Racial and Cultural Dynamics in Group and Organizational Life: Crossing Boundaries
Publication Year: 2010
“The field has been waiting for a masterpiece like Racial and Cultural Dynamics in Group and Organizational Life for a long time. It provides a thoughtful account of the subtle, barely visible, and sometimes unspeakable influences of racial and cultural dynamics that occur in groups.”
—Leo Wilton, Binghamton University, State University of New York
“I believe that by focusing on group diversity, this book aligns with a major trend that has not received enough attention.”
—Christopher J. McCarthy, University of Texas at Austin
This book presents a theoretical framework for understanding leadership and authority in group and organizational life. Using relational psychoanalytic and systems theory, the authors examine conscious and unconscious processes as they relate to racial and cultural issues in the formation and maintenance of groups. Unique among ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Understanding Groups as Psychodynamic Systems in the Context of Racial and Cultural Factors: Theoretical Framework
- Open Systems Theory and Experiential Learning
- Group Relations Theory
- Research on Racial and Cultural Group Dynamics
- Application and Universality of the Group Relations Model
- Chapter 2: Working with Differences in Groups: Ethical Considerations
- Multiculturalism and Ethical Guidelines
- Principles of Ethical Behavior
- Ethical Issues in Group Work
- Role Clarity and Leader Values
- Dual Relationships
- Informed Consent
- Psychological Risks
- Chapter 3: Group Formation: Racial and Cultural Dynamics of Entering and Joining
- Embedded Intergroup Relations Theory and Group Formation
- Paradox in Groups
- Paradoxes of Belonging
- The Paradox of Identity
- The Paradox of Involvement
- The Paradox of Individuality
- The Paradox of Boundaries
- Chapter 4: Group Development: The Impact of Racial and Cultural Factors
- Models of Group Development
- Progressive Models
- Cyclical Models
- Nonsequential Models
- Recurring Issues
- Racial and Cultural Issues in Groups
- Boundaries: Drawing the Lines
- The Fight for Power
- Relationships: Moving Closer, Understanding More
- Terminating the Group
- Chapter 5: Group Dynamics in Racially and Culturally Mixed Groups
- Psychoanalytic Concepts
- Projective Identification
- Systems Approach
- Group Relations Theory
- Racial and Cultural Dynamics and Group Relations Theory
- Case Example
- Chapter 6: Social Roles in Groups
- Social Roles in Groups
- Social Roles and Defense Mechanisms: Role Suction and Role Types
- The Leader
- The Follower
- The Rebel/Alternative Leader
- The Mediator
- The Scapegoat
- Chapter 7: Leadership, Authority, and Power in Racially and Culturally Mixed Groups
- Racial and Cultural Identity Development Theory
- Racial and Cultural Identity Development for People of Color
- White Racial and Cultural Identity Attitudes
- Cultural Values
- Leadership in Racially and Culturally Mixed Groups
- Case Examples
- Chapter 8: Strategies for Leadership in Multicultural Groups
- The AKRI Competencies
- Prerequisite Competencies
- Stage 1 and Stage 2 Competencies
- Chapter 9: The Mature Work Group
- What is the Mature Work Group?
- What Does a Mature Work Group Look and Sound Like?
- Characteristics of a Mature Work Group
- An Example of a Mature Work Group
- Strategies for Assisting the Mature Work Group
- Outcomes of the Mature Work Group
- Mature Work Group Assessment Form
- Chapter 10: Termination
- A Reflective Time
- Ambivalent Feelings about Termination
- Premature Termination
- Cultural Values and Termination
This book is dedicated to our parents, who created the foundation that gave us the motivation and endurance to write this book.
Hattie and Luther McRae
Addie Louise Short and Louis Shields
Copyright © 2010 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications, Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd.
33 Pekin Street #02-01
Far East Square
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
McRae, Mary B.
Racial and cultural dynamics in group and organizational life: crossing boundaries/Mary B. McRae and Ellen L. Short.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4129-3986-7 (pbk.)
1. Race. 2. Cultural pluralism. 3. Community development. 4. Communication in community development. I. Short, Ellen L. II. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
09 10 11 12 13 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Kassie Graves
Editorial Assistant: Veronica Novak
Production Editor: Carla Freeman
Copy Editor: QuADS Prepress (P) Ltd.
Typesetter: C&M (P) Digitals Ltd.
Proofreader: Theresa Kay
Indexer: Diggs Publication Services
Cover Designer: Gail Buschman
Marketing Manager: Stephanie Adams
Introduction: Basic Conceptual Framework of the Book[Page ix]
The purpose of professional training in group work is to prepare counselors, psychologists, and other mental health professionals to help people from a variety of racial and cultural groups to function better interpersonally and in groups and organizations. If we see groups as a microcosm of the larger society (Yalom, 1995), then a focus on issues such as race and culture in the training literature for group counseling and psychotherapy seems to be crucial in the preparation of mental health professionals. When people from different racial and cultural backgrounds come together, racial and cultural dynamics always exist and can become more salient than other dynamics. Racial and cultural dynamics can also mask other difficult dynamics such as competition, envy, and jealousy, which are common human characteristics in groups. The task for mental health professionals is to develop the competence to acknowledge and work with racial and cultural differences rather than ignore or deny their presence. If such differences are not addressed, clients will feel unheard and unseen in their humanity, and they may wonder if the mental health professional can truly understand the context and nature of their concerns. Moreover, clients may not fully trust that they will be accepted for who they are and for their unique contributions to the group experience.
Demographic transitions of the 21st century and the growing need for clinical group treatment in institutions serving diverse populations necessitates an understanding by mental health professionals of the influence of racial-cultural factors in interpersonal communication. Many books on group work have only one chapter on working with multicultural populations. Including multiple chapters on multiculturalism helps mental health professionals develop increased levels of multicultural competence. However, the authors of this text have found that race and culture are treated separately in many academic textbooks and thus not as an integral part of the counseling and psychotherapy process.[Page x]
The purpose of this book is to offer a theoretical framework that embodies aspects of race and culture and an understanding of the covert and overt processes in group and organizational life. We use psychoanalytic (interpersonal and relational) and systems theory, examining the whole group and the conscious and unconscious processes that occur as they relate to racial and cultural issues. Conceptually, the model offered focuses on the group-as-whole rather than the individual. The premise is that the individual acts on behalf of the group, given the group norms and culture. Within each group or system, there are boundaries, authority issues, roles, and tasks to be considered that will vary according to the culture of the group, the members of the group, and the larger environment in which the group exists. The authors draw from a conceptual framework called group relations theory, which focuses on the group-as-a-whole. We integrate best practices in working with groups where the members have different racial and cultural backgrounds. Finally, racial-cultural differences often present challenges in a variety of environments—academic, clinical, not-for-profits, and for-profit organizations. Unrecognized and unprocessed racial and cultural dynamics can impede productive functioning in group and organizational life. This book addresses ways of recognizing, understanding, and managing these challenges. Throughout the book, we use the terms racial-cultural groups and diverse groups interchangeably to refer to the broad multicultural spectrum of people from all groups. Race, which has no “consensual biological or physiological definition” (Helms & Cook, 1999, as cited in D'Andrea & Daniels, 2001, p.291), is commonly defined by physical characteristics related to skin color, hair texture, and facial features. Categorizations of race are based on socially constructed attitudes and beliefs that have their origins in positive and negative stereotypes related to access to power, privilege, and hierarchical levels of superiority and inferiority within society (D'Andrea & Daniels, 2001). Culture is defined as groups of people who share a common history, geographic region, language, rituals, beliefs, values, rules, and laws (Goldberger & Veroff, 1995). A contemporary definition of culture within a pluralistic society marks individuals with shared characteristics as members of a group. Thus, groups identified by race, gender, class, ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability, and age may call themselves “cultures,” and be regarded as such by others, despite their membership in the larger culture and dissimilarities of histories, language, rules, beliefs, and cultural practices.
Throughout this book, we use our combined 30-plus years of experience teaching group dynamics, working with groups in a variety of settings, and our extensive training in conducting group relations conferences both nationally and internationally to illustrate our perspective. In the past few years, the first author (M.B.M.) has videotaped small study groups during weekend group relations conferences that were held at a large university in the northeast. We use examples from these groups to demonstrate many of the racial-cultural [Page xi]dynamics that we have seen in groups that we have worked with over the years. We integrate examples from group relations conferences with ones drawn from teaching and other observations and experiences that we have had during our years of working with groups. We have developed some examples from our different experiences in groups, and we have edited the examples from transcripts to make the conceptual points more clearly. Thus, the transcripts are used more for educational than for research purposes.Group Relations Conferences
Group relations conferences are temporary educational laboratories constructed for the purpose of studying group and systemic behaviors as they occur in the “here and now” of the experience. There are a number of experiential events that take place during the course of the weekend or the longer residential (5–14 days) conference. Although the term workshop is probably more appropriate, the term group relations conference is used nationally and internationally for both short weekend and longer residential temporary educational laboratories or institutions. The conference opens with a plenary session to introduce the staff, the primary task, and the goals, events, and parameters of the experience. During the course of the conference, there are small and large study groups with consultants that meet approximately four times during the weekend and daily in other instances. There is an Intergroup Event, designed to examine the representation and relatedness of groups formed by participants; a plenary session to discuss the Intergroup Event; review and application groups to help participants integrate their learning with their external worlds; and a conference discussion to review their overall learning and experience of the entire conference. After the conference, follow-up sessions are held, sometimes to help members process and integrate their experiences and apply their learning to their personal and professional environments.
The examples presented in this book are from three conferences, all focusing on authority, leadership, and working with differences. The conferences had themes that focused on the exploration of racial and cultural differences as they related to authority, leadership, and transformation in group and organizational life. In the first conference, which was directed by the first author, there were seven small study groups that were configured with members from similar and diverse racial-cultural backgrounds. An African American man, who openly identifies as gay, directed the second conference (with the first author in the role of associate director). At this conference, one of six small study groups agreed to be videotaped for each of the four sessions held during the weekend. An African American woman directed the third conference. The second author (E.L.S.) of this text served as a consultant in all three [Page xii]conferences. Participants of the conferences were informed in the brochure for the conference that there would be a research or educational component to the conference that involved videotaping of the experience. Each person signed a consent form before participating. In the first conference, there were 83 participants, who were placed in seven groups, with 11 to 12 members. The conference director and the associate director assigned participants to small study groups according to how they self-identified in terms of color and culture. In the second and third conferences, one small study group was videotaped for each of the four sessions held during the weekend. There were 10 to 12 members in each of the small study groups.
In the first conference, there was one group with all people of color, one group with half Latina/o members, another one with members half of whom were gay or lesbian, one with all white members, one with predominantly white members, one with Middle Eastern and European members, and, finally, one group, which was labeled a “rainbow mix,” with members from a variety of backgrounds. In this conference, each group was assigned a consultant with color and culture similar to half or the majority of members in the group. Therefore, African American women consulted to the people-of-color and the rainbow groups, a Latino man consulted to the half-Latina/o group, a gay man to the half-gay/lesbian group, a woman who was half Middle Eastern to the Middle Eastern/European group, a white man to the all-white group, and a white woman to the predominantly white group.
In the second conference, there were 81 members in all. The small group studied consisted of two white men (one who identified as Jewish and heterosexual, the other as homosexual), two black men (one heterosexual, the other gay), one Latino man (gay), and five white women (one member identified as German, one Catholic; all identified as heterosexual). The videotapes were transcribed by a professional transcription service. The authors read the transcripts and identified segments to be used as examples for certain racial-cultural group dynamics. In some cases, the authors have edited the transcripts so that the statements are more understandable for the purpose of making a conceptual point in the text.Organization of the Book
We have organized this book into 10 chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of groups as psychodynamic systems in the context of racial-cultural factors.
Group work, via theories, application, and practice, has often failed to integrate racial-cultural factors. Our goal is to integrate multicultural concepts and traditional group relations theory. The exploration of racial-cultural factors in groups may be both parallel to and interactive with the processes of [Page xiii]group dynamics (e.g., group norms, group membership and leadership, communication patterns, authority, power, dependency, interdependency, splitting, projection, and projective identification). The group relations approach to understanding groups seems particularly appropriate for the study of racial-cultural factors in groups. For example, in groups, the condition of invisibility, as it relates to racial-cultural dynamics, perpetuates the emergence of an “other” against which members and/or groups can differentiate and/or compare via the use of racist stereotypes and projections. The existence of the invisible other is currently, and has historically been, quite pervasive in a variety of professional environments, including academia. With regard to the academy, we hypothesize that an academic institution's inability to fully explore and embrace issues of race and culture within curricula, and particularly in group counseling and psychotherapy training programs, may be an example of reinforcing long held patterns of denial of the pervasiveness of these dynamics. Moreover, the hierarchical composition within these environments can represent the power differentials that exist in society. Despite the existence of these conditions, however, academic and training institutions are often reluctant to assess their internal racial and cultural climates. A reluctance to explore and discuss racial-cultural factors can lead to the development of curricula and training models that are etic and ethnocentric in content (Highlen, 1994). In light of the rapidly changing demographics in client/patient care, the perpetuation of curricula that ignore the importance of racial-cultural factors is not only harmful to emerging professionals, it is also unethical.
In Chapter 2, we focus on the ethical considerations of working with differences in groups. Competencies for group and organizational consultation developed by the A. K. Rice Institute for the Study of Social Systems (AKRI, 2003) are used as a framework to discuss the development of competent group practitioners. Guidelines for ethical behavior from multiple organizations, including the American Psychological Association (APA, 1993, 2002) and the American Counseling Association (ACA, 1995), are reviewed. Ethical issues concerning the use of experiential methods in group training are addressed, as well as a review of the importance of role clarity, leadership values, dual relationships, and informed consent. Ethical behavior related to racial-cultural dynamics in groups and the importance of developing competencies that include awareness, knowledge, and skills in working across differences are examined. Issues of confidentiality, supervision, and training are also discussed.
Chapter 3 focuses on the racial-cultural dynamics that affect group formation, specifically aspects of entering and joining. The chapter provides a basic understanding of the concept of group formation, focusing on boundaries, paradoxes of belonging, and the meaning of group membership, cognitively and emotionally, for members from different racial-cultural groups.[Page xiv]
Chapter 4 explores the phases of group development and how racial-cultural factors affect a group's development. A brief review of the models of group development is provided as a way of understanding the anticipated events and patterns in which groups develop. The chapter outlines three phases of group development—boundaries, power, and relationships—and discusses how racial-cultural dynamics affect each phase. A review of the limited literature on group development of racially mixed groups is provided, as well as examples of some of the underlying issues that emerge in racially and culturally diverse groups during the phases of the group's life.
Chapter 5 explores the racial-cultural aspects of group dynamics, using psychoanalytic and systems theory as a foundation. The chapter outlines the defense mechanisms of splitting, projection, and projective identification. Group-as-a-whole (Wells, 1985, 1990) and embedded intergroup relations (Alderfer, 1997; Alderfer & David, 1988) theories are also outlined and explored as they relate to group functioning. Five types of basic assumption functioning (Bion, 1975; Hayden & Molenkamp, 2004) are defined and applied to group behavior. In this chapter, the authors also expand on existing theories and incorporate the racial-cultural factors that play an important role in group interactions, using case vignettes and tables to illustrate their perspective.
An examination of social roles in groups is the content of Chapter 6 and focuses on understanding the social roles in groups, specifically as they relate to phases of group development and racial-cultural factors. There is also a focus on the significance of social roles as they relate to group-as-a-whole, such as Leader, Follower, Mediator, Rebel, and Scapegoat. The impact of social roles in international contexts is examined.
Chapter 7 explores and defines authority, leadership, and power in groups. In many groups and organizations, the race and culture of individuals affect perceptions about their capacity to take up the role of leadership, the ways in which they are authorized in the role, and the power available to fully take up leadership. The impact of the internalized and the external messages pertaining to race and cultural values are examined.
In Chapter 8, strategies for working with groups are discussed using the AKRI training competencies as a framework for group work in a variety of types of groups. The chapter discusses the importance of assessing the needs of the group and the members’ awareness and understanding of racial-cultural issues that may surface during all developmental stages of the group.
The mature work group is discussed in Chapter 9. The chapter focuses on the coexistence of the mature work group with the basic assumption group, making the point that a group that functions effectively is one that has learned to contain its anxiety or developed ways to mobilize its anxiety in the service of the group's goal or work task. Examples are provided to illuminate aspects of the mature work group when members are from different racial and cultural [Page xv]backgrounds. Finally, Chapter 10 explores the complexities of termination in groups. An application of cultural factors concerning the ending of groups is examined.
The lack of an abundant body of literature and research concerning race and culture in group work for training of mental health professionals is disturbing and unfortunate. The situation can, however, be viewed as an opportunity to expand on existing theories and create new models for the future. The goal of our book is twofold: (1) to offer a theoretical framework for understanding covert and overt processes in group and organizational life and (2) to present race and culture as integral parts of the counseling and psychotherapy process for mental health professionals who work with groups. If the profession of counseling and psychology is to continue serving society in meaningful ways, it is imperative that academic and other programs serving diverse populations develop and implement curricula, group counseling, psychotherapy training, and treatment programs that foster a perspective embodying a breadth of knowledge and sensitivity to the complexities of race, ethnicity, and culture in group life.[Page xvi]
We would like to thank Robert Carter, who encouraged us to write this book; Leo Wilton and Zachary Green for their careful reviews and comments; and our many friends and colleagues who provided so much support during the time we were writing. We are also grateful to Sarah J. Brazaitis, Teachers College, Columbia University; Christopher J. McCarthy, University of Texas at Austin; James J. Messina, Argosy University, Tampa and Sarasota Campuses; and Brenda Frechette, Argosy University, San Francisco Bay Area, for reviewing this book.[Page xviii]
References[Page 155]A. K. Rice Institute for the Study of Social Systems. (2003). Group relations consultant competencies. Retrieved May 13, 2009, from http://www.akriceinstitute.org1988). The significance of race and ethnicity for understanding organizational behavior. In C.Cooper & I.T.Robertson (eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 1–41). Oxford, UK: Wiley., & (1977). Improving organizational communication through long-term intergroup intervention. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 13(2), 193–210.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002188637701300207(1994). A white man's perspective of the unconscious processes within black-white relations in the United States. In E.J.Trickett, R.J.Watts, & D.Birman (eds.), Human diversity: Perspectives on people in context (pp. 201–229). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(1997). Embedded intergroup relations and racial identity development theory. In C.E.Thompson & R.T.Carter (eds.), Racial identity theory: Applications to individual, group, and organizational interventions (pp. 237–263). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1982). Studying intergroup relations embedded in organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 27, 35–65.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392545, & (American Counseling Association. (1995). Code of ethics and standards of practice. Alexandria, VA: Author.American Psychological Association. (1993). Guidelines for providers of psychological services to ethnic, linguistic, and culturally diverse populations. American Psychologist, 48(1), 45–48.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.1.45American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 57(12), 1060–1073.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.57.12.10601981). A reconsideration of Chicano culture and identity. Daedalus, 110, 177–192.(Association for Specialists in Group Work. (2000a). Best practices guidelines. The Group Worker, 29(Suppl. 3), 1–5.Association for Specialists in Group Work. (2000b). Principles for diversity: Competent group workers. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 24(1), 7–14.1989). A minority identity development model. In D.R.Atkinson, G.Morten, & D.W.Sue (eds.), Counseling American minorities (pp. 35–52). Dubuque, IA: W. C. Brown., , & ([Page 156]1951). Phases in group problem solving. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 46, 485–495.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0059886, & (1974). A theory of group development. In G.S.Gibbard, J.J.Hartmann, & R.D.Mann (eds.), Analysis of groups (pp. 127–153). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass., & (1990). Paradox and groups. In J.Gillette & M.McCollom (eds.), Groups in context: A new perspective on group dynamics (pp. 106–132). New York: University Press of America., & (1961). Experiences in groups. New York: Brunner-Routledge.http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203359075(1975). Selections from experiences in groups. In A.D.Colman & W.H.Bexton (eds.), Group relations reader 1 (pp. 11–20). Washington, DC: A. K. Rice Institute.(2001). Perceiver threat in social interactions with stigmatized others (Abstract). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 253–267.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.52, , , , & (2000). Introduction. In M.Brabeck & K.Ting (eds.), Practicing feminist ethics in psychology (pp. 3–15). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10343-000, & (1994). Group work with “mixed membership” groups: Issues of race and gender. Social Work With Groups, 17(3), 5–21.http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J009v17n03_02, & (2000). Perspectives on addressing cultural issues in organizations. In R.Carter (ed.), Addressing cultural issues in organizations: Beyond the corporate context (pp. 3–18). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452231297(1998). Splitting and projective identification in multicultural group counseling. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 23(4), 372–387.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933929808411408, , & (2006). Groups: Process and practice (, & (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.1994). The psychology of nigrescence: Revising the cross model. In J.G.Ponterotto, J.M.Casas, L.A.Suzuki, & C.A.Alexander (eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 93–122). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(2002). Race, colour and the process of racialization: New perspectives from group analysis, psychoanalysis and sociology. New York: Brunner-Routledge.(2001). Expanding our thinking about white racism: Facing the challenge of multicultural counseling in the 21st century. In J.G.Ponterotto, J.M.Casas, L.A.Suzuki, & C.M.Alexander (eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 289–310). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & (1981). Preference for racial composition of groups. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 109(2), 293–301.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1981.9915317, & (1985). Dilemmas of black females in leadership. In A.D.Colman & M.H.Geller (eds.), Group relations reader 2 (pp. 323–334). Jupiter, FL: A. K. Rice Institute.(1998). Latino families in therapy: A guide to multicultural practice. New York: Guilford Press.(1967). Black skin, white masks. New York: Grove Press.(1996). Group therapy as an effective treatment modality for people of color. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 46(3), 399–416.(1999). Group dynamics (([Page 157]3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.2004). Systems psychodynamics: The formative years of an interdisciplinary field at the Tavistock Institute. History of Psychology, 7(1), 65–84.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1093-4510.7.1.65(2005). A model of ethical decision making from a multicultural perspective. Counseling and Values, 49(3), 165–179.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-007X.2005.tb01020.x, & (1994). A definition and illustration of democratic leadership. Human Relations, 47(8), 953–975.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679404700805(1974). Analysis of groups. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass., , & (Gillette, J., & McCollom, M. (eds.). (1995). Groups in context: A new perspective on group dynamics. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.2003). Group work: A counseling specialty ((4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.1995). The culture and psychology reader. New York: New York University Press., & (2007, June 17). Home alone: Does ethnic and racial diversity foster social isolation? Idea lab. New York Times Magazine, pp. 24–26.(2006). Stereotypes focus defensive projection (Abstract). Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(6), 781–793.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167205285556, , & (2005). The BART system of group and organizational analysis: Boundaries, authority, role and task. Retrieved May 14, 2005, from http://www.akriceinstitute.org/associations/8689/files/BART_Green_Molenkamp.pdf, & (1999). Representations of the group-as-a-whole: Personality, situational, and dynamic determinants (Abstract). Psychoanalytic Psychology, 16, 403–425.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0736-97184.108.40.2063(1976). Handbook of small group research ((2nd ed.). New York: Free Press.1993). Responsibility, accountability and ethics in organizations: Evaluation of Group Relations Conference consultants. In S.Cytrynbaum & S.Lee (eds.), Transformations in global and organizational systems: Changing boundaries in the 90's (pp. 92–97) (Symposium proceedings). Rainier, WA: A. K. Rice Institute., & (2004). The Tavistock primer II. In S.Cytrynbaum & D.Noumair (eds.), Group dynamics, organizational irrationality, and social complexity: Group relations reader 3 (pp. 135–156). Jupiter, FL: A. K. Rice Institute for the Study of Social Systems Series., & (1994). Leadership without easy answers. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University.(2002). Leadership on the line: Staying alive through the dangers of leading. Boston: Harvard Business School Press., & (1987). Political leadership: Managing the public's problem solving. In R.Reich (ed.), The power of public ideas (pp. 179–203). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger., & (1990). Black and white racial identity: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Greenwood Press.(1995). An update of Helms's white and people of color racial identity models. In J.G.Ponterotto, J.M.Casas, L.A.Suzuki, & C.M.Alexander (eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 181–198). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1994). Racial/ethnic diversity in doctoral programs in psychology: Challenges for the twenty-first century. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 3, 91–108.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0962-1849%2805%2980141-6([Page 158]2006). Relations of authority. Journal of Organisational and Social Dynamics, 6(2), 224–240., , & (2004). Diversity, organizational change, and working with differences: What next? (Commentaries, No. 3). Boston: Center for Gender in Organizations, Simmons College.(2003). Teaching community. A pedagogy of hope. New York: Routledge.(1985). Projective identification in dyads and groups. In A.D.Colman & M.H.Geller (eds.), Group relations reader 2 (pp. 21–35). Jupiter, FL: A. K. Rice Institute.(2001). Intentional group counseling: A microskills approach. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Thomson., , & (1948, June 28). The lottery. New Yorker. Retrieved May 21, 2009, from http://www.classicshorts.com/stories/lotry.html(2002). Group counseling: Strategies and skills. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole., , & (2001). A relational-cultural model: Healing through mutual empathy. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 65, 92–103.http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/bumc.220.127.116.1107(1976). Object relations theory and clinical psychoanalysis. New York: Aronson.(1981). Process of Asian-American identity development: A study of Japanese American women's perception of their struggle to achieve positive identities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.(1984). Intuition, critical evaluation and ethical principles: The foundation for ethical decisions in counseling psychology. The Counseling Psychologist, 12, 43–55.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011000084123005(1946). Notes on some schizoid mechanisms. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 27, 99–110.(2003). Interactive group counseling and therapy. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.(1961). Variations in value orientation. New York: Row, Peterson., & (1980). Summarizing reflections. In A.Goldberg (ed.), Advances in self psychology (pp. 473–554). New York: International Press.(1984). White racism: A psychohistory. New York: Columbia University Press.(1986). Developmental patterns in self-analytic groups. Human Relations, 39(9), 798–815.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872678603900902, , & (1990). Termination in groups. In M.McCollom & J.Gillette (eds.), Groups in context: A new perspective on group dynamics (pp. 171–185). New York: Addison-Wesley.(2009). Exploring Jewish identity, belonging and leadership through the lens of group relations: Reflections and challenges. In E.Aram, R.Baxter, & A.Nutkevitch (eds.), Adaptation and innovation: Theory, design and role-taking in group relations conferences and their applications (pp. 163–177). London: Karnac Books.(1999). Morality in group and family therapies: Multiperson therapies and the 1992 ethics code. In D.N.Bersoff (ed.), Ethical conflicts in psychology (([Page 159]2nd ed., pp. 133–137). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.1996). The fifth basic assumption. Free Associations, 6(37), 28–55., , & (1951). Field theory in social science. New York: Harper & Row.(1999). The effects of proportional representation on intragroup behavior in mixed-race decision-making groups. Small Group Research, 30(3), 259–279.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104649649903000301, , & (1990). Introduction to time-limited group psychotherapy. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.(2004). Leadership and the psychology of power. In D.M.Messick & R.M.Krammer (eds.), The psychology of leadership: New perspectives and research (pp. 275–293). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., , , & (1990). Group formation: Boundaries, leadership, and culture. In J.Gillette & M.McCollom (eds.), Groups in context: A new perspective on group dynamics (pp. 34–38). Lanham, MD: University Press of America.(1987). Homophily in voluntary organizations: Status distance and the composition of face-to-face groups. American Sociological Review, 52(3), 370–379.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095356, & (1994). Interracial group dynamics: A new perspective. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 19, 168–174.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933929408414361(2004). Class, race and gender issues in taking up the role of director: Training implications. In S.Cytrynbaum & D.Noumair (eds.), Group dynamics, organizational irrationality, and social complexity: Group relations reader III (pp. 225–237). Jupiter, FL: A. K. Rice Institute.(1991). Toward training for competence in multicultural counselor education. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 131–135.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1991.tb01573.x, & (2007). Racial dialogue among women: A group relations theory analysis. Organizational & Social Dynamics, 7(2), 211–234., , & (2008). There is power in numbers. Unpublished manuscript., , , & (2005). Racial-cultural training for group counseling and psychotherapy. In R.Carter (ed.), Handbook of racial-cultural psychology and counseling: Training and practice (Vol. 2, pp. 135–147). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley., & (1992). The implications of group development and history for group support system theory and practice. Small Group Research, 23(4), 524–572.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1046496492234005, , & (2002). Cardiovascular reactivity during social interactions with white and black men. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 939–952., , , & (The Merriam-Webster dictionary online. (n.d.). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. Retrieved October 31, 2008, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/role1985). The politics of involvement. In A.D.Colman & M.H.Geller (eds.), Group relations reader 2 (pp. 383–398). Jupiter, FL: A. K. Rice Institute.(1974). Aspects of Tavistock consultation. Unpublished dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, CT.(1967). The sociology of small groups. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.([Page 160]2009). Multicultural psychology: Understanding our diverse communities. New York: McGraw-Hill., , & (1988). Relational concepts in psychoanalysis: An integration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1992). Playing in the dark: Whiteness and the literary imagination. New York: Vintage Books.(1973). Groups: Theory and experience. Oxford, UK: Houghton Mifflin., & (1994). Authority, power and leadership: Contributions from group relations training. In A.Obholzer & V.Z.Roberts (eds.), The unconscious at work: Individual and organizational stress in the human services (pp. 39–47). London: Routledge.http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203359860(2005). Race, gender, and leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1995). Culture-centered ethical guidelines for counselors. In J.G.Ponterotto, J.M.Casas, L.A.Suzuki, & C.M.Alexander (eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 34–50). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1997). The cultural context of the American Counseling Association Code of Ethics. Journal of Counseling and Development, 76, 23–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1997.tb02372.x(1993). Preventing prejudice: A guide for counselors and educators. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452225678, & (2000). The tiller of authority in a sea of diversity. In E.B.Klein, F.Gablenick, & P.Herr (eds.), Dynamic consultation in a changing workplace (pp. 51–79). Madison, CT: Psychosocial Press., & (2001). Ethical decision making in multicultural counseling. In J.G.Ponterotto, J.M.Casas, L.A.Suzuki, & C.M.Alexander (eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (, , , & (2nd ed., pp. 165–188). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.1985). Why I work as a consultant in the conferences of the A. K. Rice Institute. In A.D.Colman & M.H.Geller (eds.), Group relations reader 2 (pp. 365–381). Jupiter, FL: A. K. Rice Institute.(1975). The work of Wilfred Bion on groups. In A.D.Colman & W.H.Bexton (eds.), Group relations reader 1 (pp. 21–33). Washington, DC: A. K. Rice Institute.(2004). Group-as-mother: A dark continent in group relations theory and practice. In S.Cytrynbaum & D.Noumair (eds.), Group dynamics, organizational irrationality, and social complexity: Group relations reader 3 (pp. 57–70). Jupiter, FL: A. K. Rice Institute.(1993). Identity politics: Challenges to psychology's understanding. American Psychologist, 48(12), 1219–1230.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.12.1219(1958). Firo: A three-dimensional theory of interpersonal behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.(2002). Authentic happiness. New York: Free Press.(2002). Parting gifts: Termination rituals in group therapy. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 52(3), 319–336.http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/ijgp.52.3.319.45507, & (1998). The effects of diversity on small work group processes and performance. Human Relations, 51(10), 1307–1325., & ([Page 161]2007). Race, culture and containment in the formal and informal systems of group relations conferences. Organizational & Social Dynamics, 7(2), 156–171.(1956). Racial and cultural factors in group psychotherapy. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 2, 152–165.(2001). Group development: A review of the literature and a commentary on future research directions. Group Facilitation, 3, 14–45.(1987). Paradoxes in group life: Understanding conflict, paralysis, and movement in group dynamics. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass., & (1958). Emotional dynamics and group culture. New York: New York University Press., & (1992). Multicultural counseling competencies and standards: A call to the profession. Journal of Counseling & Development, 70, 477–486.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1992.tb01642.x, , & (2007). Racial microaggressions in everyday life: Implications for clinical practice. American Psychologist, 62(4), 271–286.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.62.4.271, , , , , , et al. (2008). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (, & (5th ed.). New York: Wiley.2008). Multicultural issues and the assessment of aptitude. In L.A.Suzuki & J.G.Ponterotto (eds.), Handbook of multicultural assessment. Clinical, psycholog ical, and educational applications (pp. 490–519). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass., , & (1999). Cultural diversity and work group effectiveness: An experimental study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30(2), 242–263. Retrieved April 18, 2009, from http://jcc.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/30/2/242http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022199030002006(1989). Beyond simple demographic effects: The importance of demography in superior-subordinate dyads. Academy of Management Journal, 32(2), 402–423.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256368, & (1997). The dynamics of cultural and power relations in group therapy. In E.Lee (ed.), Working with Asian Americans: A guide for clinicians (pp. 354–363). New York: Guilford Press.(1965). Developmental sequence in small groups. Psychological Bulletin, 63(6), 384–399.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0022100(1977). Stages of small group development revisited. Group and Organizational Studies, 2(4), 419–427.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/105960117700200404, & (1974). Leadership: The individual and the group. In G.S.Gibbard, J.J.Hartman, & R.D.Mann (eds.), Analysis of groups (pp. 349–371). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(1985). Leadership: The individual and the group. In A.D.Colman & M.H.Geller (eds.), Group relations reader 2 (pp. 71–87). Jupiter, FL: A. K. Rice Institute.(2009). Identity, leadership, and authority: Experiences in application of group relations concepts for Dalit empowerment in India. In E.Aram, R.Baxter, & A.Nutkevitch (eds.), Adaptation and innovation: Theory, design and role-taking in group relations conferences and their applications (pp. 179–195). London: Karnac Books.([Page 162]2002). Ethics in counseling and psychology: Standards, research, and emerging issues. Pacific Grove, CA: Brook/Cole.(1999). Introduction to special section: Ethics education—an agenda for the ′90's. In D.N.Bersoff (ed.), Ethical conflicts in psychology (, & (2nd ed., pp. 133–137). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.1985). The group-as-a-whole perspective and its theoretical roots. In A.D.Colman & M.H.Geller (eds.), Group relations reader 2 (pp. 109–126). Jupiter, FL: A. K. Rice Institute.(1990). The group as a whole: A systematic socioanalytic perspective on interpersonal and group relations. In J.Gillette & M.McCollom (eds.), Groups in context: A new perspective on group dynamics (pp. 49–85). New York: Addison-Wesley.(2002). Surviving hating and being hated: Some personal thoughts about racism from a psychoanalytic perspective. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 38(3), 401–422.(1990). Groups in context. New York: McGraw-Hill., & (1985). Afterward: The culturally encapsulated counselor revisited. In P.Pedersen (ed.), Handbook of cross-cultural counseling and therapy (pp. 323–330). Westport, CT: Greenwood.(1995). The theory and practice of group psychotherapy ((4th ed.). New York: Basic Books.
About the Authors[Page 167]
Mary B. McRae is an associate professor of applied psychology in the Department of Applied Psychology, Steinhardt School of Culture, Education and Human Development at New York University. Presently, she teaches a course in Group Dynamics, Cross-Cultural Counseling, and Practicum in Counselor Training. Her scholarship involves a psychoanalytic and systemic study of authority and leadership in groups and organizations with a focus on issues of difference such as race, ethnicity, gender, social class, and culture. She is a licensed psychologist with a private practice. She is the founder of and has directed the annual experiential group relations conferences at New York University, educational laboratories created to study the life of the group and organization as they develop. They have been noted by the A. K. Rice Institute for the Study of Social Systems as the most innovative adaptation of the Tavistock model in working with issues of diversity. These conferences provide participants the opportunity to learn about authority and leadership as related to issues of difference in the “here and now” of the experience. She has worked as the associate director for group relations conferences at the Tavistock Clinic in London and as a consultant at other conferences in the United States, London, and Peru. She has been a member of an international team of consultants at the International Management Development business school, applying the Tavistock model to leadership and team building with managers and executives from international corporations. She is a fellow in the A. K. Rice Institute for the Study of Social Systems. She received her EdD in counseling psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University.
Ellen L. Short is currently an assistant professor at Long Island University, in the School of Education, Department of Human Development and Leadership, Counseling Programs. Her areas of specialization in teaching, scholarly research, and publishing are group dynamics focusing on race, ethnicity, gender, and culture; multicultural assessment of intelligence and aptitude tests; and substance use/abuse and high-risk behaviors among HIV-positive, heterosexual populations. She has served as a consultant at group relations conferences [Page 168]in the United States and internationally. She has also directed group relations conferences at Teachers College, Columbia University and New York University. She is a member of the A. K. Rice Institute for the Study of Social Systems and the New York Center for the Study of Groups, Organizations and Social Systems. She received her MA in counseling psychology from Northwestern University and her PhD in counseling psychology from New York University.