Quality and Leadership in the Early Years: Research, Theory and Practice


Verity Campbell-Barr & Caroline Leeson

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright


    We would like to acknowledge the hard work and commitment of the four practitioners – Cheryl, Jacky, Sandra and Sue – whose work in their settings is inspiring. Our time spent together in discussion and debate was uplifting and instructive with lots of opportunity to learn from each other.

    We would also like to thank Amy Jarrold for her support and commitment to our project and her encouraging comments throughout the writing process.

    Last, but by no means least, we wish to thank our families: Matt and Reuben, and Ian, Rob and Josh, who provide the important grounding for all the work we do.

    About the Authors

    Verity Campbell-Barr is a lecturer in Early Childhood Studies at Plymouth University where she teachers on both undergraduate and postgraduate courses. She has extensive research experience in early childhood education and care (ECEC) policy, considering concepts of value for money, the reliance on the market in services provision and the role of ECEC in welfare-to-work reforms. Her core interest lies in the quality of ECEC services and particularly the role of the workforce in delivering quality provision. She has recently completed research on the quality of early years services for 2-year-olds in England and a European project on the attitudinal competences advocated for early childhood practitioners. She is about to embark on a research project to explore the knowledge, skills and attitudes required of ECEC practitioners across Europe within the context of the quality of provision. Her research experience and time spent in practice make her a true believer in the need for the voice of ECEC practitioners as the true experts in policy formation.

    Caroline Leeson is an associate professor in Early Childhood Studies at Plymouth University. She has particular interests in the welfare of looked-after children, children’s centre leadership and reflective practice and enjoys working with students towards their goal of being strong advocates for young children and their families. Her research interests are in social justice; children with a parent in prison; children who go missing and/or are vulnerable to sexual exploitation; and the involvement of children in decision-making processes. She is also active in researching the articulation of leadership in early years settings. Before working in higher education, she was a social worker in child protection, fostering and adoption and the leader of a family centre for a period of time. This experience proved particularly profound as she learnt the importance of communication, collaboration and the joy of spending time in the home corner making stone soup.

  • Glossary




    Accountability requires a person or an institution to be answerable for their actions, decisions or comments. Explicit accountability asks that the level of answerability is open and transparent, understood by all rather than assumed or implied.


    Discourse represents a way of viewing, thinking and speaking about the social world. The way of speaking and thinking looks to normalise behaviour. The normalisation process means that bias and subjectivities become hidden. In the example of politics, discourses conceal assumptions and render political objectives and ideologies invisible.


    Educare represents the combining of education and childcare to represent those who work in early years services as concerned with both the education and care of young children.


    Emotionology explores the links between our thoughts and our emotions and how that linking informs or drives our subsequent behaviour.

    Human capital theory

    Human capital is an economic theory that represents how education is an investment in an individual’s knowledge, skills and other attributes. The knowledge, skills and other attributes are embodied and can be utilised in labour (paid employment) for economic gain.


    Managerialism has become a global term for hierarchical and measurable decision-making processes that produce outcomes with a lack of consideration as to the impact on or implications for the individuals concerned. It is argued that managerialism is one-dimensional, anti-democratic and authoritarian (Klikauer, 2013).


    Modernity reflects a period in history, but also a set of socio-cultural norms that privilege a rational, objective, empirical (scientific) view of the world. Social life is regarded as structural and ordered.

    Neo-liberal government

    Neo-liberal governments are those that have moved away from a system of the state (the government) providing services to a system of a free-market economy. Under a free-market economy, privatisation is favoured as a means for governments to reduce the level of monies they are required to spend on services.

    Panoptic gaze

    The panoptic gaze represents the notion of an overseer (e.g. an individual, organisation or government) who looks to control and monitor social life. The gaze acts as a form of social control whereby individuals conform as they feel as if they are being watched.


    A paradigm is an agreed world view, underlying theory(ies); it is an understanding of how something might be regarded.


    Post-structuralism challenges the notion of the rational and coherent knowledge that is present in modernist approaches. It is a critical theory that highlights the complexities of human life rather than assume that it is rational and structural, as per modernity.

    Process quality

    Process quality relates to the experience of the child, such as adult–child interactions, parent relationships, the learning experiences of children, etc.

    Social agency

    Social agency is the ability of individuals to make free choices. It is the ability to act on one’s will. However, many structural features in society such as social class, age and gender can all limit how free an individual’s choice is.

    Social investment

    Broadly speaking, social investment is about investing in people. Governments seek to invest economic monies to achieve predetermined economic and social goals. Examples include education and health care.

    Structural quality

    Structural features of quality relate to things such as ratios, qualification levels of staff, furniture, square footage required for each child, etc. and are often regarded as those features that can be measured.

    Supranational organisation

    Supranational refers to those organisations whose scope extends beyond any one country. Examples include the World Bank, the OECD, Unicef and the EU. There are variations in the function of different supranational organisations, but in essence they look to secure international co-operation between countries.


    Adair, J. ( 1973 ) Action-Centred Leadership. London: McGraw-Hill.
    Adams, S. , Alexander, E. , Drummond, M. J. and Moyles, J. ( 2004 ) Inside the Foundation Stage: Recreating the Reception Year. London: Association of Teachers and Lecturers. Available at: www.atl.org.uk/Images/Inside%20the%20foundation%20stage.pdf (accessed 30 April 2015 ).
    Ancona, D. , Malone, T. W. , Orlikowski, W. J. and Senge, P. M. ( 2007 ) ‘In praise of the incomplete leader’, Harvard Business Review, ( February ), pp. 99102 (www.hbr.org).
    Attard, K. ( 2008 ) ‘Uncertainty for the reflective practitioner: a blessing in disguise’, Reflective Practice, 9 (3): 30717.
    Aubrey, C. ( 2007 ) Leading and Managing in the Early Years. London: SAGE.
    Avolio, B. J. and Gardner, W. L. ( 2005 ) ‘Authentic leadership development: getting to the roots of positive forms of leadership’, Leadership Quarterly, 16: 31538.
    Baker, S. ( 2007 ) ‘Followership: the theoretical foundation of a contemporary construct’, Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 14 (1): 5060.
    Ball, S. J. ( 2008 ) The Education Debate. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Begley, P. ( 2001 ) ‘In pursuit of authentic school leadership practices’, International Journal of Leadership in Education, 4 (4): 35365.
    Bennett, J. ( 2006 ) ‘New policy conclusions from starting strong II: an update on the OECD early childhood policy reviews’, European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 14 (2): 14156.
    Bernstein, P. ( 1996 ) Against the Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk. Chichester: Wiley.
    Bertram, T. and Pascal, C. ( 2014 ) Early Years Literature Review. Birmingham: Centre for Research in Early Childhood (CREC) (www.crec.co.uk).
    Blackmore, J. ( 1995 ) ‘Policy as dialogue: feminist administrators working for educational change’, Gender and Education, 7 (3): 293313.
    Blake, R. and Moulton, J. ( 1964 ) The Managerial Grid. London: Bloomsbury.
    Blundell, R. and Lockett, N. ( 2011 ) Exploring Entrepreneurship: Practices and Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Boag-Munroe, G. ( 2014 ) ‘Parents as partners: the new politics of parenting’, in J. Moyles , J. Payler and J. Georgeson (eds), Early Years Foundations: Critical Issues. Maidenhead: Open University Press, pp. 15565.
    Bolden, R. , Hawkins, B. , Gosling, J. and Taylor, S. ( 2011 ) Exploring Leadership: Individual, Organisational and Societal Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Bolton, B. and Thompson, J. ( 2004 ) Entrepreneurs: Talent, Temperament, Technique (
    edition). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
    Bourdieu, P. ( 1992 ) Invitation to a Reflexive Sociology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Brayfield, A. and Korintus, M. ( 2011 ) ‘Early childhood socialization: societal context and childrearing values in Hungary’, Journal of Early Childhood Research, 9 (3): 26279.
    Bronfenbrenner, U. ( 1979 ) The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Brooker, L. ( 2014 ) ‘An overview of education in England’, in J. Moyles , J. Payler and J. Georgeson (eds), Early Years Foundations: Critical Issues. London: Open University Press, pp. 616.
    Burns, J. ( 1978 ) Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
    Calder, P. , Leeson, C. , Wild, M. , Needham, M. , Nightingale, B. , Barron, I. and Silberfeld, C. ( 2013 ) More Great Childcare: Interrogating Values and Assumptions in Recent Documentation Relating to Children’s Day Care. Symposium presentation at EECERA, September, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Callender, C. ( 2000 ) The Barriers to Childcare Provision. London: Department for Education and Employment (DfEE).
    Cameron, C. ( 2006 ) ‘Men in the nursery revisited: issues of male workers and professionalism’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 7 (1): 6879.
    Campbell, C. ( 2011 ) How to Involve Hard-to-Reach Parents: Encouraging Meaningful Parental Involvement with Schools. Nottingham: National College for School Leadership (NCSL).
    Campbell-Barr, V. ( 2009a ) ‘Care and business orientations in the delivery of childcare: an exploratory study’, Journal of Early Childhood Research, 7 (1): 7693.
    Campbell-Barr, V. ( 2009b ) ‘Contextual issues in assessing value for money in early years education’, National Institute Economic Review, 207 (1): 90101.
    Campbell-Barr, V. ( 2012 ) ‘Early years education and the value for money folklore’, European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 20 (3): 42337.
    Campbell-Barr, V. ( 2014 ) ‘Constructions of early childhood education and care provision: negotiating discourses’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 15 (1): 517.
    Campbell-Barr, V. ( 2015 ) ‘The research, policy and practice triangle in early childhood education and care’, in R. Parker-Rees and C. Leeson (eds), Early Childhood Studies: An Introduction to the Study of Children’s Worlds and Children’s Lives (
    edition). London: SAGE, pp. 16378.
    Campbell-Barr, V. and Nygård, M. ( 2014 ) ‘Losing sight of the child? Human capital theory and its role for early childhood education and care policies in Finland and England since the mid-1990s’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 15 (4): 34659.
    Campbell-Barr, V. , Lavelle, M. and Wickett, K. ( 2011 ) ‘Exploring alternative approaches to child outcome assessments in Children’s Centres’, Early Child Development and Care, 182 (7): 85974.
    Carter Dillon, R. ( 2013 ) ‘A critique of euro-centric perspectives on early childhood education and care in the Gambia’, in J. Georgeson and J. Payler (eds), International Perspectives on Early Childhood Education and Care. Maidenhead: Open University Press, pp. 5363.
    Case, P. , Case, S. and Catling, S. ( 2000 ) ‘“Please show you’re working”: a critical assessment of the impact of OFSTED inspection on primary teachers’, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 21 (4): 60521.
    Cattell, R. B. ( 1966 ) The Scientific Analysis of Personality. Chicago, IL: Aldine.
    Catton, S. , Crawford, C. and Dearden, L. ( 2014 ) The Economic Consequences for Pre-school Education and Quality. London: Institute of Fiscal Studies.
    Champy, J. ( 2009 ) ‘Authentic leadership’, Executive Forum, 54: 3944.
    Children’s Workforce Development Council (CWDC) ( 2006 ) Early Years Professional National Standards. Leeds: CWDC.
    Clark, A. and Moss, P. ( 2011 ) Listening to Young Children: The Mosaic Approach (
    edition). London: National Children’s Bureau.
    Clarke, J. , Smith, N. and Vidler, E. ( 2005 ) ‘Consumerism and the reform of public services: inequalities and instabilities’, in M. Powell , L. Baud and K. Clarke (eds), Social Policy Review 17: Analysis and Debate in Social Policy. Bristol: Policy Press, pp. 16782.
    Cleveland, G. , Forer, B. , Hyatt, D. , Japel, C. and Krashinsky, M. ( 2007 ) An Economic Perspective on the Current and Future Role of Nonprofit Provision of Early Learning and Child Care Services in Canada: Final Project Report. Toronto: University of Toronto.
    Coleyshaw, J. , Whitmarsh, J. , Jopling, M. and Hadfield, M. ( 2012 ) An Exploration of Progress, Leadership and Impact, as a Part of the Longitudinal Study of Early Years Professional Status. Wolverhampton: University of Wolverhampton.
    Cottle, M. and Alexander, E. ( 2012 ) ‘Quality in early years settings: government, research and practitioners’ perspectives’, British Educational Research Journal, 38 (4): 63554.
    Crawford, M. ( 2014 ) Developing as an Educational Leader. London: SAGE.
    Cunha, M. ( 2005 ) Bricolage in Organizations. Faculdade de Economia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa (FEUNL), Working Paper No. 474. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.882784 (accessed 12 February 2015 ).
    Curtis, L. and Burton, D. ( 2009 ) ‘Naïve change agent or canny political collaborator? The change in leadership role from nursery school to Children’s Centre’, Education, 3: 28799.
    Dahlberg, G. and Moss, P. ( 2005 ) Ethics and Politics in Early Childhood Education. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
    Dahlberg, G. , Moss, P. and Pence, A. ( 2013 ) Beyond Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care: Languages of Evaluation. London: Routledge.
    Dalea, R. and Robertson, S. ( 2004 ) ‘Interview with Boaventura de Sousa Santos’, Globalisation, Societies and Education, 2 (2): 14760.
    Davis, G. ( 2012 ) ‘A documentary analysis of the use of leadership and change theory in changing practice in early years settings’, Early Years: An International Research Journal, 32 (3): 26676.
    Daycare Trust ( 2010 ) Childcare Costs Survey 2010. London: Daycare Trust.
    Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) ( 2008 ) The Impact of Parental Involvement on Children’s Education. Nottingham: DCSF.
    Department for Education (DfE) ( 2013 ) More Great Childcare. London: Department for Education.
    Department for Education (DfE) ( 2014 ) Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage Setting the Standards for Learning, Development and Care for Children from Birth to Five. London: Department for Education.
    Department for Education and Employment (DfEE) ( 1998 ) Meeting the Childcare Challenge: A Framework and Consultation Document. London: Crown.
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) ( 2004 ) Every Child Matters: Change for Children. London: HM Government.
    Douglass, A. and Gittell, J. ( 2012 ) ‘Transforming professionalism: relational bureaucracy and parent–teacher partnerships in child care settings’, Journal of Early Childhood Research, 10 (3): 26781.
    Dunlop, A.-W. ( 2008 ) A Literature Review on Leadership in the Early Years. Available at: www.educationscotland.gov.uk/resources/a/leadershipreview.asp (accessed 10 November 2014 ).
    Earley, P. and Weindling, D. ( 2004 ) Understanding School Leadership. London: SAGE.
    Ebbeck, M. and Waniganayake, M. ( 2003 ) Early Childhood Professionals: Leading Today and Tomorrow. Sydney: MacLennan & Petty.
    Ehren, M. and Visscher, A. ( 2006 ) ‘Towards a theory on the impact of school inspections’, British Journal of Education Studies, 54 (1): 5172.
    Eisenstadt, N. , Sylva, K. , Mathers, S. and Taggart, B. ( 2013 ) More Great Childcare: Research Evidence. Oxford/London: University of Oxford and Institute of Education. Available at: www.ecersuk.org/resources/More+Great+Childcare+Research+Evidence+March+2013.pdf (accessed 1 May 2015 ).
    Elfer, P. and Dearnley, K. ( 2007 ) ‘Nurseries and emotional well-being: evaluating an emotionally containing model of continuing professional development’, Early Years: An International Journal of Research and Development, 27 (3): 26779.
    Elliott, I. and Coker, C. ( 2008 ) ‘Independent self-construal, self-reflection, and self-rumination: a path model for predicting happiness’, Australian Journal of Psychology, 60 (3): 12734.
    Ellison, G. , Barker, A. and Kulasuriya, T. ( 2009 ) Work and Care: A Study of Modern Parents. London: Equality and Human Rights Committee.
    Eraut, M. ( 2000 ) ‘Non-formal learning and tacit knowledge in professional work’, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70 (1): 11336.
    Evangelou, M. , Sylva, K. , Kyriacou, M. , Wild, M. and Glenny, G. ( 2009 ) Early Years Learning and Development: A Literature Review (Research Report No. DCSF-RR176). London: Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) Publications.
    Fenech, M. ( 2011 ) ‘An analysis of the conceptualisation of “quality” in early childhood education and care empirical research: promoting “blind spots” as foci for future research’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, (2): 10217.
    Fiedler, F. E. and Chemers, M. M. ( 1974 ) Leadership and Effective Management. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman & Co.
    Fleer, M. ( 2003 ) ‘Early childhood education as an evolving “community of practice” or as lived “social reproduction”: researching the “taken-for-granted”’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 4 (1): 6479.
    Foucault, M. ( 1995 ) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Second Vintage Books:
    Freidman, J. and Sturdy, J. ( 2011 ) ‘The influence of economic crisis on early childhood development: a review of pathways and measured impact’, in H. Alderman (ed.), No Small Matter: The Impact of Poverty, Shocks, and Human Capital Investments in Early Childhood Development. Washington, DC: World Bank, pp. 5184.
    Freire, P. ( 1970 ) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Herder & Herder.
    Freud, S. ( 1917 ) Mourning and Melancholia. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XIV (1914–1916): On the History of the Psycho-Analytic Movement, Papers on Metapsychology and Other Works, pp. 237258.
    Gambaro, L. , Stewart, K. and Waldfogel, J. ( 2013 ) A Question of Quality: Do Children from Disadvantaged Backgrounds Receive Lower Quality Early Years Education and Care in England? London: London School of Economics. Available at: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/51274/1/__Libfile_repository_Content_Waldfogel,%20J_Waldfogel_Question_quality_children_2013.pdf (accessed 1 May 2015 ).
    Garvey, D. and Lancaster, A. ( 2010 ) Leadership for Quality in Early Years and Playwork. London: National Children’s Bureau.
    Georgeson, J. and Campbell-Barr, V. ( 2015 ) ‘Pulling the threads together’, in V. Campbell-Barr and J. Georgeson (eds), International Perspectives on Early Years Workforce Development. Northwich: Critical Publishing, pp. 13642.
    Georgeson, J. , Campbell-Barr, V. , Mathers, S. with Boag-Munroe, G. , Parker-Rees, R. and Caruso, F. ( 2014 ) Two-Year-Olds in England: An Exploratory Study. Available at: http://tactyc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/TACTYC_2_year_olds_Report_2014.pdf (accessed 1 May 2015 ).
    Ghaye, A. and Ghaye, K. ( 1998 ) Teaching and Learning through Critical Reflective Practice. Trowbridge: David Fulton.
    Gibbs, G. ( 1988 ) Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods. London: Further Education Unit.
    Gilroy, P. and Wilcox, B. ( 1997 ) ‘Ofsted, criteria and the nature of social understanding: a Wittgensteinian critique of the practice of educational judgement’, British Journal of Educational Studies, 45 (1): 2238.
    Goleman, D. , Boyatzis, R. and McKee, A. ( 2002 ) The New Leaders. London: Little Brown.
    Goodfellow, J. ( 2005 ) ‘Market childcare: preliminary considerations of a “property view” of the child’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 6 (1): 5465.
    Grammatikopoulos, V. , Gregoriadis, A. , Tsigilis, N. and Zachopoulou, E. ( 2014 ) ‘Parental conceptions of quality in Greek early childhood education’, European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 22 (1): 13448.
    Greenfield, S. ( 2012 ) ‘Nursery home visits: rhetoric and realities’, Journal of Early Childhood Research, 10 (1): 10012.
    Hadfield, M. , Jopling, M. , Needham, M. , Waller, T. , Coleyshaw, L. , Emira, M. and Royle, K. ( 2010 ) Longitudinal Study of Early Years Professional Status: An Exploration of Progress, Leadership and Impact – Final Report. Wolverhampton: University of Wolverhampton.
    Hall, V. ( 1996 ) Dancing on the Ceiling: A Study of Women Managers in Education. London: SAGE.
    Hard, L. M. and O’Gorman, L. M. ( 2007 ) ‘“Push-me” or “Pull-you”? An opportunity for early childhood leadership in the implementation of Queensland’s early years curriculum’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 8 (1): 5060.
    Harper, D. ( 2008 ) ‘Towards a theory of entrepreneurial teams’, Journal of Business Venturing, 23: 61326.
    Harwood, D. , Klopper, A. , Osanyin, A. and Vanderlee, M. ( 2013 ) ‘“It’s more than care”: early childhood educators’ concepts of professionalism’, Early Years: An International Research Journal, 33 (1): 417.
    Hayes, C. , Daly, J. , Duncan, M. , Gill, R. and Whitehouse, A. ( 2014 ) Developing as a Reflective Early Years Professional: A Thematic Approach. Northwich: Critical Publishing.
    Heckman, J. ( 2000 ) Invest in the Very Young. Chicago, IL: Ounce of Prevention Fund and the University of Chicago Harris School of Public Policy Studies. Available at: www.montanakidscount.com/fileaccess/getfile/20.pdf (accessed 15 October 2015 )
    Heikka, J. and Waniganayake, M. ( 2011 ) ‘Pedagogical leadership from a distributed perspective within the context of early childhood education’, International Journal of Leadership in Education: Theory and Practice, 14 (4): 499512.
    Hendrick, H. ( 1997 ) ‘Constructions and reconstructions of British childhood: an interpretative survey, 1800 to the present’, in A. James and A. Prout (eds), Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood: Contemporary Issues in the Sociological Study of Childhood. London: RoutledgeFalmer, pp. 3462.
    Hersey, P. and Blanchard, K. H. ( 1977 ) Management of Organizational Behavior (
    edition). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Ho, C. W. D. ( 2008 ) ‘Exploring the definitions of quality early childhood programmes in a market-driven context: case studies of two Hong Kong preschools’, International Journal of Early Years Education, 16 (3): 22336.
    Ho, D. ( 2012 ) ‘The paradox of power in leadership in early childhood education’, Peabody Journal of Education: Issues of Leadership, Policy, and Organizations, 87 (2): 25366.
    Hochschild, A. R. ( 1983 ) The Managed Heart: Commercialisation of Human Feeling (
    edition). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Hodkinson, P. ( 2004 ) ‘Research as a form of work: expertise, community and methodological objectivity’, British Educational Research Journal, 30 (1): 926.
    Hopkins, R. , Stokes, L. and Wilkinson, D. ( 2010 ) Quality, Outcomes and Costs in Early Years Education. London: National Institute of Economic and Social Research. Available at: http://niesr.ac.uk/sites/default/files/publications/Quality%20Outcomes%20and%20Costs%20in%20early%20Years%20Education.pdf (accessed 30 April 2015 ).
    Huskins, T. , Kostadintcheva, K. , Greevy, H. , Salmon, C. , Dobie, S. , Medien., K. , with Littlewood, M. and D’Souza, J. ( 2014 ) The Childcare and Early Years Survey of Parents 2012–2013.London: Department for Education. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/275992/SFR06-2014_Childcare_and_Early_Years_Survey_of_Parents_2012-13_final.pdf (accessed 20 April 2015 ).
    James, A. and Prout, A. ( 1997 ) Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood: Contemporary Issues in the Sociological Study of Childhood. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
    James, W. ( 1892 ) The Stream of Consciousness. Available at: http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/James/jimmy11.htm (accessed 15 February 2015 ).
    Jenks, C. ( 2004 ) ‘Constructing childhood sociologically’, in M. J. Kehily (ed.), An Introduction to Childhood Studies. Maidenhead: Open University Press/McGraw-Hill, pp. 7795.
    Johns, C. ( 2009 ) Becoming a Reflective Practitioner. Chichester: Wiley.
    Jones, C. and Pound, L. ( 2008 ) Leadership and Management in the Early Years: From Principles to Practice. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Jones, P. ( 2014 ) ‘Training and workforce issues in the early years’, in G. Pugh and B. Duffy (eds), Contemporary Issues in the Early Years (
    edition). London: SAGE, pp. 25572.
    Karp, T. and Helgo, T. ( 2008 ) ‘From change management to change leadership: embracing chaotic change in public service organizations’, Journal of Change Management, 8 (1): 8596.
    Keely, B. ( 2008 ) How What You Know Shapes Your Life. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
    Klikauer, T. ( 2013 ) Managerialism: A Critique of an Ideology. London: Palgrave MacMillan.
    Kolb, D. A. ( 1984 ) Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Krieger, J. ( 2007 ) ‘The political economy of New Labour: the failure of a success story?’, New Political Economy, 12 (3): 42132.
    Kübler-Ross, E. ( 1969 ) On Death and Dying. London: Routledge.
    Kupers, W. ( 2007 ) ‘Perspectives on integrating leadership and followership’, International Journal of Leadership Studies, 2 (3): 194221.
    Ladkins, D. ( 2013 ) ‘Leading beautifully: how mastery, coherence and purpose contribute to inspirational leadership performance’, Leadership Quarterly, 19 (1): 3141.
    Lancaster, P. ( 2002 ) Listening to Young Children. London: National Children’s Bureau.
    Law, S. and Glover, D. ( 2000 ) Educational Leadership and Learning. London: Open University Press.
    Leeson, C. ( 2009 ) ‘The involvement of looked after children in making decisions about their present and future care needs’. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Plymouth.
    Leeson, C. ( 2010 ) ‘Leadership in early childhood settings’, in R. Parker-Rees , C. Leeson , J. Willan , J. and J. Savage (eds), Early Childhood Studies: An Introduction to the Study of Children’s Worlds and Children’s Lives (
    edition). Exeter: Learning Matters, pp. 11224.
    Leeson, C. ( 2014 ) ‘The pressures of leading early years services in a changing world’, in J. Moyles , J. Payler and J. Georgeson (eds), Early Years Foundations: Critical Issues. London: Open University Press, pp. 14354.
    Leeson, C. , Campbell-Barr, V. and Ho, D. ( 2012 ) ‘Leading for quality improvement: a comparative research agenda in early childhood education in England and Hong Kong’, International Journal of Leadership in Education, 15 (2): 22136.
    Lewis, J. , Knijn, T. , Martin, C. and Ostner, I. ( 2008 ) ‘Patterns of development in work/family reconciliation policies for parents in France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK in the 2000s’, Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, 15 (3): 26186.
    Likert, R. ( 1967 ) The Human Organisation: Its Management and Value. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Lloyd, E. and Penn, H. ( 2010 ) ‘Why do childcare markets fail? Comparing England and the Netherlands’, Public Policy Research, 17 (1): 428.
    MacNaughton, G. ( 2005 ) Doing Foucault in Early Childhood Studies: Applying Poststructural Ideas. London: Routledge.
    Madrid, S. and Dunn-Kenney, M. ( 2010 ) ‘Persecutory guilt, surveillance and resistance: the emotional themes of early childhood educators’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 11 (4): 388401.
    Mahon, R. and McBride, S. ( 2009 ) ‘Standardizing and disseminating knowledge: the role of the OECD in global governance’, European Political Science Review, 1 (1): 83101.
    Mann, S. ( 2004 ) ‘“People-work”: emotion management, stress and coping’, British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 32 (2): 20521.
    Marinova, S. , Moon, H. and Kamdar, D. ( 2013 ) ‘Getting ahead or getting along? The two-facet conceptualization of conscientiousness and leadership emergence’, Organization Science, 24 (4): 125776.
    Mason, J. ( 2002 ) Researching Your Own Practice: The Discipline of Noticing. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
    Mathers, S. , Singler, R. and Karemaker, A. ( 2012 ) Improving Quality in the Early Years: A Comparison of Perspectives and Measures. Oxford/London. Available at: www.education.ox.ac.uk/research/fell/research/improving-quality-in-the-early-years/ (accessed 1 May 2015 ).
    Mathers, S. , Ranns, H. , Karemaker, A. , Moody, A. , Sylva, K. , Graham, J. and Siraj-Blatchford, I. ( 2011 ) Evaluation of Graduate Leaders Fund. London: Department for Education, Dfe-RR144.
    Matthews, P. and Sammons, P. ( 2004 ) Improvement through Inspection: An Evaluation of the Impact of Ofsted’s Work. London: Ofsted/Crown.
    McBride, P. and Maitland, S. ( 2002 ) Putting Emotional Intelligence into Practice. London: McGraw-Hill.
    McDowall Clark, R. and Baylis, S. ( 2012 ) ‘“Wasted down there”: policy and practice with the under-threes’, Early Years: An International Research Journal, 32 (2): 22942.
    McDowall Clark, R. and Murray, J. ( 2012 ) Reconceptualising Leadership in the Early Years. London: Open University Press.
    McEldowney, R. , Bobrowski, P. and Granberg, A. ( 2009 ) ‘Factors affecting the next generation of women leaders: mapping the challenges, antecedents and consequences of leadership’, Journal of Leadership Studies, 3 (2): 2430.
    McGillivray, G. ( 2008 ) ‘Nannies, nursery nurses and early years professionals: constructions of professional identity in the early years workforce in England’, European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 16 (2): 24254.
    Melhuish, E. C. ( 2004 ) A Literature Review of the Impact of Early Years Provision on Young Children, with Emphasis Given to Children from Disadvantaged Backgrounds. Prepared for the National Audit Office by the Institute for the Study of Children, Families and Social Issues, Birkbeck, University of London.
    Metcalfe, B. and Metcalfe, J. ( 2008 ) Engaging Leadership: Creating Organisations that Maximise the Potential of Their People. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
    Mitchell, L. ( 2010 ) ‘Construction of childhood in early childhood education policy debate in New Zealand’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 11 (4): 32841.
    Mooney, A. and Blackburn, T. ( 2003 ) Children’s Views on Childcare Quality. London: Department for Education and Skills.
    Moss, P. ( 2006 ) ‘From childcare to a pedagogical discourse: or putting care in its place’, in J. Lewis (ed.), Children, Changing Families and Welfare States. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 15472.
    Moss, P. ( 2014 ) ‘Early childhood policy in England 1997–2013: anatomy of a missed opportunity’, International Journal of Early Years Education, 22 (4): 34658.
    Moss, P. and Penn, H. ( 1996 ) Transforming Nursery Education. London: Paul Chapman.
    Moyles, J. ( 2001 ) ‘Passion, paradox and professionalism in the early years’, Early Years, 21 (2): 8195.
    Moyles, J. ( 2006 ) Effective Leadership and Management in the Early Years. Maidenhead: Open University Press/McGraw-Hill Education.
    Moyles, J. , Adams, S. and Musgrove, A. ( 2002 ) SPEEL: Study of Pedagogical Effectiveness. London: Department for Education and Skills.
    Muijs, D. , Aubrey, C. , Harris, A. and Briggs, M. ( 2004 ) ‘How do they manage? A review of the research on leadership in early childhood’, Journal of Early Childhood Research, 2 (2): 15760.
    Munton, T. , Mooney, A. , Moss, P. , Petrie, P. , Clark, A. and Woolner, J. ( 2002 ) Research on Ratios, Group Size and Staff Qualifications and Training in Early Years and Childcare Settings. Research Report No. 320. London: Thomas Coram Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London.
    Murray, J. and McDowall Clark, R. ( 2013 ) ‘Reframing leadership as a participative pedagogy: the working theories of early years professionals’, Early Years: An International Research Journal, 33 (3): 289301.
    National College of School Leadership (NCSL) ( 2004 ) National Professional Qualification in Integrated Centre Leadership. Nottingham: NCSL.
    National College of Teaching and Learning (NCTL) ( 2013 ) Teachers Standards Early Years, Available at: www.gov.uk/government/publications (accessed 12 January 2015 ).
    Neugebauer, R. ( 1985 ) ‘Are you an effective leader?’, Child Care Information Exchange, 46: 1826.
    Neuman, M. J. ( 2005 ) ‘Governance of early childhood education and care: recent developments in OECD countries’, Early Years, 25 (2): 12941.
    Neville, S. ( 2013 ) ‘More Great Childcare’: An Analysis of the Government’s Plans Written by Childminders. Available at: www.childmindersforum.co.uk and www.bestbear.co.uk/resources/documents/childminding-forum-response-to-more-great-childcare.pdf (accessed 10 January 2014 ).
    Nias, J. , Southworth, G. and Yeomans, R. ( 1989 ) Staff Relationships in the Primary School. London: Cassell.
    Northouse, P. G. ( 2010 ) Leadership: Theory and Practice (
    edition). London: SAGE.
    Nutbrown, C. ( 2012 ) Foundations for Quality: The Independent Review of Early Education and Childcare Qualifications – Final Report. Runcorn: Department for Education.
    OECD (no date) The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Available at: www.oecd.org/about/ (accessed 29 April 2015 ).
    OECD ( 2001 ) Starting Strong: Early Childhood Education and Care. Paris: OECD.
    OECD ( 2006 ) Starting Strong II: Early Childhood Education and Care. Paris: OECD.
    OECD ( 2011 ) Starting Strong III: A Quality Toolbox for Early Childhood Education and Care. Paris: OECD.
    OECD ( 2015 ) Starting Strong IV: Monitoring Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care. Paris: OECD.
    Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) ( 2014 ) Are You Ready? Good Practice in School Readiness. London: Ofsted.
    Osgood, J. ( 2004 ) ‘Time to get down to business?’, Journal of Early Childhood Research, 2 (1): 524.
    Osgood, J. ( 2006 ) ‘Professionalism and performativity: the feminist challenge facing early years practitioners’, Early Years: An International Journal of Research and Development, 26 (2): 18799.
    Osgood, J. ( 2012 ) Narratives from the Nursery: Negotiating the Professional Identities in Early Childhood. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Owen, H. ( 2000 ) In Search of Leaders. Chichester: Wiley.
    Payler, J. and Georgeson, J. ( 2014 ) ‘Qualifications and quality in the early years foundation stage’, in J. Moyles , J. Payler and J. Georgeson (eds), Early Years Foundations: Critical Issues. Maindenhead: McGraw-Hill Education, pp. 5264.
    Pedler, M. , Burgoyne, J. and Boydell, T. ( 2004 ) Managers’ Guide to Leadership. London: McGraw-Hill.
    Pemberton, S. ( 2006 ) ‘Quietly far reaching: the influence of the mentor during the first year of the NPQICL Rollout 2005/2006’ (unpublished Master’s dissertation, Pen Green Leadership Centre).
    Penn, H. ( 2010 ) ‘Shaping the future: how human capital arguments about investment in early childhood are being (mis)used in poor countries’, in N. Yelland (ed.), Contemporary Perspective on Early Childhood Education. Maidenhead: Open University Press, pp. 4965.
    Penn, H. ( 2011a ) ‘Gambling on the market: the role of for-profit provision in early childhood education and care’, Journal of Early Childhood Research, 9 (2): 15061.
    Penn, H. ( 2011b ) Quality in Early Childhood Services. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.
    Pound, L. ( 2011 ) Influencing Early Childhood Education: Key Figures, Philosophies and Ideas. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill/Open University Press.
    Ransom, H. ( 2013 ) ‘More Great Childcare’: Survey of NCB Early Years Networks. London: National Children’s Bureau.
    Roberts-Holmes, G. ( 2014 ) ‘The “datafication” of early years pedagogy: “if the teaching is good, the data should be good and if there’s bad teaching, there is bad data”’, Journal of Education Policy, 30 (3): 113.
    Rodd, J. ( 1998 ) Leadership in Early Childhood: The Pathway to Professionalism (
    edition). Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
    Rodd, J. ( 2006 ) Leadership in Early Childhood (
    edition). Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Rodd, J. ( 2012 ) Leadership in Early Childhood: The Pathway to Professionalism (
    edition). Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Rogers, C. ( 1951 ) Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications and Theory. London: Constable.
    Rosenthal, L. ( 2004 ) ‘Do school inspections improve school quality? Ofsted inspections and school examination results in the UK’, Economics of Education Review, 23 (2): 14351.
    Rosenthal, M. K. ( 2003 ) ‘Quality in early childhood education and care: a cultural context’, European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 11 (2): 10116.
    Royston, S. and Rodrigues, L. ( 2013 ) Breaking Barriers: How to Help Children’s Centres Reach Disadvantaged Families. London: The Children’s Society [online]. Available at: www.childrenssociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/tcs/breaking_barriers_report.pdf (accessed 1 October 2013 ).
    Ruch, G. ( 2002 ) ‘From triangle to spiral: reflective practice in social work education, practice and research’, Social Work Education, 21 (2): 199216.
    Saltiel, D. ( 2003 ) ‘Teaching research and practice on a post qualifying child care programme’, Social Work Education, 22 (1): 10511.
    Sammons, P. , Sylva, K. , Melhuish, E. C. , Siraj-Blatchford, I. , Taggart, B. , Toth, K. and Smees, R. ( 2014 ) Influences on Students’ GCSE Attainment and Progress at Age 16: Effective Pre-school, Primary and Secondary Education 3–16 Project (EPPSE 3–16). London: Institute of Education and Department for Education. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/351496/RR354_-_Students__educational_and_developmental_outcomes_at_age_16.pdf (accessed 1 May 2015 ).
    Schön, D. ( 1983 ) The Reflective Practitioner. New York: Basic Books.
    Selbie, P. , Blakemore, L. , Farley, C. and Campbell-Barr, V. ( 2015 ) ‘Britain: a complex mix of philosophy and politics’, in V. Campbell-Barr and J. Georgeson (eds), International Perspectives on Early Years Workforce Development. Northwich: Critical Publishing, pp. 1426.
    Sheppard, M. ( 1995 ) Care Management and the New Social Work: A Critical Analysis. London: Whiting & Birch.
    Sinclair, R. ( 2004 ) ‘Participation in practice: making it meaningful, effective and sustainable’, Children and Society, 18 (2): 10618.
    Siraj-Blatchford, I. and Manni, L. ( 2007 ) Effective Leadership in the Early Years Sector: The ELEYS Study (Issues in Practice). London: Institute of Education.
    Smith, P. ( 1992 ) Emotional Labour of Nursing. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Solly, K. ( 2003 ) ‘What do early childhood leaders do to maintain and enhance the significance of the early years?’, Paper presented at the Institute of Education, University of London, 22 May.
    Sommer, D. , Pramling Samuelsson, I. and Hundeide, K. ( 2013 ) ‘Early childhood care and education: a child perspective paradigm’, European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 21 (4): 45975.
    Spencer, B. and Dubiel, J. ( 2013 ) ‘Inspecting and evaluating the quality and standards of early years and childcare provision’, in G. Pugh and B. Duffy (eds), Contemporary Issues in the Early Years (
    edition). London: SAGE, pp. 7388.
    Stroebe, M. S. and Schut, H. ( 1999 ) ‘The Dual Process Model of coping with bereavement: rationale and description’, Death Studies, 23 (3): 197224.
    Sumsion, J. ( 2006 ) ‘The corporatization of Australian childcare: towards an ethical audit and research agenda’, Journal of Childhood Research, 4 (2): 99120.
    Syed, J. ( 2008 ) ‘From transgression to suppression: implications of moral values and societal norms on emotional labour’, Gender, Work and Organisation, 15 (2): 185201.
    Sylva, K. , Siraj-Blatchford, I. and Taggart, B. ( 2010 ) Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Extension to ECERS-E. London: Trentham Books.
    Sylva, K. , Melhuish, E. , Sammons, P. , Siraj-Blatchford, I. and Taggart, B. ( 2004 ) The Effective Provision of Pre-school Education (EPPE) Project: Final Report – A Longitudinal Study Funded by the DfES 1997–2004. London: Institute of Education, University of London/Department for Education and Skills/Sure Start.
    Sylva, K. , Melhuish, E. , Sammons, P. , Siraj-Blatchford, I. and Taggart, B. with Smees, R. , Welcomme, W. and Hollingworth, K. ( 2014 ) Students’ Educational and Developmental Outcomes at Age 16: Effective Pre-School, Primary and Secondary Education (EPPSE 3-16) Project. London: Department for Education.
    Taggart, G. ( 2011 ) ‘Don’t we care? The ethics and emotional labour of early years professionalism’, Early Years: An International Research Journal, 31 (1): 8595.
    Tannenbaum, R. and Schmidt, W. ( 1958 ) ‘How to choose a leadership pattern’, Harvard Business Review, 36 (2): 95101.
    Tanner, E. , Welsh, E. and Lewis, J. ( 2006 ) ‘The quality-defining process in early years services: a case study’, Children & Society, 20 (1): 416.
    Teaching Agency (TA) ( 2013 ) Teacher Standards (Early Years). London: Teaching Agency.
    Telford, H. ( 1996 ) Transforming Schools through Collaborative Leadership. London: Falmer Press.
    Tobin, J. ( 2005 ) ‘Quality in early childhood education: an anthropologist’s perspective’, Early Education and Development, 16 (4): 42134.
    Torrance, D. ( 2013 ) ‘Distributed leadership: challenging five generally held assumptions’, School Leadership & Management: Formerly School Organisation, 33 (4): 35472.
    Tuckman, B. ( 1965 ) ‘Developmental sequence in small groups’, Psychological Bulletin, 63 (6): 38499.
    Urban, M. ( 2008 ) ‘Dealing with uncertainty: challenges and possibilities for the early childhood profession’, European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 16 (2): 13552.
    Vecchio, R. ( 2003 ) ‘Entrepreneurship and leadership: common trends and common threads’, Human Resource Management Review, 13: 30327.
    Vincent, C. , Braun, A. and Ball, S. J. ( 2008 ) ‘Childcare, choice and social class: caring for young children in the UK’, Critical Social Policy, 28 (1): 526.
    West-Burnham, J. , Farrar, M. and Otero, G. ( 2007 ) Schools and Communities: Working Together to Transform Children’s Lives. London: Network Continuum.
    Whalley, M. ( 2006 ) ‘Leadership in integrated centres and services for children and families: a community development approach – engaging with the struggle’, Childrenz Issues: Journal of the Children’s Issues Centre, 10 (2): 813.
    Wickett, K. and Selbie, P. ( 2015 ) ‘Providing an enabling environment’, in R. Parker-Rees and C. Leeson (eds), Early Childhood Studies: An Introduction to the Study of Children’s Worlds and Children’s Lives (
    edition). London: SAGE pp. 8598.
    Wincott, D. ( 2004 ) Devolution, Social Democracy and Policy Diversity in Britain: The Case of Childcare and Early Years Policies. Available at: www.ippr.org/assets/media/uploadedFiles/ipprnorth/events/2004/sem1-paper%20on%20childcare.pdf (accessed 14 August 2014 ).
    Woodrow, C. and Busch, G. ( 2008 ) ‘Repositioning early childhood leadership as action and activism’, Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 16 (1): 8393.
    Wright, L. ( 2008 ) ‘Merits and limitations of distributed leadership: experiences and understandings of school principals’, Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 69: 133.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website