Rebuilding Urban Neighborhoods: Achievements, Opportunities, and Limits
Publication Year: 1999
Despite long standing efforts going back to the turn of the century when city planning and other reform movements emerged, the poverty and social problems of distressed urban neighborhoods in United States cities persist. This book looks at the progress that has taken place in many of the country's devastated areas. The book highlights examples of achievements made through community organizations and residents.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- The Decline of Urban Neighborhoods
- Federal Intervention
- Federal Cutbacks
- Cities and Distressed Neighborhoods: Case Studies
- Chapter 2: Federal Policy and Poor Urban Neighborhoods
- The Progressive Era
- The Liberal New Deal
- Urban Renewal
- The 1960s: Urban Riots and Ambitious Federal Programs
- A Shift to the Right: The New Federalism
- HUD and the Neighborhoods
- Lenders and Investment in Poor Neighborhoods: HMDA and CRA
- The 1992 Los Angeles Riot and Empowerment Zones
- Urban Redevelopment Initiatives
- Chapter 3: Atlanta: Peoplestown—Resilience and Tenacity Versus Institutional Hostility
- Early History
- Expressways and Neighborhood Destruction I
- Urban Renewal
- Peoplestown Organizes
- Expressways and Neighborhood Destruction II
- The Olympic Stadium
- Summerhill's Deal with the Regime
- Peoplestown Mobilizes Opposition
- The Consequences of Opposition
- Indigenous Development
- Future Prospects
- Chapter 4: Camden, New Jersey: Urban Decay and the Absence of Public-Private Partnerships
- Mayor Randy Primas Tries to Rebuild Camden
- The Administration of Dr. Arnold Webster
- How Camden Might Improve its Record in Urban Revitalization
- Chapter 5: Chicago: Community Building on Chicago's West Side-North Lawndale, 1960–1997
- A History of North Lawndale
- Civil Rights and Community Organizing
- Planning and a Community Development Corporation
- Faith, Markets, and Community Building
- Lawndale Christian Development Corporation
- Homan Square
- The Steans Family Foundation
- North Lawndale's Past and Future
- Chapter 6: Cleveland: The Hough and Central Neighborhoods—Empowerment Zones and Other Urban Policies
- Cleveland: An Overview
- Empowerment Zones
- Chapter 7: Detroit: Staying the Course—Detroit's Struggle to Revitalize the Inner City
- Detroit's Revitalization Experience: Common Themes
- Urban Redevelopment
- Urban Renewal
- The War on Poverty
- Model Cities
- Community Development Block Grant Program
- Public Housing
- The Empowerment Zone
- Private Sector Partnerships
- Citizen Participation
- Can Archer Deliver?
- Can Programs Make a Difference?
- The City and Support of Poor Neighborhoods
- Chapter 8: East St. Louis, Illinois: Promoting Community Development Through Empowerment Planning
- The Economic Collapse of East St. Louis
- Initiating the Empowerment Process in Winstanley/Industry Park
- Formulating Neighborhood Goals for Winstanley/Industry Park
- Creating the Illinois Avenue Playground
- Devising the Neighborhood Stabilization Plan
- Establishing the East St. Louis Farmers Market
- Improving Winstanley/Industry Park's Housing Stock
- Building Organizational Capacity for WIPNO
- Predicting the Future of Local Community-Based Planning Efforts
- Chapter 9: Los Angeles: Borders to Poverty—Empowerment Zones and Spatial Politics of Development
- Supplemental Empowerment Zone (SEZ) Defined
- Los Angeles Poverty Areas and the Emergent Supplemental Empowerment Zone
- Development Efforts and their Failure Pattern
- Summary Discussion and Conclusion
- Chapter 10: Miami: The Overtown Neighborhood—A Generation of Revitalization Strategies Gone Awry
- Immigration, Politics, and Economics in Miami and Dade County
- Discrimination, Segregation, and Interracial Mob Violence
- Historical Patterns, Urban Renewal, and Highways
- Population and Social Characteristics in Overtown
- Stimulating Community Reinvestment
- Conclusion: Of Power, Purpose, and Persistence
- A Future for Overtown?
- Chapter 11: New York: Challenges Facing Neighborhoods in Distress
- The Role of Government
- The Most Distressed Neighborhoods: The Case of Red Hook
- Act Three: The Uncertain Future
- The Empowerment Zone
- Chapter 12: Future Prospects for Distressed Urban Neighborhoods
- What Have We Learned?
- Progressive Municipal Government
- Federal Devolution
- The Urban Policy Debate
- People versus Places Revisited
- Rebuilding Distressed Urban Neighborhoods
- The Future Outlook
Cities & Planning Series[Page ii]
The Cities & Planning Series is designed to provide essential information and skills to students and practitioners involved in planning and public policy. We hope the series will encourage dialogue among professionals and academics on key urban planning and policy issues. Topics to be explored in the series may include growth management, economic development, housing, budgeting and finance for planners, environmental planning, GIS, small-town planning, community development, and community design.
Roger W. Caves, Graduate City Planning Program, San Diego State University
Robert J. Waste, Department of Political Science, California State University at Chico
Margaret Wilder, Department of Geography and Planning, State University of New York at Albany
Advisory Board of Editors
Edward J. Blakely, University of Southern California
Robin Boyle, Wayne State University
Linda Dalton, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
George Galster, Wayne State University
Eugene Grigsby, University of California, Los Angeles
W. Dennis Keating, Cleveland State University
Norman Krumholz, Cleveland State University
John Landis, University of California, Berkeley
Gary Pivo, University of Washington
Daniel Rich, University of Delaware
Catherine Ross, Georgia Institute of Technology
Copyright © 1999 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Main entry under title:
Rebuilding urban neighborhoods: Achievements, opportunities, and limits / edited by W. Dennis Keating, Norman Krumholz.
p. cm. — (Cities and planning; v. 5)
Includes bibliograhical references and index.
ISBN 0-7619-0691-6 (cloth: alk. paper)
ISBN 0-7619-0692-4 (pbk.: alk. paper)
1. Urban renewal—United States. I. Keating, W. Dennis (William Dennis) II. Krumholz, Norman. III. Series: Cities and planning series; v. 5.
00 01 02 03 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Acquiring Editor: Catherine Rossbach
Editorial Assistant: Heidi Van Middlesworth
Production Editor: Diana E. Axelsen
Editorial Assistant: Nevair Kabakian
Typesetter/Designer: Janelle LeMaster
Indexer: Mary Mortensen
Series Editors' Introduction[Page xi]
The study of cities is a dynamic, multifaceted area of inquiry that combines a number of disciplines, perspectives, and time periods, as well as numerous actors. Urbanists alternate between examining one issue through the eyes of a single discipline and looking at the same issue through the lenses of a number of disciplines to arrive at a holistic view of cities and urban issues. The books in this series look at cities from a multidisciplinary perspective, affording students and practitioners a better understanding of the multiplicity of issues facing planning and cities, and of emerging policies and techniques aimed at addressing those issues. The series focuses on traditional planning topics such as economic development, management and control of growth, and geographic information systems but also includes broader treatments of conceptual issues embedded in urban policy and planning theory.
The impetus for the Cities & Planning Series originates in our reaction to a common recurring event—the ritual selection of course textbooks. Although we all routinely select textbooks for our classes, many of us are never completely satisfied with the offerings. Our dissatisfaction [Page xii]stems from the fact that most books are written for either an academic or practitioner audience. Moreover, on occasion, it appears as if this gap continues to widen. We wanted to develop a multidisciplinary series of manuscripts that would bridge the gap between academia and professional practice. The books are designed to provide valuable information to students/instructors and to practitioners by going beyond the narrow confines of traditional disciplinary boundaries to offer new insights into the urban field.
Dennis Keating and Norman Krumholz lead a distinguished group of authors in the timely and provocative text Rebuilding Urban Neighborhoods. They succeed in avoiding the usual pitfalls of edited texts by providing a coherent framework for understanding the limitations of urban policy, and by presenting a diverse yet complementary set of case studies that reveal the reality of community revitalization efforts to date. The case studies are rich, original discussions of local experiences in community rebuilding. Whether exploring the contradictions of efforts to revive South Central Los Angeles or negotiating the politics of Atlanta's Olympic Stadium project, the authors succeed in extending our understanding of the common threats and potential of urban communities to rebuild their social and economic foundations. The cases provide a portrait of the distinct character of individual communities, but they reveal even more vividly the commonality of human struggle and resilience in the face of daunting challenges. The book takes us on a journey through some of America's most important policy terrain and challenges us to consider new pathways of thought and action.—San Diego State University—California State University at Chico—University of Delaware
The late 20th century in the United States can be regarded as the best and worst of times. The U.S. economy continues a historically protracted period of prosperity and growth, the Cold War is over and the hopes for peace are more optimistic and realistic, and a new millennium beckons. Yet, many whose jobs have been eliminated or who are not prepared for work in the information age are losing ground. The real wages of most American workers have been stagnant over the past two decades, while the wealthy have grown more so. The gap between rich and poor has been widening. Despite advances in racial understanding, the United States remains a racially divided society in all too many ways. Racial preference policies have become a political lightning rod. An attempted national dialogue on race in 1998 failed to take off. Many American cities have redeveloped their downtowns, reshaping their skylines, riverfronts, and harbors at enormous public expense, yet they have neglected neighborhoods and concentrations of poverty that have grown. The gulf between affluent newer suburbs and declining central cities remains a continuing phenomenon across most metropolitan areas.[Page xiv]
This book seeks to understand the prospects for more successfully addressing these persistent urban problems in some of the most distressed and poorest neighborhoods in American cities. We look at the history of these neighborhoods and past efforts, mostly funded by the federal government, to solve these problems. In a conservative era of distrust of government when few national political leaders address urban problems, and when federal budget balancing, deregulation, and devolution of responsibility from Washington, D.C., to states and local government are all the vogue, it is difficult to see how such serious issues can be resolved. Almost certainly, there will be fewer public resources available to address persistent poverty in inner-city neighborhoods.
As we and the contributors recount, however, there has been some progress in many of these neighborhoods. Even in devastated areas like the South Bronx in New York City, there are promising signs of revitalization. The key to successful revitalization efforts has been the participation of residents and of community organizations and institutions. Most prominent have been community development corporations (CDCs) and churches. These organizations have struggled against these discouraging urban trends and what seems to be indifference on the part of government, media, and those who do not reside in central cities. In the face of heavy odds, they have achieved successes.
This book highlights some examples of these achievements. The contributors are also realistic in their appraisal of the difficulties facing the communities profiled and their residents. It is our hope that there will once again be serious attention paid to the still urgent urban crisis.
We would like to acknowledge the excellent editorial guidance provided by Professor Margaret Wilder (University of Delaware), one of the editors of the Cities & Planning Series. We also thank Catherine Rossbach and the Sage Publications staff for their support. Harold Jackson of the Cleveland State University College of Law staff produced the manuscript.
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