependency: A process perspective. Clinical Psychology Review, 19, 173–186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358%2898%2900092-0(DiClemente, R. J. (Ed.). (1992). Adolescents and AIDS: A generation in jeopardy. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.2000). Looking forward: Future directions for HIV prevention research. In J. L.Peterson & R. J.DiClemente (Eds.), Handbook of HIV prevention (pp. 311–324). New York: Plenum Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4137-0_17(2001). Development of programmes for enhancing sexual health. Lancet, 358, 1828–1829. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2801%2906878-7(1996a). Adolescents at-risk: A generation in jeopardy. In R. J.DiClemente, W.Hansen, & L. E.Ponton, (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent health risk behavior (pp. 1–4). New York: Plenum., , & (1996b). Handbook of adolescent health risk behavior. New York: Plenum., , & (1996). African-American adolescents residing in high-risk urban environments do use condoms: Correlates and predictors of condom use among adolescents in public housing developments. Pediatrics, 98, 269–278., , , , , , et al. ([Page 401]1994). Preventing AIDS. Theories and methods of behavioral interventions. New York: Plenum Press., & (2000). Expanding the scope of HIV prevention for adolescents: Beyond individual-level interventions. Journal of Adolescent Health, 26, 377–378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X%2800%2900126-9, & (2001). Parent-adolescent communication about sexuality-related topics and adolescents' risky sexual behaviors, communication with sex partners, and self-efficacy to discuss sexuality-related issues with sex partners. Journal of Pediatrics, 139, 407–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mpd.2001.117075, , , , , , et al. (2001). Parental monitoring: Association with adolescents' risk behaviors. Pediatrics, 107(6), 1363–1368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.107.6.1363, , , , , , et al. (2002). Sexual risk behaviors associated with having older sex partners: A study of African American female adolescents. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 29, 20–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007435-200201000-00004, , , , , , et al. (1995). Suicide and suicidal behavior among adolescents. In M.Rutter & D.Smith (Eds.), Psychosocial disorders in young people: Time trends and their causes (pp. 686–761). New York: John Wiley., , & (2000). Initial symptoms of nicotine dependence in adolescents. Tobacco Control, 9, 313–319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tc.9.3.313, , , , , , & (1999). Communication about sexual issues: Mothers, fathers, and friends. Journal of Adolescent Health, 24, 181–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X%2898%2900115-3, , & (1993). Similarity in drug use patterns between adolescents and their friends. Adolescence, 28, 253–266., & (1990). The peer context of troublesome child and adolescent behavior. In P. E.Leone (Eds.), Understanding troubled and troubling youth (pp. 128–153). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1997). Friendships and violent behavior during adolescence. Social Development, 6(2), 207–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.1997.tb00102.x, , , , & (1993). Antisocial behavior: Using a multiple gating strategy. In M. I.Singer, L. T.Singer, & T. M.Anglin (Eds.), Handbook for screening adolescents at psychosocial risk (pp. 375–399). New York: Lexington., & (2000). Adolescents' perceptions of maternal disapproval of sex: Relationship to sexual outcomes. Journal of Adolescent Health, 26, 268–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X%2899%2900096-8, & (1995). Individual and peer characteristics in predicting boys' early onset of substance abuse: A seven-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 66, 1198–1214. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131807, , , & (1993). The short-term impact of two classroom-based preventive interventions on aggressive and shy behaviors and poor achievement. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 14(3), 317–345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0193-3973%2893%2990013-L, , , , , , et al. (1989). Adolescent egocentrism and feelings of invulnerability: Are they related? Journal of Early Adolescence, 9, 409–418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272431689094003, , , , , , & (1998). Psychosocial factors and high-risk sexual behavior: Race differences among urban adolescents. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21(5), 451–467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1018784326191, (1994). Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years' observations on British male doctors. British Medical Journal, 309, 901–911. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.309.6959.901, , , , & (1997). Resistant-skills training and onset of alcohol use: Evidence for beneficial and potentially harmful effects in public schools and private Catholic schools. In G. A.Marlatt & G. R.Vanden Bos[Page 402](Eds.), Addictive behaviors: Readings on etiology, prevention, and treatment (pp. 215–238). Washington DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10248-007, , , & (1996). Drug abuse prevention programming: Do we know what content works? American Behavioral Scientist, 39, 868–883. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002764296039007008, , , , , , et al. (2000). Verifying drug abuse prevention program effects using reciprocal best friend reports. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23, 585–601. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005559620739, , , , & (2001). Impact evaluation of the “Not Me, Not Now” abstinence-oriented, adolescent pregnancy prevention communications program, Monroe County, N.Y. Journal of Health Communication, 6(1), 45–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10810730150501404, , , & (2002, June). Health risk-takers and prevention. Prepared for Adolescent Risk Conference, Institute for Adolescent Risk Communication, Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of Pennsylvania.(1990). Sensation seeking, marijuana use, and responses to drug abuse prevention messages. In R.Watson (Ed.), Drug and alcohol abuse prevention (pp. 73–93). Camden, NJ: Humana Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-0465-7_4, , , & (1991). Sensation seeking and targeting of televised anti-drug PSAs. In L.Donohew, H. E.Sypher, & W. J.Bukoski (Eds.), Persuasive communication and drug abuse prevention (pp. 209–226). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., , & (1998). Applications of a theoretic model of information exposure to health interventions. Human Communication Research, 24, 454–468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1998.tb00425.x, , & (2003). Constructing theory. In G.Stempel III, G. C.Wilhoit, & D.Weaver (Eds.), Mass communication research and theory (pp. 111–128). Boston: Allyn & Bacon., & (1980). An activation model of information exposure. Communication Monographs, 47, 295–303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637758009376038, , & (1994). Attention, need for sensation, and health communication campaigns. American Behavioral Scientist, 38(2), 310–322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002764294038002011, , & (Donohew, L., Sypher, H. E., & Higgins, E. T., (Eds.), (1988). Communication, social cognition, and affect. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.1996). Sensation seeking, impulsive decision-making, and adolescent risk behaviors. Unpublished manuscript, American Public Health Association, New York., & (2000). Sensation seeking, impulsive decision-making, and risky sex: Implications for risk-taking and design of interventions. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 1079–1091. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869%2899%2900158-0, , , , , & (1999). Sensation seeking and drug use by adolescents and their friends: Models for marijuana and alcohol. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 60, 622–631., , , , , & (1999). Substance refusal skills in a population of adolescents diagnosed with conduct disorder and substance abuse. Addictive Behaviors, 24(1), 37–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603%2898%2900035-5, , , & (1978). Adolescent problem drinking: Psychosocial correlates in a national sample study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 39, 1506–1524., & (1985). Structure of problem behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 890–904. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.53.6.890, & (1988). Syndrome of problem behavior in adolescence: A replication. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 762–765. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.56.5.762, , & (1993). Structure of health-related behavior in adolescence: A latent variable approach. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 34, 346–362. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2137372, , & ([Page 403]1987). The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance. Child Development, 58, 1244–1257. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130618, , , , & (2002). Studying college alcohol use: Widening the lens, sharpening the focus. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, S14, 14–22., & (1990). Adolescents at risk. New York: Oxford University Press.(2001). Drug use prevention for the high sensation seeker: The role of alternative activities. Substance Use & Misuse, 36(3), 373–385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/JA-100102631, , , , & (1998). Homozygosity at the dopamine D3 receptor gene is associated with opiate dependence. Molecular Psychiatry, 3, 333–336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4000409, , , , , , et al. (2001). Childhood abuse, household dysfunction, and the risk of attempted suicide throughout the life span: Findings from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. JAMA, 286, 3089–3096. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.286.24.3089, , , , , & (1994). Effects of poverty and quality of the home environment on changes in the academic and behavioral adjustment of elementary school-age children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23(4), 401–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2304_6, & (2000, April). Adolescent invulnerability and personal uniqueness: Scale development and initial construct validation. Paper presented at the Eighth Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence, Chicago., , & (1999). Smoking behavior is under the influence of a major quantitative trait locus on human chromosome 5q. Genetic Epidemiology, 17(Suppl. 1), S139–S144., , & (1998). Progressions of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in adolescence. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21, 375–388. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1018730814379, , & (1951). Suicide (G.Simpson, Ed.). Glencoe, IL: Free Press. (Original work published 1897).(1966). Suicide. New York: Free Press.(1998). Common risk and protective factors in successful prevention programs. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68(4), 512–520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0080360(1997). Primary prevention mental health programs for children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. American Journal of Community Psychology, 25, 115–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1024654026646, & (1995). Eleven components of effective drug abuse prevention curricula. Journal of School Health, 65(10), 420–425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.1995.tb08205.x, & (1999). The process and content of sexual communication with adolescents in two-parent families: Associations with sexual risk-taking behavior. AIDS and Behavior, 3, 59–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1025419519668, , & (1998). Early warning timely response: A guide to safe schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education., , & (1992). Religion and suicide in the African-American community. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.(2000). California's Adolescent Sibling Pregnancy Prevention Program: Evaluating the impact of pregnancy prevention services to the siblings of pregnant and parenting teens. San Diego: University of California, San Diego Medical Center., & (1975). The nature of extraversion: A genetical analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32(1), 102–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076862, & (1980). On the external validity of decision-making research: What do we know about decisions in the real world? In T. S.Wallsten (Ed.), Cognitive processes in choice and decision behavior (pp. 21–45). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & ([Page 404]1996). Dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III polymorphism associated with the human personality trait of novelty seeking. Nature Genetics, 12, 78–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng0196-78, , , , , , et al. (2000). An elementary school-based prevention program targeting modifiable antecedents of youth delinquency and violence: Linking interests of families and teachers (LIFT). Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8(3), 165–176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/106342660000800304, , & (1991). Approaches directed to the individual. In Strategies to control tobacco use in the United States: A blueprint for public health in the 1990s (Publication No. 92-3316, pp. 147–199). Washington DC: National Institutes of Health., , , , & (1998b). Oral sex and the transmission of viral STIs. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 74, 6–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sti.74.1.6, & (1954). The theory of decision making. Psychological Bulletin, 51, 380–417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0053870(1995). Reducing suicide potential among high-risk youth: Tests of a school-based prevention program. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 25(2), 276–296., , , & (1996). Our view of adolescent sexuality: A focus on risk behavior without the developmental context. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 1523–1525. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.86.11.1523(1990). Evaluating the impact of a theory-based sexuality and contraceptive education program. Family Planning Perspectives, 22(6), 261–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2135683, , & (1997). Contemporaneous and longitudinal prediction of children's social functioning from regulation and emotionality. Child Development, 68, 367–383., , , , , , , , & (1996, July). Peer-led AIDS prevention delays onset of sexual activity and changes peer norms among urban junior high school students. Paper presented at the 11th International Conference on AIDS, Vancouver, Canada., , , , , , et al. (1991). The promotion of social competence: Longitudinal study of a preventive school-based program. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 409–417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079277, , , & (1967). Egocentrism in adolescence. Child Development, 38, 1025–1034. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1127100(1978). Understanding the young adolescent. Adolescence, 19, 127–134.(2002). Improving predictions of condom behavioral intentions with partner-specific measures of risk perception. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(3), 648–663. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2002.tb00235.x, , , , , & (1997). An investigation of geographic clustering of repeat cases of gonorrhea and chlamydial infection in San Francisco, 1989–1993: Evidence for core groups. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 175, 1519–1522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/516491, , , & (2001). High risk behaviors associated with early smoking: Results from a 5-year follow-up study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 28, 465–473. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X%2800%2900202-0, , & (1993). Health enhancing and health compromising lifestyles. In S. G.Millstein, A. C.Petersen, & E. O.Nightingale, (Eds.), Promoting adolescent health (pp. 119–145). New York: Oxford University Press.(1998). Blueprints for violence prevention and reduction. Boulder: University of Colorado, Center for the Study of Prevention of Violence.(1984). The relationship between delinquent behavior and ADM problems. Boulder, CO: Behavioral Research Institute., & (1989). Multiple problem youth: Delinquency, drugs and mental health problems. New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-9637-6, , & ([Page 405]2000). The PAX Acts Game Solution: Applying replicated research and current evaluation from the Good Behavior Game for achievement and prevention in schools. A special presentation to the National Crime Prevention Council. Tucson, AZ: PAXIS Institute.(1978). A diagnostic interview: The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 837–844. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1978.01770310043002, & (1997). The hidden epidemic: Confronting sexually transmitted diseases. Washington, DC: National Academy Press., & (1994). The contribution of influence and selection to adolescent peer group homogeneity: The case of adolescent cigarette smoking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 653–663. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2063, & (1999). HIV-risk behaviors associated with homelessness characteristics in youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 25, 344–353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X%2899%2900043-9, , , , & (1987). Adolescent sexual behavior as it relates to other transition behaviors in youth. In S.Hofferth & C. D.Hayes (Eds.), Risking the future: Adolescent sexuality, pregnancy, and childbearing (Vol. 2, pp. 36–55). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.(1994). Integration of the cognitive and psychodynamic unconscious. American Psychologist, 49, 709–724. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.49.8.709(1989). Constructive thinking: A broad coping variable with specific components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 332–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.112, & (1998). Directory of American youth organizations ((7th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.1984). The relation of prosocial behavior to the development of aggression and psychopathology. Aggressive Behavior, 10, 201–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1098-2337%281984%2910:3%3C201::AID-AB2480100304%3E3.0.CO;2-S, & (1992). Newspaper reports and suicide. New England Journal of Medicine, 327, 502–503. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199208133270720, , & (2000). Impulsiveness, serotonin genes and repetition of deliberate self-harm (DSH). Psychological Medicine, 30(6), 1327–1334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291799002822, , , , , , & (1989). The evolution of challenges to health researchers in health psychology. Health Psychology, 8, 631–639. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-618.104.22.1681(2001). Social influences in etiology and prevention of smoking and other health threatening behaviors in children and adolescents. In A.Baum, T. A.Revenson & J. E.Singer (Eds.), Handbook of health psychology (pp. 459–468). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(Resisting health risk behavior: The social innoculation approach and its extensions. In T. P.Gullotta & M.Bloom (Eds.), The encyclopedia of primary prevention and health promotion. New York: Kluwer/Academic., & (in press).1995). Influences of sensation seeking, message sensation value, and program context on effectiveness of anticocaine public service announcements. Health Communications, 7(3), 225–248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327027hc0703_3, & (1983). The components of type A behavior and its genetic determinants. Personality and Individual Differences, 4(5), 499–505. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869%2883%2990080-6, & (1992). Anxiety: The cognitive perspective. Hover, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1977). The place of impulsiveness in a dimensional system of personality description. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 16, 57–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1977.tb01003.x, & (2002). Getting to the truth: Evaluating national tobacco countermarketing campaigns. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 901–907. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.92.6.901, , , , , & (1998). Correlates of same-sex behavior in a random sample of Massachusetts high school students. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 262–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.88.2.262, & ([Page 406]Federal Trade Commission. (2002). Online gambling and kids: A bad bet. Retrieved July 26, 2002, from http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/conline/pubs/alerts/olgamble.htm.1990). Hungarian suicide models, past and present. In G.Ferrari (Ed.), Suicidal behavior and risk factors (pp. 149–156). Bologna, Italy: Monduzzi Editore., & (1995). The impact of mass media reports on suicide and attitudes toward self-destruction: Previous studies and some new data from Hungary and Germany. In B. L.Mishara (Ed.), The impact of suicide (pp. 142–155). New York: Springer., & (2001, June). An examination of lottery ticket purchases by minors. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council on Problem Gambling, Seattle, WA., , & (1975). Public and private self-consciousness: Assessment and theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 522–527. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076760, , & (2002). State youth policy: Helping all youth to grow up fully prepared and fully engaged. Takoma Park, MD: Forum for Youth Investment., , & (1999). Is sexual orientation related to mental health problems and suicidality in young people? Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 876–880. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.56.10.876, , & (1996). Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: II. Psychiatric outcomes of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1365–1374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199610000-00024, , & (1995). Childhood circumstances, adolescent adjustment, and suicide attempts in a New Zealand birth cohort. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 612–622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199505000-00013, & (1996). Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: I. Prevalence of sexual abuse and factors associated with sexual abuse. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1355–1364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199610000-00023, , & (2002). Prevention of problem gambling: Modifying misconceptions and increasing knowledge. Journal of Gambling Studies, 18, 19–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1014528128578, , & (2001). Adolescent depression and risk factors. Adolescence, 36, 491–498., , & (2000). Screening for alcohol problems in primary care: A systematic review. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160, 1977–1989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.160.13.1977, , & (1990, September). Out there, I. The New Yorker, 51–86.(2000). The affect heuristic in judgments of risks and benefits. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 13, 1–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0771%28200001/03%2913:1%3C1::AID-BDM333%3E3.0.CO;2-S, , , & (1992). Giving advice: Decision theory perspectives on sexual assault. American Psychologist, 47, 577–588. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.47.4.577(1983). Hypothesis evaluation from a Bayesian perspective. Psychological Review, 90, 239–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.90.3.239, & (2000). Teen expectations for significant life events. Public Opinion Quarterly, 64, 189–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/317762, , , , , , et al. (1963). An investigation of the relationships between beliefs about an object and the attitude toward that object. Human Relations, 16, 233–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872676301600302(1980). A theory of reasoned action: Some applications and implications. In H.Howe & M.Page (Eds.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (pp. 65–116). Lincoln: University of Nebraska.(2000). The role of theory in HIV prevention. AIDS Care, 12(3), 273–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540120050042918(1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley., & ([Page 407]1992). Factors influencing behavior and behavior change: Final report–theorist's workshop. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health., , , , , & (2002). The role of theory in developing effective anti-drug public service announcements. In W.Crano & M.Burgoon (Eds.), Mass media and drug prevention: Classic and contemporary theories and research (pp. 89–117). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., , , , , & (2000). Failure to find a behavioral surrogate for STD incidence: What does it really mean? Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 27(8), 452–455. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007435-200009000-00005, & (1999). A prevalence study of gambling and problem gambling in British adolescents. Addiction Research, 7, 509–538. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/16066359909004403(1992). Measuring pathological gambling in children: The case of fruit machines in the U.K. Journal of Gambling Studies, 8, 263–285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01014653(1993). Gambling and pathological gambling in adolescence. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 277–287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01015923(1996). Under sixteen's find the lottery a good gamble. Education and Health, 13(5), 65–68., & (1998). Gambling and problem gambling among young people in England and Wales. London: Office of the National Lottery., & (1984). Attention. In S. T.Fiske & S.Taylor (Eds.), Social cognition (pp. 184–212). New York: Random House., & (1983). Preventing adolescent pregnancy: An interpersonal problem-solving approach. Prevention in Human Services, 2(3), 49–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J293v02n03_04, , , & (2001). What's behind the good news: The decline in teen pregnancy rates during the 1990s. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.(2002). Positive youth development requires comprehensive health promotion programs. American Journal of Health Behavior, 26(6), 407–424. http://dx.doi.org/10.5993/AJHB.26.6.2(Long-term effects of the positive action program: A comprehensive, positive youth development program. American Journal of Health Behavior., & (in press).2001). Effects of the positive action program on achievement and discipline: Two matched-control comparisons. Prevention Science, 2(2), 71–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1011591613728, , & (Aban Aya Investigators. (2002). Effects of two prevention programs on high-risk behaviors among African-American youth: A randomized trial. Manuscript submitted for publication., , , , , &1994). The theory of triadic influence: A new theory of health behavior with implications for preventive interventions. In G. S.Albrecht (Ed.), Advances in medical sociology: Vol 4. A reconsideration of models of health behavior change. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press., & (1999). From epidemiological synergy to public health policy and practice: the contribution of other sexually transmitted diseases to sexual transmission of HIV infection. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 75, 3–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sti.75.1.3, & (2001). Healthy Youth 2010: Supporting 21 Critical Adolescent Objectives. American Medical Association. Retrieved June 4, 2002, from http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/upload/mm/39/healthy2010.pdf., , & (2000). Risk behavior in a community sample of children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 881–887. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200007000-00017, , , , , , et al. (2001a). The Maudsley long-term follow-up of child and adolescent depression: 1. Psychiatric outcomes in adulthood. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 210–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.179.3.210, , , , & ([Page 408]2001b). The Maudsley tong-term follow-up of child and adolescent depression: 2. Suicidality, criminality, and social dysfunction in adulthood. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 218–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.179.3.218, , , , & (2002, November). The psychosocial and behavioral effects of graphic warning labels on youth. Paper presented at the National Conference on Tobacco or Health, San Francisco., , , , , , et al. (1996). Treating social skills deficits and learning disabilities: A meta-analysis. Learning Disability Quarterly, 19, 2–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1511048, & (1981). The impact of family planning clinic programs on adolescent pregnancy. Family Planning Perspectives, 13(3), 109–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2134834, , & (Health behaviors and reproductive health risk within adolescent sexual dyads. In P.Florsheim (Ed.), Adolescent romantic relations and sexual behavior: Theory, research, and practical implications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(in press).1997). Concordance between self-report questionnaires and coital diaries for sexual behaviors of adolescent women with sexually transmitted diseases. In J.Bancroft (Ed.), Researching sexual behavior (pp. 237–249). Bloomington: Indiana University Press., , , & (1997). “Sex under the influence”: A diary self-report study of substance use and sexual behavior among adolescent women. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 24, 313–319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007435-199707000-00001, , , , & (2001). Association of daily mood with sexual activity among adolescent girls. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 12(Suppl 2), 174., , , , & (1996). Positive mental illusions about marriage: Self-enhancement or relationship enhancement. Journal of Family Psychology, 10, 192–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-322.214.171.124, , & (1986). Emotional crisis imitating television. Lancet, 1, 1036–1037. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2886%2991308-5(2000). DRD4 exon III VNTR polymorphism-susceptibility factor for heroin dependence? Results of a case-control and a family-based association approach. Molecular Psychiatry, 5(1), 101–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4000583, , , , , , et al. (1997). Effectiveness of prevention programs for adolescent pregnancy: A meta-analysis. Journal of Marriage and Family, 59(3), 551–567. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353945, , , , & (1988). Attention and our ancient past: The scaly thumb of the lizard. American Behavioral Scientist, 31, 312–326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000276488031003004, , , & (1981). The concept of developmental lines. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 36, 129–136.(2000). Second Step: Preventing aggression by promoting social competence. Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders, 8, 102–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/106342660000800206, , & (1985). Smoking onset among teens: An empirical analysis of initial situations. Addictive Behaviors, 10(1), 1–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603%2885%2990048-6, , & (1996). Condom availability for youth: A high-risk alternative. Pediatrics, 97, 285., & (1995). Understanding the impact of effective teenage pregnancy prevention programs. Family Planning Perspectives, 27(5), 188–195. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136274, & (1980). A genetic and environmental analysis of sensation seeking. Journal of Research in Personality, 14, 261–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566%2880%2990033-1, , & (2001). Root shock: The consequences of African American dispossession. Journal of Urban Health, 78, 72–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jurban/78.1.72(1992). Risk-taking in adolescence: A decision-making perspective. Developmental Review, 12, 1–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0273-2297%2892%2990002-J, & ([Page 409]1997). Does condom availability make a difference? An evaluation of Philadelphia's health resource centers. Family Planning Perspectives, 29(3), 123–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2953334, , , & (1993). Evaluation of a prevention program for pathological gambling among adolescents. Journal of Primary Prevention, 14(1), 21–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01324653, & (1998). Multiple risk behavior in adolescents and young adults. Health Reports, 10(2), 9–20., & (1982). Gepubliceerde zelfmoorden en verhoging van sterfte door zelfmoord en ongelukken in Nederland 1972–1980. Mens en Maatschappij, 57, 55–69., & (2001). Predictors of depressive cognitions in young adolescents. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25, 353–376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005530402239, & (1993). Cognitions, depressive symptoms and development in adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 47–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.102.1.47, , & (1989). Asserting scientific authority: Cognitive development and adolescent legal rights. American Psychologist, 44, 895–902. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.6.895, , & (1993). Adolescent suicide prevention: Current research and social policy implications. American Psychologist, 48, 169–182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.2.169, & (1985). Stress resistant children: The search for protective factors. In J.Stevenson (Ed.), Recent research in developmental psychopathology. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.(1985). The NIMH-Israeli high-risk study: Commendations, comments, and cautions. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 11, 349–353.(1984). The study of stress and competence in children: A building block for developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 97–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129837, , & (1997). Do individuals with substance abuse diagnoses incur higher charges than individuals with other chronic conditions? Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 14(5), 457–465. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0740-5472%2897%2900137-2, , , & (1998). The association between health risk behaviors and sexual orientation among a school-based sample of adolescents. Pediatrics, 101, 895–902. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.101.5.895, , , , , & (1993). Aggression, substance use, and suicidal behaviors in high school students. American Journal of Public Health, 83, 179–184. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.83.2.179, , , & (1999). Genetics of two mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) exon I polymorphisms: Population studies, and allele frequencies in alcohol-and drug-dependent subjects. Molecular Psychiatry, 4(5), 476–483. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4000556, , & (1994). Genetic association between dopamine transporter protein alleles and cocaine-induced paranoia. Neuropsychopharmacology, 11(3), 195–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1380106, , , & (1995). Informed consent and BRCA1 testing. Nature Genetics, 11, 364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng1295-364, , , , , & (1997). Genetic testing for susceptibility to adult-onset cancer: The process and content of informed consent. JAMA, 277, 1467–1474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1997.03540420063031, , , , , & (2000). Mothers and daughters from breast cancer families: A qualitative study of their perceptions of the risks and benefits associated with minors' participation in genetic susceptibility research. JAMWA, 55, 280–284., , , , & (1984). Teacher as imperfect test: Re-conceptualizing the referral process. Educational Psychologist, 19(3), 137–148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00461528409529290, & (1982). Sex, sex guilt, and contraceptive use. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 153–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.199([Page 410]1987). Sex, sex guilt, and contraceptive use revisited: Trends in the 1980s. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 975–980. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.525(1996). A longitudinal study of the reciprocal nature of risk behaviors and cognitions in adolescents: What you do shapes what you think, and vice versa. Health Psychology, 15, 344–354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6184.108.40.2064, , , & (1996). Relation between perceived vulnerability to HIV and precautionary sexual behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 390–409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.119.3.390, , & (2000). Self-esteem, self-serving cognitions, and health risk behavior. Journal of Personality, 68, 1177–1201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.00131, , , & (2003). Inhibitory effects of drinker and nondrinker prototypes on adolescent alcohol consumption. Health Psychology, 21, 601–609. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6220.127.116.111, , , , , & (2002). Adolescents' substance-related risk perceptions: Antecedents, mediators, and consequences. Risk, Decision, and Policy, 7, 175–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1357530902000637, , , , & (1999). The effect of peers' alcohol consumption on parental influence: A cognitive mediational model. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 13, 32–44., , , , & (1999). Gambling impact and behavior study. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center., , , , , , et al. (1995). Traumas and posttraumatic stress disorder in a community population of older adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 1369–1380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199510000-00023, , , , , & (1998). An analysis of the relationship of alcohol to casino gambling among college students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14, 135–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023094725055, , & (2002). Alcohol-related aggression during the college years: Theories, risk factors and implications. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, S14, 14–139.(1996). Executive cognitive functioning and aggressive behavior in preadolescent boys at high risk for substance abuse/dependence. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 57, 352–359., , , , & (2002). Childhood maltreatment and negative cognitive styles: A quantitative and qualitative review. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 223–246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358%2801%2900088-5(2002). Emotional maltreatment and cognitive vulnerability to depression: The influence of maltreatment by non-relatives. Manuscript submitted for publication., , & (2001). History of childhood maltreatment, depressogenic cognitive style, and episodes of depression in adulthood. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25, 425–446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005586519986, , , , , , et al. (2001). Childhood maltreatment and college students' current suicidality: A test of the hopelessness theory. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 31, 405–415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/suli.31.4.405.22042, , , , , & (2002). Cognitive styles and academic achievement in university students: A longitudinal investigation. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26, 309–315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1016072810255, , , & (1995). Predicting young adults' health-risk behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 505–517. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1685, & (1997). Health images and their effects on health behavior. In B. P.Buunk & F. X.Gibbons (Eds.), Health, coping and well-being: Perspectives from social comparison theory (pp. 63–94). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (1998). Reasoned action and social reaction: Willingness and intention as independent predictors of health risk. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1164–1180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1244, , , & ([Page 411]2003). Perceived discrimination and substance use in African American parents and their children: A panel study. Manuscript under review., , , , & (A social reaction model of adolescent health risk. In J. M.Suls & K.Wallston (Eds.), Social psychological foundations of health and illness. Oxford, UK: Blackwell., , & (in press).1998). Cognitive antecedents to adolescent health risk: Discriminating between behavioral intention and behavioral willingness. Psychology and Health, 13, 319–339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870449808406754, , , & (Reactance or social reaction? Why don't kids just say “no?” In R.Wright, J.Greenberg, & S.Brehm (Eds.), A festschrift for Jack Brehm. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., , & (in press).2003). Image manipulation as a means of reducing risk willingness. Manuscript in preparation., , , , & (2002). Drinking and driving: A prospective assessment of the relation between risk cognitions and risk behavior. Risk, Decision, and Policy, 7, 267–283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1357530902000601, , , , & (1990). A statistical method for evaluating suicide clusters and implementing cluster surveillance. American Journal of Epidemiology, 132, 183–191., , & (1964). Status integration and suicide. Eugene: University of Oregon Press., & (1988). Conceptual, methodological, and structural issues in black youth suicide: Implications of assessment and early intervention. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 18, 73–89.(1992). Homicide and suicide among young black males: The Janus face of despair. In C. D.Llewelyn & R. J.Brown (Eds.). The African-American male: A second emancipation (pp. 15–26). New York: National Urban League.(1997). African-American suicide: A cultural paradox. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 27(1), 68–79.(1989). Factors related to sex differences in suicidal behavior among black youth: Implications for intervention and research. Journal of Adolescent Research, 4, 152–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/074355488942005, & (2000). Assessing the relationship between maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and age at first police contact. Justice Quarterly, 17, 519–542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07418820000094651, , & (1991). Are written reports of suicide and seeking help contagious? High schoolers' perceptions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21, 1517–1523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1991.tb00485.x, & (1997). Effects of a skill-based intervention to encourage condom use among high- risk, heterosexually active adolescents. AIDS Prevention and Education, 9(Suppl. A), 44–67., , , , , & (1991). Adolescents at risk conference: Overview. Journal of Adolescent Health, 12, 588–590. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1054-139X%2891%2990005-I(1986). Friendship and delinquency. American Journal of Sociology, 91, 1170–1202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/228390, , & (2000). The tipping point: How little things can make a big difference. Boston: Little Brown.(1967). A biological theory of reinforcement. Psychology Review, 74, 81–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0024290, & (2002). Beyond invulnerability: The importance of benefits in adolescents' decision to drink alcohol. Health Psychology, 21, 477–484. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6126.96.36.1997, , & ([Page 412]Goldsmith, S. K., Pellmar, T. C., Kleinman, A. M., & Bunney, W. E. (Eds.). (2002). Reducing suicide: A national imperative. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.1994). The shifting importance of alcohol and marijuana as gateway substances among serious drug users. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 55, 607–614., & (1979). Measures of association for cross classification. New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-9995-0, & (2001). Prescription of psychotropic medications to youths in office-based practice. Psychiatric Services, 52, 1081–1087. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.52.8.1081, , , & (2002). The imaginary audience and personal fable: Factor analyses and concurrent validity of the “New Look” measures. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12, 193–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1532-7795.00031, , , & (1995). Are school-based resistance skills training programs effective in preventing alcohol misuse? Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 41(1), 74–98.(2000). Serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms, alcoholism, and suicidal behavior. Society of Biological Psychiatry, 259–264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223%2800%2900840-4, , , , & (1995). Symptoms versus a diagnosis of depression: Differences in psychosocial functioning. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 90–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.63.1.90, , & (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press., & (2001). Impact of a sexual responsibility program on young males. Adolescence, 36(143), 427–433., & (1999). Psychological autopsy of cluster suicides in adolescents (Grant R01 MH47559-04S2). Washington, DC: National Institute of Mental Health.(2001). Suicide and the media. In H.Hendin & J. J.Mann (Eds.), Suicide prevention: Clinical and scientific aspects. New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.(1996). Psychosocial risk factors of child and adolescent completed suicide. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 1155–1162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830120095016, , , , & (1995). Psychological autopsy of cluster suicides in adolescents. Paper presented at the 42nd meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, New Orleans, LA., , , & (1998). Psychopathology associated with suicidal ideation and attempts among children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 915–923. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199809000-00011, , , , , et al. (2001, Spring). Youth suicide prevention. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 31(Suppl.), 6–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/suli.188.8.131.52.24219, & (1994). Clustering of attempted suicide: New Zealand national data. International Journal of Epidemiology, 23(8), 1185–1189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/23.6.1185, , , & (1986). The impact of suicide in television movies: Evidence of imitation. New England Journal of Medicine, 315, 690–694. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198609113151107, & (1988). The impact of suicide in television movies: Replication and commentary. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 18, 90–99., , & (1990). Time-space clustering of teenage suicide. American Journal of Epidemiology, 131, 71–78., , & (1990). Suicide clusters: An examination of age-specific effects. American Journal of Public Health, 80, 211–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.80.2.211, , , , & ([Page 413]1996). Transitions and turning points: Navigating the passage from childhood through adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 32, 768–776. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-16184.108.40.2068, & (1997). Age of onset of alcohol use and its association with DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: Results from the national Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. Journal of Substance Abuse, 9, 103–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0899-3289%2897%2990009-2, & (2003). Advances in the pharmacological treatment of pathological gambling disorder. Journal of Gambling Studies, 19(1), 85–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021227214142, , & (1999). Preventing mental disorders in school-age children: A review of the effectiveness of prevention programs. State College: Pennsylvania State University., , & (1990). Emotion regulation, self-control and psychopathology: The role of relationships in early childhood. In D.Cicchetti & S.Toth, (Eds.), Rochester symposium on developmental psychopathology (Vol. 2). New York: Cambridge University Press., , & (1993). The role of attachment in the early development of disruptive behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 191–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S095457940000434X, , & (2000). Targeting adolescent risk-taking behaviors: The contributions of egocentrism and sensation-seeking. Journal of Adolescence, 23, 439–461. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jado.2000.0330, , , , , & (1995). Egocentrism, message explicitness and AIDS messages directed towards adolescents: An application of the theory of reasoned action. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 10, 547–570., , & (1996). The utility of understanding adolescent egocentrism in designing health promotion messages. Health Communication, 8, 131–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327027hc0802_2, , , & (1995). Biological studies in suicidal adolescent inpatients. Scientific Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 11, 124., , , , , & (1979). Preschool teachers' assessment and treatment of socially withdrawn preschool children. Behavioral Assessment, 4, 273–297., , , & (1986). Conceptual issues in the assessment of social competence in children. In P. S.Strain, M. J.Guralnick, & H. M.Walker (Eds.), Children's social behavior: Development, assessment, and modification (pp. 143–179). New York: Academic Press.(2002). Factors associated with regular marijuana use among high school students: A long-term follow-up study. Substance Use & Misuse, 37, 225–238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/JA-120001979, , , & (2001). Protective role of personal competence skills in adolescent substance use: Psychological well-being as a mediating factor. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15(3), 194–203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.15.3.194, , & (1989). Recent trends in suicide and homicide among blacks. JAMA, 262, 2265–2269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1989.03430160087036, & (1989). Gambling in children and adolescents. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 5, 66–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01022138(1990a). The acquisition, development and maintenance of fruit machine gambling in adolescence. Journal of Gambling Studies, 6, 193–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01014578(1990b). The cognitive psychology of gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 6, 31–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01015747(1991a). Amusement machine playing in childhood and adolescence: A comparative analysis of video games and fruit machines. Journal of Adolescence, 14, 53–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0140-1971%2891%2990045-S(1991b). The psychobiology of the near miss in fruit machine gambling. Journal of Psychology, 125, 347–357.(1993a). Fruit machine gambling: The importance of structural characteristics. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 101–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01014863([Page 414]1993b). Factors in problem adolescent fruit machine gambling: Results of a small postal survey. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 31–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01019923(1993c). Fruit machine addiction in adolescence: A case study. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 387–399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01014629(1993d). Tolerance in gambling: An objective measure using the psychophysiological analysis of male fruit machine gamblers. Addictive Behaviors, 18, 365–372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603%2893%2990038-B(1994). Co-existent fruit machine addiction and solvent abuse: A cause for concern? Journal of Adolescence, 17, 491–498. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jado.1994.1042(1995a). Adolescent gambling. London: Routledge.(1995b). Technological addictions. Clinical Psychology Forum, 76, 14–19.(1995c). Towards a risk factor model of fruit machine addiction: A brief note. Journal of Gambling Studies, 11, 343–346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02104797(1996a). Behavioral addictions: An issue for everybody. Journal of Workplace Learning, 8(3), 19–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13665629610116872(1996b). Pathological gambling: A review of the literature. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 3, 347–353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2850.1996.tb00138.x(1997a). The national lottery and scratchcards. The Psychologist: Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 10, 23–26.(1997b). Selling hope: The psychology of the National Lottery. Psychology Review, 23, 26–29.(1999). Gambling technologies: Prospects for problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 15, 265–283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023053630588(2002). Gambling and gaming addiction in adolescence. Oxford, UK: British Psychological Society/Blackwell.(1999). The UK national telephone helpline: Results on the first year of operation. Journal of Gambling Studies, 15, 83–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023071113879, , & (1998). Adolescent gambling and drug use. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 8, 423–427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-1298%28199811/12%298:6%3C423::AID-CASP499%3E3.0.CO;2-B, & (1999). Lottery gambling and addiction: An overview of European research. Lausanne, Switzerland: Association of European Lotteries., & (2000). Risk factors in adolescence: The case of gambling, video-game playing and the internet. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 199–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009433014881, & (1998). Suicide among children and younger and older adolescents in Norway: A comparative study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(5), 473–481. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199805000-00008, , , & (1981). Public school and mental health services to severely behavior disordered students. Behavior Disorders, 6, 183–190.(1999). Emotion regulation: Past, present, future. Cognition and Emotion, 13(5), 551–573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026999399379186(1999). Plain talk and adolescent sexual behavior. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures., & (1992). Summer Training and Education Program (STEP): Report on long-term impacts. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures., & (1998). Association between violent behaviors and substance use among Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white high school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 23, 153–159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X%2898%2900010-X, , & (2002). Youth risk behavior surveillance-United States, 2001. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 51(4), 1–62., , , , , , & (1997). Sexuality education and young people's sexual behavior: A review of studies. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12(4), 421–453. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0743554897124002, , , , & ([Page 415]2000). The adolescent risk-taking questionnaire: Developmental and psychometric evaluation. Journal of Adolescent Research, 15, 231–250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0743558400152003, , , & (1996). The relationship between gambling and video-playing behavior in children and adolescents. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12(4), 375–394. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01539183, & (1997). Familial and social influences on juvenile gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13, 179–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1024915231379, & (1998a). Adolescent gambling behavior: A prevalence study and an examination of the correlates associated with problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14, 319–345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023068925328, & (1998b). An empirical examination of Jacob's general theory of addictions: Do adolescent gamblers fit the theory?Journal of Gambling Studies, 14, 17–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023046509031, & (2000). Adolescents with gambling problems: From research to treatment. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16(2/3), 315–342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009493200768, & (Personality characteristics and risk-taking tendencies among adolescent gamblers. Journal of Social Psychology., & (in press).1997). Condom availability in New York City public high schools: Relationships to condom use and sexual behavior. American Journal of Public Health, 87(9), 1427–1433. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.87.9.1427, , , , , & (1994). Physically aggressive boys from ages 6 to 12: Family background, parenting behavior, and prediction to delinquency. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 1044–1052. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.62.5.1044, & (2001). The 12-month prevalence and characteristics of major depressive episode in a representative nationwide sample of adolescents and young adults. Psychological Medicine, 31, 1169–1179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291701004573, , , & (Cognitive vulnerability to depression and lifetime history of Axis I psychopathology: A comparison of negative cognitive styles (CSQ) and dysfunctional attitudes (DAS). Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly., , , , , , et al. (in press).1999). Preparing for the drug-free years (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Juvenile Justice Bulletin). Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention., , , & (1994). Evaluation of the quantum opportunities program. Did the program work? A report on the post secondary outcomes and cost-effectiveness of the QOP Program (1989–1993). Waltham, MA: Brandeis University, Heller Graduate School, Center for Human Resources., & (1997). The health benefits of long-term thinking: A correlational study (Abstract). Canadian Psychology, 38, 127., & (2001). The effects of a brief time perspective intervention for increasing exercise behavior among university students: Final report. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada: National Cancer Institute of Canada, Centre for Behavioral Research and Program Evaluation., & (The effects of a brief time perspective intervention for increasing physical activity among young adults. Psychology and Health., & (in press).1999). Association between low activity serotonin transporter promoter genotype and early onset alcoholism with habitual impulsive violent behavior. Molecular Psychiatry, 4(4), 385–388. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4000526, , , , , , et al. (1983). Development of interest and enjoyment in adolescence: Part I. Attentional capacities. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 12(5), 355–362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02088719(1998). Smart decisions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School., , & (1992). School-based substance abuse prevention: A review of the state of the art in curriculum, 1980–1990. Health Education Research: Theory & Practice, 7, 403–430. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/7.3.403([Page 416]1982). The relationship between self and achievement/performance measures. Review of Educational Research, 52(1), 123–142., & (2001). Social influences involved in children's gambling behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17, 191–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1012216305671, & (2002). Child and adolescent gambling behavior: Our current knowledge. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 7, 263–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359104502007002012, & (2002, June). An examination of the influence of emotional and conduct problems upon adolescent gambling problems. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council on Problem Gambling, Dallas, TX., , & (1991). Adolescent pregnancy in an urban environment: Issues, programs, and evaluation. Baltimore: Urgan & Schwarzenberg., & (1990). Self and identity development. In S. S.Feldman & G. R.Elliot (Eds.), At the threshold: The developing adolescent (pp. 352–387). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1995). Factors associated with sexual behavior among adolescents: A multivariate analysis. Adolescence, 30, 253–264., & (1995). Effects of newspaper stories on the incidence of suicide in Australia: A research note. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 29, 480–483. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00048679509064957(1999). Preventing adolescent health-risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 153, 226–234., , , , & , (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 64–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.64, , & (1988). Changing teaching practices in mainstream classrooms to reduce discipline practices among low achievers. American Educational Research Journal, 25, 31–50., , & (1991). Reducing early childhood aggression: Results of a primary prevention program. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30(2), 208–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199103000-00008, , & (1985). The social development model: An integrated approach to delinquency prevention. Journal of Primary Prevention, 6, 73–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01325432, & (1999a). Suicide in young people. British Journal of Psychiatry, 175, 271–276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.175.3.271, , & (1999). Effects of a drug overdose in a television drama on presentations to hospital for self poisoning: Time series and questionnaire study. British Medical Journal, 318, 972–977. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.318.7189.972, , , , , , et al. (1987). Suicide and social response in Fiji: A historical survey. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 21–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.151.1.21(Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-191, 110 Stat. 1937.1999). Genetic and social determinants of initiation and age at onset of smoking in Australian twins. Behavior Genetics, 29, 395–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021670703806, , , & (1988). Teenage alcohol use in the Australian twin register: Genetic and social determinants of starting to drink. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 12(6), 735–741. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1988.tb01337.x, & (1993). Genetic models for the natural history of smoking: Evidence for a genetic influence on smoking persistence. Addictive Behaviors, 18, 19–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603%2893%2990005-T, & (2002). State lotteries: Advocating a social ill for the social good. Independent Review, 6, 597–606.(1992). Fateful choices. New York: Carnegie Council.(1971). Generality and correlates of risk taking. Journal of General Psychology, 85, 259–283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221309.1971.9920677, & ([Page 417]1992). Adolescents at risk for HIV infection. In R. J.DiClemente (Ed.), Adolescents and AIDS: A generation in jeopardy (pp. 3–16). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1997). Adolescent HIV testing: Who says who signs? American Journal of Public Health, 87(8), 1277–1278. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.87.8.1277(2000). Genotype influences in vivo dopamine transporter availability in human striatum. Neuropsychopharmacology, 22, 133–139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0893-133X%2899%2900099-8, , , , , , et al. (1969). Black suicide. New York: Basic Books.(1954). Suicide and homicide. Glencoe, IL: Free Press., & (1998). Unintended pregnancy in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives, 30(1), 24–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2991522(2000). Teenage abortion and pregnancy statistics by state, 1996. Family Planning Perspectives, 32(6), 272–280. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2648195, & (1994). Family planning agencies: Services, policies, and funding. Family Planning Perspectives, 26, 52–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136002, & (1993). Public reactions to AIDS in the US: A second decade of stigma. American Journal of Public Health, 83(4), 574–577. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.83.4.574, & (1993). The effects of child abuse and race on risk-taking in male adolescents. Journal of the National Medical Association, 85(8), 593–597., , & (1995). The predictive value of depression in anorexia nervosa: Results of a seven-year follow-up study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 91, 114–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1995.tb09750.x, , & (1996). Course and outcome in adolescent anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 19, 335–345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291098-108X%28199605%2919:4%3C335::AID-EAT2%3E3.0.CO;2-M, , , & (1981). Problem-solving and social position among emotionally disturbed boys. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 51, 356–358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1981.tb01382.x, & (1999). Linkage studies of D2 and D4 receptor genes and alcoholism. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 88(6), 676–685. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291096-8628%2819991215%2988:6%3C676::AID-AJMG18%3E3.0.CO;2-S, , , , & (2002). Suicide rates and religious commitment in young adult males in Utah. American Journal of Epidemiology, 155(5), 412–419. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/155.5.413, , & (1996). Lowering state legal blood alcohol limits to 0.08%: The effect on fatal motor vehicle crashes. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 1297–1299. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.86.9.1297, , & (1995). Characteristics of youth suicide in Hong Kong. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 30, 107–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00802038, , , , & (1958). Public participation in medical screening program: A sociopsychological study (U.S. Public Health Service Publication No. 572). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.(1995). Testing children for genetic predispositions: Is it in their best interest? Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 23(4), 331–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-720X.1995.tb01375.x, & (1993). Physicians' knowledge of genetics and genetic tests. Academic Medicine, 68(8), 625–632. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001888-199308000-00013, , , , , & (1995). Reciprocal effects of self-concept and academic achievement in 6th and 7th grade. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 24(3), 295–314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01537598, , & (2002). Family-based prevention counseling for high-risk young adolescents: Immediate outcomes. Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 1–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcop.1047, , , (2001). “Behavioral” addictions: Do they exist? Science, 294(2), 980–982. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.294.5544.980(1997). A community prevention trial to reduce alcohol-involved accidental injury and death: Overview. Addiction, 92(Suppl 2), 155–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1997.tb02989.x, , , , , & (1974). The B.B.C. “Befrienders” series and its effects. British Journal of Psychiatry, 124, 470–472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.124.5.470([Page 418]1975). Suicide and “The Befrienders.”British Medical Journal, 3, 751–753. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.3.5986.751(1994). Suicide and homicide among adolescents. New York: Guilford Press., , , & (2002). Treatment and prevention of depression. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 3, 39–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1529-1006.00008, , & (2003). Social capital, poverty, and income inequality as predictors of gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia and AIDS case rates in the United States. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 79: 62–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sti.79.1.62, & (1995). Parent and peer communication effects on AIDS-related behavior among U.S. high school students. Family Planning Perspectives, 27, 235–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136175, & (1999). Promoting safe and effective genetic testing in the United States. Final report of the Task Force on Genetic Testing. Journal of Child & Family Nursing, 2(5), 338–390., & (1985). Early identification of learning problems: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(5), 597–607. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.117, & (2002, May). Evaluation of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign: Fourth annual report of findings. Report delivered to National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health., , , , , , et al. (2001). Suicide in young people aged 15–24: A psychological autopsy study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 63, 159–170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0327%2800%2900175-0, , & (1999). Religion and suicidal ideation in a sample of Latin American immigrants. Psychological Reports, 85, 171–177.(1990). Helping teenagers postpone sexual involvement. Family Planning Perspectives, 22(1), 21–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2135434, & (1992). Psychological and social indicators of suicide ideation and suicide attempts in Zuni adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 473–476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.60.3.473, , , , & (2002). Reliability and validity of a brief measure of sensation seeking. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 401–414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869%2801%2900032-0, , , , & (1998). A replication of Reducing the Risk, a theory-based sexuality curriculum for adolescents. Journal of School Health, 68(6), 243–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.1998.tb06347.x, , & (1976, September). Social reasoning and relating: An analysis of videotaped social interactions. In H.Furth (Chair), Integrations of development in social cognition and social behavior. Symposium presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC., , & (1995). The impact of an increase in family planning services on the teenage population of Philadelphia. Family Planning Perspectives, 27(2), 60–65, 78. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2135906, , & (1982). Adolescent drug use and other behaviors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 23, 61–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1982.tb00049.x, , , & (1989). Human development and health. Berlin: Springer-Verger. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-74328-3(1994). Synaptogenesis, synapse elimination, and neural plasticity in human cerebral cortex. In C. A.Nelson (Ed.), Threats to optimal development: Integrating biological, psychological, and social risk factors: Vol. 27. Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology (pp. 35–54). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1992). A survey of fruit machine gambling in adolescents. Journal of Gambling Studies, 8, 167–179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01014634, & (1980). Maternal influence on the sexual behavior of teenage daughters. Journal of Family Issues, 1, 81–102., & (1988). Gambling in young adolescents. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 4, 110–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01020107, & ([Page 419]Independent Television Commission. (1995). Child's-eye view. Spectrum, 17, 24.Institute of Medicine. (1987). Risking the future: Adolescent sexuality, pregnancy, and child-bearing. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Institute of Medicine. (1994). Reducing risks for mental disorder: Frontiers for preventive intervention research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.1993). Adolescence and risk taking: How are they related? In N. J.Bell & R. W.Bell (Eds.), Adolescent risk taking (pp. 7–28). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(2001). An influence of positive affect on decision making in complex situations: Theoretical issues with practical implications. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 11(2), 75–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327663JCP1102_01(1999). Association between drinking-related antisocial behavior and a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene in a Japanese population. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 23(7), 1281–1284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1999.tb04289.x, , , , , , et al. (1991). Measuring mutual causation: Effect of suicide news on suicides in Japan. Social Science Research, 20, 188–195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0049-089X%2891%2990016-V(1987). News that matters. Chicago: University of Chicago Press., & (1991). Parent-teen communication: Toward the prevention of unintended pregnancies. New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-9107-4, & (1996). Maternal correlates of adolescent sexual and contraceptive behavior. Family Planning Perspectives, 28, 159–165, 185. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136192, , & (1999). Parent-adolescent communication about sex and birth control: Implications for parent-based interventions to reduce unintended adolescent pregnancy. In W.Miller & L.Severy (Eds.), Advances in population: Psychological perspectives. London: Kingsley., , & (1994). Authoritative parenting, child competencies, and initiation of cigarette smoking. Health Education Quarterly, 21, 103–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819402100110, , & (1972). A four-dimensional interpretation of risk taking. Journal of Personality, 40, 483–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1972.tb00075.x, , & (1996). Racism and the physical and mental health status of African Americans: A thirteen year national panel study. Ethnicity and Disease, 11(1–2), 132–137., , , , , & (2000). A psychosocial model of sun protection and sunbathing in young women: The impact of health beliefs, attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy for sun protection, Health Psychology, 19, 469–478. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-618.104.22.1689, & (1986). A general theory of addictions: A new theoretical model. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 2(1), 15–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01019931(1989). Illegal and undocumented: A review of teenage gambling and the plight of children of problem gamblers in America. In H. J.Shaffer, S. A.Stein, B.Gambino, T. N.Cummings, & R. L.Custer (Eds.), Compulsive gambling: Theory, research and practice. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.(1997, June). Effects on children of parental excesses in gambling. Paper presented at the National Conference on Problem Gambling, Orlando, FL.(2000). Juvenile gambling in North America: An analysis of long-term trends and future prospects. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 119–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009476829902(1985). Testing a general theory of addiction: Similarities and differences among alcoholics, pathological gamblers, and overeaters. In J. J.Sanchez-Soza (Ed.), Health and clinical psychology (Vol. 4). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science., , & (1991). The use of judgment heuristics to make social and object decisions: A developmental perspective. Child Development, 62, 166–178., & (1993). Adolescent (in)vulnerability. American Psychologist, 48, 102–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.2.102, , & ([Page 420]2001). What do young people think they know about the risks of smoking? In P.Slovic (Ed.), Smoking: Risk, perception, and policy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232652, & (2002). Effectiveness of smoking cessation initiatives [Electronic version]. British Medical Journal, 324, 608. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.324.7337.608, , & (1997). Youth corps: Promising strategies for young people and their communities. Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates., , , & (2000). HIV behavioral interventions for adolescents in community settings. In J. L.Peterson and R. J.DiClemente (Eds.), Handbook of HIV prevention (pp. 103–128). New York: Plenum Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4137-0_5, & (1992). Reductions in HIV risk-associated sexual behaviors among black male adolescents: Effects of an AIDS prevention intervention. American Journal of Public Health, 82(3), 372–377. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.82.3.372, , & (1998). Abstinence and safer sex: A randomized trial of HIV sexual risk-reduction interventions for young African-American adolescents. JAMA, 279(19), 1529–1536. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.279.19.1529, , & (1999). Reducing HIV risk-associated sexual behavior among African American adolescents: Testing the generality of intervention effects. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27, 167–187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02503158, , , & (1994). Be proud! Be responsible!New York: Select Media., , & (1998). The g factor. Westport, CT: Praeger.(1991). Risk behavior in adolescence: A psychosocial framework for understanding and action. Journal of Adolescent Health, 12, 597–605. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1054-139X%2891%2990007-K(1992). Risk behavior in adolescence: A psychosocial framework for understanding and action. Developmental Review, 12, 374–390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0273-2297%2892%2990014-S(1998). New perspectives on adolescent risk behavior. In R.Jessor (Ed.), New perspectives on adolescent risk behavior. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511571138(1983). Time of first intercourse: A prospective study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44(3), 608–626. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1248, , , & (1968). Society, personality and deviant behavior: A study of a tri-ethnic community. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston., , , & (1977). Problem behavior and psychosocial development: A longitudinal study of youth. New York: Academic Press., & (1998). Protective factors in adolescent health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 788–800. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1998, , & (1995). Protective factors in adolescent problem behavior: Moderator effects and developmental change. Developmental Psychology, 31, 923–933. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.523, , , , & (1974). Maternal ideology and adolescent problem behavior. Developmental Psychology, 10(2), 246–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0035991, & (2001). Suicide among African American men. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 31(1), 106–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/suli.184.108.40.206.24223, & (2002). Firearm-related suicide among young African-American males. Psychiatric Services, 53(3), 332–334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.53.3.332, & (1988). Ontario Child Health Study: Suicidal behavior in youth aged 12–16 years. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 1420–1423., , & (1997). Association between the cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) and the P300 event-related potential. Molecular Psychiatry, 2(2), 169–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4000246, , , , , , et al. (1996). Reducing alcohol and other drug use by strengthening community, family, and youth resiliency: An evaluation of the Creating Lasting Connections program. Journal of Adolescent Research, 11, 36–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0743554896111004, , , , , , et al. ([Page 421]1973). Drugs and American youth. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research.(1991a). Contributions of drug epidemiology to the field of drug abuse prevention. In C.Leukefeld & W.Bukoski (Eds.), Drug abuse prevention research: Methodological issues (NIDA Research Monograph 107, pp. 57–80). Washington, DC: National Institute on Drug Abuse.(1991b). Toward a theory of drug epidemics. In R. L.Donohew, H.Sypher, & W.Bukoski (Eds.), Persuasive communication and drug abuse prevention (pp. 93–132). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1995). Drug use among American high school seniors, college students, and young adults, 1975–1995 (DHSS Publication No. ADM91-1813). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse., , & (1996, December 19). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use. Press Release, National Institute on Drug Abuse., , & (2000). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–1999: Vol. 1. Secondary school students (NIH Publication No. 00-4802). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse., , & (2001). National survey results on drug use from the Monitoring the Future study, 1975–2000. Vol. I: Secondary school students (NIH Publication No. 01-4924). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse., , & (2002). Monitoring the future national results on adolescent drug use; overview of key findings, 2001. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. (Available on the Web at http://www.monitoringthefuture.org)., , & (1993). Aims and objectives of the Monitoring the Future study (Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 34.). Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research., , , & (2001). The aims and objectives of the Monitoring the Future study and progress toward fulfilling them as of 2001. (Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 52). Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research. (Available on the Web at http://www.monitoringthefuture.org)., , , & (1992). Modelling and suicide: A test of the Werther effect. British Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 295–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1992.tb00974.x(1996). Genetic information: Discrimination and privacy issues (CRS Report for Congress). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service the Library of Congress.(1998). Psychosocial correlates of adolescent drug-taking behavior. Journal of Adolescence, 21(2), 127–134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jado.1997.0136, & (2000). Association of smoking and personality with a polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene: Results from a community survey. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 96, 331–334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1096-8628%2820000612%2996:3%3C331::AID-AJMG19%3E3.0.CO;2-0, , , , , , et al. (1997). Childhood, adolescent, and young adult predictors of suicidal behaviors: A prospective study of African Americans. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38(5), 553–563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01542.x, & (1999). Pregnancies averted among U.S. teenagers by the use of contraception. Family Planning Perspectives, 31, 29–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2991554, , , & (1982). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. New York: Cambridge University Press., , & (1999). Bullying, depression, and suicidal ideation in Finnish adolescents: School survey. British Medical Journal, 319, 348–351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.319.7206.348, , , , & (1975). Stages in adolescent involvement in drug use. Science, 190, 912–914. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1188374(1988). Substance use, depressive mood, and suicidal ideation in adolescence and young adulthood. In A. R.Stiffman & R. A.Feldman (Eds.), Advancement in adolescent mental health. Greenwich, CT: JAI press.([Page 422]Kandel, D. B. (Ed.). (2002). Stages and pathways of drug involvement: Examining the gateway hypothesis. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO97805114997771991). Suicidal ideation in adolescence: Depression, substance abuse, and other risk factors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20, 289–309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01537613, , & (1993). From beer to crack: Developmental patterns of drug involvement. American Journal of Public Health, 83, 851–855. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.83.6.851, & (1999). Developmental stages of involvement in substance abuse. In P. J.Ott, R. E.Tarter, & R. T.Ammerman (Eds.), Sourcebook on substance abuse: Etiology, epidemiology, assessment and treatment (pp. 50–74). New York: Allyn & Bacon., & (2002). Stages of drug involvement in the U.S. population. In D. B.Kandel (Ed.), Stages and pathways of drug involvement: Examining the gateway hypothesis (pp. 65–89). New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511499777.006, (1992). Stages of progression in drug involvement from adolescence to adulthood: Further evidence for the gateway theory. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 52, 447–457., , & (1970). Self-regulation: Research, issues and speculations. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.(State and Local YRBSS Coordinators. (2000). Youth risk behavior surveillance–United States, 1999. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, 49(No. SS-5), 1–95., , , , , , , &1975). Self-attitudes and deviant behavior. Pacific Palisades, CA: Goodyear.(1998). Firearm suicides and homicides in the United States: Regional variations and patterns of gun ownership. Social Science and Medicine, 46, 1227–1233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2897%2910051-X, & (1992). Antidepressant medication and the relative risk of suicide attempt and suicide. JAMA, 268, 3441–3445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1992.03490240049035, , & (2001). Childhood depression and adult personality disorder: Alternative pathways of continuity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 231–236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.58.3.231, , , , , & (1989). Correlates of suicidal ideation in a community sample of children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 912–917. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-198911000-00016, , & (1999). How we prevent the prevention of emotional and behavioral disorders. Exceptional Children, 65(4), 448–468.(1987). Conduct disorders in childhood and adolescence. London: Sage.(1996). The Mpowerment project: A community-level HIV prevention intervention for young gay men. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 1129–1136. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.86.8_Pt_1.1129, , & (1998). Targeting early antecedents to prevent tobacco smoking: Findings from an epidemiologically based randomized field trial. American Journal of Public Health, 88(10), 1490–1495. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.88.10.1490, & (1983). Paths leading to teenage psychiatric symptoms and substance use: Developmental epidemiological studies in Woodlawn. In S. B.Guze, F. J.Earls, & J. E.Barett (Eds.), Child psychopathology and development (pp. 17–75). New York: Raven Press., , , & (1998). The effect of the level of aggression in the first grade classroom on the course and malleability of aggressive behavior into middle school. Development & Psychopathology, 10(2), 165–185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579498001564, , , , & (1998). Effects of improving achievement on aggressive behavior through two preventive interventions: An investigation of causal paths. In B.Dohrenwend (Ed.), Adversity, stress, & psychopathology (pp. 486–505). New York: Oxford University Press., , , & ([Page 423]1997). Vividness effects: A resource matching perspective. Journal of consumer Research, 24, 295–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/209511, & (1992). Suicide in the home in relation to gun ownership. New England Journal of Medicine, 327, 467–472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199208133270705, , , , , , et al. (2002). Do adolescents affiliate with 12-step groups? A multivariate process model of effects. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 63, 293–304., , & (1998). Reinforcement value of unsafe sex as a predictor of condom use and continued HIV/AIDS risk behavior among gay and bisexual men. Health Psychology, 17(4), 328–335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6220.127.116.118, & (2001). Twin studies of psychiatric illness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 1005–1014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.58.11.1005(2001). Genetic risk factors for major depression in men and women: Similar or different heritabilities and same or partly distinct genes? Psychological Medicine, 31(4), 605–616., , , & (1999). A population-based twin study in women of smoking initiation and nicotine dependence. Psychological Medicine, 29, 299–308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291798008022, , , , , & (1998). Cannabis use, abuse, and dependence in a population-based sample of female twins. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155(8), 1016–1022., & (2000). Increasing condom use among adolescents with coalition-based social marketing. AIDS, 14, 1809–1818. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002030-200008180-00017, , , , & (1999). Who's smoking, drinking, and using drugs? Time perspective as a predictor of substance use. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 21, 149–164., , & (2001). Mood disorders in children and adolescents: An epidemiological perspective. Biological Psychiatry, 49, 1002–1014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223%2801%2901129-5, , & (1997). Social consequences of psychiatric disorders, II: Teenage parenthood. American Journal of Psychiatry, 54, 1405–1411., , , , , & (1999). Prevalence of and risk factors for lifetime suicide attempts in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 617–626. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.56.7.617, , & (1989). Network television news stories about suicide and short-term changes in total U. S. suicides. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 177(Suppl 9), 551–555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198909000-00006, , , & (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R major depressive disorder in the general population: Results from the US National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 8–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950010008002, , , , , , et al. (1998). Epidemiology of DSM-III-R major depression and minor depression among adolescents and young adults in the National Comorbidity Survey. Depression and Anxiety, 7, 3–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291520-6394%281998%297:1%3C3::AID-DA2%3E3.0.CO;2-F, & (1997). Prospective study of risk factors for the initiation of cigarette smoking. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 1011–1016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.65.6.1011, , , , , , et al. (1997). Effectiveness of 40 adolescent AIDS-risk reduction interventions: A quantitative review. Journal of Adolescent Health, 20, 204–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X%2896%2900169-3, , , , & (1996). Perception of social support, acculturation, depression, and suicidal ideation among African American college students at predominantly black and predominantly white universities. Journal of Negro Education, 65(3), 295–307. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2967346, , & ([Page 424]1990). Psychosocial factors associated with urban adolescent female suicide attempts. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 289–294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199003000-00020, , , , & (1992). The past as prologue: Race, class, and gene discrimination. In G. J.Annas & S.Elias (Eds.), Gene mapping: Using law and ethics as guides (pp. 94–111). New York: Oxford University Press.(2001). Psychosocial and risk behavior correlates of youth suicide attempts and suicidal ideation. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 837–846. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200107000-00019, , , , , , et al. (1998). Neighborhood indicators: Taking advantage of the new potential. National Neighborhood Indicators Partnership. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.(2002). Risk initiation among adolescents: Does diffusion exist? Paper presented at the Reducing Adolescent Risk Conference, Annenberg Public Policy Center, Philadelphia, PA.(1985). The effects of selected sexuality education programs: Toward a more realistic view. Journal of Sex Education and Therapy, 11(1), 28–37.(1991). An evaluation of the Lake Taylor High School Health Center. Scotts Valley, CA: ETR Associates.(1997). No easy answers: Research findings on programs to reduce teen pregnancy (summary). Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.(2000). School-based interventions to prevent unprotected sex and HIV among adolescents. In J. L.Peterson & R. J.DiClemente (Eds.), Handbook of HIV prevention (pp. 83–101). New York: Plenum Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4137-0_4(2001a). Emerging answers: Research findings on programs to reduce teen pregnancy. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.(2001b). Understanding what works and what doesn't in reducing adolescent sexual risk-taking. Family Planning Perspectives, 33(6), 276–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3030195(2002). The impact of schools and school programs upon adolescent sexual behavior. Journal of Sex Research, 39(1), 27–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224490209552116(1991). Reducing the risk: A new curriculum to prevent sexual risk-taking. Family Planning Perspectives, 23(6), 253–263. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2135776, , , & (1999). The impact of condom distribution in Seattle schools on sexual behavior and condom use. American Journal of Public Health, 89(2), 182–187. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.89.2.182, , , , , & (1996). School condom availability programs in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives, 28(5), 196–202. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2135838, & (1997). An impact evaluation of Project SNAPP: An AIDS and pregnancy prevention middle school program. AIDS Education and Prevention, 9(Suppl. A), 44–61., , , & (1991). Six school-based clinics: Their reproductive health services and impact on sexual behavior. Family Planning Perspectives, 23(1), 6–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2135395, , & (1994). Health caring: Outcomes of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's school-based adolescent health care program. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation., , & (2000). Enduring effects of nurse home visitation on maternal life course: A 3-year follow-up of a randomized trial. JAMA, 283(15), 1983–1989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.283.15.1983, , , , , et al. (1987). Fertility awareness/natural family planning for adolescents and their families: Report of a multisite pilot project. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 3(2), 101–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/IJAMH.1918.104.22.168, , , , , & (2001). Where do adolescents get their condoms? Journal of Adolescent Health, 29, 186–193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X%2801%2900257-9, , , , , , et al. ([Page 425]1988). Knowledge of beliefs regarding the consequences of cigarette smoking and their relationships to smoking status in a biracial sample. Health Psychology, 7, 387–401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-622.214.171.1247, , , , , , & (2002). The Maudsley long-term follow-up of child and adolescent depression. 3. Impact of comorbid conduct disorder on service use and costs in adulthood. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 19–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.180.1.19, , , , & (1989). The endowment effect and evidence of nonreversible indifference curves. The American Economic Review, 79, 1277–1284.(1993). Overview of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Public Health Reports, 108(Suppl. 1), 2–10., , & (1994). Reducing adolescent pregnancy through school and community-based education: Denmark, South Carolina, revised 1991. Family Planning Perspectives, 26(5), 206–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2135940, , , , & (1987). The D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390 increases cocaine self-administration in the rat. Neuroscience Letters, 79, 315–320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-3940%2887%2990451-4, , & (1992). Violence in America: A public health emergency. JAMA, 267, 3076–3077. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1992.03480220093036, & (1995). A multivariate genetic analysis of sensation seeking. Behavior Genetics, 25(4), 349–356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02197284, , , & (2001). Sensation seeking needs among 8th and 11th graders: Characteristics associated with cigarette and marijuana use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 62(3), 195–203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0376-8716%2800%2900170-8, , , & (2000). Expansion of gambling in Canada: Implications for health and social policy. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 163(1), 61–64.(1999). Gambling and the health of the public: Adopting a public health perspective. Journal of Gambling Studies, 15, 289–365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023005115932, & (1994). A sibling study of sensation seeking and opiate addiction. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 18(5), 284–289., , & (1997). Excess dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III seven repeat allele in opioid-dependent subjects. Molecular Psychiatry, 2(3), 251–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4000248, , , , , , et al. (1999). Genital human papillomavirus. In K. K.Holmes, P. F.Sparling, P.Mardh, et al (Eds.), Sexually transmitted diseases (, & (3rd ed., pp. 361–384). New York: McGraw-Hill.1998). Association of alcohol or other drug dependence with alleles of the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1). Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 22(6), 1359–1362., , , , & (1999). Suicide and violence prevention: Parent education in the emergency department. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 250–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199903000-00010, , , , , & (1991). The skills of argument. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511571350(2002). Drug sequences, age of onset, and use trajectories as predictors of drug use/dependence in young adulthood. In D.Kandel (Ed.), Stages and pathways of drug involvement (pp. 19–41). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511499777.004, & (1985). Social skill training and children's peer relations. In L. L.Abate & M.Milan (Eds.), Handbook of social skills training (pp. 219–244). New York: John Wiley., & (1999). Pathological gambling and related problems among adolescents. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 8(4), 55–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J029v08n04_04, , , & (1988). Gambling behaviors among high school students in the Quebec area. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 4(1), 3–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01043524, & (2000). Does a brochure about pathological gambling provide new information? Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 103–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009487502217, , , & ([Page 426]2001). Parents' attitudes, knowledge and behavior toward youth gambling: A five-year follow-up. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17, 101–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1016616412473, , & (1988). More pride, less delinquency: Findings from the ten-year follow-up study of the Syracuse University Family Development Research Program. Zero to Three, 8(4), 13–18., , , & (Lalonde Commission of Canada. (1974). A new perspective of the health of Canadians. Ottawa, Ontario: Ministry of National Health and Welfare.1991). Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and neglectful families. Child Development, 62, 1049–1065. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131151, , , & (1993). An examination of the relationship between adolescent decision-making orientation and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, and skills. Health Psychology, 12, 227–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6126.96.36.199, , , & (1998). Gambling behavior and pathology in relation to impulsivity, sensation seeking, and risky behavior in male college students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14, 245–262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022005625498, & (1985). Elkind on egocentrism. Developmental Review, 5, 227–236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0273-2297%2885%2990011-5(1993). Toward an integrated theory of adolescent ego development: The “new look” at the imaginary audience and personal fable. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63, 562–571. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079470(2000, April). Adolescent narcissism: An empirical typology and a new assessment strategy. In D.Lapsley (Chair), Adolescent narcissism: Interdisciplinary perspectives. Symposium conducted at the eight biennial meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence, Chicago.(1989). Separation-individuation and the “new look” at the imaginary audience and personal fable: A test of an integrative model. Journal of Adolescent Research, 4, 483–505. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/074355488944006, , , & (2002). Personal fables, risk behaviors and adjustment in early and middle adolescence. Manuscript under review., & (1986). Adolescent egocentrism and formal operations: Tests of a theoretical assumption. Developmental Psychology, 22, 800–807. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.520, , , , & (1985). Another look at the theoretical assumptions of adolescent egocentrism. Developmental Review, 5, 201–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0273-2297%2885%2990009-7, & (1988). The “new look” at the imaginary audience and personal fable: Towards a general model of adolescent ego development. In D. K.Lapsley & F. C.Power (Eds.), Self, ego, and identity: Integrative approaches (pp. 109–129). New York: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-7834-5_6, & (1999). Racial/ethnic group differences in the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States: A network explanation. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 26, 250–261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007435-199905000-00003, & (2001). Perceived racism and self and system blame attribution: Consequences for longevity. Ethnicity and Disease, 11, 711–721., , & (1999). Psychobiological risk factors for vulnerability to psychostimulants in human adolescents and animal models. Neuroscience and Biobehavior Reviews, 23(7), 993–1010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0149-7634%2899%2900032-9, , , & (2001). School-based aggression prevention programs for young children: Current status and implications for violence prevention. School Psychology Review, 30(3), 344–362., , , , & (1999). Evidence suggesting the role of specific genetic factors in cigarette smoking. Health Psychology, 18(1), 14–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6184.108.40.206, , , , , , et al. (Elucidating the role of genetic factors in smoking behavior and nicotine dependence. American Journal of Medical Genetics., & . (in press). [Page 427]2000). Interacting effects of the serotonin transporter gene and neuroticism in smoking practices and nicotine dependence. Molecular Psychiatry, 5, 189–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4000672, , , , , & (2001). Tryptophan hydroxylase gene variant and smoking behavior. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 105(6), 518–520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.1476, , , , , & , et al. (1994). Psychological issues in genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility. Archives of Internal Medicine, 154(6), 609–616. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1994.00420060027003, & (1997). Incorporating biomarkers of exposure and genetic susceptibility into smoking cessation treatment: Effects on smoking-related cognitions, emotions, and behavior change. Health Psychology, 16(1), 87–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6220.127.116.11, , , , , , et al. (Applying genetic approaches to the treatment of nicotine dependence. Oncogene., & (in press).1998). The role of the serotonin transporter gene in cigarette smoking. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 7, 253–255., , , , , , et al. (2000). Beyond balance: Toward a model of emotion-specific influences on judgment and choice. Cognition and Emotion, 14(4), 473–493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026999300402763, & (2000). Toward a science for and of the people: Promoting civil society through the application of developmental science. Child Development, 71, 11–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00113, , & (1994). Suicide and mental disorders: A case-control study of youth men. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151(7), 1063–1068., , , , , , & (2000). Impulsivity, aggression, and serotonin: A molecular psychobiological perspective. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 18(5), 581–604. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1099-0798%28200010%2918:5%3C581::AID-BSL411%3E3.0.CO;2-L, & (1991). Gambling and pathological gambling among university students. Addictive Behaviors: An International Journal, 16, 517–527. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603%2891%2990059-Q, , , , , , et al. (1987). Pathological gambling among high school students. Addictive Behaviors, 12(2), 129–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603%2887%2990019-0, & (1992). Religiosity, suicide and homicide: A cross-national examination. Psychological Reports, 71, 1282.(1993). Suicide rates in Canada before and after tightening firearm control laws. Psychological Reports, 72, 787–790. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1918.104.22.1687, & (1986). The influence of gun control laws on personal violence. Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 315–318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1520-6629%28198607%2914:3%3C315::AID-JCOP2290140310%3E3.0.CO;2-1, & (1972). The costs to the nation of inadequate education (Report to the Select Committee on Equal Education Opportunity of the U.S. Senate). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.(1995). Impact of a school-based AIDS prevention program on risk and protective behavior for newly sexually active students. Journal of School Health, 65(4), 145–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.1995.tb06218.x, , , , , & (1999). Level of current and past adolescent cigarette smoking as predictors of future substance use disorders in young adulthood. Addiction, 94, 913–921. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.1999.94691313.x, , & (1993). Psychosocial characteristics of adolescents with a history of suicide attempt. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 60–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199301000-00009, , & (1994). Psychosocial risk factors for future adolescent suicide attempts. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 297–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.62.2.297, , & ([Page 428]1996). Adolescent psychopathology: III. The clinical consequences of comorbidity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 510–519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199504000-00018, , & (2001). Gender differences in suicide attempts from adolescence to young adulthood. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(4), 427–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200104000-00011, , , & (1981). Depression related cognitions: Antecedents or consequences? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 213–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.90.3.213, , , & (1988). Attempted suicide in youth: Its relationship to school achievement, educational goals and socioeconomic status. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16(4), 459–471. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00914175, , , , & (2000). Association analysis of polymorphisms in the DRD4 gene and heroin abuse in Chinese subjects. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 96(5), 616–621. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1096-8628%2820001009%2996:5%3C616::AID-AJMG6%3E3.0.CO;2-7, , , , , , et al. (2000). Perceived parental monitoring and health risk behaviors among urban low-income African-American children and adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 27, 43–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X%2899%2900077-4, , & (2002). Impact of perceived parental monitoring on adolescent risk behavior over 4 years. Journal of Adolescent Health, 27, 49–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X%2800%2900092-6, , & (1980). Training for calibration. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 149–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2880%2990052-5, & (2000). Support for allelic association of a polymorphic site in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene with risk for alcohol dependence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(12), 2045–2047. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.157.12.2045, , , , , , et al. (Eleven principles of effective character education. Washington, DC: Character Education Partnership. Retrieved June 25, 2002, from http://www.character.org/principles., , & (n.d.).2000). Long-term outcomes of an abstinence-based, small-group pregnancy prevention program in New York City schools. Family Planning Perspectives, 32(5), 237–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2648177, , , , & (1997). The culture of adolescent risk-taking. New York: Guilford Press.(1998). Adolescent males' combined use of condoms with partners' use of female contraceptive methods. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 2(4), 201–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022304322327, , & (1998). Juvenile delinquency treatment: A meta-analytic inquiry into the variability of effects. In T. D.Cook (Ed.), Meta-analyses for explanation: A casebook (pp. 83–127). New York: Russell Sage.(2001). Why do they start it? Explaining reported early-teen sexual activity. Sociological Forum, 16(4), 703–729. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1012890013666, & (1994). Social-cognitive processes of severely violent, moderately aggressive and nonaggressive boys. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 366–374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.62.2.366, & (1991). Antisocial behavior: More enduring than changeable? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 393–397. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199105000-00007(Loeber, R., & Farrington, D. P. (Eds.). (1998). Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814522437401998). Multiple risk factors for multiproblem boys: Co-occurrence of delinquency, substance use, attention deficit, conduct problems, physical aggression, covert behavior, depressed mood, and shy/withdrawn behavior. In R.Jessor (Ed.), New perspectives on adolescent risk behavior. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press., , , & ([Page 429]2000). Findings on disruptive behavior disorders from the first decade of the developmental trends study. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 3, 37–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009567419190, , , , & (1996). Out of control: Visceral influences on behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 65, 272–292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1996.0028(2001). A visceral account of addiction. In P.Slovic (Ed.), Smoking: Risk, perception, & policy (pp. 188–215). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232652(Loewenstein, G. F., & Elster, J. (Eds.). (1992). Choice over time. New York: Russell Sage.2001). Risk as feelings. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 267–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.127.2.267, , , & (1991). Effects of restrictive licensing of handguns on homicide and suicide in the District of Columbia. New England Journal of Medicine, 325, 1615–1620. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199112053252305, , , & (2002). Effects of the Seattle Social Development project on sexual behavior, pregnancy, birth, and sexually transmitted disease outcomes by age 21 years. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 156(5), 438–447., , , , & (1999). Genetic variation of CYP2A6, smoking, and risk of cancer. Lancet, 353, 898–899. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2898%2904984-8, , , & (1882). The life of Mason Long, converted gambler ((5th ed.). Fort Wayne, IN: Mason Long.2000). Suicide mortality in Finland declined by 21% from 1990 to 1998. Psychiatria Fennica, 31, 5.(1987). Between hope and fear: The psychology of risk. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 20, 255–295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601%2808%2960416-5(1994). Program context, sensation seeking, and attention to televised anti-drug public service announcements. Human Communication Research, 20(3), 390–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1994.tb00328.x, , , , , & (1986). Pathological gambling: Psychosomatic, emotional and marital difficulties as reported by the gambler. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 2, 40–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01019933, & (1988). Pathological gambling: Psychosomatic, emotional and marital difficulties as reported by the spouse. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 4, 13–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01043525, & (1995). Tossin' and tweakin': Women's consciousness in the crack culture. In A.Aauire (Ed.), Women and AIDS: Psychological perspectives (pp. 90–106). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., , , & (2000). Homicide and suicide rates associated with implementation of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act. JAMA, 284, 585–591. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.284.5.585, & (2002). Genetic and functional analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the beta2-neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 4(1), 115–125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14622200110098419, , , , , & (1990). Effects of state welfare, abortion, and family planning policies on premarital childbearing among adolescents. Family Planning Perspectives, 22, 246–251. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2135680, & (1996). Early identification of chronic offenders: Who is the fledgling psychopath? Psychological Bulletin, 120, 209–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.120.2.209(1996). Thought contagion: How belief spreads through society. New York: Basic Books.(1997). Sequence of drug use among serious drug users: Typical vs. atypical progression. Drug and Alcohol Dependence45, 185–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0376-8716%2897%2900032-X, , & (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction. In E. M.Hetberington (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol 4. Socialization, personality and social development (pp. 1–101). New York: John Wiley., & ([Page 430]2001). “I think condoms are good but, aai, I hate those things.”Social Science & Medicine, 52(11), 1613–1627. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2800%2900272-0, & (1999). The genetics of smoking persistence in men and women: A multicultural study. Behavior Genetics, 29, 423–431. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021674804714, , , , , & (1983). Protection motivation and self-efficacy: A revised theory of fear appeals and attitude change. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 469–479. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2883%2990023-9, & (1992). Gambling in young offenders. Criminal Behavioral and Mental Health, 2, 300–308., , & (1994). Outcomes of intensive AIDS education for male adolescent drug users in jail. Journal of Adolescent Health, 15(6), 457–463. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1054-139X%2894%2990492-L, , & (1985). Models for innovation diffusion. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & (1994). Preventing HIV infection among adolescents: Evaluation of a school-based education program. Preventive Medicine, 23(4), 409–417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1994.1056, , , , , , et al. (2000). Explaining demographic trends in teenage fertility: 1980–1995. Family Planning Perspectives, 32(4), 166–175. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2648233, , , , , & (1997). A synthesis of current findings regarding neurobiological correlates and treatment of suicidal behavior. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 836, 352–363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1997.tb52370.x, & (2001). Drug use in adolescence: the relationship between opportunity, initial use and continuation of use of four illicit drugs in a cohort of 14–16-year-olds in South London. Drugs-Education, Prevention and Policy, 8, 397–405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687630110046144, , , , , & (1999). Aggression and anger-related traits associated with a polymorphism of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene. Biological Psychiatry, 45(5), 603–614. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223%2898%2900375-8, , , , , & (1999). Reexamining adolescent suicidal ideation: A developmental perspective applied to a diverse population. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 28, 121–138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021628709915, , & (1969). Social forces in urban suicide. Homewood, IL: Dorsey.(2001). Genetic risk and behavioural change. British Medical Journal, 322, 1056–1059. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7293.1056, & (1991). Mental disorders in adolescent suicide. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 834–839. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1991.01810330058009, , , & (1994). Psychosocial stressors more common in adolescent suicides with alcohol abuse compared with depressive adolescent suicides. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33(4), 490–497. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199405000-00007, , , & (1993). Precipitant stressors in adolescent suicide. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(6), 1178–1183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199311000-00010, , & (2001). Association study of serotonin transporter gene regulatory region polymorphism and alcoholism. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 105(5), 446–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.1405, , , , , & (2001, November 15). Testimony before the House Ways and Means Subcommittee on Human Resources Hearing on Teen Pregnancy Prevention., & (2000). The relationship between posttraumatic stress symptomatology and suicidal behavior in school-based adolescents. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 30(2), 91–103.(2000). Using randomized designs to evaluate a client-centered program to prevent adolescent pregnancy. Family Planning Perspectives, 32(5), 227–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2648176, & (1993). Responses to commentaries on advances in empirically-based assessment. School Psychology Review, 22, 334–342.([Page 431]1994). Comorbidity of empirically based syndromes in matched general populations and clinical samples. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 834–839. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1994.tb01814.x, & (1992). Sex and age effects on the inheritance of alcohol problems: A twin study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101(1), 3–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.101.1.3, , & (2002). A picture of misery: The truth about smoking, in smokers' own words: No Smoking Day 2002. Retrieved January 3, 2003, from http://www.ash.org.uk/html/cessation/nsd2002.html.(1998). Incidence and predictors of suicidal behaviors in a longitudinal sample of young adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(6), 612–619. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199806000-00011, , , , , & (2001). Effects of a cognitive-behavioral HIV prevention intervention: HIV negative male substance abusers in a VA residential treatment. AIDS Education and Prevention, 12(1), 91–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/aeap.22.214.171.12421, , , & (1988). Psychosocial effects of screening for somatic risk: The Swedish alpha 1 antitrypsin experience. Thorax, 43(7), 505–507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thx.43.7.505, , & (2002). Understanding gender differences in condom use self-efficacy: Youth in urban Cameroon. AIDS Education and Prevention, 13(1), 62–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/aeap.126.96.36.19936, & (2002). In schools we trust. Boston: Beacon Press.(1998). National evaluation of Learn and Serve America school and community-based programs. Waltham, MA: Center for Human Resources, Brandeis University.(Psychosocial impact of serologic diagnosis of herpes simplex virus type 2: A qualitative assessment. Sexually Transmitted Infections., , , , , , , & (in press).1999). Cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, other risk behaviors, and American youth. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 56, 205–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0376-8716%2899%2900034-4, , , , & (1996). News media impact on the ingredients of presidential evaluations: A program of research on the priming hypothesis. In D. C.Mutz, P. M.Sniderman, & R. A.Brody (Eds.), Political persuasion and attitude change (pp. 79–99). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press., & (1997). Sexual initiation with older male partners and subsequent HIV risk behavior among female adolescents. Family Planning Perspectives, 29, 212–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2953397, , & (1998). Patterns of condom use among adolescents: The impact of mother-adolescent communication. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 1542–1544. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.88.10.1542, , , & (1997). Religiosity and depression: Ten-year follow-up of depressed mothers and offspring. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1416–1425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199710000-00024, , , & (1999). The relationship between firearms and suicide: A review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 4, 59–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1359-1789%2897%2900057-8, & (1995). Alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and sex: An analysis of risky behaviors among young adults. International Journal of the Addictions, 30, 239–258., , , & (1999). Dopamine receptor genes are associated with age at first sexual intercourse. Journal of Biological Science, 31 (part 1), 43–54., , , , , (1993). Perceptual, attributional and affective processes in the perceptions of vulnerability through the life span. In N. J.Bell & R. W.Bell (Eds.), Adolescent risk taking (pp. 55–65). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(2002a). Age differences in risk judgment among adolescents and adults. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12, 399–422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1532-7795.00039, & ([Page 432]2002b). Perceptions of risk and vulnerability. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31, 10–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X%2802%2900412-3, & (2002). Deaths: Final Data for 2000. National vital statistics reports (Vol. 50, No. 15). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics., , , , & (1984). Convergences and challenges in the search for consistency. American Psychologist, 39, 351–364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.39.4.351(1999). Measures of impulsivity in cigarette smokers and non-smokers. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 146(4), 455–464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/PL00005491(2001). Win or lose, Internet gambling stakes are high. JAMA, 285, 1005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.285.8.1005(1990). An outcome evaluation of project model health: A middle school health promotion program. Health Education Quarterly, 17(1), 37–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819001700106, & (1998). The Healthy for Life Project: Sexual risk behavior outcomes. AIDS Education and Prevention, 10(2), 128–148., & (1993). Adolescent-limited and life-course persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.100.4.674(1982). Private crisis, public cost: Policy perspective on teenage childbearing. Washington, DC: Urban Institute., & (1998). A statistical portrait of adolescent sex, contraception, and childbearing. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy., , & (2001). What are good child outcomes? In A.Thornton (Ed.), The well-being of children and families: Research and data needs (pp. 59–84). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press., , , & (1995). Adolescent pregnancy prevention programs: Interventions and evaluations. Washington, DC: Child Trends., , & (1995). Adolescent pregnancy prevention programs: Interventions and evaluations. Washington, DC: Child Trends., , , , & (2002). “Adolescent parenthood.” In M.Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Vol. 3. Being and becoming a parent (pp. 173–215). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (1997). Gambling activities of young Australians: Developing a model of behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13, 207–236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1024979232287, & (1995). Majority of secondary school children buy tickets. British Medical Journal, 311, 1225–1226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.311.7014.1225c(1993). Risk factors for adolescent suicidal behavior: Loss, insufficient familial support, and hopelessness. Adolescence, 28, 851–865., , & (1987). The role of importance, novelty, and plausibility in producing belief change. Communication Monographs, 54(4), 436–442. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637758709390243, & (2002). Modeling condom-use stage of change in low-income, single, urban women. Research in Nursing & Health, 25(2), 122–134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nur.10026, , & (1995). Epidemiology of suicidal behavior. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 25(1), 22–35.(1970). Newspaper influence on suicide. Archives of General Psychiatry, 23, 143–148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1970.01750020047006(2001). A randomized controlled trial of postcrisis suicide prevention. Psychiatric Services, 52, 828–833. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.52.6.828, & (2002). Creating communities that monitor the well-being of America's youth. Manuscript in preparation., & (Mrazek, P. J., & Haggerty, R. J. (Eds.). (1994). Reducing risks for mental disorders: Frontiers for preventive intervention research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.1996). The long-term impact of the physical, emotional, and sexual abuse of children: A community study. Child Abuse and Neglect, 20, 7–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2895%2900112-3, , , , & ([Page 433]2002, May 27). Risky business. U.S. News & World Report, pp. 42–49.(1996). The benefits of positive illusions: Idealization and the construction of satisfaction in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 79–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.52, , & (2002). Discrete emotions and persuasion. In J. P.Dillard & M.Pfau (Eds.), The persuasion handbook: Developments in theory and practice (pp. 289–308). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412976046(National Academy of Sciences. (1986). Confronting AIDS. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. (1997). Whatever happened to childhood? The problem of teen pregnancy in the United States. Washington, DC: Author.National Center for Health Statistics. (1998). Vital statistics of the United States: Vol. 2. Mortality. Hyattsville, MD: Author.National Center for Health Statistics. (1999). Death rates for 358 selected causes, by 5-year age groups, race, and sex: United States (Worktable 292a, Worktable GM292A_1,2001). Retrieved January 3, 2003, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/statab/VS00199.TABLE292A.pl1.pdf.National Center for Health Statistics. (2000). Injury mortality reports. Retrieved January 3, 2003, from http://webapp.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/nfirates2000.html.National Commission on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. (1993). Behavioral and social sciences and the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.National Health Survey. (2000). Summary of findings from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies, NHSDA.National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2001). Traffic safety facts 2000 – Children. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.National Human Genome Research Institute. (2001, September). Issue update: Employment discrimination. Retrieved October, 2000, from http://www.nhgri.nih.gov/policy_and_public_affairs/legislation/workplace.htm.National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism. (1996). State trends in alcohol mortality, 1979–1992. Rockville, MD: Author.National Institutes of Health. (1997). Intervention to prevent HIV risk behaviors (Consensus development panel statement). Bethesda, MD: Author.National Opinion Research Center. (1999). Gambling impact and behavior study: Report to the National Gambling Impact Study Commission. Chicago, IL: National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago.National Research Council. (1990). AIDS: The second decade. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.National Research Council. (1999). Pathological gambling: A critical review. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.National Research Council. (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.National Telecommunication and Information Administration and Economics and Statistics Administration. (2002). Falling through the Net: Toward digital inclusion. Retrieved July 31, 2002, from http://www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/?digitaldivide/?execsumfttn00.htm.1991). Lifestyles and health risks of collegiate athletes. Journal of Family Practice, 33(6), 585–590., & (1998). Regional suicide rates in the Netherlands: Does religion still play a role? International Journal of Epidemiology, 27, 466–472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/27.3.466(1999). Suicide, religion, and socioeconomic conditions. An ecological study in 26 countries, 1990. Journal of Epidemiological Community Health, 53, 204–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.53.4.204, & (1998). Suicide acceptability in African- and white Americans: The role of religion. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 186(1), 12–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-199801000-00003, , & ([Page 434]1997). Microanalysis of adolescent suicide attempters and ideators during the acute suicide episode. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(11), 1512–1519., , , , & (2002). Association between self-reported childhood sexual abuse and adverse psychosocial outcomes: Results from a twin study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 139–145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.59.2.139, , , , , , et al. (Networks for Youth Development. (1998). The handbook of positive youth outcomes. New York: Fund for the City of New York.1988). Consequences of adolescent drug use: Impact on the lives of young adults. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., & (1986). Risk factors for drug use among adolescents: Concurrent and longitudinal analyses. American Journal of Public Health, 76, 525–531. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.76.5.525, , & (1984). Mothers' influence on the sexual behavior of their teenage children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 49, 235–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352296, & (1996). Psychiatric disorders in a birth cohort of young adults: Prevalence, comorbidity, clinical significance, and new case incidence from ages 11 to 21. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 552–562. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.64.3.552, , , , , & (1991). Girls Incorporated preventing adolescent pregnancy: A program development and research project. New York: Girls Incorporated., & (1998). A tryptophan hydroxylase gene marker for suicidality and alcoholism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55(7), 593–602. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.55.7.593, , , , , , et al. (1993). The D2 dopamine receptor gene: A review of association studies in alcoholism. Behavior Genetics, 23(2), 119–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01067416(2000). The DRD2 gene in psychiatric and neurological disorders and its pheno-types. Pharmacogenomics, 1(3), 309–333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/146224184.108.40.2069(1998). D2 and D4 dopamine receptor poplymorphisms and personality. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 81, 257–267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291096-8628%2819980508%2981:3%3C257::AID-AJMG10%3E3.0.CO;2-E, , , , , & (1994). D2 dopamine receptor gene and cigarette smoking: A reward gene? Medical Hypotheses, 42, 257–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-9877%2894%2990127-9, , , , , & , et al. (1982). Public school programs for the emotionally disturbed: An overview. In M.Noel & N.Haring (Eds.), Progress of change: Issues in educating the emotionally disturbed (Vol. 2, pp. 11–28). Seattle: University of Washington Press.(1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of the depressive episode. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 569–582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.100.4.569(2000). Ruminative responses predict depressive disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 504–511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.109.3.504(North American Association of State and Provincial Lotteries. (2002a). FY00 & FY01 sales and profits. Retrieved July 31, 2002, from http://www.naspl.org/sales&profits.html.North American Association of State and Provincial Lotteries. (2002b). Lottery history. Retrieved July 26, 2002, from http://www.naspl.org/history.html.1996). The influence of positive affect on the decision rule in risk situations: Focus on outcome (and especially avoidance of loss) rather than probability. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 66, 59–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1996.0038, , , & (2001). Early sexual initiation and subsequent sex-related risks among urban minority youth: The reach for health study. Family Planning Perspectives, 33, 268–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3030194, , & (1999). The effectiveness of the Reach for Health community youth service learning program in [Page 435]reducing early and unprotected sex among urban middle school students. American Journal of Public Health, 89(2), 176–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.89.2.176, , , , , , et al. (2002). Long-term reductions in sexual initiation and sexual activity among urban middle schoolers in the Reach for Health service learning program. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31, 93–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X%2801%2900389-5, , , , , , et al. (1986). Peer cluster theory: Drugs and the adolescent. Journal of Counseling and Development, 65, 17–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1986.tb01219.x, & (Office of National AIDS Policy. (1996). Youth and HIV/AIDS: An American agenda. Washington, DC: Author.1987). Prevention of behavioral and emotional disorders in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 28, 9–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1987.tb00647.x(2000). Identification of a polymorphism in the promoter region of DRD4 associated with the human novelty seeking personality trait. Molecular Psychiatry, 5(1), 64–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4000563, , , , , & (1999). Prevalence, 20-month incidence and outcome of unipolar depressive disorders in a community sample of adolescents. Psychological Medicine, 29, 655–668. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291799008454, , & (1998). The promise of home visitation: Results of two randomized trials. Journal of Community Psychology, 26(1), 5–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291520-6629%28199801%2926:1%3C5::AID-JCOP2%3E3.0.CO;2-Y, , , , , & (1986). Effects of family-planning programs for teenagers on adolescent birth and pregnancy rates. Family Perspective, 20(3), 153–170., & (1993). Bullying at school. Malden, UK: Blackwell.(1995). The co-morbidity of violence-related behaviors with health-risk behaviors in a population of high school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 16, 216–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1054-139X%2894%2900067-O, , , & (1996). Behavioral intervention to increase condom use among high-risk female adolescents. Journal of Pediatrics, 128(2), 288–295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3476%2896%2970413-4, , , & (1988). The generality of deviance in late adolescence and early adulthood. American Sociological Review, 53, 81–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095734, , , & (1999). Parents, peers, and prototypes: Antecedents of adolescent alcohol expectancies, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related life problems in rural youth. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 13, 183–197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.13.3.183, , , & (1995). Self-esteem deficits and suicidal tendencies among adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 919–928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199507000-00016, , , & (1999). Effects of a replication of a multi-component model for preventing adolescent pregnancy in three Kansas communities. Family Planning Perspectives, 31(4), 182–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2991591, , , , , , et al. (Effective mass media strategies for drug abuse prevention campaigns. In W. J.Bukoski & Z.Sloboda (Eds.), Handbook of drug abuse theory, science and practice. New York: Plenum., & (in press).2001). Television campaigns and adolescent marijuana use: Tests on sensation-seeking targeting. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 291–296., , , , & (2002). Television campaigns and sensation seeking targeting of adolescent marijuana use: A controlled time series approach. In R. C.Hornik (Ed.), Public health communication: Evidence for behavior change. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., , , , & (1991). Sensation seeking, message sensation value, and drug use as mediators of PSA effectiveness. Health Communication, 3, 217–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327027hc0304_4, , , , , & ([Page 436]1995). Reaching at-risk populations in a mass media drug abuse prevention campaign: Sensation seeking as a targeting variable. Drugs and Society, 8(3/4), 29–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J023v08n03_04, , , , , & (2001). A meta-analysis of the published research on the effects of child sexual abuse. Journal of Psychology, 135, 17–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980109603677, , & (2002). Decision-making competence: An individual-differences approach. Manuscript in preparation., & (1983). Parental “affectionless control” as an antecedent to adult depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 138–147.(1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment: Are low-accepted children at risk? Psychological Bulletin, 102, 357–389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.102.3.357, & (1997). No association between polymorphisms in the human dopamine D3 and D4 receptors genes and alcoholism. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 74(3), 281–285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291096-8628%2819970531%2974:3%3C281::AID-AJMG8%3E3.0.CO;2-T, , , & (2000). Perceptions of the benefits and costs associated with condom use and unprotected sex among late adolescent college students. Journal of Adolescence, 23, 377–391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jado.2000.0326, , , & (1996). Similarities and differences across cultures: Questions to inform a third generation for health promotion research. Health Education Quarterly, 23, S142–S161., , & (2001). Serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to cocaine dependence among African-American individuals. Addiction Biology, 6(4), 337–345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13556210020077064, , , , , , et al. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia.(1986). Performance models for antisocial boys. American Psychologist, 41, 432–444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.41.4.432(1993). Orderly change in a stable world: The antisocial trait as a chimera. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 911–919. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.61.6.911(1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist, 44(2), 329–335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.2.329, , & (1992). Antisocial boys: A social interactional approach (Vol. 4). Eugene, OR: Castalia., , & (2001). Sampling instances of victimization in middle school: A methodological comparison. In J.Juvonen & S.Graham (Eds.), Peer harassment in school: The plight of the vulnerable and victimized (pp. 125–144). New York: Guilford Press.(1989). A multi-community trial for primary prevention of adolescent drug abuse: Effects on drug use prevalence. JAMA, 261, 3259–3266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1989.03420220073030, , , , , , et al (1989). Primary prevention of chronic diseases in adolescence: Effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project (MPP) on tobacco use. American Journal of Epidemiology, 130, 713–724., , , , , & (2000). Working with families in the era of HIV/AIDS. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & (2000). Greater sensitivity to subjective effects of nicotine in nonsmokers high in sensation seeking. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 8(4), 462–471. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1064-12220.127.116.112, , , , & (1986). Self-other judgments and perceived vulnerability to victimization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(3), 502–510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1682, & (1993). Background, conceptualization, and design of a community-wide research program on adolescent alcohol use: Project Northland. Health Education Research, 8, 125–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/8.1.125, , , , , , et al. ([Page 437]1996). Establishing the study of development as a dynamic force in health psychology. Health Psychology, 15, 155–157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-622.214.171.124(1995). Reviewing theories of adolescent substance use: Organizing pieces in the puzzle. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 67–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.1.67, , & (1998). Illicit substance use among adolescents: A matrix of prospective predictors. Substance Use & Misuse, 33(13), 2561–2604. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10826089809059341, , , , & (1999). Excessive discounting of delayed rewards in substance abusers with gambling problems. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 56(1), 25–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0376-8716%2899%2900010-1, & (2001). A behavioral approach to understanding and treating pathological gambling. Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 6, 177–183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/scnp.2001.22920, & (2001). Comparison of problem-gambling and non-problem-gambling youths seeking treatment for marijuana abuse. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1324–1331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200111000-00013, & (1986). The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In L.Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 19, pp. 123–205). Orlando, FL: Academic Press., & (1998). Peripheral serotonin measures in prepubertal psychiatric inpatients and normal children: Associations with suicidal behavior and its risk factors. Biological Psychiatry, 44, 568–577. http://dx.doi.org/10.1, , , , , & (