Radical Media: Rebellious Communication and Social Movements


John D.H. Downing

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page


    Common approaches to communication media are wildly lopsided precisely because they refuse to take seriously the historical persistence and geographical pervasiveness of radical alternative media. Although the extent of such media at the dawn of the 21st century CE is broader than ever before, and therefore ever more demanding of our analytical attention, radical alternative media are by no means latecomers to culture and politics. They are simply relative newcomers to the established research and theory agenda, which has a predilection for the seemingly obvious and the easily counted. By radical media, I refer to media, generally small-scale and in many different forms, that express an alternative vision to hegemonic policies, priorities, and perspectives.

    Filling in a very significant gap is only one reason for focusing on radical alternative media. The other is related, but pragmatic rather than conceptual: the urgency of media activism in the face of blockages of public expression1. These blockages emerge from many quarters: powerful components within the dynamic of capitalist economy, governmental secrecy, religious obscurantism, institutionalized racist and patriarchal codes, other hegemonic2 codes that appear natural and sensible; the insidious impact of reactionary populism, and also reflexes of all of these within oppositional movements themselves. Radical media activism is not the only response needed—media literacy campaigns, growing media democratization, scientific and technical popularization, and support for media professionals struggling to upgrade mainstream media practice are all vital—but it is essential.

    How can small-scale radical media have any impact worth having? This book sets out to answer that question, but the short answer is they have multiple impacts on different levels. Let me offer two rapid examples.

    In the downward spiral of the second Cold War of the early 1980s, I was only one of many Americans, Russians, and others who looked on aghast as the two camps' senile leaders, Brezhnev and Reagan, pointed ever more massive nuclear weapons against each other (with the enthusiastic backing of their military staffs and military-industrial complexes). On this issue, mainstream media followed their leaders in both camps.3 However, in the United States and former West Germany, in particular, but also in Britain, Italy, and the Netherlands, large antinuclear movements sprang up or became reinvigorated, both against nuclear weapons and more broadly against nuclear power. Germany in particular produced a huge array of radical media exposing and attacking the nuclear arms race and the dangers of nuclear power (Downing, 1988a). In the United States, a number of antinuclear documentary films were made and widely screened, notably Paul Jacobs and the Nuclear Gang (1979) and Atomic Café (1982). These, in turn, fed the movements and ongoing demonstrations, which generated tremendous opposition to both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. leadership. A million people marched in New York City alone. This became a factor in the ability of the Soviet leadership to seize the high moral ground, but also provided an opportunity for both leaders to claim credit for stepping back from nuclear proliferation, beginning with the superpower summit in Reykjavik, Iceland, in 1987. Had it not been for these movements and their media, the possibility of mutual assured destruction—the war strategists' official doctrine—would have loomed ever larger.

    This is an instance with major international impact. The Italian, Portuguese, Russian, and Polish case studies in Section 3, the Iranian case that we refer to intermittently, and the international anti-apartheid movement are some others.

    On a much less dramatic plane are the little photographic visiting cards (cartes-de-visite) that Sojourner Truth used to sell to support herself in her later years. These little photographs of oneself, used as visiting cards and as mementos, were something of a national mania in the 1860s. Truth sat for 14 of these, all of them showing her dressed as a respectable upper middle-class woman, mostly sitting with her knitting on her lap. Over a century later, the image may seem entirely banal. But as Nell Irvin Painter (1996) points out, in context, the image made a radical assertion. Truth was not working in the field or over a wash tub (the only other visual images of her). She was, by contrast, a respectable woman:

    Black woman as lady went against the commonplaces of nineteenth-century American culture. But by circulating her photographs widely, Truth claimed womanhood for a black woman who had been a slave, occupying a space ordinarily off limits to women like her. She refused to define herself by her enslavement. Seizing on a new technology, Truth established what few nineteenth-century black women were able to prove: that she was present in her times. (pp. 198–199)

    This instance, aside from encouraging us to acknowledge the all-important question of context, tells us something more. There is no instantaneous alchemy, no uncontested sociochemical procedure, that will divine in a flash or with definitive results truly radical media from the apparently radical or even the nonradical.4

    In this multifarious, seething broth that we name society, what counts as politically oppositional, as personally expressive, as experimental, as embedded in the cultural present, as heralding the public's future, as reclaiming the forgotten merits of the past? For those with instinctively tidy minds, this category dilemma generates genuine pain, a real intellectual abscess. While, nevertheless, not wishing to praise fog for its own pure sake, it is perhaps precisely the indeterminacy of this seething broth that is the most important point. From such cauldrons may emerge social and cultural change in many directions, positive and negative and in between. The 1848 revolutions in Europe, the turbulence in Russia during the first decades of the 20th century, the Weimar Republic period in Germany, the Quit India movement of the 1920s through 1947, the international ferment of the 1960s and 1970s, are only a few examples.

    Without such cauldrons, there is stasis—which may sometimes be preferred by reasonable and constructive people—but the issue here is not so much what is desirable as what actually happens and its relation to radical alternative media. And, simultaneously, what is at issue is the relation between (sometimes imperceptible) eddies and ferments of opinion and expression and the impact of such media. The specific question of whether any particular activity in this alternative public realm is to be considered oppositional or self-indulgent or reaction-ary—or some compound of these—is a matter for argument. Maybe, it will be many decades—if ever—before the significance of such events can be established. But for present purposes, it is the ferment itself that counts, as matrix to radical media.

    In the original edition of this study, published in 1984 by the South End Press collective in Boston, Massachusetts, I adopted an antibinarist and a binarist definition of radical media simultaneously. I was intensely concerned to challenge a prevailing orthodoxy of the time, namely, that there were only two viable models of how to organize media, the Western capitalist one and the Soviet one. Each system had its ideologues and its counterideologues. In the West, a disturbing number of individuals on the political left could be found who were, if not advocates of sovietized media, then at least reluctant to attack them or the Soviet system, on the spurious grounds that to do so would make it easier for Western media barons and ideologues to sing the corrupt glories of their own communication media, supposedly free agents of free expression. In the East, decades of intense frustration at the absurdities and worse of their own media systems led many thinking people to yearn for Western media and to write off critical Western media researchers as smug, deluded idiots. Either way, an international consensus seemed to hold that only two models of media organization were feasible or even imaginable.

    I was determined to query that consensus, and so I spent quite some time critiquing the then-contemporary application of Leninist media theory in the East, as well as underscoring the idiotic triumphalism of those who chanted (and still chant!) the unalloyed virtues of capitalist media. I also endeavored to build up the rudiments of a theory of radical alternative media on the basis of some writings by socialist anarchists, British marxist feminists of that period, and dissident marxist theorists in Eastern Europe. (And I spent time annotating typical vices of alternative media.)

    So that was my antibinarism. “A plague o' both your houses!” groaned Mercutio, unfortunately with virtually his dying breath, just having been stabbed in a street fracas between Montague and Capulet braggadocios. (Not an encouraging precedent, I felt, but I went ahead anyway.)

    My own binarism, however, went unnoticed, at least by myself. It came about, effectively, through my being caught up in the Cold War spiral to which I have already referred. Thus, it seemed especially urgent to try to hammer home the merits of alternative ways of communicating politically, however picayune they might appear in the first instance. Underscoring their significance, however, led me to define radical media more tightly, in strict opposition to mainstream media, to a greater degree than I now believe possible for most conjunctures in political history. It simultaneously led me to write off major commercial media as permanently part of the problem, except on rare and good days. That was my slippage toward binarism. It was only implicit, and indeed, I contradicted it at a number of points in my arguments, but it still seriously simplified both mainstream and alternative media.

    Taken to its ultimate point, that position would discount any movement toward democratizing large-scale commercial media, which would let them off the hook much too easily. It would render the quite often impassioned attacks on major media from the political right and the extreme right somewhere between incomprehensible and irrelevant. It would downplay the uses that oppositional movements and groups may sometimes be able to make of mainstream media.5 It would also flatten out the very considerable variety of radical media.

    Let me sketch out then my preliminary definition of what differentiates radical alternative media from more conventional, mainstream media.

    First, it must be acknowledged that to speak simply of alternative media is almost oxymoronic. Everything, at some point, is alternative to something else. The ever-expanding plethora of niche trade magazines or of corporate industry bulletins, although an interesting phenomenon in its own right, does not belong in the category of media studied here. To some extent, the extra designation radical helps to firm up the definition of alternative media, but even here, we need to make some preliminary qualifications.

    For, second, radical media may, depending on the vantage point of the observer or the activist, represent radically negative as well as constructive forces. From my own angle of vision, fundamentalist or racist or fascist radical media are pushing for society to move backward into even more grotesque problems than we struggle with today. The fact remains that they are radical media. They, too, demand to be understood, even if we differentiate them by certain criteria (examined in Part II) from the media whose agendas dominate this study.

    But, third, in some circumstances, the designation radical media may also include minority ethnic media. So, too, sometimes, religious media. So, too, maybe a vast mass of community news sheets and bulletin boards, depending on the issues at stake in the communities in question. But equally, the adjective radical may well not fit a considerable number of these ethnic, religious, or community media. Everything depends on their content and context. What might abstractly seem a bland and low-key instance could, in a given context, be wielding a hammer blow at some orthodoxy, as the Sojourner Truth example shows.

    Indeed, the very intentions of the communicators themselves may turn out to be no guide at all in this maze, or at least a notably insufficient guide. History is crammed with cases of individuals and groups who had no idea, and could have had no idea, of the chain of socially disruptive events they were setting in motion.

    So context and consequences must be our primary guides to what are or are not definable as radical alternative media. The edges are almost always blurred. Every technology used by radical media activists is and has always been used mostly for mainstream purposes, not theirs.

    Sometimes, fourth, and maybe in a majority of cases, radical media are mixed in the depth of their radicalism, let alone in the effectiveness of their expression. An example would be the cartoons in the U.S. pro-suffragist press (Israels Perry, 1994): Women were typically portrayed as inevitably virtuous, often as victims, rarely as authority figures, almost exclusively as white and well-educated, and if powerful women were depicted, it was as “Amazonian Wonder Women or allegorical figures drawn from classical culture” (p. 10). Thus, while demanding the vote for women, many of these oppositional cartoons simultaneously reiterated patriarchal stereotypes. Strictly binary definitions of these media simply bounce off their actual spectrum.

    Yet, fifth, in some circumstances, when they are forced underground by systematic repression and censorship, especially in its fascist or sovietized variants, or in the typical military regime, then, such media are indeed in a binary, either-or situation. The earlier Reagan years, the Nixon years, and certainly the McCarthy era had some of that flavor for the political left in the United States, thanks to J. Edgar Hoover's FBI.

    Sixth, radical alternative media are to be found in a colossal variety of formats. In the first edition, I focused almost entirely on regularly appearing print and broadcast media, the purpose being to try to understand how media activists, often unpaid or low paid, manage to keep going day by day, month by month, and even year after year. The objective was worthwhile, and indeed, the case studies in this edition are mostly of that ilk. But as a definition of the variety of forms radical media can take, it was impoverished. Such media may even find themselves within an alien media setting, as when waspish leftist cartoons nestle uneasily in conservative newspapers.

    If, seventh, radical alternative media have one thing in common, it is that they break somebody's rules, although rarely all of them in every respect.

    We may also say, eighth, that these media are typically small-scale, generally underfunded, sometimes largely unnoticed at least initially, on occasion the target of great anger or fear or ridicule from on high, or even within the general public, or both. Sometimes they are short-lived, even epiphenomenal; at other times, they last for many decades. Sometimes, they are entrancing, sometimes boring and jargon laden, sometimes frightening, sometimes brilliantly funny.

    Ninth, radical alternative media generally serve two overriding purposes: (a) to express opposition vertically from subordinate quarters directly at the power structure and against its behavior; (b) to build support, solidarity, and networking laterally against policies or even against the very survival of the power structure. In any given instance, both vertical and lateral purposes may be involved.

    Tenth and finally, there is a tendency within their internal organization to try to be somewhat more, or sometimes considerably more democratic than conventional mainstream media.

    In Part I, I will endeavor to put conceptual flesh on these bones. In the rest of the book, I and my co-authors will examine a whole tapestry of radical media.


    1. There is a large literature on aspects of mainstream media hegemony, and I will refer the reader to some of it rather than try to encapsulate it here: Bagdikian (1999); Brook and Boal (1995); Curran and Seaton (1991); Dates and Barlow (1993); Entman (1989); Gitlin (1983); Gray (1995); Herman (1999); Herman and Chomsky (1988); Herman and McChesney (1997); Hertsgaard (1988); Kellner (1990, 1992); McChesney (1996); Schlesinger (1992); Sinclair (1991); Sussman (1997); van Zoonen (1993).

    2. In using the term hegemonic, I draw broadly on its use in the work of Gramsci. I discuss Gramsci's work in the first chapter and also in Downing (1996, pp. 199–204).

    3. Although they did so completely slavishly in the Soviet bloc, whereas there were some exceptions on occasion in the West, the Soviets' public stance occupied the higher moral ground of rejecting the so-called “first strike” doctrine, that is, the strategy of initiating nuclear war. The U.S. position under Reagan was not to rule out a first strike. The Soviet position was extremely effective. It simultaneously heartened antinuclear movements in the West, gave them a stick with which to beat their government leaders, and reflected the Soviet public's very deep fear of war, ingrained from its colossal human losses in World War II. In reality, of course, in military matters as in team sports or chess, an impregnable defense makes a policy of attack all the easier to pursue because there is less fear of retribution. Describing weapons as offensive or defensive neatly skates around this reality. The Reagan administration's so-called Strategic Defense Initiative (sometimes referred to as the “Star Wars” project), the multibillion-dollar research program into computer- and laser-based weaponry, was another classic in this mystification: It, too, was claimed to be for defensive purposes only, to provide an impregnable shield around the United States to intercept any incoming missiles. Had it been technologically feasible, it would not have been simply defensive; and those of its elements that actually were feasible could be deployed in attack as well or better. The literature on the subject is enormous, but the following present useful guides: Aldridge, 1983; Lifton & Falk, 1982; Manno, 1984; Pringle & Arkin, 1983.

    4. Equally, in a study of the early years of The Cosby Show (Downing, 1988b), I argue that in context, that seemingly cozy, even bromide-bound series successfully challenged a whole stack of racist shibboleths in and out of the U.S. television industry. In Section I, Chapter 1, and throughout Section II, we will find ourselves revisiting this question of oppositional cultures and their expression.

    5. For a very helpful guide to this last issue, see Ryan (1991).


    First, my thanks to Sage Publications, Inc., and particularly to Margaret Seawell, and before her Sophy Craze, for taking on this project; and thanks to South End Press for publishing the first version back in 1984. As readers of that version will know only too well—and I thank them for their loyalty to the project and their persistence—the glueing by the Dutch firm with which South End Press had contracted was entirely inadequate, and the pages fell out more or less as soon as the book was opened. This time the text is less structurally post-modernist….

    I have un sacco di gente to thank in the various media that I have studied, but before even them, I would like to thank the students in my Alternative Media classes at Hunter College and then the University of Texas at Austin for the stimulation and insights they have given me during the long gestation of this new version, constituting by my reckoning around 75% an entirely new book. Among them, I am glad to single out my co-authors of the chapters on the Internet and U.S. public access television, Tamara Villarreal Ford, Genève Gil, and Laura Stein.

    For the Portuguese case study, my thanks to Fernando da Sousa, Gabriel Ferreira, João Alferes Gonçalves, Jorge Almeida Fernandes, Raúl Rêgo, Fernanda Barao, José Salvador, Fernando Cascais, Alvaro Miranda, Manuel Vilaverde Cabral, Phil Mailer, Bruno Ponte, and Manuel Braga. For the Italian case study, my thanks to Gianni Riotta, Guido Moltedo, Angela Pascucci, Ida Dominjanni, Rina Gagliardi, Sara Maggi, Massimo Smuraglia, Stefano Fabbri, Raffaele Palumbo, Mario Bufono, Margherita Calvalli, Marco Imponente, Livio Sansone and his family, Sandro Scotto, Vito and Ombretta Conteduca, Gabriella Camilotto, Federico Pedrocchi, Biagio Longo, Paolo Hutter, Manuela Barbieri, Sergio Ferrentino, Marcello Lorrai, and Marina Petrillo. For the KPFA and Free Radio Berkeley case studies, my thanks to Vera Hopkins, Bari Scott, Ginny Berson, Eve Matthews, David Salniker, and Stephen Dunifer; and for initial insight into microradio, Tetsuo Kogawa. For the samizdat study, my thanks to A. J. Liehm, Jiri Hochmann, Boris Bagaryatsky, Volodia Padunov, Karol Jakubowicz, Tadek Walendowski, Witek Sulkowski, Piotr Naimski, Ryszard Knauff, Wojciech Ostrowski, Jakab Zoltan, and Szekfü Andras.

    I was fortunate to receive support for the original Portuguese and Italian case studies from the British SSRC in 1980, plus a trimester leave from Thames Polytechnic (today the ESRC and Greenwich University). I received support in 1984, 1986, 1988, and 1990 from the PSC-CUNY Faculty Research Fund for my studies of antinuclear media in what was then West Germany (briefly noted in the text) and for research on Soviet bloc media (some of which touched on samizdat). I also received a travel grant in 1997 from the University of Texas to return to the Italian scene and update my case studies there, as well as a sabbatical semester from the University of Texas at Austin in 1999 to help complete writing this book. Otherwise, it has been carved out in the interstices of my daily existence, but with stimulation from terrific colleagues, staff, and students in the Radio-Television-Film Department at the University of Texas at Austin.

    Thanks to Clemencia Rodríguez and John Sinclair, in particular, for some close reading of earlier drafts; and also to Dana Cloud, Jesse Drew, Bob Jensen, and some anonymous Sage reviewers for their very helpful advice on approaches to the material.

    Last, on a personal note, a word in honor and love for Anneli, Corinna, Juanita, Zoë, chetvero absolyutno zamechatel' nykh i krasivikh docheri; in loving memory of Jamal and Stansil; and in celebration of Ash Corea, la mia compagna dappertutto, who as I wrote first time round, represents what this book strives to bring about.

    JohnDowningAustin, Texas
  • References

    Abernathy, J. (1995, May 13). Feds target the internet. PC World, 13, 68.
    Abrahams, R. D. (1992) Singing the master: The emergence of African American culture in the plantation South. New York: Pantheon.
    Acción Zapatista. (1996a). Zapatistas in cyberspace: Against neoliberalism (Pamphlets for the First Intercontinental Encuentro) [On-line]. Available: http://www.utexas.edu/students/nave/neolib.html
    Acción Zapatista. (1996a). Zapatistas in cyberspace: A guide to analysis and information [On-line]. Available: http://www.eco.utexas.edu/Homepages/Faculty/Cleaver/zapsincyber.html
    Adams Sitney, P. (1979). Visionary film: The American avantgarde 1943–1978. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Adamson, W. (1987). Gramsci and the politics of civil society. Praxis Internatiional, 7(3–4), 320–339.
    Adkins, H. (1995). Schafft neue ausdrucksformen! In I.Antonowa & J.Merkert (Eds.), Berlin Moskau 1900–1950 (pp. 233–237). München: Prestel-Verlag.
    Adorno, T. W. (1975). Culture industry reconsidered. New German Critique, 6, 12–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/487650
    Agosín, M. (1987). Scraps of life: Chilean arpilleras. Trenton, NJ: Red Sea Press.
    Aldridge, R. C. (1983). First strike! The Pentagon's strategy for nuclear war. Boston: South End Press.
    Alexander, W. (1981). Film on the left: American documentary film from 1931 to 1942. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Alexeyeva, L. (1986). U.S. broadcasting to the Soviet Union. New York: Helsinki Watch (now Human Rights Watch).
    Alexeyeva, L. (1987). Soviet dissent: Contemporary movements for national, religious, and human rights. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
    Allen, A. T. (1984). Satire and society in Wilhelmine Germany: Kladderadatsch and Simplicissimus 1890–1914. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press.
    Alter, N. (1996). Vietnam protest theatre: The television war on stage. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Althusser, L. (1971). Ideology and ideological state apparatuses (Notes toward an investigation). In L.Althusser, Lenin and philosophy (pp. 121–173). London: New Left Books.
    Alvarez, S. (1996). Do you have a labor program on your community channel?Community Media Review, 19(2), 7, 27–28.
    Álvarez, S. (1990). Engendering democracy in Brazil: Women's movements in transition politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Amalrik, A. (1982). Notes of a revolutionary. New York: Knopf.
    Anderson, K., & Goldson, A. (1993). Alternating currents: Alternative television inside and outside of the academy. Social Text, 35, 56–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/466443
    Anderson, P. (1977). The antinomies of Antonio Gramsci. New Left Review, 100, 5–78.
    Anderson, P. (1991). The printed image and the transformation of popular culture 1790–1860. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.
    Andreotti, L. (1996). Introduction: The urban politics of the Internationale Situationniste (1957–1972). In L.Andreotti & X.Costa (Eds.), Situacionistes: Art, política, urbanisme/Situationists: Art, politics, urbanism (pp. 11–35). Barcelona, Spain: Musei d'Art Contemporani.
    Andreotti, L., & Costa, X. (Eds.). (1996) Situacionistes: Art, política, urbanisme/Situationists: Art, politics, urbanism. Barcelona, Spain: Musei d'Art Contemporani.
    Antonowa, I., & Merkert, J. (Eds.). (1995). Berlin Moskau 1900–1950. München: Prestel-Verlag.
    Appadurai, A. (1996). Modernity at large: Cultural dimensions of globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Arato, A., & Cohen, J. (1992). Civil society and political theory. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Armstrong, D. (1981). A trumpet to arms: Alternative media in America. Los Angeles: J. P. Tarcher.
    Armstrong, N. (1987). Desire and domestic fiction: A political history of the novel. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Aronson, J. (1972). Deadline for the media: Today's challenges to press, TV, and radio. New York: Bobbs-Merrill.
    Ascherson, N. (1982). The Polish August (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Viking.
    Atton, C. (1999). A reassessment of the alternative press. Media, Culture, & Society, 21(1), 51–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344399021001003
    Aufderheide, P. (1992). Cable television and the public interest. Journal of Communication, 42(1), 52–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1992.tb00768.x
    Autonomedia. (1994). ¡Zapatistas! Documents of the new Mexican revolution. Brooklyn, NY: Author.
    autori molti compagni. (1977). Bologna marzo 1977 … fatti nostri. Verona: Bertani Editore.
    Baca, J., Neumaier, D., & Angelo, N. (1985). Our people are the internal exiles. In D.Kahn & D.Neumaier (Eds.), Cultures in contention (pp. 62–75). Seattle. WA: The Real Comet Press.
    Bacon, D. (1997, April 1). Pacifica and the unions [On-line]. Available: http://www.radio4all.org/fp/bacon.htm.
    Bagdikian, B. (1999). The media monopoly (
    6th ed.
    ). Boston: Beacon.
    Bahro, R. (1978). The alternative. London: New Left Books.
    Bakhtin, M. M. (1981). The dialogic imagination. Austin: The University of Texas Press.
    Bakhtin, M. M. (1984). Rabelais and his world. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Baldelli, P. (1977). Informazione e controinformazione. Milan, Italy: Mazzotta.
    Barber, B. (1984). Strong democracy: Participatory politics for a new age. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Barlow, W. (1999). Voice over: The making of black radio. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Barmé, G., & Minford, J. (1989) Seeds of fire: Chinese voices of conscience. New York: Noonday Press.
    Barnouw, E. (1990). Tube of plenty: The evolution of American television (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Barnouw, E. (1993). Documentary: A history of the non-fiction film (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Bascetta, M., Dominijanni, I., & Gagliardo, R. (1997). Millenovecento settanta sette. Rome: Manifestolibri, La Talpa di Biblioteca 20.
    Bekes, J. P. (1996). Public spheres and private empires: and politics in Brazil. Master's thesis, University of Texas at Austin.
    Belchem, J. (1996) Popular radicalism in nineteenthc-entury Britain. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Benjamin, M. (1995, May). On the road with the Zapatistas: Mexican crackdown in Chiapas. The Progressive, 59(5), 28.
    Benjamin, W. (1973). The work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction. In H.Arendt (Ed.), Illuminations (pp. 219–253). London: Fontana.
    Benn, D. W. (1989). Persuasion and Soviet politics. Cambridge, UK: Basil Blackwell.
    Bennett, T. (1992). Putting policy into cultural studies. In L.Grossberg, C.Nelson, & P.Treichler (Eds.), Cultural studies (pp. 23–34). New York: Routledge.
    Bernhard, M. H. (1993). The origins of democratization in Poland: Workers, intellectuals, and oppositional politics, 1976–1980. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Berrigan, F. (Ed.). (1977). Access: Some western models of community media. Paris: UNESCO.
    Berry, V., & Manning-Miller, C. L. (Eds.). (1996). Mediated messages and African American culture: Contemporary issues. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Betz, H.-G., & Immerfall, S. (Eds.). (1998). The new politics of the right: Neo- populist parties and movements in established democracies. New York: St Martin's.
    Bey, H. (1991). The temporary autonomous zone. In T.A.Z.: The temporary autonomous zone, ontological anarchy, poetic terrorism (pp. 95–141). New York: Autonomedia.
    Bietenholz, P. G. (1990). Édition et réforme à Bâle, 1517–1565. In J.-F.Gilmont (Ed.), La réforme et le livre: L'Europe de l'imprimé (1517–1570) (pp. 239–268). Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf.
    Bischoff, S. (1978). Radio Verte Fessenheim. Ikon, 1(2), 192–200.
    Blee, K. M. (1993). Women of the klan: Racism and gender in the 1920s. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Blumenfeld & Cohen, Technology Law Group. (1996). Overview of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 [On-line]. Available: http://www.technologylaw.com/techlaw/act_summary.html
    Blumsztajn, S. (1988). Une pologne hors censure. Paris: Solidarité France-Pologne.
    Boal, A. (1997). Jeux pour acteurs et non-acteurs: Pratique du théâtre de l'opprimé. Paris: La Découverte.
    Boal, I. A. (1995). A flow of monsters: Luddism and virtual technologies. In J.Brook & I. A.Boal (Eds.), Resisting The virtual life: The culture and politics of information (pp. 3–16). San Francisco: City Lights.
    Bobbio, L. (1979). Lotta continua: Storia di una organizzazione rivoluzionaria. Rome: Savelli Editore.
    Bodek, R. (1997). Proletarian performance in Weimar Berlin: Agitprop, chorus, and Brecht. Columbus, SC: Camden House.
    Bold, A. (Ed.). (1970). The Penguin book of socialist verse. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
    Bolster, W. J. (1997). Black Jacks: African American seamen in the age of sail. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Bonfil Batalla, G. (1996). México profundo: Reclaiming a civilization. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    Boyle, D. (1997). Subject to change: Guerrilla television revisited. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Brecht, B. (1983). Radio as a means of communication. In A.Mattelart & S.Siegelaub (Eds.), Communication and class struggle 2: Liberation, socialism (pp. 169–171). Bagnolet, France: International Mass Media Research Center.
    Brenner, D. L., & Price, M. E. (1993). Cable television and other nonbroadcast video. New York: Clark Boardman Callaghan.
    Brentlinger, J. (1995). The best of what we are: Reflections on the Nicaraguan revolution. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
    Breve nota sobre “O Caso.” (1980, May). Gazeta do Mês, 1, 14.
    Brook, J., & Boal, I. A. (Eds.). (1995). Resisting the virtual life: The culture and politics of information. San Francisco: City Lights.
    Broonzy, B. B., Slim, M., & Williamson, D. B. (1946/1990). Blues in the Mississippi night [CD]. New York: Rykodisc, USA. (Originally recorded in 1946; first released on record in 1957; re-released on CD with a booklet written by Alan Lomax in 1990.)
    Broude, N., & Garrard, M. D. (1994). Introduction: Feminism and art in the twentieth century. In N.Broude & M. D.Garrard (Eds.), The power of feminist art: The American movement of the 1970s, history and impact (pp. 10–29). New York: Harry Abrams.
    Broyles-González, Y. (1994). El teatro campesino: Theater in the Chicano movement. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    Brugman, B., Redmond, T., & Ecklund, E. (1997, October 8). Pulling the strings: 31st anniversary issue investigative report. San Francisco Bay Guardian.
    Brumberg, A. (Ed.). (1983). Poland: Genesis of a revolution. New York: Vintage.
    Burke, P. (1986). Revolution in popular culture. In R.Porter & M.Teich (Eds.), Revolution in history (pp. 206–225). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Busch, C. (1981). Was sie immer schon über freie radios wissen wollten, aber nie zu fragen wagten. Münster, Germany: Author.
    Bushnell, J. (1989). Moscow graffiti. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
    Cable Television Consumer Protection and Competition Act of 1992, Pub. L. No. 102–385, 106 Stat. 1460 (1992).
    Cable Television Report and Order, 36 FCC 2d 143 (1972).
    Calhoun, C. (Ed.). (1993). Habermas and the public sphere. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Campbell, S. (1999, July 15). Scab radio? On the scene as Pacific Bell rewires KPFA's transmitter. San Francisco Bay Guardian. Available: http://www.superlists.com/kpfa/first.html.
    Canning, C. (1996). Feminist theaters in the U.S.A.: Staging women's experience. New York: Routledge.
    Carey, J. (1989). Communication as culture: Essays on media and society. Boston: Unwin Hyman.
    Carey, J. (1995). The press, public opinion, and public discourse. In T.Glasser & C. T.Salmon (Eds.), Public opinion and the communication ofconsent (pp. 373–402). New York: Guilford.
    Carlin, J. (1997, May). A farewell to arms. Wired.
    Chaffee, L. (1989). Political graffiti and wall painting in greater Buenos Aires: An alternative communication system. Studies in Latin American Popular Culture, 8, 37–60.
    Chaffee, L. (1990). The popular culture [of] political persuasion in Paraguay: Communication and public art. Studies in Latin American Popular Culture, 9, 127–148.
    Chen, R. (1982). Democracy wall and the unofficial journals. In Studies in Chinese terminology (Vol. 20). Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley, Center for Chinese Studies.
    Chochlowa, J. (1995). Meschrabpom. In I.Antonowa & J.Merkert (Eds.), Berlin Moskau 1900–1950 (pp. 193–197). München: Prestel-Verlag.
    Chrisman, M. U. (1990). L'édition protestante à Strasbourg, 1519–1560. In J.-F.Gilmont (Ed.), La réforme et le livre: L'Europe de l'imprimé (1517–1570) (pp. 217–238). Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf.
    Church, G. J. (1999, October 4). The economy of the future?Time, p. 14. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/articles/0,3266,31522-1,00.html
    Cleaver, H. (1995). The electronic fabric of struggle [On-line]. Available: http://www.eco.utexas.edu/faculty/Cleaver/zaps.html
    Cochran, F., & Ross, L. (1993), Procreating white supremacy: Women and the far right. Atlanta, GA: Center for Democratic Renewal.
    Cockburn, A. (1994). A fistful of promises. New Statesman and Society, 7, 294.
    Cockburn, A. (1997, December 15). Free radio, crazy cops, and broken windows. The Nation, p. 9.
    Cockburn, A., & Silverstein, K. (1995). Major U.S. bank urges Zapatista wipeout: A litmus test for Mexico's stability. Counterpunch, 2(3).
    Cojean, A., & Eskenazi, F. (1986). FM: La folle histoire des radios libres. Paris: Bernard Grasset.
    Collectif A/Traverso. (1977). Radio Alice, Radio libre. Paris: J.-P. Delarge.
    Colletti, L. (1972). From Rousseau to Lenin. London: New Left Books.
    Collovald, A., & Neveu, E. (1999). Political satire on French television. Modern & Contemporary France, 7(3), 339–349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09639489908456501
    Commissão do Livro Negro sobre o Fascismo. (1980). A política do informaçao no regime fascista. Sintra: Grafica-Europa.
    Committee for Labor Access. (1996). Grant proposal. Chicago: Author.
    Condee, N., & Padunov, V. (1991). Makulakul'tura: Reprocessing culture. October, 57, 79–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/778873
    Consorzio Aaster, Centro sociale Cox 18, Centro sociale Leoncavallo, Primo Moroni. (1996). Centri sociali: Geografie del desiderio. Milan: Shake Edizioni Underground.
    Cooper, S. (1996). Walter Benjamin and technology: Social form and the recovery of aura. Arena Journal, 6, 145–170.
    Crimp, D., with Rolston, A. (1990). AIDS demographics. Seattle, WA: Bay Press.
    Cronyn, H., McKane, R., & Watts, S. (Eds.). (1995). Voices of conscience: Poetry from oppression. North Shields, UK: Iron Press.
    Curran, J., & Seaton, J. (1991). Power without responsibility: The press and broadcasting in Britain (
    4th ed.
    ). London: Routledge.
    Dahl, R. A. (1989). Democracy and its critics. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Dale, S. (1996). McLuhan's children: The Greenpeace message and the media. Toronto: Between The Lines.
    Daniels, T., & Gerson, J. (Eds.). (1989). The colour black: Black images in British television. London: British Film Institute.
    Darnton, R. (1995). The forbidden best-sellers of pre-revolutionary France. New York: Norton.
    Dates, J., & Barlow, W. (Eds.). (1993). Split image: African Americans and the mass media (
    2nd ed.
    ). Washington, DC: Howard University Press.
    Dauncey, H., & Hare, G. (1999). French youth talk radio: The free market and free speech. Media, Culture, & Society, 21(1), 93–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344399021001005
    Davies, R. W. (1989). Soviet history in the Gorbachev revolution. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Davis, D. B. (1970). The problem of slavery in Western culture. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
    De Certeau, M. (1984) The practice of everyday life. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Deep dish TV network directory: A networking tool and resource guide for producers, programmers, andactivists. (1988). New York: Deep Dish Television Network.
    De Lima, V. A. (1979). The ideas of Paulo Freire on communication and culture. PhD dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana, Institute for Communication Research.
    De Micheli, M. (1978). Mostra John Heartfield: il fotomontaggio politico. Milan: Mazzotta Editore.
    De Tarlé, A. (1979). France: The monopoly that won't divide. In A.Smith (Ed.), Television and political life: Studies in six European countries (pp. 41–75). London: Macmillan.
    Denver Area Educational Telecommunications Consortium, Inc. et al. v. Federal Communications Commission et al., 135 L Ed 2d 888 (1996).
    Dickinson, R. (1997). Imprinting the sticks: The alternative press beyond London (Popular Cultural Studies, Vol. 12). Aldershot, UK: Arena.
    Donald, D. (1996). The age of caricature: Satirical prints in the reign of George III. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Dovey, J. (1993). Access television in the UK. In T.Dowmunt (Ed.), Channels of resistance: Global television and local empowerment (pp. 163–175). London: British Film Institute.
    Dowmunt, T. (Ed.). (1993). Channels of resistance: Global television and local empowerment. London: British Film Institute.
    Downing, J. (1980). The media machine. London: Pluto Press.
    Downing, J. (1984). Radical media: The political organization of alternative communication. Boston: South End Press.
    Downing, J. (Ed.). (1987). Film and politics in the third world. New York: Autonomedia.
    Downing, J. (1988a). The alternative public realm: The organization of the 1980s anti-nuclear press in West Germany and Britain. Media, Culture, and Society, 10, 163–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344388010002003
    Downing, J. (1988b). The Cosby Show and American racial discourse. In T. A.van Dijk & G.Smitherman-Donaldson (Eds.), Discourse and discrimination (pp. 46–73). Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
    Downing, J. (1989). Computers for political change: PeaceNet and public data access. Journal of Communication, 39(3), 154–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1989.tb01049.x
    Downing, J. (1990a). Ethnic minority radio in the United States. Howard Journal of Communication, 2(2), 135–148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10646179009359709
    Downing, J. (1990b). Political video in the United States: A statement for the 1990s. In B.Osborn (Ed.), At arm's length: (Taking a good hard look at) artists' video (pp. 101–131). New York: The Kitchen.
    Downing, J. (1992). Spanish-language media in the greater New York region during the 1980s. In S.Riggins (Ed.), Ethnic minority media: An international perspective (pp. 256–275). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Downing, J. (1996). Internationalizing media theory: Transition, power, culture: Reflections on media in Russia, Poland, and Hungary, 1980–1995. London: Sage.
    Downing, J. (1999a). Global networks toward new communities. In The promise of global networks (Annual review of the Institute for Information Studies, pp. 137–159). Queenstown, MD: The Aspen Institute.
    Downing, J. (1999b). “Hate speech” and “First Amendment absolutism” discourses in the U.S. Discourse and Society, 10(2), 175–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0957926599010002003
    Drew, J. (1995). Media activism and radical democracy. In J.Brook & I. A.Boal (Eds.), Resisting the virtual life: The culture and politics of information (pp. 71–83). San Francisco: City Lights.
    Dubin, S. C. (1992). Arresting images: Impolitic art and uncivil actions. London: Routledge.
    Dunaway, D. (1998). Community radio at the beginning of the 21st century. The Public/Javnost, 5(2), 87–103.
    Duncan, K., & Ruggiero, G. (1997, October 10). On the growing free media movement: Recent trends in radical media organizing. Z Magazine, 10(10), 47–50.
    Duncan, L. (1996). Labor television beyond the beltway. Community Media Review, 19(2), 13, 22–24.
    Dunn, T. (1996). The militarization of the U.S.-Mexico border, 1978–1992: Low-intensity conflict doctrine comes home. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
    Elmer-Dewitt, P. (1993). First nation in cyberspace (the internet), Time, 142(24), 62.
    Engelman, R. (1990). The origins of public access cable television, 1966–1972. Journalism Monographs (Serial No. 123).
    Entman, R. M. (1989). Democracy without citizens: Media and the decay of American politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Enzensberger, H.-M. (1974). Constituents of a theory of the media. In H. M.Enzensberger (Ed.), The consciousness industry (pp. 95–128). New York: Seabury
    Esteva, G., & Prakash, M. S. (1998). Grassroots postmodernism: Remaking the soil of cultures. London: Zed.
    Evans, D. (1992). John Heartfield AIZ: Arbeiter-Illustrierte Zeitung and Volks Illustrierte 1930–38. New York: Kent Fine Art.
    Evans, S. M. (1979). Personal politics: The roots of women's liberation in the civil rights movement and the new left. New York: Knopf.
    Fabré, Geneviève (1994). African American commemorative celebrations in the nineteenth century. In G.Fabré & R.O'Meally (Eds.), History and memory in African American culture (pp. 72–91). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Fanon, F. (1968). Sociologie d'une révolution (L'an cinq de la révolution algérienne). Paris: Maspéro.
    Favre, P. (1999). Les manifestations de rue entre espace privé et espace publique. In B.François & E.Neveu (Eds.), Espaces publiques mosaïques: Acteurs, arènes et rhètoriques des débats publics contemporains (pp. 135–152). Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes.
    Federal Communications Commission v. Midwest Video Corporation, 440 U.S. 689 (1979).
    Felshin, N. (Ed.). (1995). But is it art? The spirit of art as activism. Seattle, WA: Bay Press.
    Femia, J. V. (1981). Gramsci's political thought: Hegemony, consciousness, and the revolutionary process. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.
    Fenati, B. (1996, December). Dal salto della puntina al satellite digitale: I venti anni de Radio Popolare. ERREPI, pp. 10–13.
    Fernandes, J. A. (1980, May). Duas ou tres coisas que eu sei do República. Gazeta do Mês, pp. 14–15.
    Ferraresi, F. (1996). Threats to democracy: The radical right in Italy after the war. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Findlen, P. (1993). Humanism, politics, and pornography in Renaissance Italy. In L.Hunt (Ed.), The invention of pornography: Obscenity and the origins of modernity, 1500–1800 (pp. 49–108). New York: Zone Books.
    Findley, P. (1994). Conscientization and social movements in Canada: The relevance of Paulo Freire's ideas in contemporary politics. In P. L.McLaren & C.Lankshear (Eds.), Politics of liberation: Paths from Freire (pp. 108–122). New York: Routledge.
    Fiske, J. (1988). Television culture. New York: Methuen.
    Fiske, J. (1995). Media matters. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Fitzpatrick, S. (Ed.). (1978). Cultural revolution in Russia, 1928–1931. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Flood, J. L. (1990). Le livre dans le monde germanique à l'époque de la Réforme. In J.-F.Gilmont (Ed.), La réforme et le livre: L'Europe de l'imprimé (1517–1570) (pp. 29–104). Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf.
    Fofi, G. (1978). Lottare su due fronti. aut aut, 163, 46–52.
    Forgacs, D. (1988). An Antonio Gramsci reader: Selected writings 1916–1935. New York: Schocken.
    Forgacs, D., & Lumley, R. (Eds.). (1996). Italian cultural studies: An introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. New York: Pantheon.
    Fountain, N. (1988). Underground: The London alternative press 1966–74. London: Routledge.
    Fox, C. F. (1999). The fence and the river: Culture and politics at the U.S.-Mexican border. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    François, B., & Neveu, E. (Eds.). (1999). Espaces publiques mosaïques: Acteurs, arènes et rhètoriques des débats publics contemporains. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes.
    Fraser, N. (1993). Rethinking the public sphere: A contribution to the critique of actually existing democracy. In C.Calhoun (Ed.), Habermas and the public sphere (pp. 109–142). Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Frederick, H. (1993). Computer communication in cross-border coalition-building: North American NGO networking against NAFTA. Gazette: The International Journal of Mass Communication Studies, 50(2/3), 217–241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001654929205000207
    Frederick, H. (1996). Computer networks and the emergence of global civil society: The case of the association for progressive communication (APC). In L. M.Harasim (Ed.), Globalizing networks: Computers and international communication. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Freeman, J. (1975). The politics of women's liberation. New York: David McKay
    Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Herder & Herder.
    Freire, P. (1972). Cultural action for freedom. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
    Freire, P. (1974). Education for critical consciousness. London: Sheed & Ward.
    Friedland, L. A. (1996). Electronic democracy and the new citizenship. Media, Culture, & Society, 18(2), 185–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344396018002002
    Gabriel, T. (1982). Third cinema in the third world. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press.
    Gallo, M. (Ed.). (1974). The poster in history. New York: New American Library.
    Gamaleri, G. (Ed.). Un posto nell'etere: Le radio locali in Italia. Rome: Edizioni Paoline.
    Ganley, G. (1996). The unglued empire: The Soviet experience with communications technologies. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    García Espinosa, J. (1983). For an imperfect cinema. In A.Mattelart & S.Siegelaub (Eds.), Communication and class struggle 2: Liberation, socialism (pp. 295–300). Bagnolet, France: International Mass Media Research Center.
    Garitaonandia, C. (1988). La radio en España 1923–1939: De altavoz musical a arma de propaganda. Madrid: Siglo XXI de España Editores.
    Garnham, N. (1990). Capitalism and communication: Global culture and the economics of information. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Garofalo, T. M. (1994). To rescue and conserve our culture: Community radio on Colombia's Pacific littoral. Master's thesis, University of Texas at Austin, Institute for Latin American Studies.
    Garton Ash, T. (1983). The Polish revolution: Solidarity. New York: Scribner.
    Garton Ash, T. (1990). We the people: The revolutions of ′89Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
    Genovese, E. D. (1975) Roll, Jordan, roll: The world the slaves made. London: André Deutsch.
    Gettleman, M. E., Lacefield, P., Menashe, L., Mermelstein, D., & Radosh, R. (Eds.). (1981). El Salvador: Central America in the new Cold War. New York: Grove.
    Gever, M. (1985). Video politics: Early feminist projects. In D.Kahn & D.Neumaier (Eds.), Cultures in contention (pp. 92–101). Seattle, WA: The Real Comet Press.
    Gillespie, M. (1995). Television, ethnicity, and cultural change. London: Routledge.
    Gilmont, J.-F. (1990a). Introduction. In J.-F.Gilmont (Ed.), La réforme et le livre: L'Europe de l'imprimé (1517–1570) (pp. 9–17). Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf.
    Gilmont, J.-F. (Ed.). (1990b) La réforme et le livre: l'Europe de l'imprimé (1517–1570). Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf.
    Ginzburg, E. S. (1967). Journey into the whirlwind. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
    Girard, B. (Ed.). (1992). A passion for radio: Radio waves and community. Montréal: Black Rose Books.
    Gitlin, T. (1980). The whole world is watching: Mass media in the making and unmaking ofthe new left. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Gitlin, T. (1983). Inside prime time. New York: Pantheon.
    Gleason, A., Kenez, P., & Stites, R. (Eds.). (1985). Bolshevik culture: Experiment and order in the Russian revolution. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Goban-Klas, T. (1994). The orchestration of the media: The politics of mass communications in Communist Poland and the aftermath. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Godfried, N. (1997). WCFL: Chicago's voice of labor, 1926–78. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Goldman, E. (1970). Living my life (2 vols.). New York: Dover.
    Goldman, E. (1974). Anarchism and other essays. New York: Dover.
    Goldstein, R. J. (1989). Censorship of political caricature in nineteenth century France. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press.
    Goodwyn, L. (1991). Breaking the barrier: The rise of Solidarity in Poland. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Graeve, I. (1995). Klassenauge versus neues sehen. In I.Antonowa & J.Merkert (Eds.), Berlin Moskau 1900–1950 (pp. 221–225). München: Prestel-Verlag.
    Gramsci, A. (1971) Prison Notebooks, (QuintinHoare & Geoffrey-NowellSmith, Eds.). London: Lawrence & Wishart.
    Gray, H. (1995). Watching race: Television and the struggle for “Blackness.”Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Gray, M. (1997). Web growth summary [On-line]. Available: http://www.mit.edu/people/mkgray/net/web-growth-summary.html
    Greek-Oriental Rebetica, 1911–1937 (1991). El Cerrito, CA: Arhoolie Productions.
    Gregor, U., & Klejman, N. (1995). Deutscher und sowjetischer film. In I.Antonowa & J.Merkert (Eds.), Berlin Moskau 1900–1950 (pp. 199–203). München: Prestel-Verlag.
    Grigorenko, P. (1982). Memoirs. New York: Norton.
    Grispigni, M. (1997). Il settantasette. Milan: Il Saggiatore.
    Grohs, G. (1976). The church in Portugal after the coup of 1974. Iberian Studies, 1, 34–40.
    Group 2828. (1997). Net—Which Net? Paper delivered to the Second Intercontinental Encuentro, Madrid Spain. Available: http://www.pangea.org/encuentro and http://www.eco.utexas.edu/homepages/faculty/Cleaver/wk1net.html
    Guérin, D. (1965). La peste brune. Paris: Maspéro.
    Gumucio Dagron, A., & Cajías, L. (Eds.). (1989). Las radios mineras de Bolivia. La Paz: CIMCA-UNESCO.
    Habermas, J. (1987). The theory of communicative action. Boston, MA: Beacon. (Original work published 1984)
    Habermas, J. (1989) Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit (The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere). Cambridge: MIT Press. (Original work published 1962)
    Hackett, R. A. (1991). News and dissent: The press and the politics of peace in Canada. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Hackett, R. A. (1993). Engulfed: Peace protest and America's press during the Gulf War (Occasional Paper). New York: New York University, Center for War, Peace and the News Media.
    Hall, S. (1986). Gramsci's relevance for the study of race and ethnicity. In D.Morley & K.-H.Chen (Eds.), Stuart Hall: Critical dialogues in cultural studies (pp. 411–440). New York: Routledge.
    Halleck, D. (1984). Paper tiger television: Smashing the myths of the information industry every week on public access cable. Media, Culture, and Society, 6, 313–318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344378400600310
    Halleck, D. (1993). Deep dish TV: Community video from geostationary orbit. Leonardo, 26(5), 415–420. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1576036
    Halleck, D. (1994, September/October). Zapatistas on-line. NACLA Report on the Americas, 28, 30.
    Hallett, M. (1999). The spectacle of difference: Graphic satire in the age of Hogarth. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Hallin, D. C. (1986). The “uncensored” war: The media and Vietnam. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Halloran, J., Elliott, P., & Murdock, G. (1970). Demonstrations and communication. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
    Hamelink, C. (1995). World communication: Disempowerment and self-empowerment. New York: Zed Books.
    Hamsik, D. (1971). Writers against rulers. London: Hutchinson.
    Hanchard, M. (1995). Black Cinderalla? Race and the public sphere in Brazil. Public Culture, 15, 165–185.
    Hardt, H. (1993). Alternative views of democracy: Theories of culture and communication in the United States. In S.Splichal & J.Wasko (Eds.), Communication and democracy (pp. 87–102). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
    Harris, M. W. (1992). The rise of the gospel blues: The music of Thomas Andrew Dorsey in the urban church. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Havlicek, D. (1973). Mass media and their impact on Czechoslovak politics in 1968. In V. V.Kusin (Ed.), The Czechoslovak reform movement 1968. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC Clio Press.
    Held, D. (1987). Models of democracy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Heller, S., & Anderson, G. (1992). The savage mirror: The art of contemporary caricature. New York: Watson-Guptill.
    Helsinki Watch. (1986). Reinventing civil society: Poland's quiet revolution 1981–1986. New York: Author.
    Helsinki Watch. (1987). From below: Independent peace and environmental movements in Eastern Europe and the USSR. New York: Author.
    Helsinki Watch. (1990). Nyeformaly: Civil society in the USSR. New York: Author.
    Hénaut, D. T. (1991). Video stories from the dawn of time. Visual Anthropology Review, 7(2), 85–101.
    Hercules, B. (1987). Labor beat. Community Television Review, 10(2), 12–13.
    Herman, E. S. (1992). Beyond hypocrisy: Decoding the news in an age of propaganda. Boston: South End Press.
    Herman, E. S. (1999). The myth of the liberal media: An Edward Herman reader. New York: Peter Lang.
    Herman, E. S., & Chomsky, N. (1988). Manufacturing consent. New York: Pantheon.
    Herman, E. S., & McChesney, R. W. (1997). The global media: The new missionaries of corporate capitalism. Washington, DC: Cassell.
    Hersh, S. (1983). The price of power: Kissinger in the Nixon White House. New York: Summit.
    Hertsgaard, M. (1988). On bended knee: The press and the Reagan presidency. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux.
    Hickey, N. (1997, June/July). Jurassic pork. Cybernautics Digest, pp. 10–17.
    Hill, C. (1975). The world turned upside down: Radical ideas during the English Revolution. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
    Hilliard, R. L., & Keith, M. C. (1999). Waves of rancor: Tuning in the radical right. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.
    Hinks, P. B. (1997). To awaken my afflicted brethren: David Walker and the problem of antebellum slave resistance. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press.
    Hinz, R. (1981). Käthe Kollwitz: Graphics, posters, drawings. New York: Pantheon.
    Hobsbawm, E. J. (1994). The age of extremes: Ahistory of the world, 1914–1991. New York: Pantheon.
    Hoernle, E. (1983). The worker's eye. In A.Mattelart & S.Siegelaub (Eds.), Communication and class struggle 2: Liberation, socialism. Bagnolet, France: International Mass Media Research Center.
    Hoffmann, L. (1995). Die proletarische theater Berlins und der impuls proletkult. In I.Antonowa & J.Merkert (Eds.), Berlin Moskau 1900–1950 (pp. 227–231). München: Prestel-Verlag.
    Höllering, F. (1983). The conquest of machines that can observe things. In A.Mattelart & S.Siegelaub (Eds.), Communication and class struggle 2: Liberation, socialism. Bagnolet, France: International Mass Media Research Center.
    Hollis, P. (1970). The pauper press: A study in working class radicalism of the 1830s. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Holloway, J., & Peláez, E. (Eds.). (1998). Zapatista! Reinventing revolution from the ground up. London: Pluto.
    Hopkins, M. (1983). Russia's underground press. New York: Praeger.
    Horkheimer, M., & Adorno, T. (1987). The culture industry: Enlightenment as mass deception. In M.Horkheimer & T.Adorno (Eds.), Dialectic of enlightenment (pp. 120–167). New York: Continuum.
    Huesca, R. (1995). A procedural view of participatory communication: Lessons from Bolivian tin miners' radio. Media, Culture, & Society, 17, 101–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344395017001007
    Huesca, R., & Dervin, B. (1994). Theory and practice in Latin American alternative communication research. Journal of Communication, 44(4), 53–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1994.tb00699.x
    Hunt, L. (Ed.). (1993). The invention of pornography: Obscenity and the origins of modernity, 1500–1800. New York: Zone Books.
    Hunter, T. (1997). To joy my freedom: Southern Black women's lives and labors after the Civil War. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Husband, C. (1988). Racist humour and racist ideology in British television, or I laughed till you cried. In C.Powell & G. E. C.Paton (Eds.), Humour in society: Resistance and control (pp. 149–178). London: Macmillan.
    Husband, C. (1996). The right to be understood: Conceiving the multi-ethnic public sphere. Innovation, 9(2), 205–211.
    Husband, C., & Chouhan, J. (1985). Local radio in the communication environment of ethnic minorities in Britain. in T. A.van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse and communication: New approaches to the analyses of mass media discourse and communication (pp. 270–294). Berlin: de Gruyter.
    Hutter, P. (Ed.). (1978). Piccole antenne crescono. Rome: Savelli Editore.
    Israels Perry, E. (1994). Image, rhetoric, and the historical memory of women. In A.Sheppard (Ed.), Cartooning for suffrage (pp. 3–19). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
    Jacob, M. J. (1995). An unfashionable audience. In S.Lacy (Ed.), Mapping the terrain: New genre public art (pp. 50–59). Seattle, WA: Bay Press.
    Jakubowicz, K. (1990). Musical chairs? The three public spheres of Poland. Media, Culture, & Society, 12, 195–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344390012002004
    Jakubowicz, K. (1993). Stuck in a groove: Why the 1960s approach to communication democratization will no longer do. In S.Splichal & J.Wasko (Eds.), Communication and democracy (pp. 33–54). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    James, R. (Ed.). (1992). Cassette mythos. Brooklyn, NY: Autonomedia.
    Jankowski, N., Prehn, O., & Stappers, J. (Eds.). (1992). The people's voice: Local radio and television in Europe. London: John Libbey.
    Jenkins, H. (1992). Textual poachers. New York: Routledge.
    Jensen, C. (1997). 20 Years of censored news. New York: Seven Stories Press.
    Jezdinsky, K. (1973). Mass media and their impact on Czechoslovak politics in 1968. In V. V.Kusin (Ed.), The Czechoslovak reform movement 1968. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC Clio Press.
    Jezer, M. (1982). The dark ages: Life in the United States 1945–1960. Boston: South End Press.
    Johnston, A. G., & Gilmont, J.-F. (1990). L'imprimerie et la Réforme á Anvers. In J.-F.Gilmont (Ed.), La réforme et le livre: L'Europe de l'imprimé (1517–1570) (pp. 191–216). Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf.
    Jones, M. C. (1993). Heretics and hellraisers: Women contributors to the masses, 1911–1917. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    Juhasz, A. (1995). AIDS TV: Identity, community, and alternative video. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Kahn, D., & Neumaier, D. (Eds.). (1985). Cultures in contention. Seattle. WA: The Real Comet Press.
    Kaiser, S. M. (1993). The madwomen memory mothers of the Plaza de Mayo. Master's thesis, Film and Media Studies Department, Hunter College, City University of New York.
    Kaiser, S. M. (2000, June). The torturer next door: Challenging impunity in postdictatorial Argentina. Paper delivered at the International Communication Association conference, Acapulco, Mexico.
    Kapchan, D. (1996). Gender on the market: Moroccan women and the revoicing of tradition. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Katz, E., & Lazarsfeld, P. (1955). Personal influence. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.
    Kawecka-Gryczowa, A., & Tazbir, J. (1990). Le livre et la réforme en Pologne. In J.-F.Gilmont (Ed.), La réforme et le livre: L'Europe de l'imprimé (1517–1570) (pp. 417–440). Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf.
    Keane, J. (1991). The media and democracy. Cambridge, UK: Basil Blackwell.
    Keil, C. (1966). Urban blues. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Kellner, D. (1990). Television and the crisis of democracy. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Kellner, D. (1992). The Persian Gulf TV war. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Kellow, C. L., & Steeves, H. L. (1998). The role of radio in the Rwandan genocide. Journal of Communication, 48(3), 107–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1998.tb02762.x
    Kershaw, B. (1992). The politics of performance: Radical theatre as cultural intervention. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203412282
    Khosrokhavar, F. (1997). L'Islam des jeunes. Paris: Flammarion.
    King, D. (1997). The commissar vanishes: The falsification of photographs and art in Stalin's Russia. New York: Henry Holt.
    Kintz, L., & Lesage, J. (Eds.). (1998). Media, culture, and the religious right. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Klapper, J. (1960). The effects of mass communication. New York: The Free Press.
    Kobylinski, A. (1989). Szesc lat podziemnej poczty w polsce (1982–1988). Rapposwil, Switzerland: Muzeum Polskiego.
    Kogawa, T. (1985). Free radio in Japan. In D.Kahn & D.Neumaier (Eds.), Cultures in contention (pp. 116–121). Seattle. WA: The Real Comet Press.
    Koljasin, W. (1995). Gastspieler russischer theater in den zwanzigen und dreissigen jahren. In I.Antonowa & J.Merkert (Eds.), Berlin Moskau 1900–1950 (pp. 173–177). München: Prestel-Verlag.
    Komarov, B. (1978). The destruction of nature in the Soviet Union. London: Pluto Press.
    Konrád, G. (1984). Antipolitics. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
    Kopelev, L. (1969). No jail for thought. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
    Kouloumdjian, M.-F. & Busato, L. (1987). L'audiocassette au Brésil: Voix de résistance. Grenoble: Ellug, Université Stendhal.
    Kowalski, T. (1988). Evolution after revolution: The Polish press system in transition, Media, Culture, & Society, 10(2), 183–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344388010002004
    Kubik, J. (1994). The power of symbols against the symbols of power. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
    Kunzle, D. (1983). Art in Chile's revolutionary process: Guerrilla muralist brigades. In A.Mattelart & S.Siegelaub (Eds.), Communication and class struggle 2: Liberation, socialism (pp. 372–381). Bagnolet, France: International Mass Media Research Center.
    Laba, R. (1991). The roots of solidarity: Apolitical sociology of Poland's working class democratization. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Labor and access: A roundtable discussion. (1995). Community Media Review, 18(3), 14, 25–28.
    Laclau, E., & Mouffe, C. (1985). Hegemony and socialist strategy. New York: Verso.
    Lacy, S. (Ed.). (1995). Mapping the terrain: New genre public art. Seattle, WA: Bay Press.
    Lafaye, J. (1985). Quetzalcóatl y Guadalupe: La formación de la conciencia nacional en México. Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica.
    Land, J. (1999). Active radio: Pacifica's brash experiment. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Landes, J. (1988). Women and the public sphere in the age of the French Revolution. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Landry, C., Morley, D., Southwood, R., & Wright, P. (1985). What a way to run a railroad: An analysis of radical failure. London: Comedia Publishing Group.
    Lasar, M. (1999). Pacifica radio: The rise of an alternative network. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Latham, J. (1999). Voices of hate [On-line]. Available: http://www.rfpi.org/vista/frrr-book1.html
    Laughton, B. (1996). Honoré Daumier. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Lears, T. J. (1985). The concept of cultural hegemony: Problems and possibilities. American Historical Review, 90(5), 567–593. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1860957
    Lenin, V. I. (1965). Collected works (Vol. 5). London: Lawrence & Wishart. (Original work published 1902)
    Leuthold, S. (1998). Indigenous aesthetics: Native art, media, and identity. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    Levine, L. W. (1977). Black culture and Black consciousness: Afro-American folk thought from slavery to freedom. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Levy, E. (1999). Cinema of outsiders: The rise of American independent film. New York: New York University Press.
    Lewin, M. (1988). The Gorbachev phenomenon: An historical interpretation. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Lewis, B. I. (1971). George Grosz: Art and politics in the Weimar republic. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Lidtke, V. (1985). The alternative culture: Socialist labor in imperial Germany. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Liehm, A. (1977). Il passato presente. Bologna: Cappelli Editore.
    Lifton, R. J., & Falk, R. (1982). Indefensible weapons: The political and moral case against nuclear arms. New York: Basic Books.
    Limón, J. E. (1992). Mexican ballads, Chicano poems: History and influence in Mexican-American social poetry. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Liperi, F. (1997). La rivoluzione via etere. In M.Bascetta et al. (Eds.), Millenovecento settanta sette (pp. 105–114). Rome: Manifestolibri.
    Lippard, L. R. (1981). Foreword. In R.Hinz, Käthe Kollwitz: Graphics, posters, drawings. New York: Pantheon.
    Lloréns, J. A. (1994). Popular media in Peru: Mass media and collective identity. PhD dissertation, Department of Radio-Television-Film, The University of Texas at Austin.
    Lomax, A. (compiler). (1990). Blues in the Mississippi night. Salem, MA: Rykodisc.
    Longo, B. (1978, January-February). I limiti della communicazione “internal.”aut aut, 163, 18–26.
    López Vigil, J. I. (1994). Rebel radio: The story of El Salvador's Radio Venceremos. Willimantic, CT and London: Curbstone Press and Latin America Bureau.
    Macali, G. (1977). Meglio tardi che RAI. Rome: Savelli Editore.
    Macpherson, C. B. (1973). Democratic theory: Essays in retrieval. London: Oxford University Press.
    Maier-Metz, H. (1984). Expressionismus—Dada—agitprop: Zur entwicklung des Malik-Kreises in Berlin 1912–1924. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
    MalcolmX. (1968). The autobiography of Malcolm X. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
    Mallin, P. (1997, October). Marci Lockwood, IGC's new executive director: the NetNews interview. IGC Netnews [On-line]. Available: http://www.igc.org/igc/netnews/lockwood.html
    Mandela, N. (1973). No easy walk to freedom: Articles, speeches, and trial addresses. London: Heinemann.
    Manno, J. (1984). Arming the heavens: The hidden military agenda for space, 1945–1995. New York: Dodd, Mead.
    Marcus, D. (1991). Tales from the tiger den: A history of our deconstruction. In D.Marcus (Ed.), ROAR! The paper tiger television guide to media activism (pp. 31–32). New York: The Paper Tiger Television Collective.
    Marcus, G. (1989). Lipstick traces: A secret history of the twentieth century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Marelli, G. (1998). L'amére victoire de situationnisme: Pour une histoire critique de l'Internationale situationniste (1957–1972). Arles, France: Éditions Sulliver.
    Martín-Barbero, J. (1993). Communication, culture, and hegemony: From the media to mediations, Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Martínez Victores, R. (1978). 7RR: la historia de Radio Rebelde. Havana: Editorial de Ciencias Sociales.
    Marx, K. (1975). Contribution to the critique of Hegel's philosophy of law. In K.Marx & F.Engels, Collected works (Vol. 3, pp. 175–187). Moscow: Progress.
    Marx, K. (1977). Capital: A critique of political economy. New York: International Publishers.
    Marx, K., & Engels, F. (1972). The German ideology. New York: International Publishers.
    Mason, M. (1997, October). IGC fights digital censorship: Basque website attacked by internet mailbombers. IGC NetNews [On-line]. Available: http://www.igc.org/igc/netnews/ehj.html
    Massachi, D., & Cowan, R. (Eds.). (1994). Guide to uncovering the right on campus. Cambridge, MA: University Conversion Project.
    Mattelart, A. (1974). Mass media, idéologies et mouvement révolutionnaire, Chili 1970–1973. Paris: éditions Anthropos.
    Mattelart, A. (Ed.). (1986). Communicating in popular Nicaragua. New York: International General.
    Mattelart, A., & Siegelaub, S. (Eds.). (1983). Communication and class struggle 2: Liberation, socialism. Bagnolet, France: International Mass Media Research Center.
    Mattern, M. (1991). Popular music and redemocratization in Santiago, Chile. Studies in Latin American Popular Culture, 10, 101–113.
    Mayer, V. (1998). For the people and by the people: TV Maxabomba's regeneration of popular cinema. Studies In Latin American Popular Culture, 17, 223–232.
    McCalman, I. (1988). Radical underworld: Prophets, revolutionaries, and pornographers in London, 1795–1840. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    McCarthy, P. (1995). The crisis of the Italian state: From the origins of the Cold War to the fall of Berlusconi. New York: St Martin's.
    McChesney, R. (1993). Telecommunications, mass media, and democracy: The battle for the control of U.S. broadcasting, 1928–1935. New York: Oxford University Press.
    McChesney, R. (1996). The global struggle for communication. Monthly Review, 48(2), 1.
    McChesney, R. (1997). Digital highway robbery: Where is the competition the Telecommunications Act is supposed to provide?The Nation, 264(15), 22.
    McClure, K. (1992). On the subject of rights: Pluralism, plurality, and political identity. In C.Mouffe (Ed.), Dimensions of radical democracy: Pluralism, citizenship, and community (pp. 108–125). London: Verso.
    McCole, J. (1993). Walter Benjamin and the antinomies of tradition. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    McLaren, P. L., & Lankshear, C. (Eds.). (1994). Politics of liberation: Paths from Freire. New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203421369
    McLaughlin, L. (1995). From excess to access: Feminist political agency in the public sphere. Javnost/The Public, 2(4), 37–50.
    McMillan, P. J. (1965). Khrushchev and the arts: The politics of Soviet culture, 1962–64. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Medvedev, R. (Ed.). (1978). Samizdat register I. London: Merlin.
    Medvedev, R. (Ed.). (1982). Samizdat register II. London: Merlin.
    Mercer, K. (1988). Diaspora culture and the dialogic imagination. In M. B.Cham & C.Andrade-Watkins (Eds.), Blackframes: Critical perspectives on Black independent cinema (pp. 50–61). Boston: MIT Press.
    Mesquita, M. (1994). Os meios de comunicaçao social. In A.Reis (Ed.), Portugal: 20 anos de democracia (pp. 360–405). Lisbon: Círculo De Leitores.
    Meyer, R. (1995). This is to enrage you: Gran Fury and the graphics of AIDS activism. In N.Felshin (Ed.), But is it art? The spirit of art as activism (pp. 51–83). Seattle, WA: Bay Press.
    MIDS (Matrix Information and Directory Services, Inc.). (1997, January). MN online editorial: State of the internet [On-line]. Available: http://www.mids.org/mmq/401/pubhtml/ed.html
    Mignot-Lefebvre, Y. (1984). Nouveaux média, nouveaux professionels?Autogestions, 18, 47–59.
    Milkman, P. (1997). PM: A New Deal in Journalism, 1940–1948. Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Minter, W. (1972). Portuguese Africa and the West. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
    Misztal, B. (1992). Between the state and solidarity: One movement, two interpretations—the orange alternative movement in Poland. British Journal of Sociology, 43, 55–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/591201
    Mitchell, C. (1998). Women's radio as a feminist public sphere. The Public/Javnost, 5(2), 73–85.
    Mlynar, Z. (1980). Nightfrost in Prague. New York: Karz.
    Mohammadi, A., & Sreberny-Mohammadi, A. (1994). Small media big revolution. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Molete, M. (1992). La caméra explore les luttes. In N.Thede & A.Ambrosi (Eds.), Petits écrans et démocratie: Vidéo légère et télévision alternative au service du développement (pp. 83–91). Paris: Syros-Alternatives
    Mouffe, C. (1992a). Dimensions of radical democracy: Pluralism, citizenship, and community. London: Verso.
    Mouffe, C. (1992b). Feminism, citizenship, and radical democratic politics. In J.Butler & J. W.Scott (Eds.), Feminists theorize the political (pp. 369–384). New York: Routledge.
    Mueller, R. (1989). Bertolt Brecht and the theory of media. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
    Münzenberg, W. (1983). Tasks and aims of the international worker-photographer movement. In A.Mattelart & S.Siegelaub (Eds.), Communication and class struggle 2: Liberation, socialism. Bagnolet, France: International Mass Media Research Center.
    Nader, R., Love, J., & Saindon, A. (1995, July). Federal telecommunications legislation: Impact on media concentration. Consumer Project on Technology, 14 [Internet newsletter].
    Nakazawa, K. (1989). Barefoot gen. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
    Negri, A. (1991). Marx beyond Marx: Lessons on the Grundrisse. New York: Autonomedia.
    Negt, O., & Kluge, A. (1993). Öffentlichkeit und Erfahrung (Public sphere and experience). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. (Original work published 1972)
    Nelson, E. (1989). The British counter-culture, 1966–73: A study of the underground press. New York: St Martin's.
    Network Medien-Cooperative. (1983). Frequenzbesetzer: Arbeitsbuch für ein anderes Radio. Hamburg: Rowohlt Taschenbuch.
    Network Wizards. (1997, July). Internet domain survey [On-line]. Available: http://www.nw.com/zone/WWW/report.html
    Neveu, E. (1999). Media and social movements. La Lettre de la Maison Française10, 43–60.
    Noriega, C. (Ed.). (1992). Chicanos and film: Representation and resistance. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Nove, A. (1989). Glasnost in action. Boston, MA: Unwin Hyman.
    Nowak, J. (1983, April). Poland's resilient underground press. Washington Journalism Review, pp. 18–20, 58.
    Nwoye, O. G. (1993). Social issues on walls: Graffiti in university lavatories. Discourse and Society, 4(4), 419–442. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0957926593004004001
    O'Connor, A. (1990). The miners' radio stations in Bolivia: A culture of resistance. Journal of Communication, 40, 102–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1990.tb02254.x
    Orwell, G. (1952). Homage to Catalonia. New York: Harcourt.
    Ost, D. (1990). Solidarity and the politics of anti-politics: Opposition and reform in Poland since 1968. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Otzoy, I. (1996). Maya clothing and identity. In E. F.Fischer & R. McKennaBrown (Eds.), Maya cultural activism in Guatemala (pp. 141–155). Austin: University of Texas Press.
    Painter, N. I. (1996). Sojourner Truth: A life, a symbol. New York: Norton.
    Paret, P., Lewis, B. I., & Paret, P. (1992). Persuasive images: Posters of war and revolution from the Hoover Institution archives. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Passerini, L. (1996). Autobiography of a generation: Italy, 1968. Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press.
    Pearson, J. (1999). Women's reading in Britain 1750–1835: A dangerous recreation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511582899
    Peck, A. (1985). Uncovering the sixties: The life and times of the underground press. New York: Pantheon.
    Percq, P. (1998). Les caméras des favelas. Paris: Les Éditions de l'Atelier.
    Philippe, R. (1982). Political graphics: Art as a weapon. New York: Abbeville.
    Phillips, S. A. (1999). Wallbangin': Graffiti and gangs in Los Angeles. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Pincus, R. L. (1995). The invisible town square: Artists' collaborations and media dramas in America's biggest border town. In N.Felshin (Ed.), But is it art? The spirit of art as activism (pp. 31–49). Seattle, WA: Bay Press.
    Pines, J. (1988). The cultural context of Black British cinema. In M. B.Cham & C.Andrade-Watkins (Eds.), Blackframes: Critical perspectives on Black independent cinema (pp. 26–26). Boston: MIT Press.
    Plant, S. (1992). The most radical gesture: The situationist international in a postmodern age. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203210260
    Plyushch, L. (1979). History's carnival: A dissident's autobiography. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.
    Poovey, M. (1984). The proper lady and the woman writer: Ideology as style in the works of Mary Wollstonecraft, Mary Shelley, and Jane Austen. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Porter, D. (1979). Revolutionary realization: The motivational energy. In H. J.Ehrlich (Ed.), Reinventing anarchy (pp. 214–228). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Potash, C. (Ed.). (1997). Reggae, rasta, revolution: Jamaican music from ska to dub. New York: Schirmer.
    Potel, J.-Y. (1982). The promise of Solidarnosc. New York: Praeger.
    Price, R. (Ed.). (1973). Maroon societies: Rebel slave communities in the Americas. New York: Anchor.
    Pringle, P., & Arkin, W. (1983). SIOP: The secret U.S. plan for nuclear war. New York: Norton.
    Putnam, R. D. (1993). Making democracy work: Civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Quintavalle, C. A. (1974). The development of poster art. In M.Gallo (Ed.), The poster in history (pp. 217–230). New York: New American Library.
    Raboy, M. (1984). Movements and messages: Media and radical politics in Québec. Toronto: Between The Lines.
    Radway, J. (1984). Reading the romance. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
    Raina, P. (1981). Independent social movements in Poland. London: London School of Economics/Orbis Books.
    Ramírez, M. C. (Ed.). (1999). Cantos paralelos: La parodia plástica en al arte argentino contemporáneo. Austin, TX: Jack S. Blanton Museum of Art.
    Ramus, C. F. (Ed.). (1978). Daumier: 120 great lithographs. New York: Dover.
    Red Notes. (1978). Italy 1977–78: Living with an earthquake. London: Author.
    Red Notes. (1979). Working class autonomy and the crisis. London: Author.
    Red Notes. (1981). Italy 1980–81: After Marx, jail!London: Author.
    Remington, T. F. (1988). The truth of authority. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Reporters Sans Frontières. (1995). Les médias de la haine. Paris: Éditions La Découverte.
    Riaño, P. (Ed.). (1994). Women in grassroots communication: Furthering social change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Rice, J. (1980–1981). Cable access: Promise of the eighties. In M. L.Hollowell (Ed.), The cable/broadband communications book (Vol. 2, pp. 100–117). New York: Industry Publications.
    Riggins, S. H. (Ed.). (1992). Ethnic minority media: An international perspective. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Rips, G. (1981). The campaign against the underground press. San Francisco: City Lights Books.
    Robberson, T. (1995, February 20). Mexican rebels using a high-tech weapon: Internet helps rally support. The Washington Post, pp. A1.
    Robinson, G. J. (1977). Tito's maverick media. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Rodríguez, C. (in press). Fissures in the mediascape: A comparative analysis of citizens' media. Cresskill, NY: Hampton Press.
    Rodriguez, J. (1994). Our Lady Of Guadalupe: Faith and empowerment among Mexican-American women. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    Rolston, B. (1991). Politics and painting: Murals and conflict in Northern Ireland. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.
    Rosenberg, T. (1995). The haunted land: Facing Europe's ghosts after Communism. New York: Random House.
    Rosenfeld, R. (1997). American aurora: The suppressed history of our nation's beginnings and the newspaper that tried to report it. New York: St Martin's.
    Roszak, T. (1995). The making of a counter culture (
    2nd ed.
    ). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Rothe, N. (Ed.). (1977). Frühe sozialistische satyrische lyrik aus den zeitschriften “Der Wahre Jakob” und “Süddeutscher Postillon.”Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
    Rowbotham, S. (1975). Hidden from history: Rediscovering women in history from the 17th century to the present. New York: Pantheon.
    Rowbotham, S. (1981). Beyond the fragments. In S.Rowbotham, L.Segal, & H.Wainwright (Eds.), Beyond the fragments. Boston: Alyson.
    Rowbotham, S. (1989). The past is before us: Feminism in action since the 1960s. London: Pandora.
    Rowbotham, S. (1992). Women in movement: Feminism and social action. London: Routledge.
    Rowland, W. D., Jr. (1982). The illusion of fulfillment: The broadcast reform movement. Journalism Monograph (Serial No. 79).
    Rozzo, U., & Seidel Menchi, S. (1990). Livre et réforme en Italie. In J.-F.Gilmont (Ed.), La réforme et le livre: L'Europe de l'imprimé (1517–1570) (pp. 327–374). Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf.
    Ruane, K. (1982). The Polish challenge. London: BBC Publications.
    Ruggeri, G., & Guarino, M. (1994). Berlusconi: Inchiesta sul signor TV. Milan: Kaos Edizioni.
    Rumsey, S. (1995). Re: the situation in Chiapas—update of urgent action (ICCHRLA Committee Report sent on-line Monday, February 13). Available: <gopher://mundo.eco.utexas.edu:70/11/mailing/chiapas95.archive>
    Ryan, C. (1991). Prime time activism: Media strategies for grassroots organizing. Boston: South End Press.
    Ryback, T. (1989). Rock around the bloc. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Sabin, R. (1993). Adult comics: An introduction. London: Routledge.
    Sabin, R. (1996). Comics, comix, & graphic novels. London: Phaidon Press.
    Said, G. (in press). The hamam as a women's public sphere in Morocco. Dissertation in progress, University of Texas at Austin. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1443-1661.2012.01282.x
    Sakharov, A. (1974). Sakharov speaks. New York: Knopf.
    Sakolsky, R., & Dunifer, S. (Eds.). (1998). Seizing the airwaves: A free radio handbook. Edinburgh and San Francisco: AK Press.
    Sakolsky, R., & Koehnline, J. (Eds.). (1993). Gone to Croatan: Origins of North American dropout culture. New York: Autonomedia.
    Salisbury, H. E. (Ed.). (1974). Sakharov speaks. New York: Vintage.
    Sampedro Blanco, V. (1997). Movimientos sociales: Debates sin mordaza—desobediencia civil y servicio militar (1970–1996). Madrid, Spain: Boletín Oficial del Estado, Centro de Estudios Constitucionales.
    Samuelson, F.-M. (1978). Il Était une fois libé …Paris: Le Seuil.
    Samuelson, P. (1996). The copyright grab. Wired Magazine [On-line]. Available: http://www.wired.com/wired/whitepaper.html
    Saponara, L. E. (1997). Ideology at work: Deciphering the appeal of New Right discourse. Master's thesis, Radio-Television-Film Department, University of Texas at Austin.
    Scammell, M. (1984). Solzhenitsyn: A biography. New York: Norton.
    Scannell, P. (1992). The media and democracy. Media, Culture, & Society, 14(2), 325–328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344392014002013
    Schechter, D. (1992). L'expérience de globalvision: Découvrir la couverture. In N.Thede & A.Ambrosi (Eds.), Petits écrans et démocratie: Vidéo légère et télévision alternative au service du développement (pp. 135–141). Paris: Syros-Alternatives.
    Schell, O. (1994). Mandate of heaven: A new generation of entrepreneurs, dissidents, bohemians, and technocrats lays claim to China's future. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Schiller, D. (1981). Objectivity and the news. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Schiller, H. (1995). The global information highway: Project for an ungovernable world. In J.Brook & I.Boal (Eds.), Resisting the virtual life: The culture of politics and information. San Francisco: City Lights Press.
    Schlecht, N. E. (1995). Resistance and appropriation in Brazil: How the media and “official culture” institutionalized Sao Paulo'sgrafite. Studies in Latin American Popular Culture, 14, 37–67.
    Schlesinger, P. (1992). Putting “reality” together: BBC news (
    2nd ed.
    ). London: Routledge.
    Schudson, M. (1997). Why conversation is not the soul of democracy. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 14(4), 297–309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039709367020
    Scott, J. C. (1985). Weapons of the weak: Everyday forms of peasant resistance. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Scott, J. C. (1990). Domination and the arts of resistance: Hidden transcripts. New Haven, CT, Yale University Press.
    Seaton, J., & Pimlott, B. (1980). Media and the Portuguese revolution. In A.Smith (Ed.), Newspapers and democracy (pp. 174–199). Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Seeger, P. (1992). American industrial ballads (Smithsonian/Folkways Recordings). Cambridge, MA: Rounder Records.
    Selna, R. (1999, August 3). KPFA transmitter still off-limits to staff. San Francisco Examiner. Available: http://www.sfgate.com/cgibin/article.cgi?file=/examiner/archive/1999/08/03/METRO14918.dtl.
    Semelin, J. (1997). La liberté au bout des ondes: De coup de Prague à du mur de Berlin. Paris: Belfond.
    Seubert, E. (1987). Native American media in the United States: An overview. In John D. H.Downing (Ed.), Film And politics in the third world (pp. 303–310). New York: Autonomedia.
    Shamberg, M., & Raindance Corporation. (1971). Guerrilla television. San Francisco, CA: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Shanor, D. (1985). Behind the lines. New York: St Martin's.
    Shapiro, A. (1995). Street corners in cyberspace. The Nation, 261(1), 10.
    Shapiro, A. (1997). Total access. The Nation, 264(1), 5.
    Sheng, H. (1990). Big character posters in China: A historical survey. Journal of Chinese Law, 4(2), 234–256.
    Shiva, V. (1996, December 5). U.S. makes exchange of info a crime. Third World Network Features [On-line]. Available <gopher://mundo.eco.utexas.edu:70/11/mailing/chiapas95.archive>
    Sholle, D. (1995). Access through activism: Extending the ideas of Negt and Kluge to American alternative media practices. Javnost/The Public, 2(4), 21–35.
    Shore, E. (1988). ‘Talkin’ socialism: J. A. Wayland and the role of the press in American radicalism, 1890–1912. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
    Showalter, E. (1977). A literature of their own. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Siliato, F. (1977). L'antenna dei padroni. Milan: Mazzotta.
    Simpson Grinberg, M. (1986a). Comunicación alternativa y cambio social. Puebla, México: Premia Editoria de Libros.
    Simpson Grinberg, M. (1986b). Trends in alternative communication research in Latin America. In E. G.McAnany & R.Atwood (Eds.), Communication and Latin American society (pp. 165–189). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Sinclair, J. (1991). Images incorporated: Advertising as industry and ideology. Melbourne, Australia: Methuen.
    Sinyavsky, A. (1990). Soviet civilization: A cultural history. New York: Arcade.
    SIPAZ. (1997). Servicio Internacional para la Paz / International Service for Peace [On-line]. Available: http://www.nonviolence.org/sipaz/
    Skilling, H. G. (1989). Samizdat and an independent society in eastern and central Europe. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
    Slavitsky, A. G., & Gleason, T. W. (1994). Alternative things considered: A comparison of National Public Radio and Pacifica Radio news coverage. Journalism Quarterly, 71(4), 775–786. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769909407100402
    Smith, D. M. (1997). Modern Italy: A political history. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Smith, G. S. (1984). Songs to seven strings. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Smith, R. L. (1970). The wired nation. San Francisco: Harper & Row.
    Sobel, M. (1979). ‘Trabelin’ on: The slave journey to an Afro-Baptist faith. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
    Solanas, F., & Getino, O. (1983). Toward a third cinema. In A.Mattelart & S.Siegelaub (Eds.), Communication and class struggle 2: Liberation, socialism (pp. 220–230). Bagnolet, France: International Mass Media Research Center.
    Soley, L. C. (1995). Leasing the ivory tower: The corporate takeover of academia. Boston: South End Press.
    Soley, L. C. (1999). Free radio: Electroic civil disobedience. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Soley, L. C., & Nichols, J. (1987). Clandestine radio broadcasting: A study of revolutionary and counterrevolutionary electronic communication. New York: Praeger.
    Sparks, C. (1993). Raymond Williams and the theory of democratic communication. In S.Splichal & J.Wasko (Eds.), Communication and democracy (pp. 69–86). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
    Spechler, D. (1982). Permitted dissent in the USSR: Novy Mir and the Soviet regime. New York: Praeger.
    Spiegelman, A. (1987). Maus I. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
    Spiegelman, A. (1992). Maus II. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
    Sreberny-Mohammadi, A., & Mohammadi, A. (1994). Small media, big revolution: Communication, culture, and the Iranian revolution. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Staeck, K. (1985). Beware art! Photomontage as political intervention. In D.Kahn & D.Neumaier (Eds.), Cultures in contention (pp. 248–261). Seattle: WA: The Real Comet Press.
    Stam, R. (1998). A comparative history of race in Brazilian cinema and culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Staniszkis, J. (1984). Poland's self-limiting revolution. Princeton. NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Starr, S. F. (1983). Red and hot: The fate of jazz in the Soviet Union, 1917–1980. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Starski, S. (1982). Class struggle in classless Poland. Boston: South End Press.
    Stebbins, G. R. (1969). Listener-sponsored radio: The Pacifica stations. Ph.D. thesis in mass communications, Ohio State University.
    Stein, L., & Marcus, D. (1990). Notes toward a paper tiger television handbook. Unpublished manuscript.
    Sterling, B. (1993). A short history of the Internet [On-line]. Available: http://www.unm.edu/~docs/Newsletter/V27n3/Feature_txt/feature_article3.html
    Steven, S. (1982). The Poles. New York: Macmillan.
    Stevens-Fernández, D. (1995). A fro-Colombian community radio on the Pacific coast. Master's thesis, Radio-Television-Film Department, University of Texas at Austin.
    Streeter, T. (1987). The cable fable revisited: Discourse, policy, and the making of cable television. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 4, 174–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295038709360124
    Strigaljow, A. (1995). Agitprop—die Kunst extremer politischer Situationen. In I.Antonowa & J.Merkert (Eds.), Berlin Moskau 1900–1950 (pp. 111–118). München: Prestel-Verlag.
    Sullivan, J. D. (1997). On the walls and in the streets: American poetry broadsides from the 1960s. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Sussman, G. (1997). Communication, technology, and politics in the information age. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Swett, C. (1995, July 17). Strategic assessment of the Internet (Pentagon Report, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict, Policy Planning). Washington DC: The Pentagon.
    Swianewicz, S. (1979). The Katyn affair. Survey, 24(1), 188–198.
    Switzer, L. (1997). South Africa's alternative press: Voices of protest and resistance, 1880s-1960s. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Tarrow, S. (1989). Democracy and disorder: Protest and politics in Italy 1956–1975. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.
    Thede, N., & Ambrosi, A. (Eds.). (1992). Petits écrans et démocratie: Vidéo légère et télévision au service du développement. Paris: Syros-Alternatives.
    Thompson, E. P. (1968). The making of the English working class. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
    Thompson, E. P. (1978). The poverty of theory and other essays. London: Merlin.
    Thompson, E. P. (1993). Witness against the beast: William Blake and the moral law. New York: The New Press.
    Tobin, J., & Dobard, R. G. (1999). Hidden in plain view: The secret story of quilts and the Underground Railroad. New York: Doubleday.
    Tökés, R. (Ed.). (1975). Dissent in the USSR. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Tomaselli, K. G., & Louw, P. E. (1991). The alternative press in South Africa. Bellville, South Africa: Anthropos.
    Tompkins, J. (1985). Sensational designs: The cultural work of American fiction 1790–1860. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Touraine, A. (1994). Qu'est-ce que la démocratie?Paris: Fayard.
    Trasatti, S. (1978). Geografia delle radio locali: Linee di tendenza di un fenomeno in atto. In G.Gamaleri (Ed.), Un posto nell'etere: Le radio locali in Italia (pp. 55–90). Rome: Edizioni Paoline.
    Trend, D. (1993). Rethinking media activism. Socialist Review, 23(2), 5–33.
    Tsagarousianou, R., Tambini, D., & Bryan, C. (Eds.). (1998). Cyberdemocracy: Technology, cities, and civic networks. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203448847
    Turner, T. (1992). Defiant images: The Kayapo appropriation of video. Anthropology Today, 8(6), 5–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2783265
    Valaskakis, G. (1992). Communication, culture, and technology: Satellites and northern native broadcasting. In S. H.Riggins (Ed.), Ethnic minority media: An international perspective (pp. 63–81). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Van Zoonen, L. (1993). Feminist media studies. London: Sage.
    Vargas, L. (1995). Social uses and radio practices: The use of participatory radio by ethnic minorities in Mexico. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Viénet, R. (1992). Enragés and situationists in the occupation movement, France, May ′68. New York: Autonomedia.
    A vision for Pacifica radio: Creating a network for the 21st century (1997). [On-line]. Available: http://www.pacifica.org/board/docs/avision.html
    Walker, J. A. (1983). Art in the age of mass media. London: Pluto.
    Walker, N. A. (1995). The disobedient writer: Women and narrative tradition. Austin: The University of Texas Press.
    Wallner, M. (1991). Deep dish: Tigers sprout wings and fly! In D.Marcus (Ed.), ROAR! The paper tiger television guide to media activism (pp. 33–34). New York: The Paper Tiger Television Collective.
    Watkins, S. C. (1998). Representing: Hip hop culture and the production of black cinema. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Wechsburg, J. (1969). The voices. New York: Doubleday.
    Weil, R. (1993). Sometimes a scepter is only a scepter: Pornography and politics in Restoration England. In L.Hunt (Ed.), The invention of pornography: Obscenity and the origins of modernity, 1500–1800 (pp. 125–153). New York: Zone Books.
    Weiler, K. (1994). Freire and a feminist politics of difference. In P. L.McLaren & C.Lankshear (Eds.), Politics of liberation: Paths from Freire (pp. 12–40). New York: Routledge.
    White, S., & White, G. (1998). Stylin': African American expressive culture from its beginnings to the Zoot Suit. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Widor, C. (Ed.). (1981). Documents on the Chinese democratic movement 1978–1980: Unofficial magazines and wall-posters. Paris: Éditions de l'École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales.
    Wieck, D. (1979). The negativity of anarchism. In H. J.Ehrlich (Ed.), Reinventing anarchy (pp. 138–155). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Willemen, P. (1989). The third cinema question: Notes and reflections. In J.Pines & P.Willemen (Eds.), Questions of third cinema (pp. 1–29). London: British Film Institute.
    Williams, R. (1977). Marxism and literature. London: Oxford University Press.
    Wilson, P. L. (1995). Pirate utopias: Moorish corsairs and European renegades. New York: Autonomedia.
    Winseck, D. (1997). Contradictions in the democratization of international communication. Media, Culture, & Society, 19(2), 219–246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344397019002006
    Wollen, P. (1989). Bitter victory: The art and politics of the Situationist International. In E.Sussman (Ed.), On the passage of a few people through a rather brief moment in time: The Situationist International 1957–1972 (pp. 20–61). Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Wood, M. (1994). Radical satire and print culture 1790–1822. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.
    Woolf, V. (1975). A room of one's own. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World.
    Worsley, P. (1968) The trumpet shall sound: A study of “cargo” cults in Melanesia (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Schocken Books.
    Young, I. M. (1990). Justice and the politics of difference. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Zeltzer, S. (1999, July 15). Union-busting, labor, and Pacifica Radio. San Francisco Bay Guardian [On-line]. Available: http://www.superlists.com/kpfa/zelt.html
    Zurier, R. (1988). Art for the masses: A radical magazine and its graphics, 1911–1917. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

    About the Authors

    John D. H. Downing teaches in the radio-television-film department at the University of Texas, Austin. His most recent book, Internationalizing Media Theory (Sage 1996), addressed the challenges to media studies posed by media of many kinds in the former Soviet bloc over the Great Transition of 1980–1995. He is currently working on two further books for Sage. One is with Charles Husband on a cross-Atlantic study of media, racism, and ethnicity. The other is the Sage Handbook of Media Studies, which he is coediting with Dennis McQuail, Philip Schlesinger, and Ellen Wartella.

    Tamara Villarreal Ford is a communications consultant specializing in alternative media, Latino media, and new communications technologies. She has an M.A. from the University of Texas at Austin, where she was an associate with LANIC (the Latin American Network Information Center) conducting Internet research on Latin American/Latino websites and developing a program of computer-assisted education and digital media archives for the Institute of Latin American Studies. She was a 1996 recipient of the Rockefeller Fellowship in Intercultural Collaboration for her work with the ZapNet Collective, a multimedia and website project that traces the Zapatista discourse within emerging public spheres of the Internet. Currently, she is working with the AZ Editorial Collective on a bilingual annotated compilation of “Conversations with Durito,” a series of 30 stories by EZLN spokesman Subcomandante Marcos.

    Genève Gil is a freelance web developer and research consultant in Austin, where she recently completed a master's degree in Latin American Studies at the University of Texas. She has traveled in Chiapas on four occasions and began researching the Tzotziles and Tzeltales in 1987. Her work has focused on social and political movements in Latin America from the early 1970s to the present, including organized popular resistance in the Southern Cone, Tropicalismo in Brazil, and the Zapatista uprising of the 1990s.

    Laura Stein is an assistant professor at the University of San Francisco. She writes about communication law and policy, speech rights, and public communication. She received her Ph.D. at the University of Texas at Austin in 1997.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website