Racisms: An Introduction

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Steve Garner

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    Acknowledgements

    First, a big thank you to the people at Sage for their patience, especially Jai Seaman, Chris Rojek and Katherine Haw. Second, thanks to my family, who as usual suffer neglect as a result of my writing activity – Annie, Dani, Gabriel and Morganne – you're the best. Thirdly, this text is based on my interpretation of other people's hard work, so it really is, in a way, a collective project.

    Teaching can, paradoxically, be a lonely old business in the middle of a crowd: trying to make epiphanies happen in the minds of strangers. Sometimes it can get depressing, or boring. Sometimes you may even think you have made a string of poor choices that lead you to a particular classroom, teaching a particular subject at a particular time, when you could instead have been coaching your favourite sport, watching fabulous jungle animals through a camera lens, saving somebody's life in an emergency room, or doing something demonstrably exciting and/or more fun for a living. At other times, on those rare occasions when you set another person on a course that they recognise is a direction in which they would not have travelled were it not for you, then I can't think of anything much better. I have an email I read when I'm feeling particularly low, in which a former student thanks me for teaching a module on racism. The last part reads: ‘It was the only area of study I have undertaken that made me completely change the way I thought about the world’.

    This text is dedicated to all the teachers to whom that sentence should be addressed, and more often, but whose former students are having too much fun to get round to telling them so.

    List of Boxes, Tables and Figures

    Introduction

    There are some splendid resource books for teaching ‘race’ and ethnicity in the social sciences. However, having taught specialist undergraduate modules for a decade, I have never been able to fully endorse buying a textbook because those available suppose too much knowledge. They are ideal for use with postgraduates and for referencing segments of larger works, but undergraduate social scientists just don't generally have enough background in the subject to make enough use of them properly. This is not a failing on the students’ part. There has to be a period in which they acquire the knowledge that helps them fit these well-known works into some kind of a theoretical framework. It has taken me more than 20 years, and there is not a day that passes without me adding more knowledge. So this text is designed for undergraduates who are interested in this topic, primarily in the UK and the USA, which is why material from those two countries is prioritised here. It is a textbook to use either as the basis for a course, or to dip into as a set of free-standing chapters.

    Academic colleagues who know this area will immediately be able to come up with a set of chapters for the topics I did not cover here. I agree: the choice is idiosyncratic. I could suggest an ‘omitted chapters’ list myself: anti-semitism; anti-nomadic racism; indigenous land rights; Transatlantic slavery; Far-right politics; criminology and the racialisation of minorities; concentrations on other historical periods and geographical locations. All of these areas and more could have been covered in this book, but then where would all the topics already in here have gone? Any student textbook has to cover what I understand to be the basics, which in this case comprises theories of ‘race’, racisms, racialisation, how class and gender articulate with ‘race’, what ‘mixed-ness’ means, and the role of science in making and sustaining the creative fiction that is ‘race’. Particularly relevant examples for me of how issues can be racialised are asylum and Islamic religion in the West, hence the coverage of those two. Finally, there are the connected issues of the racialisation of white identities and of the establishment, over the last three decades or so, of ‘new’ forms of racism that emphasise culture more than phenotype in public and private discourse. If the publishers ask me to do another edition, I will certainly include something different. However, I stand by this choice of topics. It offers one possible route into the truly gigantic corpus.

    I am often pushed to say ‘what I know’ about racism and in fact the more knowledgeable I get, the more I realise that I am getting further from, not closer to, some state of expertise. The more you know, the more you know what there is to know (and that is always more than one person can hope to know). So if you really want to know what the story is, then the following will help you begin.

    ‘Race’ is a fiction that we turn into a social reality every day of our lives. It lies at the heart of the complex, historical and multifaceted sets of social relationships to which we attach the label ‘racism’. This is a historical process, a set of ideas and a set of outcomes (benefits for some, disadvantages for others). This can be anything from a promotion ahead of someone else who is just as good at what they do as you are, to being hunted like an animal and dying a protracted and painful death at the hands of someone who thinks ‘race’ is so real it authorises your murder with impunity.

    The forms in which these social relationships play out are so diverse that I think ‘racism’ is too small a word to contain them, hence my choice of a plural in the title. If you are interested in struggling against racism, you have to be interested in more than just ‘race’. You must also be a student of gender, class, nation states, culture, history and science. I encourage students to follow up by reading the work referred to in each chapter, at the next level of study. This text is merely a starting point, a marshalling of some arguments and an incitement to think that racism is a complicated part of the social world, rather than an aberration of individuals. I hope that someone who reads this text will end up contributing to the struggle … which unfortunately won't be ending any time soon.

  • Glossary of Terms

    A8 In 2004, the European Union was enlarged to include 10 new member states: Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Malta, Cyprus and Hungary. In EU circles, these were called ‘Accession States’ in the period leading up to 2004, and of these, the eight for whom this new membership would enable nationals to access the labour markets of the existing member states without a visa for the first time (that is, all the above except Malta and Cyprus), were referred to as the A8 (A for Accession).

    Apartheid Between 1948 and 1994, the Republic of South Africa was officially governed according to the ideology of apartheid, an Afrikaans word meaning ‘separateness’. The system, implemented by the National Party under Daniel Malan, involved the imposition of separate and parallel regimes of government for the various racialised strands of the population. Some African groups were allocated ‘homelands’ such as Transkei and KwaZulu in South Africa and occupied Namibia (then South-West Africa), while the main racial groups afforded legitimacy under apartheid – Whites, Coloureds, Indians and Blacks – had differential rights to geographical mobility, employment, housing, education, etc. Specifically, apartheid was a means of controlling the majority labour force and population, frequently with recourse to armed force, suspension of human rights and state terrorism. The small white population was the only one to enjoy the full range of democratic freedoms and had preferential access to the country's vast wealth. The bureaucracy created to oversee this system also created stable clerical work for white South Africans. Opposition to apartheid, which also came from the Communist Party and the Pan African Congress, soon took the shape of a national political party – the African National Congress (ANC), which waged a political and armed struggle against the apartheid system from the late 1950s. International sports boycotts from the 1960s, and anti-apartheid organisations in many countries, added to the pressure placed on South Africa to normalise its social relationships. On the back of the campaign to free ANC leader Nelson Mandela from captivity, which occurred in 1992, came the holding of free elections in 1994. The ANC won the elections with a landslide, and Mandela became the first post-apartheid President of South Africa.

    Aryan The term Aryan, borrowed from Sanskrit, was originally used to describe a set of languages originating in the India/Iran/Afghanistan regions. By the nineteenth century, it came to mean speakers of Indo-European languages. By the end of that century, scientists such as Thomas Huxley and Georges Vacher de Lapouge were speculating that the Aryan people were characterised by longer skulls than others, and had a leadership role in the modern world. This racial genealogy was reinvigorated by writers such as de Gobineau, who saw Nordic and Teutonic peoples as the basis of the Anglo-Saxon racial stock in the mid nineteenth-century, and most spectacularly by Houston Stewart Chamberlain whose writings on the Aryan race (The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, 1911 [1899]) influenced Hitler. The Nazis used the term ‘Aryan’ to refer to those racialised as the authentic Germans, typically represented as tall, blue-eyed blondes, around which their social policies were based in the 1933–45 period (Burleigh and Wipperman, 1991).

    burqa A loose garment that goes on top of usual daily clothes. It is worn by some Muslim women and it is removed once the woman returns home.

    Le foulard The French word for ‘headscarf. The term is best known because of the affaires du foulard, or ‘headscarf incidents’, in which French Muslim girls were refused entry in to schools because they were wearing foulards. There were over 100 such incidents in the 1989–2003 period. The rationale for turning the schoolgirls away is that state schools are part of the secular public space that forms the basis of French republican values, according to which the private space can be religious but the public arena must be free of religious ideas, objects and symbolism. In 2004, a Special Commission was set up by the government to investigate the options for dealing with the situation (as half the decisions had been overturned by the courts). It recommended the drafting of a law against wearing ‘conspicuous’ religious items, such as the foulard, to school, which was passed in 2005. The public debate was very controversial, with various interlocutors accusing others of anti-republican values, sexism and racism, etc. The Law's opponents argue that although the wording specifies crucifixes and Jewish skullcaps as objects that must also not be worn conspicuously, the principal objective of the law is to prevent French Muslims from expressing their Muslim identities.

    Hegemony Italian Marxist Antonio Gramsci uses the concept of hegemony (literally meaning ‘domination’) to refer to the set of dominant ideas at any given time. The subtlety of Gramsci's hegemony is that it allows for people to recognise that the ideas may be untrue and/or unfair, without this being a barrier to those ideas being the dominant ones of an era, around which political discourse is based and normalised.

    Hypodescent This is also called the ‘one-drop rule’. This American racial logic states that any person with any ancestors who are not white Europeans cannot be considered genuinely white, regardless of what that person looks like.

    Intersectionality This is an approach developed by Black American feminists in the late 1980s to analyse social relations by simultaneously taking into account multiple axes of identity, generally gender, class and ‘race’.

    Ius sanguinis This refers to qualification through bloodlines (that is, parents’ or grandparents’ nationality) (see Box 2.2).

    Ius soli This refers to qualification for membership through birth within a given territory (see Box 2.2).

    Jilbab A loose garment covering the whole body except for the hands, face, feet and head, worn by some Muslim women. A headscarf or veil can also be worn with it. There is some discussion about whether the contemporary forms of jilbab are the same as what is referred to in the Qu'ran. There is an argument that it only appeared in the recent past as a form of identification with particular forms of political Islam, while others maintain it is exactly the same item that was worn in the seventh century.

    Jim Crow’ After the abolition of slavery and the Fourteenth Amendment had given former slaves the right to vote, there was a short period (1865–76, also known as the Reconstruction), during which black Americans enjoyed relatively improved status and were protected by Federal laws. However, in 1877, the last Federal troops were withdrawn from the Southern states, and the Democratic Party enacted a set of laws that established separate living and access to resources ordered by ‘race’ (segregation). This was institutionally recognised in a set of laws passed by state governments in the southern states of the USA. These included separate schooling, places to sit on trains and buses, restaurants, toilets, etc. Moreover, a series of amendments to voting rights effectively disenfranchised most black voters by the First World War. This set of laws was known as ‘Jim Crow’. Such laws were by no means exclusive to the south. Laws segregating the ‘races’ were passed across the USA, and President Wilson even reintroduced segregated Federal Offices in 1913.

    Additionally, the reaction to the short period of black progress in the South involved violence and extra-judicial acts of aggression to intimidate black Americans in order to prevent them reaching social equality with whites (Du Bois, 1998 [1935]). The Jim Crow laws were backed up by the accompanying extra-legal social realities of lynchings, beatings and rape. Jim Crow held sway formally in the southern states from around 1890 to the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1965.

    Limpieza de sangre This fifteenth-century Spanish concept of purity of the blood referred originally to the class system of feudal Spain, particularly the lineage of nobles and state officials who had to have limpieza de sangre (bloodlines including no traceable Jewish or Muslim converts to Christianity). Limpieza de sangre was a resource for some Spaniards to defend against encroachment from the bloodlines of indigenous Americans and enslaved Africans.

    Mestiçagem This is the historical process of ‘race mixing’ in Portuguese.

    Mixed-ness The problems engendered by trying to talk about people as being the products of more than one racialised group are discussed in Chapter 6. There are vast numbers of words used to describe people whose parentage is ‘mixed’ in this way that derive from the colonial period of the Americas. In Spanish, for example, there is mestizo, castizo, mulatto and zambo (which denote a European-Amerindian, European and unspecified other, European-African and African-Amerindian mix respectively). (An example of such definitions and terminology used in New Spain (Mexico) can be found in Yelvington, 2005: 246.) In French, there is métis, mulâtre, sang-mêlé and griffe. In Portuguese, the equivalent to mestizo is mestizaje, while North American English developed a vocabulary to cover degrees of blackness: quadroon (someone with one black grandparent), octoroon (someone with one black great-grandparent), etc. Such terms typically refer to the animal world (mulatto, mulâtre), or fractions (half, quarter, etc.). Among the contemporary academic vocabulary one encounters in reading the US literature on bi-raciality/‘mixed race’ are terms such as the Hawaiian hapa, and the Japanese haafu (both of which are basically the word ‘half’), chosen as less negative ways to approach the issue.

    Niqab A veil, worn by some Muslim women, that covers the face, leaving only a slit for the eyes.

    Patriality The concept introduced into British law by the 1968 Commonwealth Immigrants Act which makes accession to British nationality predicated on having one grandparent born in the UK. The objective was to override the previous ius soli practice of extending membership to people born on British territory when Britain's Empire lay across the world. In the context of the late 1960s, the introduction of patriality means an attempt to close off access to British citizenship for post-war migrants from outside the white dominions such as Canada, New Zealand and South Africa, especially those referred to as ‘coloured’ immigrants at that time (i.e. from the Anglophone Caribbean, the Indian subcontinent and West Africa).

    Racial sciences The branches of science that contributed to fixing ‘race’ as part of the intellectual landscape of the Western world from the late eighteenth century through to the mid-twentieth century. These could be natural sciences, like craniology or phrenology; elements of natural sciences that also focused on other things, like anthropometry; or streams within the social sciences, such as ethnology, anthropology and, to a degree, sociology. What makes a science ‘racial’ is not its entirety, but its embrace of the idea of ‘race’ and its contribution to legitimising discourse that makes a causal and circular link between physical appearance, cultural capacity for civilisation, intellect and innate characteristics.

    Suttee Also called sati. A minority practice within Hinduism of the widow either self-immolating or being forced to die on her husband's funeral pyre. The rationale is to purge the couple of all sin for the afterlife. The practice was banned by the British in the nineteenth century and again by the Indian government in the late twentieth century.

    TCN ‘Third Country National’ (TCN) is a term developed in European Union discourse that refers to someone unfortunate enough not to be a national of an EU member state.

    Unmah Arabic word translated into English as ‘community’ or ‘nation’. It is used as a collective term to describe the whole Muslim diaspora, as a community of believers.

    Appendix: Statistics on Muslims in the UK

    Demographics
    • In 2001, there were 1.6 million Muslims living in the UK, compared to a total population of 58.7 people.
    • Three quarters of Muslims (74%) were from an Asian ethnic background, predominantly Pakistani (43%).
    • 46% of Muslims had been born in the UK.
    • 34% of Muslims were under 16 years of age.
    • A third of Muslim households (34%) contained more than five people, while 25% of households contained three or more dependent children.
    • 38% of Muslims lived in London.

    (Source: National Statistics, 2001 Census)

    Education
    • In 2001, there were 371,000 school-aged (5- to 16-year-old) Muslim children in England. (Source: National Statistics)
    • In 2004, 67% of Indian, 48% of Bangladeshi and 45% of Pakistani pupils gained five or more grades A* to C at GCSE (or equivalent), compared with 52% of white British pupils. (Source: Social Trends No. 36, 2006)
    • 31% of young British Muslims leave school with no qualifications compared to 15% of the total population. (Source: National Statistics)
    Poverty
    • 35% of Muslim households have no adults in employment (more than double the national average). (Source: ‘Muslim Housing Experience’, Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies)
    • Just under three-quarters of Bangladeshi and Pakistani children (73 %) are living in households below the poverty line (60% of median income). This compares with under a third (31%) for children in all households. (Source: Department for Work and Pensions, Households Below Average Income 1994/5–2000/1)
    • In 2001, 13% of Muslim men and 16% of Muslim women reported ‘not good’ health. These rates, which take account of the difference in age structures between the religious groups, were higher than those of Jewish and Christian people, who were the least likely to rate their health as ‘not good’. (Source: National Statistics, 2001 Census)
    Housing
    • In 2001, 52% of Muslim households did not own their own home.
    • 28% of Muslim households were living in social rented accommodation, that is accommodation rented from the council or a housing association.
    • Muslim households were the most likely to experience overcrowding. One-third of Muslim households (32%) lived in overcrowded accommodation. This compares with just 6% of Christian households who experience overcrowding.
    • Muslim households were the most likely to lack central heating (12%).

    (Source: National Statistics, 2001 Census report on faith)

    Employment
    • In 2004, 28% of 16–24-year-old Muslims were unemployed. This compares with only 11% of Christians of the same age. (Source: National Statistics, 2001 Census report on faith)
    • In 2004, a fifth of Muslims were self-employed. (Source: National Statistics)
    • In 2004, almost seven in ten (69%) Muslim women of working age were economically inactive. (Source: Social Trends No. 36, 2006)
    Crime
    • 47% of Muslim students have experienced Islamophobia. (Source: FOSIS (Federation of Student Islamic Societies) survey, 2005)
    • Almost 10% of the prison population are Muslim, two-thirds of whom are young men aged 18–30. (Source: Prison Service statistics, 2004)
    • Between 2001 and 2003, there was a 302% increase in ‘stop and search’ incidents among Asian people, compared with 118% among white people. (Source: Home Office, Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System, 2004)

    Source: The National Youth Agency website (http://www.nya.org.uk/information/100582/109652/100630/108761/ukmuslimcommunitystatistics/)

    This information is reproduced with the kind permission of The National Youth Agency: http://www.nya.org.uk

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