Racisms: An Introduction
Publication Year: 2010
We hear much about ‘race’ and ‘racism’ in public discourse but the terms are frequently used without clear definitions or practical examples of how these phenomena actually work.
Racisms introduces practical methods which enable students to think coherently and sociologically about this complex feature of the global landscape.
Steve Garner argues that there is no single monolithic object of analysis but rather a plural set of ideas and practices that result in the introduction of ‘race’ into social relations. This differs over time and from one place to another.
Focusing on the basics, Racisms:
Defines ‘race’, ‘racism’, ‘institutional racism’ and ‘racialization’; Provides examples of how these function in fields like the natural sciences and asylum; Clearly sets out theoretical arguments around collective identities (‘race’, class, gender, nation, religion); Uses ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: The Idea of ‘Race’ and the Practice of Racisms
- Chapter 2: Racialisation
- Chapter 3: ‘Race’, Class and Gender
- Chapter 4: ‘Race’, Nation, State
- Chapter 5: Science
- Chapter 6: Mixed-Ness
- Chapter 7: Institutional Racism
- Chapter 8: Whiteness
- Chapter 9: New Racisms?
- Chapter 10: The Racialisation of Asylum
- Chapter 11: Islamophobia?
© Steve Garner 2010
First published 2010
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, Post Bag 7
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street #02-01
Far East Square
Library of Congress Control Number 2009925653
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4129-4581-3 (pbk)
Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed by CPI Antony Rowe, Chippenham, Wiltshire
Printed on paper from sustainable resources
First, a big thank you to the people at Sage for their patience, especially Jai Seaman, Chris Rojek and Katherine Haw. Second, thanks to my family, who as usual suffer neglect as a result of my writing activity – Annie, Dani, Gabriel and Morganne – you're the best. Thirdly, this text is based on my interpretation of other people's hard work, so it really is, in a way, a collective project.
Teaching can, paradoxically, be a lonely old business in the middle of a crowd: trying to make epiphanies happen in the minds of strangers. Sometimes it can get depressing, or boring. Sometimes you may even think you have made a string of poor choices that lead you to a particular classroom, teaching a particular subject at a particular time, when you could instead have been coaching your favourite sport, watching fabulous jungle animals through a camera lens, saving somebody's life in an emergency room, or doing something demonstrably exciting and/or more fun for a living. At other times, on those rare occasions when you set another person on a course that they recognise is a direction in which they would not have travelled were it not for you, then I can't think of anything much better. I have an email I read when I'm feeling particularly low, in which a former student thanks me for teaching a module on racism. The last part reads: ‘It was the only area of study I have undertaken that made me completely change the way I thought about the world’.
This text is dedicated to all the teachers to whom that sentence should be addressed, and more often, but whose former students are having too much fun to get round to telling them so.
List of Boxes, Tables and Figures[Page vii]Boxes
- 1.1 Race and genes 1
- 1.2 Essentialism 12
- 1.3 The racial natural sciences 15
- 1.4 How many ‘races’ are there? 17
- 2.1 Frantz Fanon 20
- 2.2 Concepts of national belonging 24
- 2.3 Japanese nationalism 26
- 2.4 Immigration regimes 29
- 3.1 Background to the split in the US women's suffrage movement 36
- 4.1 Nations and nation states 50
- 4.2 Michel Foucault 58
- 5.1 Linnaeus (1707–78) from The System of Nature (1735) 68
- 5.2 Comte de Buffon (Georges-Louis Leclerc) (1707–88)from A Natural History General and Particular (1748–1804) 69
- 5.3 BiDil: an ethnic drug? 77
- 5.4 How skin-lightening products work 80
- 5.5 Special surgical procedures for Asian women 81
- 6.1 Hypodescent and national frameworks 88
- 6.2 Categories in the US Census 2000 95
- 6.3 Ethnic categories in the England and Wales 2001 Census 96
- 7.1 Case study: The Equality Authority, Republic of Ireland 104
- 7.2 Structure and agency 109
- 9.1 Not hate but love: the British National Party 132
- 9.2 Goodhart's ‘Too Diverse?’ 135
- 10.1 Information about asylum seekers and refugees 144
- 10.2 Overall trends in asylum seeking 145
- 10.3 Understanding opinion polls on social attitudes 151
- 11.1 Some statistics on UK Muslims (2001–6) 172
- 3.1 Percentage of African American women in various forms of employment at the 1890 Census 42
- 5.1 Percentage of cosmetic surgery patients, by ethnicity, 1999, 2003 and 2008 82
- 5.2 The three most commonly requested surgical procedures for ‘ethnic’ patients, 2007 82
- 6.1 Percentages of each ‘racial’ group in the US Census 2000 96
- 6.2 Percentages of each ethnic group in the UK Census 2001 97
- 7.1 Home-ownership by ‘race’ in the USA, 1994–2005 111
There are some splendid resource books for teaching ‘race’ and ethnicity in the social sciences. However, having taught specialist undergraduate modules for a decade, I have never been able to fully endorse buying a textbook because those available suppose too much knowledge. They are ideal for use with postgraduates and for referencing segments of larger works, but undergraduate social scientists just don't generally have enough background in the subject to make enough use of them properly. This is not a failing on the students’ part. There has to be a period in which they acquire the knowledge that helps them fit these well-known works into some kind of a theoretical framework. It has taken me more than 20 years, and there is not a day that passes without me adding more knowledge. So this text is designed for undergraduates who are interested in this topic, primarily in the UK and the USA, which is why material from those two countries is prioritised here. It is a textbook to use either as the basis for a course, or to dip into as a set of free-standing chapters.
Academic colleagues who know this area will immediately be able to come up with a set of chapters for the topics I did not cover here. I agree: the choice is idiosyncratic. I could suggest an ‘omitted chapters’ list myself: anti-semitism; anti-nomadic racism; indigenous land rights; Transatlantic slavery; Far-right politics; criminology and the racialisation of minorities; concentrations on other historical periods and geographical locations. All of these areas and more could have been covered in this book, but then where would all the topics already in here have gone? Any student textbook has to cover what I understand to be the basics, which in this case comprises theories of ‘race’, racisms, racialisation, how class and gender articulate with ‘race’, what ‘mixed-ness’ means, and the role of science in making and sustaining the creative fiction that is ‘race’. Particularly relevant examples for me of how issues can be racialised are asylum and Islamic religion in the West, hence the coverage of those two. Finally, there are the connected issues of the racialisation of white identities and of the establishment, over the last three decades or so, of ‘new’ forms of racism that emphasise culture more than phenotype in public and private discourse. If the publishers ask me to do another edition, I will certainly include something different. However, I stand by this choice of topics. It offers one possible route into the truly gigantic corpus.
I am often pushed to say ‘what I know’ about racism and in fact the more knowledgeable I get, the more I realise that I am getting further from, not closer to, some state of expertise. The more you know, the more you know what there is to know (and that is always more than one person can hope to know). So if you really want to know what the story is, then the following will help you begin.
‘Race’ is a fiction that we turn into a social reality every day of our lives. It lies at the heart of the complex, historical and multifaceted sets of social relationships to which we attach the label ‘racism’. This is a historical process, a set of ideas and a set of outcomes (benefits for some, disadvantages for others). This can be anything from a promotion ahead of someone else who is just as good at what they do as you are, to being hunted like an animal and dying a protracted and painful death at the hands of someone who thinks ‘race’ is so real it authorises your murder with impunity.[Page x]
The forms in which these social relationships play out are so diverse that I think ‘racism’ is too small a word to contain them, hence my choice of a plural in the title. If you are interested in struggling against racism, you have to be interested in more than just ‘race’. You must also be a student of gender, class, nation states, culture, history and science. I encourage students to follow up by reading the work referred to in each chapter, at the next level of study. This text is merely a starting point, a marshalling of some arguments and an incitement to think that racism is a complicated part of the social world, rather than an aberration of individuals. I hope that someone who reads this text will end up contributing to the struggle … which unfortunately won't be ending any time soon.
Glossary of Terms[Page 175]
A8 In 2004, the European Union was enlarged to include 10 new member states: Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Malta, Cyprus and Hungary. In EU circles, these were called ‘Accession States’ in the period leading up to 2004, and of these, the eight for whom this new membership would enable nationals to access the labour markets of the existing member states without a visa for the first time (that is, all the above except Malta and Cyprus), were referred to as the A8 (A for Accession).
Apartheid Between 1948 and 1994, the Republic of South Africa was officially governed according to the ideology of apartheid, an Afrikaans word meaning ‘separateness’. The system, implemented by the National Party under Daniel Malan, involved the imposition of separate and parallel regimes of government for the various racialised strands of the population. Some African groups were allocated ‘homelands’ such as Transkei and KwaZulu in South Africa and occupied Namibia (then South-West Africa), while the main racial groups afforded legitimacy under apartheid – Whites, Coloureds, Indians and Blacks – had differential rights to geographical mobility, employment, housing, education, etc. Specifically, apartheid was a means of controlling the majority labour force and population, frequently with recourse to armed force, suspension of human rights and state terrorism. The small white population was the only one to enjoy the full range of democratic freedoms and had preferential access to the country's vast wealth. The bureaucracy created to oversee this system also created stable clerical work for white South Africans. Opposition to apartheid, which also came from the Communist Party and the Pan African Congress, soon took the shape of a national political party – the African National Congress (ANC), which waged a political and armed struggle against the apartheid system from the late 1950s. International sports boycotts from the 1960s, and anti-apartheid organisations in many countries, added to the pressure placed on South Africa to normalise its social relationships. On the back of the campaign to free ANC leader Nelson Mandela from captivity, which occurred in 1992, came the holding of free elections in 1994. The ANC won the elections with a landslide, and Mandela became the first post-apartheid President of South Africa.
Aryan The term Aryan, borrowed from Sanskrit, was originally used to describe a set of languages originating in the India/Iran/Afghanistan regions. By the nineteenth century, it came to mean speakers of Indo-European languages. By the end of that century, scientists such as Thomas Huxley and Georges Vacher de Lapouge were speculating that the Aryan people were characterised by longer skulls than others, and had a leadership role in the modern world. This racial genealogy was reinvigorated by writers such as de Gobineau, who saw Nordic and Teutonic peoples as the basis of the Anglo-Saxon racial stock in the mid nineteenth-century, and most spectacularly by Houston Stewart Chamberlain whose writings on the Aryan race (The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, 1911 ) influenced Hitler. The Nazis used the term ‘Aryan’ to refer to those racialised as the authentic Germans, typically represented as tall, [Page 176]blue-eyed blondes, around which their social policies were based in the 1933–45 period (Burleigh and Wipperman, 1991).
burqa A loose garment that goes on top of usual daily clothes. It is worn by some Muslim women and it is removed once the woman returns home.
Le foulard The French word for ‘headscarf. The term is best known because of the affaires du foulard, or ‘headscarf incidents’, in which French Muslim girls were refused entry in to schools because they were wearing foulards. There were over 100 such incidents in the 1989–2003 period. The rationale for turning the schoolgirls away is that state schools are part of the secular public space that forms the basis of French republican values, according to which the private space can be religious but the public arena must be free of religious ideas, objects and symbolism. In 2004, a Special Commission was set up by the government to investigate the options for dealing with the situation (as half the decisions had been overturned by the courts). It recommended the drafting of a law against wearing ‘conspicuous’ religious items, such as the foulard, to school, which was passed in 2005. The public debate was very controversial, with various interlocutors accusing others of anti-republican values, sexism and racism, etc. The Law's opponents argue that although the wording specifies crucifixes and Jewish skullcaps as objects that must also not be worn conspicuously, the principal objective of the law is to prevent French Muslims from expressing their Muslim identities.
Hegemony Italian Marxist Antonio Gramsci uses the concept of hegemony (literally meaning ‘domination’) to refer to the set of dominant ideas at any given time. The subtlety of Gramsci's hegemony is that it allows for people to recognise that the ideas may be untrue and/or unfair, without this being a barrier to those ideas being the dominant ones of an era, around which political discourse is based and normalised.
Hypodescent This is also called the ‘one-drop rule’. This American racial logic states that any person with any ancestors who are not white Europeans cannot be considered genuinely white, regardless of what that person looks like.
Intersectionality This is an approach developed by Black American feminists in the late 1980s to analyse social relations by simultaneously taking into account multiple axes of identity, generally gender, class and ‘race’.
Ius sanguinis This refers to qualification through bloodlines (that is, parents’ or grandparents’ nationality) (see Box 2.2).
Ius soli This refers to qualification for membership through birth within a given territory (see Box 2.2).
Jilbab A loose garment covering the whole body except for the hands, face, feet and head, worn by some Muslim women. A headscarf or veil can also be worn with it. There is some discussion about whether the contemporary forms of jilbab are the same as what is referred to in the Qu'ran. There is an argument that it only appeared in the recent past as a form of identification with particular forms of political Islam, while others maintain it is exactly the same item that was worn in the seventh century.[Page 177]
‘Jim Crow’ After the abolition of slavery and the Fourteenth Amendment had given former slaves the right to vote, there was a short period (1865–76, also known as the Reconstruction), during which black Americans enjoyed relatively improved status and were protected by Federal laws. However, in 1877, the last Federal troops were withdrawn from the Southern states, and the Democratic Party enacted a set of laws that established separate living and access to resources ordered by ‘race’ (segregation). This was institutionally recognised in a set of laws passed by state governments in the southern states of the USA. These included separate schooling, places to sit on trains and buses, restaurants, toilets, etc. Moreover, a series of amendments to voting rights effectively disenfranchised most black voters by the First World War. This set of laws was known as ‘Jim Crow’. Such laws were by no means exclusive to the south. Laws segregating the ‘races’ were passed across the USA, and President Wilson even reintroduced segregated Federal Offices in 1913.
Additionally, the reaction to the short period of black progress in the South involved violence and extra-judicial acts of aggression to intimidate black Americans in order to prevent them reaching social equality with whites (Du Bois, 1998 ). The Jim Crow laws were backed up by the accompanying extra-legal social realities of lynchings, beatings and rape. Jim Crow held sway formally in the southern states from around 1890 to the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1965.
Limpieza de sangre This fifteenth-century Spanish concept of purity of the blood referred originally to the class system of feudal Spain, particularly the lineage of nobles and state officials who had to have limpieza de sangre (bloodlines including no traceable Jewish or Muslim converts to Christianity). Limpieza de sangre was a resource for some Spaniards to defend against encroachment from the bloodlines of indigenous Americans and enslaved Africans.
Mestiçagem This is the historical process of ‘race mixing’ in Portuguese.
Mixed-ness The problems engendered by trying to talk about people as being the products of more than one racialised group are discussed in Chapter 6. There are vast numbers of words used to describe people whose parentage is ‘mixed’ in this way that derive from the colonial period of the Americas. In Spanish, for example, there is mestizo, castizo, mulatto and zambo (which denote a European-Amerindian, European and unspecified other, European-African and African-Amerindian mix respectively). (An example of such definitions and terminology used in New Spain (Mexico) can be found in Yelvington, 2005: 246.) In French, there is métis, mulâtre, sang-mêlé and griffe. In Portuguese, the equivalent to mestizo is mestizaje, while North American English developed a vocabulary to cover degrees of blackness: quadroon (someone with one black grandparent), octoroon (someone with one black great-grandparent), etc. Such terms typically refer to the animal world (mulatto, mulâtre), or fractions (half, quarter, etc.). Among the contemporary academic vocabulary one encounters in reading the US literature on bi-raciality/‘mixed race’ are terms such as the Hawaiian hapa, and the Japanese haafu (both of which are basically the word ‘half’), chosen as less negative ways to approach the issue.[Page 178]
Niqab A veil, worn by some Muslim women, that covers the face, leaving only a slit for the eyes.
Patriality The concept introduced into British law by the 1968 Commonwealth Immigrants Act which makes accession to British nationality predicated on having one grandparent born in the UK. The objective was to override the previous ius soli practice of extending membership to people born on British territory when Britain's Empire lay across the world. In the context of the late 1960s, the introduction of patriality means an attempt to close off access to British citizenship for post-war migrants from outside the white dominions such as Canada, New Zealand and South Africa, especially those referred to as ‘coloured’ immigrants at that time (i.e. from the Anglophone Caribbean, the Indian subcontinent and West Africa).
Racial sciences The branches of science that contributed to fixing ‘race’ as part of the intellectual landscape of the Western world from the late eighteenth century through to the mid-twentieth century. These could be natural sciences, like craniology or phrenology; elements of natural sciences that also focused on other things, like anthropometry; or streams within the social sciences, such as ethnology, anthropology and, to a degree, sociology. What makes a science ‘racial’ is not its entirety, but its embrace of the idea of ‘race’ and its contribution to legitimising discourse that makes a causal and circular link between physical appearance, cultural capacity for civilisation, intellect and innate characteristics.
Suttee Also called sati. A minority practice within Hinduism of the widow either self-immolating or being forced to die on her husband's funeral pyre. The rationale is to purge the couple of all sin for the afterlife. The practice was banned by the British in the nineteenth century and again by the Indian government in the late twentieth century.
TCN ‘Third Country National’ (TCN) is a term developed in European Union discourse that refers to someone unfortunate enough not to be a national of an EU member state.
Unmah Arabic word translated into English as ‘community’ or ‘nation’. It is used as a collective term to describe the whole Muslim diaspora, as a community of believers.
Appendix: Statistics on Muslims in the UK[Page 179]Demographics
- In 2001, there were 1.6 million Muslims living in the UK, compared to a total population of 58.7 people.
- Three quarters of Muslims (74%) were from an Asian ethnic background, predominantly Pakistani (43%).
- 46% of Muslims had been born in the UK.
- 34% of Muslims were under 16 years of age.
- A third of Muslim households (34%) contained more than five people, while 25% of households contained three or more dependent children.
- 38% of Muslims lived in London.
(Source: National Statistics, 2001 Census)Education
- In 2001, there were 371,000 school-aged (5- to 16-year-old) Muslim children in England. (Source: National Statistics)
- In 2004, 67% of Indian, 48% of Bangladeshi and 45% of Pakistani pupils gained five or more grades A* to C at GCSE (or equivalent), compared with 52% of white British pupils. (Source: Social Trends No. 36, 2006)
- 31% of young British Muslims leave school with no qualifications compared to 15% of the total population. (Source: National Statistics)
- 35% of Muslim households have no adults in employment (more than double the national average). (Source: ‘Muslim Housing Experience’, Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies)
- Just under three-quarters of Bangladeshi and Pakistani children (73 %) are living in households below the poverty line (60% of median income). This compares with under a third (31%) for children in all households. (Source: Department for Work and Pensions, Households Below Average Income 1994/5–2000/1)
- In 2001, 13% of Muslim men and 16% of Muslim women reported ‘not good’ health. These rates, which take account of the difference in age structures between the religious groups, were higher than those of Jewish and Christian people, who were the least likely to rate their health as ‘not good’. (Source: National Statistics, 2001 Census)
- In 2001, 52% of Muslim households did not own their own home.
- 28% of Muslim households were living in social rented accommodation, that is accommodation rented from the council or a housing association.
- Muslim households were the most likely to experience overcrowding. One-third of Muslim households (32%) lived in overcrowded accommodation. This compares with just 6% of Christian households who experience overcrowding.
- Muslim households were the most likely to lack central heating (12%).
(Source: National Statistics, 2001 Census report on faith)Employment
- In 2004, 28% of 16–24-year-old Muslims were unemployed. This compares with only 11% of Christians of the same age. (Source: National Statistics, 2001 Census report on faith)
- In 2004, a fifth of Muslims were self-employed. (Source: National Statistics)
- In 2004, almost seven in ten (69%) Muslim women of working age were economically inactive. (Source: Social Trends No. 36, 2006)
- 47% of Muslim students have experienced Islamophobia. (Source: FOSIS (Federation of Student Islamic Societies) survey, 2005)
- Almost 10% of the prison population are Muslim, two-thirds of whom are young men aged 18–30. (Source: Prison Service statistics, 2004)
- Between 2001 and 2003, there was a 302% increase in ‘stop and search’ incidents among Asian people, compared with 118% among white people. (Source: Home Office, Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System, 2004)
Source: The National Youth Agency website (http://www.nya.org.uk/information/100582/109652/100630/108761/ukmuslimcommunitystatistics/)
This information is reproduced with the kind permission of The National Youth Agency: http://www.nya.org.uk
References[Page 181]2007) ‘British Muslim Minorities Today: Challenges and Opportunities to Europeanism, Multiculturalism and Islamism’, Sociology Compass1 (2): 720–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9020.2007.00041.x(2006) ‘A New Definition of Racism’, Townhall blogs: http://townhall.com/columnists/MikeSAdams/2006/04/10/a_new_definition_of_racism(2006) ‘Recollections of September 11 in Three English Villages: Identifications and Self-Narrations’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies32 (6): 983–1003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13691830600761461and (1986) ‘Interview with Gayatri Spivak’, Thesis Eleven15: 91–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/072551368601500108(1998) Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.(2005) State of Exception. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226009261.001.0001(2004) The Cultural Politics of Emotion. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press and New York: Routledge.(2003) Mixed-Race, Post-Race: Gender, New Ethnicities and Cultural Practice. Oxford: Berg.(2002) Summary Report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001. Vienna: European Union Monitoring Centre on Xenophobia and Racism.and (American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (1999) ASAPS 1999 Statistics on Cosmetic Surgery. Available at: http://www.surgery.org/sites/default/files/ASAPS1999Stats.pdfAmerican Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (2003) 2003 ASAPS Statistics - 8.3 Million Cosmetic Procedures: American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery Reports 20 Percent Increase. Available at: http://www.surgery.org/sites/default/files/2003%20ASAPS%20Statistics-%208.3%20Million%20Cosmetic%20Procedures.pdfAmerican Society of Plastic Surgeons (2009) 2008 Cosmetic Demographics. Available at: http://www.plasticsurgery.org/Media/stats/2008-cosmetic-procedure-demographics-ethnicity.pdf1984) ‘Challenging Imperial Feminism’, Feminist Review17: 3–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/fr.1984.18and (1983) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.(2006) The Cultivation of Whiteness: Science, Health and Racial Destiny in Australia. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.(1990) ‘Race and Class Revisited - Conceptualising Race and Racisms’, Sociological Review38: 19–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.1990.tb00846.x(1999) ‘Institutional Racism, Power and Accountability’, Sociological Research Online4 (1): http://www.socresonline.org.uk/4/lawrence/anthias.html(1993) Racialised Boundaries: Race, Nation, Gender, Colour and Class and the Anti-racist Struggle. London: Routledge.and (2003) Race and Nation in Modern Latin America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press., and ([Page 182]1990) ‘Racisms’, in D.Goldberg (Ed.) Anatomy of Racism, pp. 3–17. Minneapolis: Minnesota University Press.(1946) The Negro People in America: A Critique of Gunnar Myrdal's ‘An American Dilemma’. New York: International Publishers.(1967) The Territorial Imperative. London: Collins.(1989) ‘Racialisation and Nationalist Ideology: The Japanese Case’, International Sociology4 (3): 329–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026858089004003006(2002) The Battle for God: Fundamentalism in Judaism, Christianity and Islam. New York: Alfred Knopf.(Association of Multiethnic Americans (AMEA) (2001) ‘AMEA Responds to Multiracial Census Data’, at http://www.ameasite.org/census/031201censusdata.asp2006) ‘Far-right Media on the Internet: Culture, Discourse And Power’, New Media and Society8 (4): 573–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1461444806065653(Australian Human Rights Commission (1997) Bring them Home: Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families. Sydney: AHRC. Available at http://www.hreoc.gov.au/social_justice/bth_report/index.html2002) ‘Aryans Reading Adorno: Cyber-culture and Twenty-first Century Racism’, Ethnic and Racial Studies25 (4): 628–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01419870220136664(1965) Going to See the Man. New York: Dial Press.(1985) The Price of the Ticket: Collected Non-fiction 1948–1985. New York: St. Martin's Press.(1991) Race, Class, Nation: Ambiguous Identities. New York: Verso.and (1993) ‘Education, Markets, Choice and Social Class: The Markets as a Class Strategy in the UK and the USA, British Journal of the Sociology of Education14 (1): 3–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0142569930140101(1977) The Idea of Race. London: Tavistock Press.(1996) ‘Racism’, in E.Cashmore (Ed.) Dictionary of Race and Ethnic Relations,(4th edn.London: Routledge.1997) Ethnic and Racial Consciousness. Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman.(1981) The New Racism: Conservatives and the Ideology of the Tribe. London: Junction Books. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003231878703900209(1990) ‘Biology and the New Racism’, in D.Goldberg (Ed.) Anatomy of Racism, pp. 18–37. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(2001) ‘Racialisation: The Genealogy and Critique of a Concept’, Ethnic and Racial Studies24 (4): 601–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01419870120049806and (1997) ‘Inbetween Peoples: Race, Nationality and the “New Immigrant” Working Class’, Journal of American Ethnic History Spring: 3–44.and (1989) Modernity and the Holocaust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1993) Life in Fragments. Oxford: Blackwell.(1998a) Globalization: The Human Consequences. Cambridge: Polity Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.5840/schoolman199875219(1998b) Work, Consumerism and the New Poor. Buckingham: Open University Press.([Page 183]1992) Risk Society: Toward a New Modernity. London: Sage.(2000) ‘Living your own Life in a Runaway World: Individualisation, Globalisation and Politics’, in W.Hutton and A.Giddens (Eds) On the Edge: Living with Global Capital, pp. 164–74. New York: The New Press.(2008) Dangerous Brown Men: Exploiting Sex, Violence and Feminism in the War on Terror. London: Zed.(1995) Banal Nationalism. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221648(1998) Night Market: Sexual Cultures and the Thai Economic Miracle. New York: Routledge.and (2004) ‘Inequalities that Endure? Racial Ideology, American Politics and the Peculiar Role of the Social Sciences’, in M.Krysan and A.Lewis (Eds) The Changing Terrain of Race and Ethnicity, pp. 13–42. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.(1997) ‘Laissez-Faire Racism: The Crystallization of a Kinder, Gentler, Anti-Black Ideology’, in S.Tuch and J.Martin (Eds) Racial Attitudes in the 1990s: Continuity and Change, pp. 15–44. Westport, CT: Praeger., and (1975) ‘A Theory of Middleman Minorities’, American Sociological Review38: 583–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094409(2002) ‘We are all Americans!: The Latin Americanization of Racial Stratification in the USA, Race and Society5 (1): 3–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.racsoc.2003.12.008(2006) Racism Without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.(1977) Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511812507(1984) Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1772706(1986) ‘The Forms of Capital’, in J.G.Richardson (Ed.) The Handbook of Theory: Research for the Sociology of Education, pp. 241–58. New York: Greenwood Press.(2009) ‘Asylum Policy and Asylum Experiences: Interactions in a Scottish Context’, Ethnic and Racial Studies32 (1): 23–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01419870701722570, and (1996) Cartographies of Diaspora: Contesting Identities. London: Routledge.(2005) Eugenics and the Welfare State: Sterilization Policy in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press.and (2000) Fundamentalism. Cambridge: Polity Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13537908508580555(Brunsma, D. (Ed.) (2006) Mixed Messages: Multiracial Identities in the ‘Color-Blind’ Era. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press.2004) ‘What's the Story? Reporting on Asylum in the British Media’, Forced Migration Review19 (1): 41–3.and (2001) A New History of the Third Reich. London: Pan.(1991) The Racial State: Nazi Germany, 1933–45. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511806162.008and (2001) ‘Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Britain: Health Needs of Asylum Seekers and Refugees’, British Medical Journal322: 544–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7285.544and ([Page 184]2004) Occidentalism: The West in The Eyes of its Enemies. New York: Penguin.and (2006) White Lives: The Interplay of ‘Race’, Class and Gender in Everyday Life. London: Routledge.(1997) Nationalism. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412952552.n201(2001) ‘Producing Citizens, Reproducing the “French Race”: Immigration, Demography and Pronatalism in Early Twentieth-Century France’, Gender and History, 13(3): 593–621.(1982) ‘White Woman Listen! Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood’, in The Empire Strikes Back, pp. 212–31. Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, London: Hutchinson.(1967) Black Power: The Politics of Liberation. New York: Random House. http://dx.doi.org/10.2979/RAC.2008.1.2.171and (1997) Color-Blind Racism. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1992) ‘Occidentalism: The World Turned Upside-Down’, American Ethnologist19 (2): 195–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/ae.1992.19.2.02a00010(1860) ‘Slavery in the Light of Ethnology’, in E.Elliott (Ed.) Cotton is King and Pro-Slavery Arguments. Augusta, GA: Pritchard, Abbott and Loomis.(1911 ) The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (trans. JohnLees). London and New York: John Lane.(2004) The Chinese in America: A Narrative History. New York: Penguin. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/e656272011-001(2005) Navigating Interracial Borders: Black-White Couples and Their Social Worlds. Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.(2004) ‘Assessing Multiracial Identity’, in J.Ifekwunigwe (Ed.) Mixed Race Studies: A Reader, pp. 303–12. London: Routledge.(2009) White Identities. London: Pluto. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/e645622012-001and (Combahee River Collective (1977/1982) ‘A Black Feminist Statement’, in G.Hull, P.Scott and B.Smith (Eds) All the Women are White, All the Blacks are Men, But Some of Us Are Brave: Black Women Studies, pp. 13–22. Old Westbury, NY: The Feminist Press.Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia (1997) Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All. London: Runnymede Trust.Commission for Racial Equality (1998) Culture of Suspicion. London: CRE. Available at http://220.127.116.11/pdfs/cultsus.pdfCommission de Réflexion sur l'Application du Principe de Laïcité dans la République (2003) Rapport au Président de la République. Paris: La Documentation Française. Available at http://lesrapports.ladocumentationfrancaise.fr/BRP/034000725/0000.pdf2000) ‘Pride and Prejudice: Identity Management in English People's Talk about “this Country”’, Discourse and Society11: 163–93.(1948) Caste, Class and Race. New York: Doubleday. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/272191(2005) Evidence on Attitudes to Asylum and Immigration: What We Know, Don't Know and Need to Know. Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, Working Paper No. 23, University of Oxford.(1989) ‘Demarginalising the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Anti-discrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Anti-Racist Politics’, University of Chicago Legal Forum139: 383–94. Available at http://lic.law.ufl.edu/~hernandez/Women/crenshaw.pdf([Page 185]1991) ‘Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color’, Stanford Law Review43 (6): 1241–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1229039(1997) ‘Color-Blind Dreams and Racial Nightmares: Reconfiguring Racism in the Post-Civil Rights Era’, in, T.Morrison and C.Lacour (Eds) Birth of a Nation'hood, pp. 97–168. New York: Pantheon Books.(1999) ‘The Rise and Decline of the American Ghetto’, Journal of Political Economy107 (3): 455–506. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/250069, and (2000) Tripping on the Color Line: Black-White Multiracial Families in a Racially Divided World. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.(1997) White Lies: Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality in White Supremacist Discourse. New York: Routledge.(1911) Heredity in Relation to Eugenics. New York: Henry Holt & Co.(2003) Diploma of Whiteness: Race and Social Policy in Brazil, 1917–1945. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.(2001) Women, Race and Class. London: Virago.(1991) Who is Black? One Nation's Definition. Park: Pennsylvania State University.(2006) ‘Defining Race: Comparative Perspectives’, in D.Brunsma (Ed.) Mixed Messages, pp. 15–32. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press.(1992) City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles. New York: Vintage.(2001) Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World. New York: Verso.(1976) The Selfish Gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3560963(1995) Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.and (1970) ‘L'ennemi principal’, Partisan, 54–55.(1997) Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.and (2005) ‘Gender, Rage and Racism: The Ban of the Islamic Headscarf in France’, in M.Thapan (Ed.) Transnational Migration and the Politics of Identity, pp. 228–51. London: Sage.(2006) ‘Antisexisme or anti-racisme? Un Faux dilemme’, Nouvelles Questions Féministes25 (1): 59–83.(2008) ‘Review Essay: Intersectional Analysis’, International Sociology23 (5): 677–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0268580908094468(2006) Developing Positive Action Policies: Learning from the Experiences of Europe and North America. Department of Work and Pensions Research Report no. 406. Leeds: Department of Work and Pensions. Available at http://www.bris.ac.uk/sociology/ethnicitycitizenship/employment.pdf, and (2006) ‘What is Racism? Racial Discourse and Racial Politics’, Critical Sociology32 (2–3): 255–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156916306777835303(1966) Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203361832(2000) ‘Upgrading America's Conversations on Race: The Multi-Race Option for Census 2000’, Association of Multi Ethnic Americans, June 2000. Available at http://www.ameasite.org/census/upgrade2k.asp(1998 ) Black Reconstruction in the United States, 1860–1880. New York: Free Press.([Page 186]1990) Backdoor to Eugenics. New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203426951(2006) ‘Lessons from History: Why Race and Ethnicity Have Played a Major Role in Biomedical Research’, Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics34 (3): 487–96.(1999) ‘Veiled Meanings: Young British Muslim Women and the Negotiation of Differences’, Gender, Place and Culture6 (1): 5–26.(1997) White. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/e641272009-001(2007) ‘Triumphant Miscegenation: Reflections on Beauty and Race in Brazil’, Journal of Inter cultural Studies28 (1): 83–97.(Ehrenreich, B. and Hochschild, A. (Eds) (2003) Global Woman: Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the New Economy. New York: Metropolitan Books.1995) ‘Fundamentalism, Phenomenology, and Comparative Dimensions’, in M.E.Marty and R.S.Appleby (Eds) Fundamentalisms Comprehended, pp. 259–76. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(2008) Making the Cut: How Cosmetic Surgery is Transforming Our Lives. London: Reaktion Books. http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.26170(1952) Invisible Man. New York: Random House.(Equality Authority (2006) Annual Report 2006. Dublin: Equality Authority.European Union (2000) ‘Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000: Establishing a General Framework for Equal Treatment in Employment and Occupation.’ Available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0078:ENHTML1997) Race and the Enlightenment: A Reader. Boston: Blackwell.(FAIR (Forum Against Islamophobia and Racism) ‘Defining Islamophobia.’ Available at http://www.fairuk.org/docs/defining%20islamophobia.pdf1967) Black Skin, White Masks. New York: Grove Press.(1967) The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove Press.(2004) ‘The Social Geographies of White Masculinities’, Critical Sociology30 (2): 241–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156916304323072099(2006) Systemic Racism: A Theory of Oppression. New York: Routledge. Fenton, S. (2003) Ethnicity. Cambridge: Polity Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2067262(2004) ‘Asylum Seeker Dispersal: Public Attitudes and Press Portrayals around the UK’, PhD thesis, University of Wales, Swansea.(2005) Attitudes towards Asylum Seekers. Centre for Asylum Seekers and Refugees (ICAR), CRE.and (2004) ‘Color-Blind Racism and Racial Indifference: The Role of Racial Apathy in Facilitating Enduring Inequalities’, in M.Krysan and A.Lewis (Eds) The Changing Terrain of Race and Ethnicity, pp. 43–66. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.(2006) ‘Racial Apathy and Hurricane Katrina: The Social Anatomy of Prejudice in the Post-Civil Rights Era’, Du Bois Review3 (1): 175–202.and (1977) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (trans. AlanSheridan). New York: Vintage.(2003) Society Must Be Defended: Lectures at the Collège De France, 1975–76. London: Allen Lane.(1994) White Women, Race Matters. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.([Page 187]1997) Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.(Fraser, S. (Ed.) (1995) The Bell Curve Wars: Race, Intelligence, and the Future of America. New York: Basic Books.1988) The Arrogance of Race. Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press.(2001) ‘African Americans’ Views on Research and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study’, Social Science and Medicine52: 797–808., , , , and (1992) The End of History and the Last Man. New York: Free Press.(2006) ‘A Vision of Pale Beauty Carries Risks for Asia's Women’, New York Times, 14 May. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/14/world/asia/14thailand.html?pagewanted=2&_r=2&sq=skin%20whitening&st=nyt&scp=7(2003) ‘Color-Blind Privilege: The Social and Political Functions of Erasing the Color Line in Post Race America’, Race, Gender and Class10 (4): 1–17.(2007) ‘The Future of Whiteness: A Map of the “Third Wave”’, Ethnic and Racial Studies31 (1): 4–24.and (1905) ‘Eugenics: Its Definition, Scope and Aims’, Sociological Papers1:45–51.(2004) Racism in the Irish Experience. London: Pluto.(2007a) Whiteness: An Introduction. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6773.2007.00806.x(2007b) ‘The European Union and the Racialisation of Immigration, 1986–2006’, Race/Ethnicity: Multidisciplinary Global Contexts, 1(1): 61–87.(2007c) ‘Babies, Blood and Entitlement: Gendered Citizenship and Asylum in the Republic of Ireland’, Parliamentary Affairs60 (4): 137–51.(2009a) ‘Empirical Research into White Racialized Identities in Britain’, Sociology Compass. 2 (6): 1–14.(2009b) ‘Ireland: From Racism without “Race,” to “Racism without Racists,” Radical History Review, no. 104. 41–56.(1984) The Constitution of Society: Outline of a Theory of Structuration. Cambridge: Polity Press.(1984) When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America. New York: William Morrow.(2005) ‘Education Policy as an Act of White Supremacy: Whiteness, Critical Race Theory and Education Reform’, Journal of Education Policy20 (4): 485–505. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02680930500132346(1991) The Jew's Body. New York: Routledge.(1987) Ain't no Black in the Union Jack. London: Hutchinson.(2000) Against Race: Imagining Political Culture Beyond the Color Line. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.(2008) ‘Yearning for Lightness: Transnational Circuits in the Marketing and Consumption of Skin Lighteners’, Gender and Society22 (3): 281–302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891243208316089(1853–55) Essai sur l'inégalité des races humaines. Paris: Firmin Didot.(2000) The Racial State. Boston: Blackwell.(2005) ‘On Racial Americanization’, in K.Murji and J.Solomos (Eds) Racialisation: Studies in Theory and Practice, pp. 87–102. Oxford: Oxford University Press.([Page 188]2004) ‘Too Diverse’ Prospect, 95: http://www.prospect-magazine.co.uk/article_details.php?id=5835(1997) Her Majesty's Other Children. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.(2000) ‘Urban Space, Restrictive Covenants and the Origins of Racial Residential Segregation in a US City, 1900–50’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research24 (3): 616–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.00268(1971) Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci (Ed./trans. by Q.Hoare and G.Nowell-Smith). New York: International Books.(1915) The Passing of the Great Race. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/207903(Green, D. (Ed.) (2000) Institutional Racism in the Police Force: Fact or Fiction. London: Civitas. Available at http://www.civitas.org.uk/pdf/cs06.pdf2001) ‘Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: Census 2000 Briefs’ US Census Bureau’. Available at http://www.census.gov/cprod/2001pubs/c2kbro1-1.pdfand (2003) ‘Money, God and Race: The Politics of Reproduction and the Nation in Modern Greece’, European Journal of Women's Studies, 10(2): 211–32.(1988) ‘New Ethnicities’, in K.Mercer (Ed.) Black Film Black Cinema, pp. 27–31. London: Institute of Contemporary Arts.(1999) ‘Islamophobia Reconsidered’, Ethnic and Racial Studies22 (5): 892–902. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/014198799329305(1998) Orpheus and Power: The Movimento Negro of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1945–1988. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(Hanchard, M. (1999) (Ed.) Racial Politics in Contemporary Brazil. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.1988) ‘Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective’, Feminist Studies14 (3): 575–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3178066(1991) Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? Thinking from Women's Lives. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.(1993) ‘Whiteness as Property’, Harvard Law Review106 (8): 1707–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1341787(1997) ‘Locating White Detroit’, in R.Frankenberg (Ed.) Displacing Whiteness, pp. 180–213. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.(1999) Racial Situations: Class Predicaments of Whiteness in Detroit. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(2005) Odd Tribes: Toward a Cultural Analysis of White People. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.(2006) ‘The “Chav” Phenomenon: Consumption, Media and the Construction of a New Underclass’, Crime, Media, Culture2 (1): 9–28.and (1784–91) Ideas for a Philosophy of a History of Humanity, cited in E. Eze (1997) Race and Enlightenment: A Reader. Boston: Blackwell.(1994) The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. New York: Free Press.and (1990) Black Feminist Thought. New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/hyp.2005.0118(1993) Suspect Community. London: Pluto.([Page 189]2002) War without End: The Rise of Islamist Terrorism and the Global Response. London: Routledge.(1983) The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/25142744and (2008) Race, Class and Cohesion: A Community Profile of Hillfields (Bristol). Bristol: Bristol City Council/UWE, Centre for Psychosocial Studies. Available at http://www.uwe.ac.uk/hlss/research/cpss/research_reports/Hillfields.pdf, , , , and (1982) Ain't I a Woman? Black Women and Feminism. Boston: South End Press.. (1992) Black Looks: Race and Representation. Boston: South End Press.. (2000) Where We Stand: Class Matters. New York: Routledge.. (1981) Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Anglo-Saxonism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2006) ‘Racism, Whitespace and the Rise of the Neo-Mulattos’, in D.Brunsma (Ed.) Mixed Messages: Multiracial Identities in the ‘Color-Blind’ Era, pp. 117–21. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press.(2005) ‘“Inappropriate and Incongruous”: Opposition to Asylum Centres in the English Countryside’, Journal of Rural Studies21: 3–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2004.08.004(2007) ‘The Persistent Problem of Colorism: Skin Tone, Status, and Inequality’, Sociology Compass1 (1): 237–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9020.2007.00006.x(1993) ‘The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order’, Foreign Affairs72 (3): 22–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/20045621(1996) The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon and Schuster.(1987) ‘British Racisms: The Construction of Racial Ideologies’, in C.Husbands (Ed.) ‘Race’ in Britain. London: Hutchinson.(2005) ‘Citizenship, Ethnicity and Identity: British Pakistanis after the 2001 “Riots”’, Sociology39 (3): 407–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038505052493and (2005) ‘“Race,” Sport and Leisure: Lessons From Critical Race Theory’, Leisure Studies24 (1): 81–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02614360412331313494(1999) Scattered Belongings: Cultural Paradoxes of ‘Race’, Nation and Gender. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203414736_chapter_4(2001) ‘Re-Membering “Race”: On Gender, Mixed Race and Family in the African Diaspora’, in D.Parker and M.Song (Eds) Rethinking ‘Mixed Race’, pp. 42–64. London: Pluto.(2004) Mixed Race Studies: A Reader. London: Routledge.(2000) ‘Less Race, Please’, in D.Green (Ed.) Institutional Racism and the Police: Fact or Fiction?, pp. 21–4. London: Institute for the Study of Civil Society.. (Institute on Race and Poverty (IRP) (2002) ‘Long Island Fair Housing: A State of Inequity.’ Available at http://www.eraseracismny.org/downloads/reports/ERASE_HousingMonograph.pdfInternational Council on Human Rights Protection (2000) ‘The Persistence and Mutation of Racism.’ Available at http://www.ichrp.org/files/reports/26/112_report_en.pdf1998) Whiteness of A Different Colour: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.([Page 190]2007) ‘Portrayal and Participation of Minorities in the Media’, paper delivered at the INCORE Race and Media Conference, University of Ulster, 3 October.( 1917) Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. New York: Penguin.(2003) ‘Good Neighborhoods, Good Schools: Race and the “Good Choices” of White Families’, in A.Doane and E.Bonilla-Silva (Eds) White Out: The Continuing Significance of Racism, pp. 173–88. New York: Routledge.and (1997) Darkness Made Visible: Law, Metaphor and the Racial Self, in R.Delgado and J.Stefancic (Eds) Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror, pp. 66–78. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.(1993) Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. New York: Free Press.(1994) The Language of the Genes: Biology, History and the Evolutionary Future. London: Flamingo. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.2003.105.3.501(1999) ‘How Immigration is Changing Citizenship: A Comparative View’, Ethnic and Racial Studies22 (4): 629–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/014198799329323(2003) ‘Comparing Cultures of Discretion’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies29 (2): 373–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1369183032000079648, and (Joseph, P. (Ed.) (2006) The Black Power Movement: Rethinking the Civil Rights-Black Power Era. New York: Routledge.2006) ‘Race, Pharmacogenomics, and Marketing: Putting BiDil in Context’, The American Journal of Bioethics6 (5): W1–W5.(2007a) ‘Raceing Patents/Patenting Race: An Emerging Political Geography of Intellectual Property in Biotechnology’, Iowa Law Review92: 354–416.(2007b) ‘Race in a Bottle’, Scientific American, July: http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=race-in-a-bottle(2003) Working-class Heroes: Protecting Home, Community and Nation in a Chicago Neighborhood. Berkeley: UCLA Press.(2000) The Daughters of Suburbia: Growing up White, Middle Class and Female. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.(1850) The Races of Men: A Philosophical Inquiry into the Influence of Race over the Destinies of Nations. London: Henry Renshaw. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/12036-000(2005) ‘Racialisation and “White European” Immigration to Britain’, in K.Murji and J.Solomos (Eds) Racialisation: Studies in Theory and Practice, pp. 207–26. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2007) Blue-chip Black: Race, Class, and Status in the New Black Middle Class. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1995) ‘Toward a Critical Race Theory of Education’, Teacher's College Record97 (1): 47–68.and (2000) The Dignity of Working Men. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(2005) ‘The Impact of Global Conflicts on Local Contexts: Muslims in Sweden after 9/11 - the Rise of Islamophobia, or New Possibilities?’, Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations16 (1): 29–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0959641052000313228(2005) ‘Disgusted Subjects: The Making of Middle-class Identities’, Sociological Review53 (3): 429–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.2005.00560.x(1748–1804) A Natural History, General and Particular, cited in E.Eze (1997) Race and Enlightenment: A Reader. Boston: Blackwell.([Page 191]2004) ‘From Racial State to Racist State: Ireland on the Eve of the Citizenship Referendum’, Variant20: http://www.variant.randomstate.org/20texts/raciststate.html(Lentin, A. and Lentin, R. (Eds) (2006) Race and State. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholar's Press.2006) After Optimism: Ireland, Racism and Globalisation. Dublin: Metro Eireann.and (2003) Race in the Schoolyard: Negotiating the Color Line in Classrooms and Communities. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00028312038004781(1990) ‘The Roots Of Muslim Rage: Why so Many Muslims Deeply Resent the West, and Why their Bitterness will not Easily be Mollified’, Atlantic Online, September: http://tonyinosaka.googlepages.com/muslimrage-atlantic.pdf(2005) Asylum: Understanding Public Attitudes. London: IPPR. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616742.2010.513112(Linnaeus (1735) The System of Nature, cited in E. Eze (1997) Race and Enlightenment: A Reader. Boston: Blackwell.1995) ‘The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: Racialised Social Democracy and the “White” Problem in American Studies’, American Quarterly47 (3): 369–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2713291(1998) The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2713291(1876) L'Uomo Delinquente. Milan: Hoepli.(1971) History and Class Consciousness. Boston: MIT Press.(2004) ‘Childbearing Against the State? Asylum Seeker Women in the Irish Republic’, Women's Studies International Forum27: 335–49.(1999) Contemporary Racisms and Ethnicities: Social and cultural transformations. Buckingham: Open University Press.(1999) The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry: Report of an Inquiry by Sir William MacPhersan of Cluny (CM 4262-I). HMSO online: http://www.archive.official-documents.co.uk/document/cm42/4262/4262.htm(2002a) ‘What's in a Name? Exploring the Employment of “Mixed Race” as an Identification’, Ethnicities2 (4): 469–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/14687968020020040201(2002b) ‘Interrogating the Hyphen-Nation: Canadian Multicultural Policy and “Mixed Race” Identities’, Social Identities8 (1): 67–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13504630220132026(2001) ‘Same Difference’, in D.Parker and M.Song (Eds) Rethinking ‘Mixed Race’, pp. 65–75. London: Pluto.and (2005) ‘The Islamophobia Myth.’ Available at http://www.kenanmalik.com/essays/islamophobia_prospect.html(1798) Essay on the Principle of Population. London: J. Johnson.(1994) American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/229532and (Mayor of London (2006) Muslims in London. London: Greater London Authority.2001a) ‘Sources of Racial Wage Inequality in Metropolitan Labor Markets: Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Differences’, American Sociological Review66 (4): 520–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3088921(2001b) Complex Inequality: Gender, Race, and Class in the New Economy. New York: Routledge.(2005) ‘The Complexity of Intersectionality’, Journal of Women in Culture and Society30: 1771–800. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/426800(2002) ‘From s11 to September 11 - Implications for Sociology’, Journal of Sociology38 (3): 229–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/144078302128756633([Page 192]1988) ‘White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women's Studies’, Working Paper 189, Wellesley College.(2004) Being White: Stories of Race and Racism. New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13504630600583361(2007) ‘Resources, Group Conflict and Symbols: Explaining Anti-Immigration Hostility in Britain’, Political Studies55: 709–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9248.2007.00680.xand (2001) ‘Triples - the Social Evolution of an Asian Pan-ethnicity’, in D.Parker and M.Song (Eds) Rethinking ‘Mixed Race’, pp. 99–116. London: Pluto.(2006) ‘“Get Off Your Knees”: Print Media Public Intellectuals and Muslims in Britain’, Journalism Studies7 (1): 35–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616700500450327(2008) ‘The White Complex’, Little India, 18 August. Available at http://www.littleindia.com/news/134/ARTICLE/1828/2007-08-18.html(1987) Racism. London: Routledge.(1982) Racism and Migrant Labour. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.1984.9975884(2003) Racism. London: Routledge.and (2004) Rise and Fall of the Cosmic Race: The Cult of Mestizaje in Latin America. Austin: University of Texas Press.(1997) The Racial Contract. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.(2003) From Class to Race: Essays in White Marxism and Black Radicalism. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield.(2004) ‘Racial Exploitation and the Wages of Whiteness’, in G.Yancy (Ed.), What White Looks Like: African-American Philosophers on the Whiteness Question, pp. 25–54. New York: Routledge.(2007) Contract and Domination. Cambridge: Polity Press.and (2008) ‘Rivalries and Racisms: “Closed” and “Open” Islamophobic Dispositions Amongst Football Supporters’, Sociological Research Online13 (6): http://www.socresonline.org.uk/13/6/5.html(2008) ‘This Persecution of Gypsies is now the Shame of Europe’, The Guardian, 10 July.(2005) ‘Pigmentation and Empire: The Emerging Skin-Whitening Industry’, Counterpunch, 28 July: http://www.counterpunch.org/mire07282005.html(1992) Not Easy Being British: Colour, Culture and Citizenship. Stoke: Runnymede Trust and Trentham Books.(1997) ‘Introduction: The Politics of Multiculturalism in the New Europe’, in T.Modood and P.Werbner (Eds) The Politics of Multiculturalism in the New Europe: Racism, Identity and Community. London: Zed Books.(2004) ‘Muslims and the Politics of Difference’, The Political Quarterly74 (1): 100–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-923X.2003.00584.x(2005) Multicultural Politics: Racism, Ethnicity and Muslims in Britain. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1369801X.2010.489688(2007) Multiculturalism A Civic Idea. Cambridge: Polity Press.(1997) Ethnic Minorities in Britain: Diversity and Disadvantage - Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities. London: PSI., , , , , and (1988) ‘Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourses’, Feminist Review30: 61–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/fr.1988.42(1997) Sex Among Allies: Military Prostitution in US-Korea Relations. New York: Columbia University Press.(1968) The Naked Ape. London: Corgi.([Page 193]1970) The Bluest Eye. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Wilson.(1993) Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. New York: Vintage.(1839) Crania Americana: A Comparative View of the Skulls of Various Aboriginal Natives of North and South America, to which is Prefixed an Essay on the Variety of Human Species. Philadelphia: J. Dobson.(Murji, K. and Solomos, J. (Eds) (2005a) Racialisation: Studies in Theory and Practice. Oxford: Oxford Univesity Press.2005b) ‘Introduction’, in Murji and Solomos (eds) Racialisation: Studies in Theory and Practice, pp. 1–28. Oxford: Oxford University Press.and (2003) Race, Ethnicity and Sexuality: Intimate Intersections, Forbidden Frontiers. New York: Oxford University Press.(2008) ‘Nodes of Desire: Romanian Egg Sellers, “Dignity” and Feminist Alliances in Transnational Ova Exchanges’, European Journal of Women's Studies15 (2): 65–82.(2003) ‘Ivory Lives: Economic Restructuring and the Making of Whiteness in a Post-industrial Youth Community’, European Journal of Cultural Studies6 (3): 305–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13675494030063003(2007) ‘Critical Whiteness Studies’, Sociology Compass1 (2): 737–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9020.2007.00045.x(1949) Fettered Freedom: Civil Liberties and the Slavery Controversy, 1830–1860. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State College Press.(2007) ‘The Irish in Britain - Towards Greater Visibility?’, in W.Huber, M.Böss, C.Malignant and H.Schwall (Eds) Irish Studies in Europe, pp. 121–32. EFACIS: The European Federation of Associations and Centres of Irish Studies.(1974) The Sociology of Housework. London: Martin Robertson.(1995) Black Wealth/White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality. New York: Routledge.and (2001) ‘The Changing Meaning of Race’, in N.Smelser, W.J.Wilson and F.Mitchell (Eds) America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume 1, pp. 243–63. Washington, DC: National Research Council.(1994) Racial Formation in the US: from the 1960s to the 1980s. New York: Routledge, and (2001) ‘Mixed Race in Official Statistics’, in D.Parker and M.Song (Eds) Rethinking ‘Mixed Race’, pp. 134–53. London: Pluto.(1991) The Concept of Fundamentalism (Meghraj Lecture, 1991). Coventry/Leeds: University of Warwick/Peepal Tree Press.(Parker, D. and Song, M. (Eds) (2001) Rethinking ‘Mixed Race’. London: Pluto.2006) ‘New Ethnicities Online: Reflexive Racialisation and the Internet’, The Sociological Review54 (3): 575–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.2006.00630.xand (1988) The Sexual Contract. Cambridge: Polity. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9833.1996.tb00227.x(1930) Life, Letters and Labours of Francis Galton, Volume Three A: Correlation, Personal Identification and Eugenics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1999) Hope in a Jar: The Making of America's Beauty Culture. New York: Holt.(2006) ‘Parallel Lives? Challenging Discourses of British Muslim Self-segregation’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space24 (1): 25–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d60j(1996) ‘I'm White - so What? The Construction of Whiteness for Young Londoners’, in M.Fine (Ed.) Off White, pp. 187–97. New York: Routledge.([Page 194]2005) ‘Remembered Racialization: Young People and Positioning in Different Understandings’, in K.Murji and J.Solomos (Eds) Racialisation: Studies in Theory and Practice, pp. 103–22. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1854) The Races of Men: And Their Geographical Distribution. London: H.G. Bohn.(2000) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of the American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/358916.361990(2007) ‘E Pluribus Unum: Diversity and Community in the Twenty-first Century - The 2006 Johan Skytte Prize Lecture’, Journal of Scandinavian Political Studies30 (2): 137–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9477.2007.00176.x(2005) Muslims and Crime: A Comparative Study. Aldershot: Ashgate. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1057567708323309(2007) ‘Something Remarkable’, The Guardian, 13 April.(2004) The ‘Tragic Mulatta’ Revisited: Race and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Antislavery Fiction. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.(2007) ‘The Story of Islamophobia’, Souls9 (2): 148–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10999940701382607(2005) ‘The Uses of Racialisation: The Time-Spaces and Subject-Objects of the Raced Body’, in K.Murji and J.Solomos (Eds) Racialisation: Studies in Theory and Practice, pp. 271–302. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2007) ‘“A Darker Shade of Pale?” Whiteness, the Middle Classes and Multi-Ethnic Inner City Schooling’, Sociology41 (6): 1041–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038507082314, , , , , and (1992 ) Qu'est-qu'une Nation?: Et Autres Essais Politiques. Paris: Agora.(1970) Race Relations in Sociological Theory. London: Routledge.(1990) Race and Empire in British Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2004) (Mis)Representing Islam: The Racism and Rhetoric of British Broadsheet Newspapers. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.(2007) ‘High Heels and Headscarves: Women's Clothing and Islamic Piety in Indonesia’, paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, New York, 11 August. Available at http://www.allacademic.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/8/2/5/8/pages182584/p182584-1.php(1983) Black Marxism: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition. London: Zed Books. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/25142575(2003) Spreading the ‘Burden’? A Review of Policies to Disperse Asylum Seekers and Refugees. Bristol: Policy Press.(2002) ‘Negotiating the Color Line: The Gendered Process Of Racial Identity Construction among Black/White Biracial Women’, Gender and Society16 (4): 485–503. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891243202016004005(2002) ‘Opting for White: Choice, Fluidity and Racial Identity Construction in Post Civil-rights America’, Race and Society5: 49–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.racsoc.2003.12.004and (2005) Raising Biracial Children. Lanham, MD: Altamira.and (1991) The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American WorkingClass. London: Verso.(2001) Society and Culture. London: Sage.and ([Page 195]1906) State of the Union. Available at http://www.theodore-roosevelt.com/sotu6.html(1996) ‘The Multiracial Experience: Racial Borders as Significant Frontier in Race Relations’, in M.Root (Ed.) The Multiracial Experience. Thousand Oaks: Sage.(2004) ‘Do Multicultural Subjects Really Challenge Race?: Mixed Race Asians in the United States and the Caribbean’, in J.Ifekwunigwe (Ed.) Mixed Race Studies: A Reader, pp. 263–70. London: Routledge.(1979) Orientalism. New York: Vintage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/978-1-61520-819-7.ch013(2001) ‘Clash of Ignorance’, The Nation. Available at http://www.thenation.com/doc/20011022/said(2004) ‘Y Tù qué?: Latino History in the New Millennium’, in J.Ifekwunigwe (Ed.) Mixed Race Studies: A Reader, pp. 276–82. London: Routledge.(2001) ‘Problems in the Marxist Project of Theorising Race’, in E.Cashmore and R.Jennings (Eds) Racism: Essential Readings, pp. 225–46. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446220986(1987) ‘Racisms: The Reactions to Chinese Migrants in Canada at the Turn of the Century’, International Sociology4 (3): 311–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026858089004003005(1990) The Rise and Fall of the White Republic: Class Politics and Mass Culture in Nineteenth Century America. New York: Verso.(1986) Scarman Report: The Brixton Disorders, 10–12 April, 1981. London: Pelican.(2004) ‘The Mulatto Millennium’, in J.Ifekwunigwe (Ed.) Mixed Race Sudies: A Reader, pp. 204–9. London: Routledge.(2006) ‘Islamophobia Pre- and Post-September 11th, 2001’, Journal of Interpersonal Violence21 (3): 317–36.(1995) Geographies of Exclusion: Society and Difference in the West. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203430545(2004) ‘Headscarves and the French Tricolor’, Middle East Report, 30 January. Available at http://www.merip.org/mero/mero013004.html(2005) ‘Immigrant Racialisation and the New Savage Slot: Race, Migration, and Immigration in the New Europe’, Annual Review of Anthropology34: 363–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.34.081804.120338(2007) Mixed Heritage: Identity, Policy and Practice. London: Runnymede Trust.(1990) Communities of Resistance. London: Verso.(1997) Formations of Class and Gender: Becoming Respectable. London: Sage.(2005) Class, Self and Culture. London: Routledge.(2008) ‘Spectacular Morality: Reality Television and the Re-making of the Working Class’, in D.Hesmondhalgh and J.Toynbee (Eds) Media and Social Theory, pp. 177–94. London: Routledge.and (2006) ‘Racialised Futures: Biologism and the Changing Politics of Identity’, Social Studies of Science36 (3): 459–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306312706054859(1994) Racialised Barriers: The Black Experience in the United States and England in the 1980s. London: Routledge.(2001) ‘Colour, Culture and Class: Interrogating Interracial Marriage and People of Mixed Descent in the United States’, in D.Parker and M.Song (Eds) Rethinking ‘Mixed Race’, pp. 117–33. London: Pluto.([Page 196]1990) Preferential Policies. New York: William Morrow.(1864) Principles of Biology, Volume. 1. London: Williams and Norgate.(2000) The New Colored People: The Mixed-Race Movement in America. New York: New York University Press.(2006) ‘New Racial Identities, Old Arguments: Continuing Biological Reification’, in D.Brunsma (Ed.) Mixed Messages, pp. 83–116. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press.(1938) Women's Life and Work in the Southern Colonies. New York and London: WW Norton & Company.(1991) The Hour of Eugenics: Race, Gender, and Nation in Latin America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.(1922) Revolt Against Civilization. New York: Scribner.(1937) The Marginal Man: A Study in Personality and Culture Conflict. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2262260(1990) ‘The New Cultural Racism in France’, Telos83: 109–22.(2001) The Force of Prejudice: On Racism and Its Doubles (trans. HassanMelehy). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(2002) Black, White or Mixed Race? Race and Racism in the Lives of Young People of Mixed Parentage,and (4th edn.London: New York.2006) ‘Purchasing Whiteness: Conversations on the Essence of Pardo-ness and Mulatto-ness at the End of Empire’, paper presented at Lockmiller seminar, Emory University, 29 March.(1996) ‘Brown-skinned White Girls: Class, Culture and the Construction of White Identity in Suburban Communities’, Gender, Place and Culture3: 205–24.(2008) ‘“Chav Mum, Chav Scum”: Class Disgust in Contemporary Britain’, Feminist Media Studies8 (1): 17–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680770701824779(2003) ‘The Racialised and Classed Constitution of Village Life’, Ethnos68 (3): 391–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0014184032000134504(2006) ‘Village People: Race, Class, Nation and the Community Spirit’, in S.Neal and J.Agyeman (Eds) The New Countryside: Ethnicity, Nation and Exclusion in Contemporary Rural Britain, pp. 129–48. Bristol: Polity Press.(United Nations (1965) International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination: adopted and opened for signature and ratification by General Assembly resolution 2106 (XX) of 21 December 1965:http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/pdf/cerd.pdfUnited Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) (2008) Statistical Yearbook 2007: Trends in Displacement, Protection and Solutions. Geneva: UNHCR.1992) New Day in Babylon: The Black Power Movement and American Culture, 1965–1975. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(2000 ) Race and State (trans. RuthHeim). Baton Rouge and London: Louisiana State University Press.(1940) ‘The Growth of the Race Idea’, The Review of Politics. July: 283–317.([Page 197]1995) ‘Trafficking in Women's Bodies, Then and Now: the Issue of Military Comfort Women’, Peace and Change, 20: 501–14.(1998) ‘The Street: “It's a Bit Dodgy Around There”: Safety, Danger, Ethnicity and Young People's Use of Public Space’, in T.Skelton and G.Valentine (Eds) Cool Places: Geographies of Youth Cultures, pp. 249–66. London: Routledge.and (1946) Essays in Sociology (Ed./trans./intro. H.H.Gerth and C.WrightMills,). Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2068121(2003) ‘Racialising Regional Difference: Sao Paulo versus Brazil, 1932’, in N.Appelbaum, A.MacPherson and K.Rosemblatt (Eds) Race and Nation in Modern Latin America, pp. 237–62. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.(2006) ‘Masculinity, Whiteness, and the New Economy: An Exploration of Privilege and Loss’, Men and Masculinities8 (3): 262–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1097184X05282069(1893) Lynch Law (excerpt available at: http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/wellslynchlaw.html)(2005) ‘Islamophobia: Incitement to Religious Hatred - Legislating for a New Fear?’, Anthropology Today21 (1): 5–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0268-540X.2005.00323.x(1995) The Arena of Racism. New York: Sage.(1976) Sociobiology - The New Synthesis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(2002) ‘Race and Racialisation: Some Thoughts’, Postcolonial Studies5 (1): 51–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13688790220126889(2006) Not Quite White: White Trash and the Boundaries of Whiteness. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.(1969) The Autobiography of Malcolm X. New York: Random House., and (2001) ‘A Foucauldian (Genealogical) Reading of Whiteness: The Production of the Black Body/Self and the Racial Deformation of Pecola Breedlove in Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye’, Radical Philosophy Review4 (1–2): 1–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.5840/radphilrev200141/217(2005) Understanding Contemporary Latin America. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press.(1995) Colonial Desire: Hybridity in Theory, Culture and Race. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00170-006-0492-8(1997) Gender and Nation. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01419870.1993.9993800(1993) Race and Mixed Race. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1527-2001.2010.01121.x(Zappone, K. (Ed.) (2003) Re-thinking Equality: The Challenge of Diversity. Dublin: Equality Authority.1989) The Sublime Object of Ideology. London: Verso.(