Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy Integrated

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Anjali Joshi & K. M. Phadke

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    Preface

    SAGE was founded in 1965 by Sara Miller McCune to support the dissemination of usable knowledge by publishing innovative and high-quality research and teaching content. Today, we publish over 900 journals, including those of more than 400 learned societies, more than 800 new books per year, and a growing range of library products including archives, data, case studies, reports, and video. SAGE remains majority-owned by our founder, and after Sara's lifetime will become owned by a charitable trust that secures our continued independence.

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    Acknowledgements

    To

    Rita Khear, our long-time associate

    For her unconditional warmth and support!

    Preface

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    List of Illustrations

    Boxes
    • 4.1 Sample of Implementation of Four Vital Stages of REBT 41
    • 5.1 Arithmetical Expression of ABC Framework 48
    • 5.2 Revised Arithmetical Expression of ABC Framework 49
    • 8.1 Example of a Rational Humorous Song 136
    • 8.2 Summary of Therapeutic Interventions in Three Phases 141
    • 8.3 Rational Emotive Behaviour Sequence 142
    • 9.1 Some Suggestions on Disputation Questions 167
    • 9.2 Examples of Useful Emotive Slogans 179

    Preface

    Dr Albert Ellis (1913-2007), the eminent American psychologist, is considered to be one of the most influential figures in the field of psychology. He is the originator of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT), a leading cognitive behavioural approach to counselling and psychotherapy. By inventing REBT, he had not only revolutionized the field of psychotherapy but also instigated the ‘cognitive revolution’ in psychology.

    REBT focuses on reducing emotional and behavioural disturbances and enabling people to lead happier and more fulfilling lives. Since its inception in 1955, REBT has spread very rapidly and has been practised by many professionals such as psychologists, counsellors, psychiatrists, social workers and mental health workers, owing to a significant portion of population suffering from a wide range of psychological disturbances. REBT has been applied to several areas such as education, industry, geriatrics, alcoholism prevention, religion and many more.

    Dr Ellis had contributed greatly to REBT's development. He had written and edited more than 75 books, published more than 800 scientific papers and articles, and created over 200 audio cassettes. He continued to write articles and publish books until his death at the age of 93.

    This invaluable work by Dr Ellis on REBT inspired us to undertake the challenging task of introducing the theory and practice of REBT to all those who are interested in learning about it. K.M. Phadke, a senior author, is a pioneer of REBT in India. He is a Fellow and Supervisor of the Albert Ellis Institute, New York. He held correspondence with Dr Ellis from 1968 to 2003, and Dr Ellis tirelessly replied to his series of questions. This unusual correspondence is of four bound volumes and consists of 1,351 pages. It has been preserved in the Columbia University Archives after Dr Ellis’ death. Phadke's contributions to REBT were acknowledged by Dr Ellis himself and even applauded by him in his autobiography All Out!

    I, the presenting author of this book, did my doctorate work in the field of REBT and Phadke (the senior author) has been mentoring me for the past 17 years. The study of REBT is the common bond between us that led to the emergence of this book.

    This book has a fairly long history, and the journey of this book had many twists and turns. Its origin can be traced to the article ‘Dr Albert Ellis: A Rebellious Psychologist’, which Phadke wrote in Marathi. It was published in a well-known Marathi weekly in 1981. After almost 17 years, or to be more precise, on 15 May 1998, he wrote a letter to Dr Ellis and informed him that he would write a full-length Marathi book bearing the above title. He then worked on that project for four years but discontinued it due to some difficulties in translating, to his own satisfaction, technical terms into Marathi. This work was later completed by me, and I subsequently published a Marathi volume on it—Albert Ellis: Vichardarshan.

    The motivation to write this book has emerged from a strong need we felt while conducting training programmes on REBT—to have a book that provides handy information on all the features of REBT. In many discussions, our colleagues and participants too stressed this need. Most of the available REBT books emphasize on a few fundamental features of REBT and generally do not cover all of them. In view of this situation, we felt the necessity to produce valuable literature on REBT, describing it entirely from its origin to applications. It would be a comprehensive handbook on REBT for those who wish to learn or practise it. During our extensive counselling practice of dealing with a variety of clients, we realized the necessity to include in the book a few representative cases of psychological disturbance that will help the readers to understand various components of REBT effortlessly.

    Along the same line of thought, Phadke spearheaded the work and completed the first draft in January 2007. This work came to a standstill when Dr Ellis passed away on 24 July 2007. Moreover, the first draft had many limitations. Some of the limitations were caused by the insufficiency of resources at his disposal. The book was silent on many developments of REBT, and many records and references were incomplete because he had no reliable knowledge about them.

    The book got a new lease of life in 2013 when I ventured to rewrite this book on the occasion of Dr Ellis’ 100th birth anniversary. This work extended for four more years, and the book shaped into its present form. This book is the outcome of prolonged efforts of both of us. It is based on our work on 500 research papers, essays and 75 books written by Dr Ellis.

    While working on the present form of the book, I had to completely rewrite a few chapters. I have tried to incorporate the contents from latest publications and have added several topics on new REBT formulations. I have also included revised and updated information in all the chapters. In doing all this, I have attempted to produce a book that will present a comprehensive picture of the theory and practice of REBT as well as an overview of Dr Ellis’ work on its development.

    This is probably the only book on REBT having all-inclusive information about its origin, historical development, philosophical foundation and vivid applications. The book serves three purposes. First, you will get acquainted with Dr Ellis and his main contributions to the field of psychotherapy. Second, it will help you understand the causes of some of the emotional and behavioural problems and some ways to overcome them. Third, it seeks to offer a handy reference to experienced professionals as well as act as a helpful guide to beginners who wish to know REBT in depth.

    Since the subject area of the book is REBT, it covers the fields of psychology, counselling, psychotherapy and mental health. It provides multiple insights into your own cognitions, emotions and behaviour. It aims to help you reduce your psychological disturbance and live your life happily. Moreover, the book provides psychologically disturbed individuals with many answers they seek and can help everyone feel better about themselves and deal with their lives more effectively. It will be useful to you if you are keen on self-development, and to professionals belonging to a variety of fields such as mental health medicine, teaching, social work and parenting.

    Let us briefly summarize what has been covered in this book. It is organized into 10 chapters, and each chapter offers an insight on the various distinctive features of REBT. Chapter 1 unfolds how the foundation of REBT was laid in the professional world by Dr Ellis. Chapter 2 focuses on his life story and the significant events that occurred in his life. Chapter 3 is devoted to the historical development of REBT. In the next three chapters (Chapters 4-6), the framework and theoretical nature of REBT are outlined. Here, we present a detailed description of the A, B and C components as well as an extensive illustration of irrational beliefs. In Chapter 7, we stress REBT as a philosophy of life. In Chapter 8, we iterate how the therapeutic process works and the insights obtained from therapy. Further, in Chapter 9, the cognitive, emotive and behavioural techniques of REBT and their practices are discussed. The book concludes in Chapter 10, by discussing the applications of REBT in a variety of fields. Here, the limitations of REBT are brought out as well.

    The book contains two appendices. Both appendices are intended to guide you to work on your own emotional disturbance. They have two forms of disputation—one is solved and the other is for practice.

    In order to facilitate your learning process, we have chosen and woven throughout the book three live cases of emotional disturbance suitable for cross-cultural population. They represent the three categories of musturbatory beliefs. These cases are drawn from our clinical experience of common emotional problems presented by counselees and can be found in any culture. Hence, you will identify yourself with the characters to a great extent. Multiple components of REBT are explained with reference to these cases. Hence, in every chapter, you will discover new features of emotional disturbance.

    We have adopted an easy-to-read style with the intention to make REBT concepts clear and understandable even for people without any previous knowledge of REBT. We have used generic pronouns such as ‘you’ throughout the book as we preferto address you directly. Moreover, please note that we have used the masculine form of the singular pronoun (‘he’, ‘him’, and ‘his’) to refer to human beings of either sex.

    We hope that this book stimulates your interest in developing your knowledge of and skills in REBT and that you will find it a handy reference in the future. Finally, we wish to add that we have immensely enjoyed the process of writing this book. Moreover, we realized how little we could capture from Dr Ellis’ mammoth work on REBT, in spite of having lived in the Ellisian world for ages!

    Anjali Joshi

    Acknowledgements

    We would like to express our deepest gratitude to the late Dr Albert Ellis for making available invaluable material on REBT. The 75 odd books and 500 odd papers that he sent to K.M. Phadke during the 36 years of their correspondence is the primary foundation of this book. This book may not have been written without these resources.

    We would also like to thank Rita Khear, whose efforts in typing the manuscript were of great help.

    Anay Joshi has also been of inestimable help as he meticulously scrutinized the manuscript from a language point of view.

    We greatly appreciate Dr Satishchandra Kumar's contribution in providing excellent support and advice.

    Finally, we express our special gratitude to the SAGE team for their valuable suggestions that enriched the content.

    Anjali Joshi K.M. Phadke
  • Appendix I: The REBT Disputation Form (Practice)

    • ■ Fill in Section ‘C’
    • ■ Write down 2 criteria of rational thinking
    • ■ Fill in section ‘A’
    • ■ Fill in section ‘B’
    • ■ Fill in section ‘DA’
    • ■ Fill in section ‘DB’
    • ■ Fill in section ‘RB’
    • ■ Fill in section ‘E’
    Section A: Facts and EventsSection DA: Is It Factual?
    Section B: Irrational Self-talkDisputation of Beliefs (DB)Rational Beliefs (RB)
    IB1DB1RB1
    IB2DB2RB2
    IB3DB3RB3
    IB4DB4RB4
    IB5DB5RB5
    IB6DB6RB6
    Section C: EmotionsImportant Criteria for Rational Thinking
    • Factual: Is this thought based on fact or reality?
    • Functional: Is this thought likely to help me to undertake any constructive action?
    Section E: Effective Philosophy

    Appendix II: The REBT Disputation Form (Solved)

    • ■ Fill in Section ‘C’
    • ■ Write down 2 criteria of rational thinking
    • ■ Fill in section ‘A’
    • ■ Fill in section ‘B’
    • ■ Fill in section ‘DA’
    • ■ Fill in section ‘DB’
    • ■ Fill in section ‘RB’
    • ■ Fill in section ‘E’
    Section A: Facts & EventsSection DA: Is it Factual?
    My subordinate has refused to do the work which I asked him to do so.Yes. What I have written in Section A records the actual event objectively.
    Section B: Irrational Self-talkDisputation of Beliefs (DB)Rational Beliefs (RB)
    IB1
    • How could he do so? (Rhetorical question— underlying assumption is that he should not do so.)
    DB1
    • Is there any compulsion/rule why he should not do so? (Factual)
    • Are there any absolute necessitates in human behaviour? (Factual)
    • Is he not free to behave as he wishes to? (Factual)
    • Is there any law of the universe which compels him to behave in any specific way? (Factual)
    • Where is it written that subordinate shouldnot refuse the work? (Factual)
    • Who controls his brain, he or you? (Factual)
    • Is there any way to control other person's behaviour? (Factual)
    • Suppose there is a technique by which I can control other people's behaviour, how would I like some other person using the same technique on me? (Factual)
    • As a matter of fact, he did refuse my work. Is it not absurd to say that he should not have done so, what he actually did? (Factual)
    • Am I not denying the reality when he actually did so? (Factual)
    • Is this thinking going to help me to change his behaviour? (Functional)
    RBI
    • It would be better/good if he has not done so, but there is no evidence to say that he shouldhave not done so.
    • He is free to behave as he wishes to, even if he is my subordinate.
    • No law of the universe compels him to behave in any specific way.
    • Though I wish/expect strongly that he would not have refused my work, there is no reason to say that why he has not refused.
    • I can influence/teach/preach/guide/advise other person but cannot control other person's behaviour totally.
    • Suppose there is a technique by which I can control other people's behaviour, I will not like if some other person using the same technique on me as I am free individual. I will not like of getting deprived of my freedom. Similarly, I will not deprive other person from his freedom.
    • It is absurd to say that he should not have done so, what he actually did. So by saying so, I am denying the reality.
    • This thinking is not going to help me to change his behaviour. So, I will focus my attention on the thought that how I will persuade him next time for changing his behaviour.
    IB2
    • He always behaves in this manner.
    DB2
    • Always? In each and every situation? How do you know? (Factual)
    • What is correct—he always behaves in this manner or most of the times? (Factual)
    • To say that he always behaves in this manner is not an exaggeration? (Factual)
    • How am I so sure/how am I so convinced that he will behave in similar manner in future too? (Factual)
    • Is this thought going to help me to take any constructive action for influencing him in future or am I condemning him forever? (Functional)
    RB2
    • There is no evidence to say that he always behaves in this manner.
    • Most of the times, he behaves in this manner is a realistic statement.
    • I have no ability to predict future 100% right. Therefore, I cannot say that he will surely behave in similar manner in future too.
    • As I am not 100% sure about his future behaviour, I will accept that there might be a possibility that he may not repeat this behaviour in future.
    • If I accept that possibility, I will be able to concentrate on how to influence him next time; so that as far as possible, he will behave less frequently in that manner.
    • Condemning him will serve no purpose.
    IB3
    • His refusal to do the work has lowered my status in the eyes of others & also in my own eyes.
    DB3
    • How am I so sure that the refusal from one subordinate has lowered my status? (Factual)
    • What do I mean by lowering down the status? (Factual)
    • Is there any universal behaviour which if somebody follows will surely increase or lower down the status? (Factual)
    • Does lowering down the status depend only on subordinate's refusal? (Factual)
    • If he obeys me, can I say surely that my status has increased? (Factual)
    • Suppose my status lowers down in their eyes, what calamity is going to fall on me? (Factual)
    • Suppose my status has lowered in the eyes of others, does it mean that I also have to lower down my status in my own eyes? Is my status so fragile like a glass of water? (Factual)
    • What compels me to do so? (Factual)
    • Which law of the universe compels me to seek approval from others for maintenance of my status? (Factual)
    • What is my goal? Increasing my status in my own eyes/in the eyes of others or getting the work done? (Functional)
    RB3
    • There is no evidence to say that the status of all the people lowers down if their subordinates refuse to do their work.
    • There is no universal behaviour which if somebody follows will surely increase or lower down the status.
    • If one of my subordinates obeys me once, my status does not increase. Similarly, if he refuses to do my work, it does not decrease.
    • Therefore, I conclude that somebody's acceptance or refusal of my work is no way related to my status.
    • Suppose my status lowers down in other's eyes, no calamity is going to fall on me. It will be disadvantageous; but it will certainly not be a catastrophic situation.
    • My status is not so fragile like a glass of water that eyes of the others will damage it.
    • I do not depend so much on other's approval for maintenance of my status.
    • If others lower down my status in their eyes, there is no compulsion on me that I have to show agreement with them. I still have a choice whether to lower it down or not in my own eyes.
    • My goal is not to maintain my status but to get my work done.
    IB4
    • How will I get my work done if all other subordinates start disobeying me?
    DB4
    • Do I mean to say that if one of my subordinates disobeys me once, all will start disobeying me? How do I know? (Factual)
    • Why will all start doing that way? Where is the evidence? (Factual)
    • Is it not an exaggeration? (Factual)
    • How am I so sure about the future that all of them behave in a similar manner? (Factual)
    • Is their behaviour totally in my hands? (Factual)
    • What is in my control, their behaviour or my behaviour?
    • Why am I concentrating on the facts that are beyond my control?
    • If few disobey me, isn't there a possibility that few others will obey me? (Factual)
    • Will all of them obey me if he obeys me? (Factual)
    • Suppose all of them start disobeying me, will it be really awful or disadvantageous? (Factual)
    • Suppose all of them start disobeying me, does my work gets stalled completely or some of the work I could still able to do? (Factual)
    • Suppose all of them start disobeying me and some of my work gets stalled, what else can I do in these circumstances rather than to bear this? (Factual)
    • Under that condition too, am I fully choiceless? Do I still not have choice in those circumstances to bear it whiningly or without whiningly? (Factual)
    • Suppose all of them start disobeying me, what lesson will I learn about my methods of supervision? (Functional)
    • Is it not wise to think of techniques that I better adopt to prevent their disobedience rather than expressing helplessness? (Functional)
    RB4
    • There is no reason to believe that if one of my subordinates disobeys me once, all will start disobeying me.
    • I have no evidence to prove that all will behave in a similar manner in future just because of the refusal of one of the subordinates.
    • Other's behaviour is not totally in my hands.
    • Instead of wasting my energy on controlling other's behaviour, which is beyond my control, I will concentrate on how will I change my behaviour which is in my control.
    • If few disobey me, there is a possibility that few others still obey me.
    • Whether others will obey me or not does not totally depend on one of my subordinates’ behaviour.
    • There is no guarantee that they will obey me if he obeys me. Similarly, there is no guarantee that they will disobey me if he disobeys me.
    • Suppose all of them start disobeying me, still it will not be really awful. It will be disadvantageous.
    • Suppose all of them start disobeying me, it is an exaggeration to say that my work will get completely stalled. Some of the work I could still able to do.
    • Under that condition too, I still have a choice to bear the circumstances without whining.
    • It is possible that I will review my methods of supervisions try to improve them.
    • I will try to adopt techniques which will prevent the disobedience of my subordinates rather than expressing helplessness.
    IB5
    • He is an arrogant man; therefore, he should be condemned by all people in our company.
    DB5
    • Is he arrogant man or is he behaving arrogantly now? (Factual)
    • By calling him an arrogant man, do I mean to say that he has always acted arrogantly, is acting arrogantly and will continue to act arrogantly until his death? (Factual)
    • Have I ever come across any such person? (Factual)
    • Do I think any such human being could have ever existed on this planet?
    • Just because somebody refuses to do the work given by me, does he become totally arrogant person? Is it not an overgeneralization? (Factual)
    • Even if he has refused to do the work, how am I going to calculate exact punishment to be imposed on him? (Factual)
    • Am I a judge of Supreme Court or God to decide exact punishment? (Factual)
    • If I label him an arrogant, am I not aggravating my problem in the future too? (Functional)
    • If I call him an arrogant man, will it not prevent me from establishing cordial relations with him in future? (Functional)
    • Will my problem of getting the work done really get over by condemning him? (Functional)
    RB5
    • To say that he is an arrogant man is an exaggeration because by calling anybody an arrogant person indicates that he has always acted arrogantly, is acting arrogantly and will continue to act arrogantly until his death.
    • I have never come across any such person nor do I think any such human being could ever exist on this planet.
    • Perhaps he is like many other human beings who sometimes behave arrogantly and sometimes even politely.
    • Just because somebody refuses to do the work given by me, I can say that he is behaving arrogantly. But he does not become totally arrogant person because of his one deed. Calling him totally arrogant is an overgeneralization.
    • I am not a judge of Supreme Court to decide or calculate exact punishment to be imposed on him for his refusal.
    • Judging him and saying that he is good or bad is not my job; perhaps it is a job of God.
    • By labelling him an arrogant person, I am closing down the opportunity to deal with him in future.
    • If I open this opportunity, I will try to develop cordial relations with him but, if I label him as an arrogant man, I will behave with him in an inimical manner.
    • If I behave in inimical manner, he may start behaving in a similar manner. Finally, it may end in taking revenge.
    • My problem of getting the work done is not going to get over by condemning him. Therefore, realistic conclusion is that I may like or dislike his behaviour, but I will neither praise nor dislike him as a totality.
    IB6
    • I don't think I will ever learn to deal with such people.
    DB6
    • Ever? How am I so sure? (Factual)
    • Do I mean to say that if I am not able to deal with one of my subordinates today, I will never able to deal with him or people like him in future? (Factual)
    • Where is the evidence to predict that I will never be able to deal with such people? (Factual)
    • Then what do I mean by learning? Isn't learning mean to do something which I am not doing now? (Functional)
    • Will this thought help me in generating any method of tackling them in future? (Functional)
    RB6
    • If I am not able to deal with one of my subordinates today, I am denying the possibility of bringing about a change in myself.
    • There is no evidence to predict that I will never be able to deal with such people in future.
    • As I am not 100% sure about my future behaviour, I will accept that there might be a possibility that I can deal with such people in future.
    • If I accept that possibility, I will be able to concentrate on how will I able to deal with such people next time.
    • Even if I am not able to deal with such people so far, I learn a lesson that some of the techniques I have used so far are not useful. I still have a further scope in future.
    • I will focus my attention on generating any method of tackling them in future.
    Section C: Emotions Anger. Humiliation. AnxietyImportant Criteria for Rational Thinking
    • Factual: Is this thought based on fact or reality?
    • Functional: Will this thought help me to take any constructive action?
    Emotive Slogan: Sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me.
    Section E: Effective Philosophy
    • I will differentiate behaviour form totality.
    • I will not label totality.
    • I will treat every individual as a unique example of human being.

    About the Authors

    Anjali Joshi is a practising counselling psychologist and associate professor at Prin W.N. Welingkar Institute of Management Development & Research, Mumbai, and has spent 22 years working in the field of education. Dr Joshi holds Master's degree in counselling psychology. MPhil in geriatric counselling, and PhD in REBT psychotherapy. She has delivered several lectures and conducted numerous workshops in organizations of repute, and conducts personal and group counselling programs, employee training programmes, corporate training programmes and weekend workshops on effective self-management through REBT. Dr Joshi was awarded the ‘Young Doctoral Fellowship’ by the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR), Ministry of Human Resource Development, New Delhi, for her doctoral work. She has published 90 articles and research papers in national and international journals. She writes bothfiction and non-fiction, and has authored several books. Dr Joshi is a Linnaeus Palme (Sweden) scholar and a recipient of several awards such as ‘Best Academic Performance’, ‘Best Mentor’, ‘Outstanding Achievement’ and ‘Best Literature’ by Maharashtra Foundation and Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad.

    K.M. Phadke is an Indian psychologist, practitioner and trainer in Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy, with 45 years of rich experience in the fields of psychological education, research, training and consultation. He enjoys the unique distinction of being the first and only Indian psychologist to have earned the status of fellow and supervisor of the Albert Ellis Institute (AEI), New York, USA. Mr Phadke had extensive professional correspondence with Albert Ellis, which lasted for 36 years. This correspondence is considered one of the finest resources for REBT learners and is preserved in four volumes in the Archives of Columbia University. Mr Phadke has made original contributions to the theory and practice of REBT and was praised by Dr Ellis for his dedication and mastery over the subject. He has conducted scores of lectures and workshops at various business, industrial, educational, research, training and social organizations throughout India and has authored several books on REBT.


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