Raymond Williams on Culture & Society: Essential Writings

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Edited by: Jim McGuigan

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    About the Authors

    Raymond Williams (1921–1988) came from a working-class background in the Welsh Border Country and became a professor at the University of Cambridge. He was a tank commander during the Second World War. In the 1950s he worked in adult education, during which time he published his most celebrated book, Culture and Society 1780–1950 (1958). He published many non-fiction books and wrote several novels, including Border Country (1960) and Second Generation (1964), and also plays. One of the leading socialist intellectuals in Britain from the late 1950s until his rather early death in the late 1980s, Williams was a master of thought comparable to great European continental theorists such as Pierre Bourdieu and Jurgen Habermas, with both of whom he had a great deal in common. During his career, Williams's work became increasingly interdisciplinary, branching out from the humanities and into the social sciences, especially sociology. He was also a major inspiration for the development of cultural studies and media studies. Especially notable among his later books are Television – Technology and Cultural Form (1974), Keywords (1976), The Country and the City (1975), Marxism and Literature (1977), Culture (1981) and Towards 2000 (1983). Williams eventually named his distinctive perspective on modern culture and society, ‘cultural materialism’, of which there are a great many exponents around the world today.

    Jim McGuigan is Professor of Cultural Analysis in the Department of Social Sciences at Loughborough University. He has written several book chapters and articles on Williams's work. In addition to editing Raymond Williams on Culture and Society, Jim has recently prepared a republication by Sage of Williams's book of the mid-1980s, Towards 2000, which had been written as a sequel to his earlier, The Long Revolution (1961). With the permission of the Williams Estate, the book has been re-entitled A Short Counter-Revolution – Towards 2000 Revisited. And, Jim has added a chapter that updates the original book with a survey of developments since 1983, particularly concerning the impact of neoliberalism, a phenomenon that was sighted early by Raymond Williams and named ‘Plan X’. Jim's other books include Cultural Populism (1992), Culture and the Public Sphere (1996), Modernity and Postmodern Culture (1999, 2006), Rethinking Cultural Policy (2004), Cool Capitalism (2009) and Cultural Analysis (2010).

    Acknowledgements

    I first came across Raymond Williams as an undergraduate student when I read his great book Culture and Society on a literature course. It was only when I studied for a research degree in sociology at the University of Leeds in the mid 1970s, however, that I really became aware of his importance for sociological work. The inspiration in this respect came from two fellow postgraduates, Steve Ryan and Derek ‘Mac’ McKiernan. Unlike me, they had not actually studied literature at university yet they were both hugely enthusiastic about Williams. Around the same time, I met Tom Steele, who was working for the Workers’ Educational Association and was also a Williams enthusiast. Tom hired Mac, Steve and myself to teach an evening class on communications and culture. I am still grateful to these old friends from Leeds for encouraging my early interest in Williams. Later in the 1970s, I had the honour of meeting Raymond Williams himself. In my experience, he was very approachable and an exceptionally interesting man with whom to talk.

    Although I identify mostly with cultural studies, I have for several years taught sociology in a social sciences department where the study of culture has been somewhat marginalised, to my regret. In consequence, I have found it quite difficult to teach about Williams's work and its significance for sociology as well as cultural studies. I came to the conclusion that an edited collection of Williams's most ‘sociological’ writings that call on little in the way of a broader cultural learning might make him more teachable in this context as well as reminding the social sciences in general of Williams's enduring relevance to the study of culture and society. I must thank his daughter, Merryn, for aiding in this project and also Mac and Marie Moran for checking my selection of texts. And, I thank Chris Rojek yet again, in this case for believing in the value of the Williams project and backing it at Sage.

    JimMcGuigan Leamington April 2013

    Further Acknowledgements

    The Editor and the Publishers would like to express their thanks to the following for permission to reprint the works of Raymond Williams.

    Culture is Ordinary – Originally published in McKenzie, N., ed., Convictions, MacGibbon & Kee, 1958. From Raymond Williams, Resources of Hope, Verso, 1989, pp. 3–18. Reprinted with kind permission of Verso.

    Mass, Masses and Mass Communication – Originally published in ‘Mass and Masses’, ‘Mass Communication’, from Raymond Williams, Culture and Society 1780–1950, Chatto & Windus, 1958, Penguin, 1961, pp. 287–294. Reprinted by permission of The Random House Group Limited and printed with permission from Culture and Society 1780–1950 by Raymond Williams. Copyright © 1983 Columbia University Press.

    Structure of Feeling and Selective Tradition – Originally published in Raymond Williams, The Long Revolution, Chatto & Windus, 1961. Penguin, 1965, pp. 64–88. Reprinted with kind permission by The Random House Group Limited and Parthian Books/the Library of Wales.

    Advertising – The Magic System – Originally published in New Left Review/Listener, 1960/1969. From Raymond Williams, Problems in Materialism and Culture, Verso, 1980, pp. 170–195. Reproduced by kind permission of Verso.

    Communication Systems – Originally published in Communications (Third Edition), 1976, Penguin, pp. 129–137. Copyright © 1976 Raymond Williams. Reproduced by permission of Penguin Books Ltd.

    The Idea of a Common CultureOriginally published in Eagleton, T. and B. Whicker, eds,From Culture to Revolution – The Slant Symposium, 1967. From Raymond Williams, Resources of Hope, Verso, 1989, pp. 32–38. Reprinted with kind permission of Verso.

    Social Darwinism – Originally published in Benthal, J. ed., The Limits of Human Nature, Allen Lane, 1973. From Raymond Williams, Problems in Materialism and Culture, Verso, 1980, pp. 86–102. Reprinted with kind permission of the Estate of Raymond Williams and with kind permission of Verso.

    Base and Superstructure in Marxist Cultural Theory – Originally published in New Left Review 82, 1973. From Raymond Williams, Problems in Materialism and Culture, Verso, 1980, pp. 31–49. Reprinted with kind permission of Verso.

    The Technology and the Society – From Raymond Williams, Television – Technology and Cultural Form, Fontana, 1974, pp. 9–31. Reprinted with kind permission by the Estate of Raymond Williams and the Taylor & Francis Group.

    Drama in a Dramatized Society – From Raymond Williams, Writing in Society, Verso, 1984, pp. 11–21. Reprinted with kind permission of Verso.

    Communications as Cultural Science – Originally published in the Journal of Communication 24.3. September 1974, pp. 17–25. Copyright © 1974 Raymond Williams. Reprinted with kind permission of Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

    Developments in the Sociology of Culture – From Sociology 10, 1976, pp. 497–504. Copyright SAGE Publications, reprinted by kind permission.

    Realism and Non-naturalism – From Edinburgh International Television Festival 1977 Official Programme, Broadcast, 1977, pp. 30–32. Reprinted with kind permission of the Edinburgh International Television Festival.

    A Lecture on Realism – From Raymond Williams, A Lecture on Realism (1977) Screen 18.1: 61–74. Copyright © 1977 Raymond Williams. Reprinted with kind permission of Oxford University Press.

    Means of Communication as Means of Production – Originally published in Raymond Williams's Problems in Materialism and Culture, Verso, 1980, pp. 50–63. Reprinted with kind permission of Verso.

    Industrial’ and ‘Post-Industrial’ Society – From Raymond Williams, Towards 2000, Chatto & Windus, 1983, Penguin, 1985, pp. 83–101. Reprinted with kind permission by The Random House Group Limited.

    The Culture of Nations – From Raymond Williams, Towards 2000, Chatto & Windus, 1983, Penguin, 1985, pp. 177–199. Reprinted with kind permission by The Random House Group Limited.

    Resources for a Journey of Hope – From Raymond Williams, Towards 2000, Chatto & Windus, 1983, Penguin, 1985, pp. 241–269. Reprinted with kind permission by The Random House Group Limited.

    State Culture and Beyond – From Lisa Appignanesi, ed., Culture and the State, Institute of Contemporary Arts, 1984, pp. 3–5. Reprinted with kind permission of the Institute of Contemporary Arts (ICA).

    The Future of Cultural Studies – From Raymond Williams, The Politics of Modernism, Verso, 1989, pp. 151–162. Reprinted with kind permission of Verso.

    Introduction: Raymond Williams's Contributions to Cultural Studies and Sociology

    Raymond Williams was the greatest cultural theorist of modern Britain. Meaningfully, however, he called himself a ‘Welsh European’, thereby signalling his national and continental sense of identity.1 Born in 1921 in the Welsh Border Country, Williams came to prominence in the post-Second World War period, especially with the publication in 1958 of his much celebrated book, Culture and Society 1780–1950.2 Williams's own education and official position in academia were literary; and his personal specialism was the history of dramatic form, the most social of the literary forms. He published Drama from Ibsen to Eliot in 1952, which was updated to Drama from Ibsen to Brecht in 1968. For Williams, the study of drama was not reducible to the written text but, rather, must be understood through its realisation in performance. His 1954 book, Drama in Performance, was also expanded in 1968 to include cinema and television alongside theatre. Williams's inaugural lecture as Professor of Drama at the University of Cambridge in the 1970s was entitled ‘Drama in a Dramatized Society’ (Chapter 10 of this selection), further indicating his emphasis on the relations between culture and society.

    Williams's project was much broader than that of a literary scholar in the specialist academic sense. It was always a socially and politically informed project that eventually met up with the discipline of Sociology itself, as exemplified here in Williams's 1975 British Sociological Association keynote address, ‘Developments in the Sociology of Culture’ (Chapter 12) He also contributed to the formation of new fields of study, variously named Communication Studies, Cultural Studies and Media Studies. In effect, there was a social-scientific turn in Williams's work, which this book is dedicated to representing through its selection of his writings.

    Since his death in 1988, the memory and enduring influence of Williams have been sustained very largely by literary scholars. For instance, in 1989, Oxford English Limited published a special issue of the journal News From Nowhere, mainly devoted to Williams's literary-critical work, edited by Tony Pinkney.3 Interestingly, Pinkney's own contribution to that collection was ‘Raymond Williams on Television’. Williams had been a columnist for The Listener, the broadcasting magazine.4 Unusual among literary scholars in the 1960s and '70s, Williams treated television seriously and valued the best work produced for ‘the box’ (see, for instance, Chapter 14). He even wrote a book about it, Television: Technology and Cultural Form (1974), possibly the most ‘social-scientific’ of all Williams's writings. Pinkney also edited a collection of Williams's remaining unpublished essays that ranged around various current issues of culture and society, The Politics of Modernism, in the year after Williams's death.

    The two extant biographies of Raymond Williams – Fred Inglis's Raymond Williams (1995)5 and Dai Smith's Raymond Williams – A Warrior's Tale (2008)6 – are both literary in their principal concerns, but Inglis's account of Williams has been controversial among scholars of his work. Smith's biography, which concludes with the publication of The Long Revolution in 1961, to be followed perhaps by a second volume, devotes a great many pages to summary of and commentary on Williams's fiction writing, much of it in unpublished manuscripts housed at the University of Swansea. Quite possibly, Williams himself would have preferred to be remembered more as a novelist (and playwright) than as a cultural theorist.7 He did indeed publish several works of fiction that met with critical approval but, sadly, to no great acclaim. Since the present book is concerned with Williams's social as well as cultural theorising and also due to limitations of space, it would be inappropriate to comment further on his imaginative writing.

    The Raymond Williams Society and the annual publication, Keywords, have carried out vital tasks in maintaining and promoting Williams's intellectual legacy. Again, however, this sterling work is sustained principally by literary scholarship, albeit linked to socialist politics, with relatively little social-scientific input.

    So, this volume's particular selection of writings, dating from the 1950s to the late 1980s, aims to rebalance Williams's reputation by highlighting his recently neglected but continuing relevance for education and research in Cultural Studies and Sociology. Williams is, of course, widely acknowledged as a founding figure of Cultural Studies as a comparatively new and transdisciplinary field of enquiry that crosses over between the Humanities and the Social Sciences. His own distinctive perspective – which Williams came to name ‘cultural materialism’ – is usually noted as one of the ‘paradigms’ in the field. However, at the same time, the range and comprehensiveness of Williams's contribution tend to be taken for granted, in fact, so taken for granted that his approach is barely recognised as constitutive of basic procedures in cultural analysis today. Along with Richard Hoggart and Stuart Hall, Raymond Williams set the original parameters for Cultural Studies in Britain and had considerable international influence on developments in the field of study. Moreover, Williams himself formulated a set of innovative concepts – most notably, in my opinion, ‘structure of feeling’ and ‘mobile privatisation’ among several others – that remain valuable heuristic tools for making sense of a dauntingly complex culture/society nexus in the early decades of the twenty-first century.

    Intellectual and Political Formation

    Williams and his work are not easily pigeonholed. However, the intellectual and political formations through which he grew and matured are not at all obscure: the ‘English’ tradition of cultural criticism8 and the ‘New Left’ that emerged towards the end of the 1950s.9 In Culture and Society Williams questioned the reductionist Marxism that had characterised intellectual culture on the Left during the 1930s and which was connected to the triumph of Stalinism in the international communist movement. Revelations about the purges, the Gulag and eventually the Soviet repression of the Hungarian Revolution in 1956 all contributed to disillusionment with communism in its ‘actually existing’ mode (Williams had been a member of the Communist Party briefly as a teenager). Some moved to the Right, others became social democrats of one kind or another. A few, like Williams, had enthusiastically supported the establishment of a welfare state by the 1945–51 Attlee government but were dissatisfied with the British Labour Party's compromises and management of capitalism. They went on subsequently to seek further and far-reaching socialist reforms of economy, polity and culture, sometimes with and sometimes against Labour.

    As a young literature student – before and after serving as a tank commander during the 1939–45 war – Williams came under the influence of an alternative to orthodox communist criticism of ‘bourgeois’ culture in the milieu of Cambridge English that was inspired by the maverick literary critic, F.R. Leavis. Leavis stressed the importance of close and appreciative reading of texts from ‘the Great Tradition’10 of English literature and sensitivity to the sociality and emotionality of experience. Close reading and experiential feeling became notable features of Williams's own critical activity, but he departed from Leavis's elitism and apolitical inclinations.11 However, Terry Eagleton, a former student, was to criticise Williams for what he called ‘Left Leavisism’ in the 1970s,12 though he later withdrew the criticism.13

    On graduating from Cambridge in the late 1940s, Williams was employed in adult education, teaching Oxford University extension classes in the south of England and closely connected to the Workers Educational Association. It was in this context that Williams and others were to argue that Cultural Studies had actually originated as a form of popular and ideally working-class education.14 Williams taught his literary specialisms and also addressed political issues concerning communications, out of which the book of that title was written (Chapter 5). Williams's critical populism is beautifully represented by one of his most famous pieces of the 1950s, ‘Culture is Ordinary’ (Chapter 1).

    Culture and Society (1958), Williams's tracing of the English Romantic tradition and critique of mass-society thought, and The Long Revolution (1961), its immediate sequel, represent a transition in Williams's work from a predominantly literary orientation towards a much broader analysis of culture and society. The very notion of a ‘long revolution’, which Williams saw as a drawn-out process of democratic emancipation in post-Second World War Britain, captures the historical moment sharply. As well as setting out the terms of cultural analysis, including early formulations of ‘selective tradition’ and ‘structure of feeling’, Williams traced a series of historical developments in education, reading and writing, encompassing the growth of the press and trends in literature, and the use of English. He concluded The Long Revolution with a long essay, ‘Britain in the Sixties’, which was to be reprinted at the beginning of Williams's 1983 book, Towards 2000. Later, Williams was to acknowledge Juliet Mitchell's argument that the emancipation of women was ‘the longest revolution’.15

    After 13 years of Conservative government, Labour was re-elected in 1964. However, Williams and other New Leftists were soon disappointed by Harold Wilson's government. In collaboration with Michael Barrett Brown, Terry Eagleton, Stuart Hall and Edward Thompson among several other activists, Williams issued a May Day Manifesto in 1967, which was reissued as a Penguin Special in 1968,16 the year of revolutionary promise when, for instance, students on the Paris streets and blacks in Detroit rose up in spectacular protest.

    The British New Left's May Day Manifesto presented a much more radical analysis of capitalist society and set out a revolutionary programme of reform that went well beyond anything envisaged by the leadership of the 1960s Labour governments. Williams himself would remain far to the Left of mainstream Labourism for the rest of his life. In this respect, his position was not at all unusual for a British socialist throughout the 1970s and '80s.

    Around the same time there was a revival of Western-Marxist thought alongside various developments in cultural theory, including post-structuralism and postmodernism, that Williams engaged with in fashioning his own distinctively cultural-materialist position. His 1973 article, ‘Base and Superstructure in Marxist Cultural Theory’ (Chapter 8) is pivotal in this phase of Williams's work. As the article indicates, there was an evident affinity between Williams's holistic approach to culture and society and Antonio Gramsci's concept of hegemony, which was also adopted fruitfully in his work by Stuart Hall, one of the other major figures in developing British Cultural Studies.17

    Cultural Materialism

    Williams's objection to the base-superstructure model of orthodox Marxism was that its conceptualisation of society was insufficiently materialist. This may seem paradoxical since Marxists are often said to reduce everything to economic – that is, material – factors, the assumption being that the super-structural institutions of politics and law, ideology and culture are all determined by economic forces and interests. Seen from an early twenty-first-century vantage point, this is a very familiar refrain. However, it does not come from the Left but from the Right. It is the fundamental neoliberal orientation whereby social and cultural activity is submitted relentlessly to the discipline of the market and everything is understood in monetary terms.

    However, materialist philosophy is not exclusively about economics, nor should it be confused with the common-sense notion of ‘materialism’ as an ethical failing in which money and the acquisition of commodities matter more than relationships with people. In philosophy, materialism is contrasted to idealism. Whereas idealism assumes that ideas alone are determining forces in the world, materialism objects that sensuous human activity is where the action really is. The point can be illustrated by comparing one of Williams's key concepts, structure of feeling, with the German idealist notion of the Zeitgeist (spirit of the time), which has a certain currency today in common-sense parlance. In this regard, ‘the market’ is the zeitgeist, but it is hardly spiritual, though it is ideological, masking over and obscuring the political-economic forces that use it as a kind of excuse or alibi.

    In his famous discussion of postmodernism as ‘the cultural logic of late capitalism’, Fredric Jameson deployed Williams's conceptualisation of the prevailing structure of feeling to characterise it. From this point of view, postmodernism is not just a set of ideas but, instead, a framing of emotionality and practice that is dialectically related to transnational, high-tech capitalism, whereby the human subject is disoriented.18

    Williams devoted a section of Marxism and Literature (1977, pp. 128–135) to conceptual clarification of structure of feeling. To give a concrete example, in the chapter on ‘The Analysis of Culture’ from The Long Revolution (Chapter 3 of this book), Williams had traced the emergence of a structure of feeling in 1840s English literature that is most profoundly represented by Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights. Also in this chapter, Williams demonstrates how a process of selection actively constructs cultural tradition or ‘heritage’ in specific historical circumstances; it is socially produced and likely to be revised over time; and by no means indisputable. The selections are made according to prevalent attitudes and interests. For instance, Wuthering Heights was too advanced a book to be considered important in its own time. It was much later that Wuthering Heights entered the canon of the selective tradition when the structure of feeling it represented became more widespread.

    Williams objected to the treatment of culture as epiphenomenal, as though it were not of material significance, merely ideational. For him, signifying practice – that is, culture in the making – is, in effect, material practice, embedded in institutionalised arrangements and relations of production through which the products of human creativity are actually made. A paper that he delivered in Zagreb during the 1970s spelt out this understanding of the materiality of cultural activity systematically, ‘Means of Communication as Means of Production’ (Chapter 15 of this book). The argument here can be related to Williams's own formal definition of cultural materialism: ‘Cultural materialism is the analysis of all forms of signification, including quite centrally writing, within the actual means and conditions of their production.’19 Considering his literary background and the provenance of this definition on the occasion of fierce public dispute over ‘theory’ in the Cambridge English Department, it is not surprising that Williams should have remarked, ‘quite centrally writing’. And his remark certainly justified a strand of politicised literary history naming itself ‘cultural materialism’.20 However, stressing the centrality of writing in such a manner severely understated the scope of cultural materialism as a sociological methodology. It has had unfortunate consequences in artificially delimiting the potential applications of cultural materialism in the Social Sciences. This point may usefully be illustrated with reference to Williams's critique of technological determinism in the media and in society generally, which is germane to making sense of the dynamics of our ‘digital age’.

    Williams's cultural materialism has an affinity with Douglas Kellner's advocacy of multidimensional cultural analysis.21 Such an approach seeks to articulate the interaction of conditions of production and consumption with textual meaning within specifiable socio-historical contexts. It resists one-dimensional and mono-causal explanation, which is actually the fundamental flaw of the technological determinism that, combined with neoliberal political economy, is the most prominent feature of ideological dominance around the world today.

    The emergence and meaning-making properties of media are often said to be entirely reducible to direct technical innovation derived immediately from scientific discovery with inevitably beneficial results. Moreover, we are constantly encouraged to believe, in a quasi-spiritual manner, that ‘technology’ (usually meaning specifically information and communication technologies these days) is the main and perhaps sole driving force of significant social change and is the solution to all conceivable problems. Contrarily, Williams showed that the development of communication technologies and their applications result from a complex range of determinations, including cultural, economic and political factors; and that the historical outcomes of such development are never strictly inevitable (see Chapter 9). In Williams's cultural-materialist discourse, determination refers to the exertion of pressure and setting of limits on human activity rather than the simple and unilinear cause and effect relation of determinism. Human agency matters and, in the case of technological change, intention is always involved, which suggests the possibility of alternative purposes and different outcomes in any given circumstance.

    Twenty-first Century Williams

    At the beginning of the 1980s, Raymond Williams codified his ideas on cultural analysis in a textbook, simply entitled Culture (1981). He presented a framework of concepts and analytical procedures that remain especially fruitful for social-scientific research in addition to providing students new to transdisciplinary scholarship with an invaluable introduction to the methodology of cultural materialism.

    His other major work of the 1980s was perhaps unfortunately entitled Towards 2000 (1983), suggesting that it was merely a fin-de-siècle book rather than the critical conspectus for the early twenty-first century that, in fact, it really is. Parts of that book are included here in which Williams critiques the very notion of ‘post-industrial’ society decisively (Chapter 16), tackles persistent questions of nationhood and globalisation (Chapter 17) and focuses on the most salient issues concerning what we might today call ‘neoliberalism’ and the most promising sources of resistance to it, particularly urgent action for environmental protection and ecological politics in general as integral features of twenty-first-century socialism (Chapter 18).

    Two of the most insightful and far-reaching concepts mentioned in this material are ‘Plan X’ and ‘mobile privatisation’. Plan X refers to a ruthless politics of strategic and, it might be added, competitive advantage: particularly represented by the arms’ race during Ronald Reagan's presidency of the United States in the 1980s but more generally manifested over the past 30 years in the capitalist response to crises of the 1970s that has resulted in the dismantlement of welfare states and erosion of the ‘social wage’; deindustrialisation in the global north-west and the transfer of manufacturing and heavy industry to cheap labour markets in the east where the rate of exploitation is especially fierce; and increased scales of inequality throughout the world22 in spite of disingenuous claims to the contrary; and much else besides.

    Williams suggests in Chapter 17 that his first intimation of what he was later to call mobile privatisation was manifested in a passage from a novel of his as early as 1964 on the personal seclusion experienced while driving a motorcar through traffic that is circulating in more or less ordered coordination through public space.23 Modern forms of transport had already greatly expanded the mobility of people, particularly in various waves of migration since the nineteenth century. In addition to his prophetic observations on innovation and corporate command over the development of new communication technologies in the Television book, Williams was later to identify mobile privatisation as virtually the representative mode of sociality in a highly mediated and increasingly capitalist world. Broadcasting – first radio then television – had brought enormous access to information and representations from around the country and subsequently the whole Earth into the small households of an urban-industrial labour force by the mid-twentieth century. Satellite communications pioneered from the 1960s made it possible for people sitting at home to witness events occurring on the other side of the globe in real time. Now, we have the personal computer, Internet, mobile phone and kindred devices.

    From the Walkman of the 1980s to the 2g mobile phone of the 1990s to combined functions of the all-purpose mobile communication device of the 2000s, the mode of sociality that Williams named ‘mobile privatisation’ has become increasingly normalised. And the mobile young person in perpetual and commoditised communication with others at a distance while cocooned in a private shell out in public is now an ideal figure of the capitalist way of life.

    The final pieces in this selection are from Williams's concluding observations on cultural policy and on Cultural Studies. In Chapter 19, Williams drew a distinction between what may be described as cultural policy proper and as display. Williams noted that nation-states aggrandise themselves through public displays of one kind or another and are inclined to reduce cultural policy to narrowly economic considerations, thereby losing sight of the specific value of culture as socially meaningful communication. He also recognised that the nation-state is both too big and too small for addressing vital issues of culture in their local/regional and international aspects. Finally, in Chapter 20, Williams affirmed the critical and democratic value of cultural education against the relentless pressures of instrumentalism and commodification that have actually become more intense since his own day.

    Select Bibliography for Raymond Williams on Culture and Society24
    Drama in Performance, London: Frederick Muller1954 (revised and extended in 1968, London: C.A. Watts).
    Culture and Society 1780–1950, London: Chatto & Windus1958.
    The Long Revolution, London: Chatto & Windus1961.
    Communications, Harmondsworth: Penguin 1962 (revised and updated in 1966 and 1976).
    Drama from Ibsen to Brecht, London: Chatto & Windus1968 (originally published as Drama from Ibsen to Eliot in 1952).
    The Country and the City, London: Chatto & Windus1973.
    Television – Technology and Cultural Form, London: Fontana1974.
    Keywords – A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, London: Fontana1976 (revised and expanded 1983).
    Marxism and Literature, Oxford: Oxford University Press1977.
    Culture, London: Fontana1981.
    Towards 2000, London: Chatto & Windus, 1983.
    The Politics of Modernism – Against the New Conformists, edited by TonyPinkney, London & New York: Verso1989.
    Raymond Williams on Television – Selected Writings, edited by AlanO'Connor, London & New York: Routledge1989.
    Notes

    1 See Raymond Williams, Who Speaks for Wales? – Nation, Culture, Identity, edited by Daniel Williams, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2003, a posthumous collection of Williams's ruminations on questions of ‘identity’, ‘nationhood’ and one of his favourite themes, ‘community’.

    2 Reference details for books by Williams cited here but not referenced in the footnotes are included in a select bibliography at the end of this Introduction.

    3 ‘Raymond Williams – Third Generation’, News From Nowhere No. 6, Oxford: Oxford English Limited, February 1989.

    4 See Alan O'Connor, ed., Raymond Williams an Television, London and New York: Routledge 1989.

    5 Fred Inglis, Raymond Williams, London and New York: Routledge 1995.

    6 Dai Smith, Raymond Williams – A Warrior's Tale, Cardigan: Parthian 2008.

    7 An extremely useful source on Williams's biography are the interviews conducted with him by editors of New Left Review in the late 1970s, Raymond Williams, Politics and Letters – Interviews with New Left Review, London: Verso 1979.

    8 Francis Mulhern, The Moment of ‘Scrutiny’, London: New Left Books 1979.

    9 See Michael Kenny,The First New Left – British Intellectuals After Stalin, London: Lawrence & Wishart 1995.

    10 F.R. Leavis, The Great Tradition, Harmondsworth: Penguin 1962 [1948].

    11 Williams's The English Novel from Dickens to Lawrence, London: Chatto & Windus 1970, was a sociologically informed rebuttal to Leavis's readings in The Great Tradition. In a similar vein, Williams's The Country and the City, Chatto & Windus 1973 places a certain tradition of English writing in its place, socially and historically.

    12 Terry Eagleton's Criticism and Ideology – A Study in Marxist Literary Theory, London: New Left Books 1976, represented a regrettable moment of distancing from Williams on grounds of theoretical ‘correctness’.

    13 The year after Williams's death, Eagleton edited a collection of appreciative essays on his mentor, Raymond Williams – Critical Perspectives, Cambridge: Polity, 1989.

    14 Tom Steele,The Emergence of Cultural Studies – Cultural Politics, Adult Education and the ‘English’ Question, London: Lawrence & Wishart 1997.

    15 See Juliet Mitchell's ‘Women – The Longest Revolution’, New Left Review 40, 1966, 11–37, and her later Woman's Estate, Harmondsworth: Penguin 1971.

    16 Raymond Williams, ed., May Day Manifesto 1968, Harmonds worth: Penguin 1968.

    17 See, for instance, Stuart Hall,The Hard Road to Renewal – Thatcherism and the Crisis of the Left, London: Verso 1988.

    18 Fredric Jameson, Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism, London & New York: Verso 1991, p. xiv.

    19 Raymond Williams, ‘Marxism, Structuralism and Literary Analysis’, New Left Review 129, September–October 1981, 64–65.

    20 See Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield, eds, Political Shakespeare – New Essays in Cultural Materialism, Manchester: Manchester University Press 1985.

    21 Douglas Kellner, ‘Critical Theory and Cultural Studies – The Missed Articulation’, in McGuigan, J., ed., Cultural Methodologies, London, Thousand Oaks and New Delhi: Sage 1997, pp. 12–41.

    22 Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett's The Spirit Level – Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do Better, London: Allen Lane 2009 resonates with Williams's deepest sociological concerns and anxieties about the future.

    23 Raymond Williams, Second Generation, London: Chatto & Windus 1964, a companion work to his autobiographical novel, Border Country, Chatto & Windus 1960.

    24 This selection of book titles – a baker's dozen – is meant to indicate Raymond Williams's most important contributions to the Social Sciences, especially Cultural Studies and Sociology. It is by no means an exhaustive list of William's many and varied writings.


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