Race, Culture, Psychology, & Law

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Edited by: Kimberly Holt Barrett & William H. George

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  • Part I: Race and Justice

    Part II: Assessment

    Part III: Immigration

    Part IV: Working with Children and Families

    Part V: Juveniles

    Part VI: Violence

  • Dedication

    To our children, Sarah, Sonora, and Henry.

    KHB & WHG

    To my parents and grandparents, Rosemary Holt and Philip Holt, Nellie Halton and Howard Huntley, and Agnes Haggerty and Walter Haggerty. And for the Halton sisters who crossed the Atlantic from Ireland, children alone: Nellie, Annie, Tessie, and Mary.

    KHB

    To my parents and grandparents, Lillie B. George and Will Henry George, Claude Brantley and Jimmie D. Brantley, and Campbell George and Gertrude George. And for ancestors known and unknown—African, African American, and Native American Indian—who contributed in spirit.

    WHG

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    Foreword - Ron A. Mamiya

    What is our culture when America is not a homogeneous society? The U.S. population includes people with many origins and ancestries. More than 11% of the people now living in the United States were not born here, an estimated 32.5 million people. More than 150 languages and dialects are spoken here.

    In addition, ever-changing world politics trigger further immigration, creating even greater cultural and ethnic diversity challenges. Since 1970, the composition of our foreign-born population has changed dramatically. Between 1970 and 2002, the estimated share of foreign-born U.S. residents from Europe dropped from 62% to 15%. Over the same period, the share of foreign-born residents from Asia grew from 9% to 25%. The share from Latin America also increased significantly, from 19% to 52%. We live in a culturally dynamic society.

    When it comes to our legal system, however, our deep-rooted goals of “equality and justice for all” often are not reached, due greatly to our perception that our system of justice must be “colorblind” and “race neutral.” This often means that judges, lawyers, and other professionals involved in legal proceedings may discount relevant and important information that a person “brings to the table.” Recognition of cultural values and customs, ethnic traits, prior social structure, and even religion may give us greater insight into what happened and what can be done.

    We live in interesting times. Memories of the civil rights movement are fading into history. Our aggressive foreign policy has created negative feelings toward some ethnic, social, and religious groups. And it appears that our own issues of race, culture, and ethnicity are being placed “on the back burner.”

    Our legal system is slow to bring culture, race, and psychology into our courtrooms—first, for fear of delving into these sensitive areas and, second, because of the perceived inconsistency with the very foundation of our legal system—equal justice and fairness. Perceptions of treating people differently, affording greater resources, or looking at things through different lenses are some of the factors that perpetuate such resistance. Coming to terms with diversity and culture is one of the greatest challenges that the law in this country now faces. And with the increased urgency of global conflict resolution, the intersection of American culture, race, psychology, and law becomes even more important.

    The chapters collected by editors Kimberly Holt Barrett and William H. George cover a broad range of issues and topics, and yet all address an even more fundamental concern, that is, “equal access to justice.” Race, Culture, Psychology, and Law is a substantial step toward opening our eyes and leveling the playing field. Irrespective of ethnicity, national original, and physical or mental impairment, everyone is entitled to the “opportunity to effectively participate” in legal proceedings. This book gives the reader a greater understanding of what that truly is.

    Ron A. Mamiya, Municipal Court of Seattle

    Foreword - Stanley Sue

    Why is this book concerning race, culture, psychology, and the law necessary or important? Isn't psychology as well as law applicable to all? The contributors to this book illustrate how psychology and law cannot be understood or applied without a fundamental grounding in race, ethnicity, and cultural experiences. The U.S. surgeon general, in his supplemental report (U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001), noted how culture “counts” in explaining mental health outcomes. The same is true in psychology and law. Culture counts in at least two ways. First, cultural issues are intimately involved in explaining human behaviors and outcomes in our judicial system. Second, psychology and the law each have a culture. Unfortunately, these cultures have in the past been largely biased in an ethnocentric direction. They have perpetuated a colorblind philosophy, when the reality is that there are racial and ethnic disparities in the dispensing of justice and in the protection and security that are experienced. In fact, given the reality, a colorblind philosophy allows racism to flourish by denying the existence of prejudice and discrimination and by de-emphasizing the search for remedies.

    Editors Kimberly Holt Barrett and William H. George have brought together an impressive array of contributions that demonstrate how critical it is to understand race, ethnicity, and culture in forensic psychology. There is an extraordinary range of topics that include the importance of race relations, psychological testing and evaluation, racial “profiling,” disparities in death penalty convictions, immigration and domestic violence, asylum seekers, deportations and civil rights, juvenile justice, cross-cultural lawyering, and cultural competency in the administration of justice. In presenting the topics, the contributors vary in the use of theories and models, case examples, empirical research grounding, and practical guidelines on addressing dilemmas involving cultural issues (e.g., assessment and use of interpreters). The presentations will be particularly appealing and useful to practitioners, researchers, and forensic specialists in both psychology and the judicial system.

    In appreciating the significant contributions of the authors, it is important to understand that the chapters are not intended simply to advocate that something be done for ethnic minority groups. Though one major effect of this book is to highlight the need to address the plight of ethnic groups, the real implication is to bring us back to the notion of “equal justice under the law” and its true meaning.

    Stanley Sue, University of California, Davis

    References
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Mental health: Culture, race, and ethnicity—A supplement to mental health: A report to the surgeon general. Rockville, MD: U.S. DHHS, Office of the Surgeon General.

    Acknowledgments

    I want to acknowledge numerous individuals. The development of this book involved the contributions of many professionals who dedicate their lives to the pursuit of justice for all. I wish to thank them for their work on this book and for their work in the world. In meeting all of them through this project, I greatly value the sense of camaraderie I have developed with those who fight a good fight—a common fight—in the words of the late Fred Hampton, “For the People.” I especially want to thank the professionals who mentored me along the way and who provided encouragement at times when I was shocked and discouraged at the injustice that I observed in our legal system, including that which is perpetrated and perpetuated by those within the discipline of clinical psychology. For this mentorship and encouragement, I wish to thank Judge Ron Mamiya, who encouraged me to write about my experiences in the courtroom and who contributed to the Foreword in this book; tireless and steadfast federal public defenders Carol Koller and Jay Stansell; those who work in civil rights and criminal justice, Tony Alfieri, Thad Martin, Jack Connely, Gary Gaer, Kristine Koy, and Heather Spencer; and all of the dedicated attorneys and staff at the Northwest Immigrant Rights Project, past and present, including Kate Laner, Jeanette Zanipatin, Bina Hanchinamani, Jonathan Moore, Ann Benson, and Delila Leiber. From my own discipline, I wish to thank Dr. Maria Root, Dr. Joseph Trimble, Dr. Stanley Sue, Dr. David Sue, Dr. Felipe Castro, Dr. Cynthia Garcia Coll, Dr. William Cross, and Dr. James Jones for their listening ears, consultation, advice, and outstanding work as teachers and researchers in the field of ethnic minority psychology and multicultural competence. This book would not have been possible without the knowledge that they contributed to its development. The research and production efforts for this book were assisted by Kimberly Moore, a former undergraduate in our department, who is now working toward an advanced degree in public health. In her work as a victim advocate, she brings significant contributions to our community, and her coauthorship of Chapter 28 in this volume will assist others in that field. Most of all, I wish to thank all the clients I have served, for they have been my most important teachers. I will always remember and respect the African American children and families of Puyallup, Washington, who had the courage to fight for civil rights in times that make it a lonely battle. I wish to thank my beloved husband, colleague, and coeditor, Bill George, for his love, wisdom, intellect, and patient all-night efforts at editing.

    Kimberly HoltBarrett

    I want to acknowledge several people who supported my contributions to this volume and my work in general. I want to acknowledge the far-reaching and powerful mentoring influences of Dr. Alan Marlatt, Dr. Stanley Sue, and Dr. Claude Steele for their impact on my career path and my scholarship. I want to thank all of my former and current graduate students and all students who have taken my race-related courses; their insights and teachings have been invaluable. I want to thank numerous people who lend moral support and tolerate my absences, overcommitments, and attentional lapses with grace and substitute coverage. This includes my current postdoctoral fellows—Dr. Kelly Cue Davis, Dr. Joel Martell, and Dr. Susan Stoner—and graduate students—Kari Stephens, Jean Yi, Kristen Lindgren, Rebecca Schacht, and Christian Hendershot. This also includes members of the REASONS lab—especially Kelly Kajumulo and Dr. Tina Zawacki—and the SIS/WIN lab—especially Dr. Jeanette Norris and Tatiana Masters. I am thankful for the love and support of my siblings Wanda, Derrick, and Mark. My greatest thanks go to Kim Barrett, my wife, colleague, and coeditor, for love and support that defies description. I am also grateful for her leadership on this project; her vision, energy, intelligence, and dedication made this happen.

    William H.George

    We both want to extend love and a special thanks to our children Sarah, Sonora, Henry, and our newest “son” Charmarke Aden, who all listened, learned, and gave us their patience and cooperation so that we could work toward making theirs a better world. We are thankful for the support of our family in Mexico: Juan and Nieve Lucero and their children, and Carlos and Celia Burgoine. We give many thanks to former and current students who have worked with us on race matters, especially Carol Wong, Jean Yi, Kari Stephens, Karen Chan, Robert Ochoa, Roxana Nourizi, Na'ila Mued, Dr. June LaMarr, Dr. Loraine Martinez, Dr. Jennifer Watson, Dr. Jennifer Wheeler, Dr. Barbara Dahl, and Dr. Jaslean LaTaillade. We wish to thank our contributors for their work and perseverance, which made this book possible, and for their commitment to this field. We are extremely grateful to Stan Wakefield—the agent who sent the proposal to Sage Publications, to Jerry Westby and others at Sage who brought this project to fruition—especially Denise Santoyo and Vonessa Vondera, and to Mary Tederstrom for magnificent copyediting. We are indebted to the mentoring of Dr. Alan Marlatt and Dr. Nathaniel (Ned) Wagner (who never knew he set the two of us on converging paths, bound to merge). Finally, we are exceedingly grateful for the contributions and influences of Dr. bell hooks, the Honorable Robert Nesta Marley, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X, Kwame Ture (Stokeley Carmichael), Dr. Angela Davis, Dr. Cornell West, and Dr. Ronald Takaki.

    Kimberly HoltBarrett, William H.George

    The Need for Cross-Cultural Competence in Psychology and the Law: Introduction and Overview

    This book was developed to fill a critical void in the field of psychology as it intersects with the legal profession and the justice system of the United States. We each began working with the courts several years ago because of particular professional skills and personal background characteristics. Kimberly Barrett entered this domain for several reasons, such as her language proficiency in Spanish, the university courses she taught on race and culture, her research on racism and racial identity, and her professional skills in working with ethnic minority individuals and families. William George entered this domain because of his expertise in teaching about race and minority mental health, his professional experience in corrections, and his research expertise about cross-cultural issues and alcohol involvement in sexual violence. Our personal background as a mixed racial couple and parents of multiracial children has also been a source of insight in our thinking about race and society.

    Upon entering the world of forensic psychology, we were shocked and amazed to find a professional climate that largely ignored issues of race and culture, even when racial and cultural dynamics were strongly related to the legal case at hand. At times, we worked with well-intentioned professionals who were aware that race and culture were important in their work with clients and the courts, but they were uncertain about how to address race and culture in their approach to the case. At worst, we found a high degree of stereotyping, poor cultural communication skills, and the imposition of professional biases that maligned cultural values and practices and that masked the true identity and life history of the client. Too often we encountered the inappropriate use of testing with individuals who had minimal English skills and low levels of acculturation to the United States. Being new to the forensic field, we sought literature to guide us regarding cross-cultural psychological-legal work and discovered almost nothing. We determined it to be an important mission to continue to teach ourselves and to educate others about the diversity of cultural groups that pass through our courts each day. The racial and cultural background, the psychological and legal needs, and the history and sociopolitical circumstances of minority individuals must be considered by all professionals involved in order to provide appropriate and adequate services.

    American ethnic and racial minority groups, immigrants, and refugees to this country are disparately impacted by the justice system of the United States. This is evident beginning with the net cast by racial profiling and continuing with disproportionate incarceration, deportation, and capital punishment. Racial and cultural minorities are also at the forefront of the individuals and groups needing legal protection. For instance, immigrant women victimized by domestic violence, African American and Latin American children whose civil rights are violated by school systems, biracial and bicultural children who lose one side of their cultural heritage through divorce, refugees seeking asylum from torture and religious or political persecution, and the victims of hate crimes all exemplify situations in which the legal system must attend to matters of race and culture in a competent and humane fashion.

    Unfortunately, the published scholarship seemed virtually devoid of guidance about providing culturally competent psychological and social services within the legal arena. As we became more fully aware of the enormity of this void and the need for guidance, we embarked on writing this book. It was clear that professionals needed more informational and instructional resources regarding how to work with cultural competence in the intersection of psychology and law. This book is broad in its scope and effort to cover the domains of knowledge and practice that are crucial in providing comprehensive services to ethnic, racial, and cultural minorities.

    Cultural Competence

    We recognize that cultural competence is a construct that is difficult to define with conclusive precision. This book was prepared with a working definition of cultural competence in mind. We see a culturally competent professional as someone who has made substantial progress yet continues to strive toward

    • Developing an awareness of personal, professional, and cultural biases that may adversely impact minority groups, immigrants, and refugees
    • Developing an awareness of the definitions and dynamics of racism, discrimination, and cultural oppression; this includes an understanding of personal racial socialization processes that foster prejudice and an understanding of the meaning and impact of stereotypes
    • Acquiring knowledge about the history (especially sociopolitical), culture, norms, and traditions of diverse groups; this especially encompasses cultural views and beliefs about health, mental health, and treatment processes. This also includes assessing the client's psychosocial environment with a focus on culturally relevant stressors and support systems
    • Understanding the importance of ethnic, cultural, and racial identity processes as they impact human development; one's sense of well-being; and one's familial, social, and inter-group relationships. An understanding of such identity processes is important regarding the lives of the clients as well as the lives of professional service providers
    • Developing relevant interpersonal skills and effective methods for working with diverse groups. This includes gaining an understanding of how race, culture, and language affect interactions with professionals, the expression of emotion, parenting styles, spirituality, and family organization. This also includes becoming knowledgeable about the cultural and linguistic limitations of using standardized assessment instruments with diverse groups
    • Taking action in the service and advancement of equality and justice. Professionals working with marginalized and oppressed groups should contribute to addressing injustice and discrimination in the lives of their clients. This helps the client to become aware of the role that cultural, societal, and political bias and discrimination play in the problems that they face and helps the client to address injustice through social and institutional channels
    Goals

    Our overall goal for this book is deliberately broad and wide ranging. We aim to provide a compendium of knowledge, historical background, case examples, guidelines, and practice standards pertinent to the delivery of psychological, legal, and social services to individuals and families—from racial minority, ethnic minority, immigrant, and refugee groups—who are involved in legal proceedings. To pursue this goal, we have drawn together contributing authors from several disciplines including law, psychology, sociology, social work, and family studies. Our intended audience includes psychologists, lawyers, social workers, and graduate students in these and related disciplines involved in providing services for minority, immigrant, and refugee clients in the legal arena.

    The chapters are divided into six distinct but overlapping sections. The first section, Race and Justice, considers a range of background, philosophical, and general issues characterizing the interface of race, culture, and the American justice system. The second section focuses on the use of evaluation and assessment procedures for legal proceedings. The third section is devoted specifically to immigration issues and topics. The fourth and fifth sections address matters related specifically to working with children, families, and juveniles, including understanding racial and cultural identity processes. The final section focuses on violence victimization, particularly domestic violence and sexual violence. Collectively the coverage explores minority versus majority perceptions of justice, documents racial injustice and cultural disparities, identifies contemporary legal challenges and dilemmas, highlights critical service needs, and describes assessment and treatment procedures. The coverage also presents the background of the law and legal circumstances that surround particular sorts of cases—for example, deportation, asylum, human trafficking, and unaccompanied minors. History is also a cross-cutting theme that radiates throughout the chapters: Knowledge about the background and history of particular groups at the hands of our society and its legal institutions is important for fully appreciating the current plight and dynamics of people caught in the web of American law. We hope that the references used in each chapter can serve to guide readers in their professional endeavors and to enhance the studies of those hoping to increase their knowledge base. The book itself is a template of the culturally comprehensive coverage that is warranted by a culturally diverse clientele.

  • About the Editors

    Kimberly Holt Barrett, EdD, MFCC, is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Psychology at the University of Washington in Seattle. She teaches classes on cultural psychology, racism and minority groups, developmental psychopathology, and on the psychological assessment and treatment ethnic minority groups, immigrants, and refugees. She supervises doctoral students in clinical psychology as they provide clinical and assessment services through the department's cross-cultural psychology resource program. Barrett completed her bachelor's degree at the University of Washington, her master's degree at the University of Oregon, and her doctorate degree in counseling and educational psychology at the University of San Francisco. She completed a 2-year NIAAA post-doctoral training fellowship in addictive behaviors at the University of Washington. She was formerly Adjunct Faculty Member and Research Psychologist in the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of California-San Francisco, and Instructor for the Graduate Program in Counseling at the University of San Francisco. She was also a consulting psychologist in special education programs for the San Francisco and San Jose public schools. She has maintained a private practice counseling children, adolescents, and families since 1981. Barrett's research has focused on adolescent substance abuse, family and cultural influences in addictive behaviors, and more recently on children and racism. She is bilingual in English and Spanish, which led to the development of her providing forensic consultation services for various court systems with clients forming diverse backgrounds and nationalities. She lives in Mexico several months each year teaching for the University of Washington's international studies program. She has also taught in Zimbabwe and Northern Ireland. She is the author of Changing Racial Consciousness (forthcoming).

    William H. George, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at the University of Washington in Seattle. He teaches undergraduate courses on abnormal psychology and clinical psychology, and graduate courses on theories of psychotherapy, minority mental health, cross-cultural competence, and alcohol and sexual behavior. George supervises doctoral students in clinical psychology as they provide clinical services through the department's psychology training clinic and the cross-cultural psychology resource program. He provides research mentoring for several doctoral students and postdoctoral fellows. George is also Director of the University of Washington's Institute for Ethnic Studies in the United States, which funds intramural grants for faculty research on ethnicity. He was raised on Chicago's Southside and attended Lindblom Technical High School. George completed his bachelor's degree at Rockford College and worked as a correctional counselor for the Illinois Department of Corrections in Rockford. He completed his doctoral training in clinical psychology, his clinical internship, and his postdoctoral training in addictive behaviors at the University of Washington. He served as Assistant to Associate Professor of Psychology at the State University of New York at Buffalo, where he also directed a graduate externship program at Attica Correctional Center. Much of his research and scholarship focuses on sexual deviance and understanding the effects of alcohol and alcohol expectancies on sexuality (sexual perception and disinhibition, sexual coercion and assault, HIV-related sexual risk-taking). He has authored over 50 book chapters and peer-reviewed scientific articles. George has served as Principal Investigator or Co-Principal Investigator on federal and state funded research grants concerning sexual disinhibition and sexual assault, and periodically provides forensic consultation. He has taught in Zimbabwe, traveled to Cuba, and commutes frequently to Mexico.

    About the Contributors

    Rudolph Alexander Jr., PhD, is Professor in the College of Social Work at Ohio State University and Director of the Undergraduate Social Work Program. He has an AS degree in criminal justice, a BS degree in criminology and corrections, a master's degree in social work, and a PhD in social work. He has published over 50 articles in peer-reviewed journals and four books, Counseling, Treatment, and Intervention Services With Juvenile and Adult Offenders (2000), Race and Justice (2000), Understanding Legal Concepts That Influence Social Welfare Policy and Practice (2002), and To Ascend Into the Shining World Again (2002). His scholarly interests are in the areas of mental health, juvenile justice, and legal issues in social work and criminology.

    Anthony V. Alfieri is Professor of Law, Founder and Director, Center for Ethics and Public Service at the University of Miami School of Law. The Center has won the American Bar Association 1998 E. Smythe Gambrell Professionalism Award, the Florida Bar Seventh Annual 1999–2000 Professionalism Award, and the Miami-Dade County Commission on Ethics and Public Trust 2001 ARETE Award for nonprofit of the year. He teaches civil procedure, community lawyering, and professional responsibility and has published 28 widely cited works. He is recipient of the 2000 Richard Hausler Professor of the Year Award, the Class of 2000 Amicus Curiae Dedication, and the Florida Supreme Court 1999 Faculty Professionalism Award. He is a member of the American Law Institute and the University of Miami Circle of Omicron Delta Kappa Honor Society.

    Patty Bardina, MS, is a doctoral candidate in clinical psychology at the University of Washington. She has conducted forensic psychological evaluations for the Cross Cultural Psychology Resource Program. Her interests include working with adolescents of color.

    Sutapa Basu, PhD, is Executive Director of the Women's Center and Assistant Professor of Women's Studies at the University of Washington. She received her doctorate from Fielding Graduate Institute and was a CSI fellow at Stanford Graduate School of Business for Nonprofit Leaders. She specializes in women and international development, working extensively with women's groups in India and the U.S. She speaks nationally and internationally on women in development and violence against women. She studied trafficked women in the state of Kerala and has worked with Washington State Representative Velma Veloria to pass legislation to protect trafficking survivors. Her awards include Soroptomist International Women Helping Women, the Florence Merrick Award, the Woman of the Year Award, the International Examiner Community Voice Award, and the United Nations Human Rights Award.

    Breean Beggs is Executive Director at the Center for Justice in Spokane, Washington. The Center is a nonprofit law firm that seeks to bring justice to the disenfranchised in our society. Breean graduated from Whitworth College in 1985 with a degree in international studies. He graduated from University of Washington School of Law in 1991. He has focused on representing victims of government abuse and people who have been injured in their claims against insurance companies. He has been an adjunct instructor at Fairhaven College and is a frequent speaker on the topics of Constitutional rights and lawyer satisfaction.

    Susan Bryant, JD, LlM, is Director of Clinical Education and Professor of Law at the CUNY School of Law. She received her JD and LlM from Georgetown University Law Center, where she was Prettyman Fellow for 2 years. She began her practice as a lawyer at the Defender Association of Philadelphia. An early advocate of clinical education as a pedagogical program for teaching students the practice of law, Bryant has served as a consultant and trainer for the Association of American Law Schools, the Legal Services Corporation, and the United States Department of Education. She works with the Battered Women's Rights and Immigrant and Refugee Rights Clinic and teaches family law courses. She also works with lawyers, judges, teachers and law students to improve cross-lingual work and cross-cultural competence.

    Angela Burnett is a general practitioner at the Sanctuary Practice, London, UK, developing primary health care for asylum seekers and refugees, and at the Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture. She has provided career advice for refugee doctors, assisting them to return to work, and runs training workshops on refugees' health needs. Previously she worked in Zambia, providing health care for people affected by HIV/AIDS and developing collaboration between traditional healers and formal health workers, and with Oxfam in Ethiopia with people affected by drought and famine.

    Dori Cahn is an adult educator and community activist in Seattle, Washington. She has taught English as a Second Language and Adult Basic Education at community-based organizations in the Seattle area. She has been on the faculty of the University of Washington, Evergreen State College, and South Seattle Community College, where she worked with first-generation immigrant students. Since the signing of a repatriation agreement between the United States and Cambodia, Cahn and her coauthor have been advocates for Cambodian refugees facing deportation. They traveled to Cambodia in 2003 and 2004, where they met with returnees, their supporters, and Cambodian officials.

    Sonia Carbonell, MA, has over 20 years of experience as an English/Spanish speaking clinician in inpatient and outpatient hospitals, community agencies, and private practice where she focused on assessment and treatment of Latinos. Additional experience includes forensic psychology, participation in numerous workshops and conferences as a speaker and trainer, publications, and teaching. She has worked for the North County Health Services in San Marcos, California, doing community work while providing culturally competent mental health and training services. She completed her doctorate in cultural psychology from the California School of Professional Psychology. Her research focuses on exploring disparities in Latino mental health services. She also holds a Master of Arts in psychodynamic psychotherapy and a specialization in adolescent treatment from Antioch University, Ohio.

    Felipe González Castro, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University. He received his MSW from the UCLA School of Social Welfare and his PhD in clinical psychology from the University of Washington. His research focuses on two major areas regarding drug abuse prevention and treatment: (a) measurement of cultural variables, and their analysis via multivariate models for understanding the relationship of these cultural variables to health-related outcomes, and (b) the study of intervention adaptations to improve the intervention's cultural relevance and effectiveness when applied to members of special subpopulations, including Hispanics/Latinos, and other racial/ethnic and cultural groups. He has served on several federal and state grant review panels and currently chairs the University of California Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program's Social and Participatory Research Review Committee.

    Tamara C. Cheshire, MA, is Adjunct Faculty in the Department of Anthropology at Sacramento City College. She is Lakota, and her interests lie in American Indian education, American Indian families, and tribal sovereignty issues. She also teaches courses in Native American studies.

    Dana Chou, MA, is a marriage and family therapist licensed in Colorado. She completed an undergraduate degree in child development and family relations, and a master's degree in marriage and family therapy at Brigham Young University. Her career experiences include over a decade of private practice, counseling immigrant children and youth detained in the United States, and coordinating provision of forensic medical and psychological examinations to child and adult survivors of torture and other human rights abuses in the southwestern United States for Doctors of the World-USA.

    Deborah Freed, PhD, is in private practice and volunteers with Doctors of the World, evaluating people seeking political asylum, and continues her work with people living in New York affected by the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. She received a bachelor of fine arts degree from the Philadelphia College of Art (she continues to paint to this day) and a master's degree in art therapy from Pratt University, and she completed training as a registered animal nurse at the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons in the United Kingdom. She later received a PhD from the California School of Professional Psychology in clinical psychology followed by postdoctoral training in psychotherapy and psychoanalysis from New York University. The treatment of trauma and stress has been a part of her work throughout her career.

    Christina Garcia is a doctoral student in clinical psychology at the Long Island University-Brooklyn Campus in Brooklyn, New York. Her current research includes assessing attitudes and the utilization of mental health services in Latinos with Dr. Elizabeth Kudadjie-Gyamfi. She formerly worked with Dr. Gordon Nagayama Hall during a summer training program, formulating a literature review of ethnic issues in sexual aggression, including risk and protective factors, and presenting research demonstrating the necessity of an accurate picture of Latino sexual abuse. She also completed undergraduate research at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, primarily with Dr. Paula Biedenharn, studying barriers and ethnic differences in attitudes toward mental health care providers and perceptions of nursing homes in the Mexican American older adult community.

    Rachel E. Goldsmith has worked at San Francisco General Hospital and Stanford Medical Center, and completed her graduate work at the University of Oregon. Her work focuses on relations among trauma and recovery, culture, and health. Her research has included designing studies with Allison Ball and Gordon Hall that examine correlates of trauma among American Indians and among Asian Americans. She has collaborated with Jennifer Freyd on research investigating links between trauma, memory, disclosure, alexithymia, and health. She has taught Introductory Psychology and Psychology of Trauma, and has worked as a therapist and assessment specialist for adults and children.

    Gordon N. Hall, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at the University of Oregon. He is interested in the sociocultural context of psychopathology, particularly sexual aggression. He has found that the behavior of ethnic majority persons tends to be influenced by intrapersonal determinants, whereas the behavior of ethnic minority persons tends to be influenced by both intrapersonal and interpersonal determinants because ethnic minority persons often are bicultural. Hall is currently investigating culture-specific models of sexual aggression among Asian American and European American men. He is also interested in the development of effective research training programs for ethnic minority students.

    Marian S. Harris, PhD, ACSW, LICSW, is Assistant Professor at the University of Washington, Tacoma, Social Work Program. She completed a 2-year, NIMH Postdoctoral Fellowship Training Program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Social Work. Her areas of research and writing include mothers and children in the child welfare system, mental health, substance abuse, extended family support, and children who witness domestic violence. She has a special interest in the disproportionality of children of color in the child welfare system. She is currently the principal investigator for the following research studies: (a) The Relationship Between Alcoholism, Attachment Typology, Child Maltreatment, and Parental Stress; and (b) The Effect of TANF: Birth Parents, Mental Illness, Substance Abuse, and Parental Stress.

    Sandra Ibarra, BA, received her bachelor's degree from the University of Washington in Seattle. She worked as a legal advocate for the King County Sexual Assault Resource Center in Washington State.

    Tedd Judd, PhD, is currently in private practice in Bellingham, Washington. He received his undergraduate psychology degree from Princeton University. He completed his PhD in psychology from Cornell in 1979, including 2 years of training in neuropsychology at the Boston VA Medical Center, and had postdoctoral training in neuropsychology at the University of Washington. He has taught in 16 countries, including a Fulbright Senior Lectureship in Spain, and courses in Costa Rica and Nicaragua. In 1996 he taught what may have been the first course in Latin America on forensic neuropsychology. His specialties and interests include cross-cultural neuropsychology and development of culturally appropriate neuropsychology in developing countries. He has published 14 articles and book chapters and his 1999 book, Neuropsychotherapy and Community Integration: Brain Illness, Emotions, and Behavior.

    Walter T. Kawamoto, PhD, is with the County of Sacramento, California, Department of Human Assistance where he has a Native American Culture Special Skill certification. His graduate work featured a study sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health and conducted with the assistance of the Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians of Oregon. He launched a course focusing on indigenous families in the Spring of 2001 at CSU Sacramento. He was also a member of the American Indian-Alaska Native Head Start Research and Outcomes Assessment Consultant Panel.

    Ellen G. Kelman, PhD, is a licensed psychologist in private practice in Glendale, Arizona. She currently works with children, adolescents, and adults on issues such as anxiety, depressive disorders, all types of abuse, grief, and relationships. She holds a doctorate and master's in psychology from Arizona State University and a bachelor's degree in psychology from Pomona College. Kelman is actively involved in a number of volunteer projects. She serves as a group facilitator for Camp Paz, a retreat for bereaved children and their families. In addition, she conducts psychological evaluations for Doctors of the World-USA, Inc., an organization devoted to evaluating torture survivors from all over the world who are applying for asylum in the United States.

    Robin A. LaDue, PhD, is a clinical psychologist in private practice in Renton, Washington. She works with people in recovery from trauma. She has specialized in the field of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), and has provided national and international training in the areas of FAS and Native American mental health. She was visiting professor at Waikato University in Hamilton, New Zealand, and is the author of the award-winning books and videos “Journey Through the Healing Circle.”

    Kim Moore is a MPH student at the University of Washington (UW) School of Public Health and Community Medicine and a Health and Environmental Investigator at Public Health-Seattle and King County. She graduated from the UW, majoring in psychology, minoring in public health. She has worked for the Washington State Department of Health, interned for the Washington Board of Health, advocated for domestic violence victims in the Tacoma City attorney's office, and assisted in research at the Northwest Center for Public Health Practice. She has served as Chair of the Health Justice Network where she has organized community forums and raised awareness about social justice issues and cultural competency in health care.

    Madeline Wordes Noya was Research Associate with the National Council on Crime and Delinquency (NCCD), where she worked on projects concerning the juvenile justice system, juvenile offenders, and juvenile victims.

    Anne Nurse, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Sociology at the College of Wooster in Ohio. She has MA and PhD degrees in sociology from the University of California at Davis. She has published a number of articles and book chapters on incarcerated juvenile fatherhood as well as authoring Fatherhood Arrested: Parenting From Within the Juvenile Justice System (2002). Her current longitudinal project follows 40 first-time male admissions to the Ohio Department of Youth Services. The project seeks to understand juvenile prison culture as well as prison's effects on social network ties.

    Jean Koh Peters, JD, is Clinical Professor of Law and Supervising Attorney at the Yale Law School. She received her AB from Radcliffe in 1979, and her JD from Harvard in 1982. She specializes in refugee and asylum law, advocacy for children, children and the law, and advocacy for parents. She is admitted to bars in New York and Connecticut. She clerked for the Hon. William P. Gray, U.S. District Court, Los Angeles, 1982 to

    1983, was a staff attorney with the Juvenile Rights Division, Legal Aid Society of N.Y, 1983 to 1985, and Assistant Clinical Professor and Associate Director, Child Advocacy Clinic, Columbia, from 1986 to 1989. She has been Clinical Professor at Yale since 1989. She is the author of Representing Children in Child Protective Proceedings: Ethical and Practical Dimensions, Second Edition (2001).

    Eileen Poe-Yamagata, MA, was Senior Research Associate with the National Council on Crime and Delinquency (NCCD), where she worked on several projects evaluating programs for youthful offenders in both San Francisco and Alameda counties. Previously, she worked at the National Center for Juvenile Justice for 7 years. Her work has involved conducting analyses of national data on juvenile offending and victimization and preparing reports, and evaluation of court systems and programs for young offenders. She holds a master's degree in public policy and management from Carnegie Mellon University. She has authored and coauthored several publications and reports concerning the juvenile justice system, juvenile offenders, and juvenile victims.

    Maria P. P. Root, PhD, resides in Seattle, Washington, and is self-employed as a clinical psychologist. Her publications cover the areas of trauma, cultural assessment, multiracial identity, and eating disorders. One of the leading authorities in the field of multiracial identity and families, Root has edited two award-winning books. For more than 15 years, she has served as an expert witness in forensic settings for work discrimination cases involving ethnic, racial, national origins, and sexual harassment.

    Bahira Sherif–Trask, PhD, is Associate Professor of Individual and Family Studies at the University of Delaware. She has an undergraduate degree in political science from Yale University and a PhD in cultural anthropology from the University of Pennsylvania. Her research centers on issues of cultural diversity, gender, work, and intergenerational relations. She has conducted fieldwork on these topics in the United States, Europe, and the Middle East and has published extensively on these issues. Sherif–Trask recently edited a volume on the lives of Middle Eastern women for the Greenwood Encyclopedia of Women's Issues Worldwide. She is currently working on a new study on cross-cultural perceptions of the marriage and work intersection.

    Ada Skyles, PhD, JD, is Research Fellow and Associate Director at the University of Chicago's Chapin Hall Center for Children. She received her PhD in social welfare policy from the University of Wisconsin and her JD from Northwestern University School of Law. Her research focuses on child welfare systems—especially regarding children of color, juvenile justice and family courts, community participation, and capacity building in community-based agencies. Her legal practice emphasized family law. She coedited a special issue of Children & Youth Services Review focusing on children of color in child welfare systems. She chairs the Inspector General's Ethics Board for Child Welfare Professionals of the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services. Formerly, she directed the Wisconsin Bureau of Child Support Enforcement.

    Jay Stansell is Assistant Federal Public Defender in Seattle, Washington. He has represented over 600 noncitizens, including many Cambodian Americans, facing indefinite detention by the Immigration and Naturalization Service. During that litigation, Stansell argued before the United States Supreme Court on behalf of Kim Ho Ma, resulting in the decision in Zadvydas v. Davis, 533 U.S. 678 (2001), in which the Supreme Court held that the INS could not indefinitely detain noncitizens who have been ordered deported and who cannot be returned to their countries of origin. He continues to work with refugees and immigrants facing deportation.

    Kari A. Stephens, MS, is a doctoral candidate in Clinical Psychology at the University of Washington. She has conducted forensic psychological evaluations for the Cross Cultural Psychology Resource Program. Her research interests include sexual aggression, addiction, and cultural issues.

    David Sue, PhD, is Professor of Psychology and an Associate of the Center for Cross-Cultural Research at Western Washington University. He has served as the director of the mental health counseling program and director of the psychology training clinic at Western Washington University and received his PhD in clinical psychology at Washington State University. Counseling the Culturally Different and Understanding Abnormal Behavior are books that he has coauthored, and he has published a number of articles on Asian Americans.

    Kate Thompson, a counselling psychologist, has done extensive aid work in Africa: with Médecins sans Frontières (1993–1995) in Liberia and the Ivory Coast, and in refugee camps in Tanzania. She was a delegate for the International Committee of the Red Cross in Rwanda (1996–1997). She is the Refugee Support Psychologist for the North East London Mental Health Trust, providing services that combine individual clinical work, community development, and training. The project has been cited as an example of good practice and judged effective by external reviewers. She has also worked with Sudanese women's activists through the British Council in Khartoum on strategies for community coping. Her interests include the social meaning of war, political oppression, and exile, and emphasize the community as a tool for healing.

    Rachel Tribe is a senior lecturer, chartered psychologist, and course director in the School of Psychology at the University of East London. She is an experienced clinician, who has extensive experience working with different cultural, racial, and religious groups in the UK and other countries. Her work has involved consultancy to individual clients and teams as well as the evaluation of program on behalf of a range of organizations. She has also undertaken substantial training and organizational development work, and has also worked as a forensic psychologist. She has had a number of academic articles published and presented papers at international conferences. Her most recent coedited book is Working With Interpreters in Mental Health (2003).

    Joseph E. Trimble, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at Western Washington University and a Senior Scholar at the Tri-Ethnic Center for Prevention Research at Colorado State University. His is formerly a Fellow at Harvard University's Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, and has held offices in the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology and the American Psychological Association. He has generated over 130 publications on cross-cultural and ethnic topics in psychology and received numerous teaching and mentoring awards for his work in this area, including the APA's Division 45 Lifetime Achievement Award, the Janet E. Helms Award for Mentoring and Scholarship in Professional Psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University, and the Washington State Psychological Association Distinguished Psychologist Award for 2002. He earned his PhD from the University of Oklahoma, Institute of Group Relations, in 1969.

    Stacy Shaw Welch, MS, is currently a graduate student in the Clinical Psychology Program at the University of Washington. Her interests include working with people with borderline personality disorder, and in particular, their physiology. She completed her clinical internship at the Seattle Veterans Affairs Hospital.

    Jennifer Wheeler, PhD, received her doctorate in Clinical Psychology from the University of Washington. She is currently the Research and Assessment Team Coordinator with the Department of Corrections Sex Offender Treatment Program in Monroe, Washington. She is also in private practice in clinical and forensic psychology in Seattle, Washington.

    Jean C. Yi, MS, is currently a graduate student in the Clinical Psychology Program at the University of Washington. She obtained bachelor's and master's degrees from the University of Washington. Her interests include couple therapy and intimate relationships, ethnic minorities in treatment outcome studies, and ethnic identity and acculturation.

    Jeanette Zanipatin, JD, is a statewide policy analyst for the California Immigrant Welfare Collaborative in Sacramento and focuses on health, welfare, and immigrant rights. She has worked on several campaigns for immigrants including the statewide driver's license coalition and efforts to ensure access to healthcare. She received her BA in legal studies from the University of California at Berkeley and her JD from the Seattle University School of Law. She has worked as an immigration attorney for the Northwest Immigrant Rights Project in Seattle and at La Raza Centro Legal in San Francisco. She has worked on various immigrant rights issues, including representing victims of domestic violence, political asylum, and detained immigrants. She is licensed to practice law in California and Washington State.


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