Race and Criminal Justice
Publication Year: 2009
This text delivers a comprehensive overview of race and ethnicity across the criminal justice system. It unpacks terms such as race, diversity and multiculturalism to equip students with a thorough understanding of this complex subject area. Featuring chapters by leading experts, Race and Criminal Justice provides a specialist introduction to each area of the criminal justice system, including police, prosecution, prisons, and probation. It also features stimulating discussion of contemporary issues, such as criminal justice responses to refugees and asylum seekers, and the experiences of Muslims within the criminal justice system post 9/11.
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
- Introduction: Criminal Justice and Race Equality
- Chapter 1: Key Concepts and Theories about ‘Race’
- Chapter 2: Criminology, Contemporary Society, and Race Issues
- Chapter 3: Policing and Race Equality: Thinking Outside the (Tick) Box
- Chapter 4: The Crown Prosecution Service and Race Equality
- Chapter 5: Prisons and Race Equality
- Chapter 6: The Probation Service and Race Equality
- Chapter 7: Gender, ‘Race’, and the Criminal Justice Process
- Chapter 8: Refugees, Asylum Seekers, and Criminal Justice
- Chapter 9: Foreign National Prisoners: Issues and Debates
- Chapter 10: Minority Muslim Communities and Criminal Justice: Stigmatized UK Faith Identities Post 9/11 and 7/7
- Chapter 11: Policing Racist Hate Crime: Policy, Practice, and Experience
- Chapter 12: Racism, Ethnicity and Drug Misuse: A Brief Introduction
Editorial Arrangement © Hindpal Singh Bhui 2009
All other material © SAGE
First published 2009
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street #02-01
Far East Square
Library of Congress Control Number: 2008938020
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4129-4555-4 (pbk)
Typeset by CEPHA Imaging Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, India
Printed and bound in Great Britain by TJ International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall
Printed on paper from sustainable resources
To my parents, whose amazing journey made so many others possible[Page vi]
Notes on Contributors[Page ix]
Abdul Haqq Baker, PhD candidate at the University of Exeter, is the chairman of Brixton Mosque and director of Street, a Muslim youth outreach project in London.
Hindpal Singh Bhui is an inspection team leader in Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Prisons, specializing in immigration detention, race equality, and foreign national prisoners. He has been the Inspectorate's policy lead on both race equality and foreign national prisoners. He is also a visiting senior lecturer in criminal justice at the University of Hertfordshire. He was formerly a probation officer, working both in the community and in prison. He was the editor of Probation Journal: The Journal of Community and Criminal Justice between 1997 and 2007, and is currently a co-editor of the Issues in Community and Criminal Justice monograph series, established in 2001. He has published a number of papers on probation, prisons, and race equality.
Claire Cooper joined the Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) (now the Equality and Human Rights Commission) in 2004 as Senior Policy Officer for Criminal Justice. In this role, she led the CRE's work with the criminal justice sector, including monitoring the Prison Service's response to the CRE's formal investigation into racial equality in prisons in 2003. Prior to joining the CRE, she worked on national policing policy on race and diversity and contributed to a number of Home Office publications in this area. Since January 2008, Claire has taken up a position as Senior Manager in the Race Equality Action Group at the Prison Service which leads the Service's programme of work on race equality.
Finola Farrant is a senior lecturer at Roehampton University. She has published widely on a variety of criminal-justice-related topics and has conducted extensive prison-related research. These have included studies on resettlement and desistance, young adult male offenders, substance misuse, mental health, and volunteering and citizenship.
[Page x]Nathan Hall is a senior lecturer in criminology and policing at the Institute of Criminal Justice Studies at the University of Portsmouth. His main research interest lies in hate crime. He has extensively researched hate crime, particularly in relation to criminal justice responses in England and Wales and in the United States. His first book, Hate Crime, was published by Willan Publishing in 2005, and he is currently involved in comparative research of the policing of hate crime in London and New York. In addition to working with a number of police services across the country, Nathan has also acted in a consultative capacity to the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) and Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary (HMIC).
Sam Lewis is a research fellow in the School of Law at the University of Leeds. In recent years, she has undertaken research (with colleagues from other institutions) for the Home Office, local probation areas, and youth offending services. She was a member of the research team that completed a national Home Office-funded study of minority ethnic men on probation. Her research and publications focus on minority ethnic experiences of criminal justice, youth crime and justice, probation service policy and practice, and the governance of anti-social behaviour. She has co-edited (with P. Raynor, D. Smith, and A. Wardak) Race and Probation, published by Willan Publishing in 2006.
Robert Lambert, research fellow at the University of Exeter, is a retired Metropolitan Police officer who was the co-founder and head of the Muslim Contact Unit (MCU) from 2002 to 2007. He is now a project consultant for Street, a Muslim youth outreach project in London. His PhD is about Countering al-Qaida propaganda & recruitment in London: An insider's interpretive case study.
Karen Mills qualified as a probation office in 1988 and worked in a range of probation settings over a period of 13 years before moving into an academic post at the University of Hertfordshire, where she is currently a senior lecturer in criminal justice. She has a particular interest in substance misuse and diversity issues – especially the extent to which policy and practice in this area are influenced by the changing political landscape. Her most recent research examined the drug treatment needs of new minority groups in Peterborough and London.
Michael Rowe is associate professor at the Institute of Criminology, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. He was formerly senior lecturer in Criminology at the University of Leicester, and has written extensively on policing and minority ethnic communities, and on the broader implications of diversity for the police service. He also edited Policing beyond Macpherson: Issues in Policing, Race and Society, published by Willan Publishing in 2007.
[Page xi]David Smith is a graduate of the universities of Oxford and Exeter, where he trained as a social worker. He was a probation officer in Worcestershire from 1972 to 76, when he was appointed to a lectureship in social work at Lancaster University. He became Professor of Social Work there in 1993 and Professor of Criminology in 2002. He has researched and written on a wide range of criminological and related topics, including youth justice, probation policy and practice, inter-agency co-operation, electronic monitoring, hitch-hiking, racist violence, and minority ethnic groups’ experiences of probation and criminal justice. He is the co-author, with David Lobley, of Persistent Young Offenders: An Evaluation of Two Projects (Ashgate, 2007), and co-author and editor, with Sam Lewis, Peter Raynor, and Ali Wardak, of Race and Probation (Willan Publishing, 2006).
Basia Spalek is a senior lecturer in criminology and criminal justice at the University of Birmingham. Her research interests include British Muslim communities, crime, victimization, and community safety issues; equality and diversity within the public sector; and communities, identities, and crime. Her recent publications include Islam, Crime and Criminal Justice (Willan Publishing, 2002), Crime Victims: Theory, Policy and Practice (Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), and Communities, Identities and Crime (Policy Press, 2008).
Séamus Taylor is the Director of Equality and Diversity at the Crown Prosecution Service and was formerly Director of Strategy at the Commission for Racial Equality, where he led on the duty to promote race equality under the Race Relations Act. Séamus has served on the Advisory Group for the Cabinet Office study on Ethnic Minorities and the Labour Market. He is a trustee of the Runnymede Trust and was on the Commission on the future of multi-ethnic Britain (The Parekh Report, 2000). Previously, Séamus worked in local government in both corporate policy and performance management and in equalities. During this time, he served as Head of Equalities and Diversity at Haringey Council when the Council initiated the mainstreaming of equalities in the early 1990s. He has worked across a range of equalities strands. Prior to this, Séamus worked in the Irish community voluntary sector. Séamus was educated at University College, Dublin, and University of London (Goldsmiths College), and graduated from both institutions with distinctions.
I am greatly indebted to all the authors for their commitment to this project and for putting up with many and varied editorial demands with such good humour. The peer review the authors offered each other was invaluable, as was the assistance of the external reviewers. Particular thanks are due to Finola Farrant, Claire Cooper, Joe Levenson, Liz Dixon, Kerry McCarthy, Keith Davies, Julia Fossi, Lol Burke, Anisha Mehta, Pauline Durrance and Julian Buchanan for going well beyond the call of duty in their readiness to assist. Thanks also to Keith Mclnnis, Monica Lloyd, Ashraj Gataora and Chloe Falk for their helpful comments. Finally, I am grateful to Caroline Porter and Sarah-Jayne Boyd at Sage Publications for supporting this project to its conclusion.