Public Relations in India: New Tasks and Responsibilities


J. V. Vilanilam

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    Dedicated to Professor PETER F. DRUCKER, I've never met him;

    I wish I had.

    Genius overflows national boundaries.

    Admiration is passion not short-lived

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    List of Abbreviations

    AIPACAmerican-Israel Public Affairs Committee
    APLAbove Poverty Line
    ATCAmerican Tobacco Company
    ATRAction-taken reports
    B&MGFBill and Melinda Gates Foundation
    BPLBelow Poverty Line
    CCOChief Communications Officer
    CNNCable News Network
    COMSATCommunications Satellite
    CSSCredit and Semester System
    DGPDirector-General of Police
    DTPDesktop Publishing
    EDTElectronic Data Transfer
    GoMGroup of Ministers
    HDIHuman Development Index
    HPHewlett Packard
    HRAHouse Rent Allowance
    ICTInformation and Communication Technology
    IIMCIndian Institute of Mass Communication
    INMARSATInternational Maritime Satellite Organisation
    IRCIndia Resource Centre
    JNNURMJawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission
    LSGLocal Self Government
    MGNREGSMahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
    MKSSMazdoor Kisan Sabha Sanghatan
    MNCMultinational Corporation
    MoUMemorandum of Understanding
    MSpMinimum Support Price
    NCFNational Commission on Farming
    NREGSNational Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
    OB VansOutdoor broadcasting vans
    ONCOwn Nation's Company
    OPHIOxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative
    OSHAOccupational Safety and Health Act
    PDSPublic Distribution System
    PRPublic Relations
    PRCIPublic Relations Council of India
    PRIPanchayati Raj Institutions
    PROPublic Relations Officer
    PRSAPublic Relations Society of America
    PRSIPublic Relations Society of India
    PRSSAPublic Relations Student Society of America
    PURAProvision of Urban Facilities in Rural Areas
    SEZSpecial Economic Zones
    TIRCTobacco Industry Research Committee
    UCCUnion Carbide Corporation
    UCILUnion Carbide India Limited
    UNAWEEUnited Nations Agency for Women's Equality and Empowerment
    UPAUnited Progressive Alliance
    UNDPUnited Nations Development Programme


    Public Relations or PR, like charity, begins at home! Yes, for us, home is India. And India has a PR problem. On the one hand, it is a rich, technically advanced country with a few billionaires and many millionaires; on the other, it is a country with a huge mass of poor, illiterate and unhealthy people. Can we do something to change this situation? Can the public and private sector PR do something about it?

    According to a recent interview that Hasan Suroor of The Hindu had with Sabina Alkire, Director of the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), ‘Poverty in at least eight states—Bihar, UP, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Orissa, MP, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand—is worse than (that) in some of the poorest countries of sub-Saharan Africa’ (The Hindu, 20 July 2010).

    We shall go into the details of poverty in India during the course of the book but it is one of the assumptions of this study that PR in the modern world must have new social responsibilities including poverty removal not only in India but in the entire world.

    Since modern PR is a branch of management, people think they have to ‘exercise’ PR only in the business management or corporate environment to gain attention, communicate or even propagate certain ideas, win popular support or get things done in an easy manner without opposition, but with full accord, from the different ‘publics’ of the firm, factory or organization.

    But if we look at the history of management itself, we find that the first organized attempts at winning individual or group consent were made in 400 BC when Cyrus recognized the need for human relations.

    Large parts of Jesus’ public interactions in Capernaum, Galilee and Jerusalem were based on his intense interest in the human beings he was meeting. Many of his parables are, in a way, gems in human relations.

    In the 16th century, Niccolo Machiavelli relied on the mass consent principle and recognized the need for unity and cohesion in organizations; he even listed leadership qualities. Robert Owen in New Lanark (Scotland) built clean row homes for workers in the early part of the 19th century. He stressed the need for personnel practices and applied them in the work situation winning the consent of his colleagues. He also took up the responsibility of training workers. Charles Babbage, the father of computer concepts, cost accounting and the designing of the big computer machine in the first half of the 19th century, is also known for his interest in the effect of various colours on employee efficiency.

    In more modern times, many great inventors, thinkers and business organizers devoted time and money for developing systems that helped the welfare, comforts, efficiency and socio-economic advancement of workers. The science of management progressed steadily into well-respected and systematic courses of study in colleges and universities in many parts of the Western world. Towards the end of the 19th century, the science of management became established, especially after the establishment of the first college in business management by Joseph Wharton in 1881.

    Scientific management became more organized when Frederick W. Taylor evolved systems applications, personnel management, etc., and vigorously spoke about the need for cooperation between labour and management, higher wages, equal and just distribution and allocation of work, time and methods of study, emphasis on research, improvement of working conditions, particularly in light of the working environment.

    Make no mistake that these early excursions into different related and unrelated fields by many brilliant people in several parts of the world led to a general awareness about the need for cementing the relations between the workers and the management. Attempts by Henry L. Gantt, for example, to streamline the bonus system and humanistic approach to labour led to improvements in, and principles of, efficiency and recognition of the need for applying scientific management to offices and outfits of production.

    From the beginning of the 20th century, important industrial scientists, sociologists, psychologists, technologists and philosophers discussed diverse applications of scientific management: the role of psychology in the organization and management of labour; statistics and probability theory and quality control; sampling theory; sociological concept of group endeavour; emphasis on social psychology and research in human relations in organization theory (particularly by Max Weber and others towards the middle of the 20th century); systems analysis and information theory in management (Norbert Wiener and Claude Shannon); human relations, particularly human behaviour in decision making, managerial communication, management tasks, responsibilities and practices (Drucker, 1974) and finally reaching the first decade of the 21st century.

    But throughout these modern decades, we have been getting insights by management gurus that PR is a management function, a top function in an organization and it should be given such a special status and special treatment by government and non-government organizations, top management and business executives in private and public sectors in all countries.

    Management in the era of globalization (roughly starting in the 1990s) has special responsibilities because of the globalization of tasks, responsibilities and decision-making. Public Relations, therefore, has to give special consideration to the political, socio-economic, and cultural conditions of each country or region since the application of some universally designed principle of management or theory of development will not apply to individual countries or regions.

    The era of colonialism and central authority is over—hopefully, once and for all—a matter that should engage the attention of all management experts. Establishment of a global shopping centre was the romance of the roaring 1990s; the bad consequences were seen in cola-colonization and its total failure in regions where drinking water was a burning issue, particularly in areas where water was an extremely scarce commodity, where rivers were (and still are) being polluted and dried up and where global warming wreaked its havoc.

    If PR has to function effectively as a solid management discipline aimed to promote efficiency of production and distribution it has to stop being a ‘gimmick’ and start being a truth-based gripping, absorbing idea for the public, and the people of a particular land aiming their entire development work to fulfill their basic needs. Otherwise PR will continue to be monopolized by messages blowing in from outside crying for legitimizing lifestyles alien to the local people. In other words, PR must become indigenous.

    An approach to PR that appeals to the top 10 per cent of the population of a country can flourish for a while but it will fade away, as it is not rooted in the basic needs of the other 90 per cent. Thus, PR must be viewed as a development tool that will initiate socio-economic changes that will lead to the creation of a new society based on the noble principles enshrined in the Constitution of our highly-populated country.

    This book examines PR as a management function for the attainment of social, economic and political goals. It gives details about the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA), Public Relations Society of India (PRSI) and the Public Relations Council of India (PRCI).

    After conceptualizing the special tasks and responsibilities of PR in India—a country that throbs on the threshold of a Commencement Ceremony before graduating into a ‘developed’ country with its own symbol for its currency in the international arena of monetary exchange—and weighing the social goals of business from the Druckerian angle, the book traces the history of PR in the Western world and in India. It gives case studies and practical examples of PR writing and PR concepts applicable to India with due attention on the latest techniques and gadgets utilized in PR practice. Considerable attention is given to internal and external PR, satellite and international communication and cross-cultural communication.

    Appendices present the top PR agencies of the world, the commonly confused words and phrases and a list of commonly misspelt words—valuable tools for any writer, especially PR writers.

    I record my deep appreciation for the help given as usual by my life-partner, Annie J. Vilanilam, and our granddaughter, Sheila. I am obliged to Mr Sino Thomas for his excellent services on the computer.

    Last but not least, a big Shukriya to Dr Sugata Ghosh and Ms Elina Majumdar of the SAGE family for their generous suggestion that I could confidently write a book on PR.

    31 July 2010

  • Appendices

    Appendix A

    Appendix B
    Commonly Confused Words


    To ‘adapt’ something is to change it for a purpose. ‘Some people try to adapt the Constitution for their own special needs!’

    ‘Adept’ is an adjective meaning highly skilled.

    To ‘adopt’ means to accept into the family. To adopt something means to take control or possession of it. ‘He adopted the Gandhian ideals at a very young age.’


    Both words can be used as verbs, and also as nouns. But ‘affect’ as a noun may be reserved for psychologists and writers on psychological matters; affect as a verb means ‘to influence’. For example, ‘His decision to settle in Qatar affected the artists and others in India’. The idea can be expressed using ‘effect’ as a noun as follows: ‘The effect of his decision to settle in Qatar was considerable among artists and others in India’.

    The verb, ‘effect’ can be used as follows: ‘The new Director effected important changes in our office procedures’. As a noun, ‘The effect of the herb was not great’.


    The first, a phrase, means that everything is ready. ‘We are all ready for the trip to Kanyaakumaar'i, and our driver is already here.

    Already’ is an adverb; and ‘all ready’ is an adjectival phrase.


    ‘Allusion’ is a passing reference; ‘illusion’ is something that deceives by creating a false impression.

    ‘His supposed godly powers are pointed out in several allusions in the work. But in the end, readers get a clear indication that the powers are just an illusion.’


    ‘Amount’ is singular and it cannot be counted. It is a mass word, whereas ‘number’ can be used as a plural noun in the phrase, ‘A number of women who go to her room return with a heavenly smile! The women's debt of gratitude amounts to a great deal’. Do not say, ‘the amount of people in the hall…’.

    6. ANGRY, MAD

    ‘Angry’ is angry, it is never ‘mad’. Do not use ‘mad’ for ‘angry’ in serious writing because it has the meaning of mental derangement. But you can say: ‘She was so angry that she almost went mad when she found him stealing a kiss from that woman.’


    ‘Beside’ means ‘by the side of’. ‘Besides’ means ‘also’ or ‘in addition to’.

    ‘We sat beside the waters of Jordan and sang some old songs.’ ‘He is highly educated; besides he is handsome!’

    ‘Besides her father and her elder sister, nobody stood beside her at the wedding.’

    8. BORN, BORNE

    ‘Borne’ is the past participle of ‘bear’ (to carry something heavy). He entitled his autobiography: ‘I have borne much’. ‘Although born to parents who belonged to the orthodox tradition, he followed the heterodox path even from his boyhood days’.


    ‘Compare’ means either make a comparison or liken. To compare something with something else is to make a comparison between them; the comparison may show either a resemblance or a difference. To compare means to assert a resemblance between two things. A simple example in poetry is: ‘Her face is like the full moon’ (simile). Similes and metaphors are two figures of speech that help comparisons and contrasts. The example for simile already given here can be re-stated as a metaphor: ‘Her face is the full moon in April.’

    Contrast emphasizes differences: ‘The lecturer contrasted the bravery of the Bohemians with the timidity of the Timbuctans.’


    ‘Complement’ means something that completes or accompanies; ‘compliment’ is an expression of praise.

    ‘As a complement to the sports complex, a facility for sauna bath was provided. The Minister for Sports & Games complimented the University Physical Director for completing the Project in record time.’


    ‘Continual’ means occurring at intervals; ‘continuous’ means uninterrupted. For example, ‘The ambulance sounded the alarm continually, but its lights shone continuously’.


    ‘Convince’ means win agreement; ‘persuade’ means move to action. ‘If he could convince her that he was honest, he could even persuade her to marry him.’


    Some writers make the mistake of equating these two terms, but there is a world of difference between them. ‘Disinterested’ means impartial. It does not mean ‘uninterested’. ‘A judge must be disinterested, but not uninterested.’


    ‘Doubtful’ means having doubts. Some distinctions are ‘dubious’; they are not distinctions but a shame. For example, the statement that India is a country ‘with the largest slums in the world’, ensuring that she won an Oscar for ‘Slum Dog Millionaires’ is a dubious distinction, a left-handed compliment.


    ‘Eminent’ means prominent; immanent means ‘of the mind’, subjective, remaining within, inherent. ‘Imminent’ means ‘about to occur soon’.

    We have an ‘eminent’ economist as our Prime Minister. ‘Immanent’ is used in relation to the mind. ‘Imminent’ means impending. ‘The dark heavy clouds indicate that a storm is imminent.’


    ‘Enormity’ means ‘atrociousness’. The word you need in most circumstances is ‘enormousness’. Enormous means ‘big’. ‘The enormousness of the elephant startles you, but not its enormity. The elephants are gentle most of the time, and they play in the rain with children on Kerala's high-lanes and by-lanes!’


    ‘Few’ means almost nil. ‘Few people attended the classes on that day because there was a “hartal” but a few sat sipping tea at the canteen.’

    This means there was almost none in classes but there were some students in the canteen.

    ‘Little’ did he know about this. (He did not know anything at all, practically.) ‘But when he began to notice some girls moving to the canteen, he became a little wiser and cancelled his class!’


    To flaunt means to display arrogantly: ‘The man flaunted his superior wisdom, but she was not impressed. She did not want to flout her earlier resolution to remain aloof from him.’

    19. GOOD, WELL

    In India, we ask: ‘What's your good name’. Unless you have two names, one good and the other bad, you shouldn't be asked this question. This is a literal translation of a Hindi colloquialism, it seems. Aap ka s'ubh naam kya hei? This may be idiomatic in Hindi, but the question when asked in English, becomes ridiculous, to say the least.

    ‘Looking at her, he said with great enthusiasm: ‘Vow, you're looking good tonight’. Embarrassed, she retorted: ‘Don't be foolish. You've seen me umpteen times…’ and walked away.

    He did not hear her whisper, ‘You look well after your recent hospitalization’.

    ‘Looking good’ means ‘making a pleasant impression’. ‘Looking well’ means ‘not looking sick’.


    To be ‘ignorant’ of something means not to know something. Even Sir Isaac Newton was ignorant in that sense, because he knew nothing about the Theory of Relativity.

    To be ‘stupid’ means to be mentally incapable of learning: ‘He was unpardonably ignorant because stupidity made him assume an air of superiority’.


    ‘Imaginary’ means unreal or imagined. ‘Imaginative’ means ‘showing imagination’. Do not say, ‘His plans are imaginary’, that is, if you want to pay a compliment to him.

    22. IMPLY, INFER

    To imply means ‘to mean’, to leave an impression. ‘Infer’ means to make a reading of the situation. ‘She implied that she would stay, but her nervousness indicated that she would rather leave than stay for the late-night party—that's what I could infer.’

    23. IT'S, ITS

    ‘It's’ is a contraction for ‘it is’. ‘It's a beautiful day.’

    ‘Its’ is the possessive form of ‘it’. Unlike usual forms of possessives, ‘its’ does not have an apostrophe after ‘it’. ‘The brightness of the day heightens its beauty.’

    24. LAY, LIE, LAID, LIED

    Lay is the past tense form of lie. ‘He lay on the couch and she sat on the floor.’ She told him a big lie when she said that she could not see the TV from where she sat. He wondered why she lied to him. She was angry that he called her a liar, but he did not care.’

    He said that the book ‘lay’ on the teapoy. She wanted to know who laid the book there, but he did not answer. Quietly she placed the book on the bookstand, murmuring ‘everything has a time and place!’ He looked at her with amusement writ large on his countenance. She did not look at him. Instead, she went into the kitchen ‘to lay’ the duster in a corner.

    25. MANY, MUCH

    ‘Many’ people sat through the speech without showing ‘much’ interest in it.

    Do not say, ‘There were much people at the meeting!’ Always say, ‘There were many people at the meeting.’

    26. ORAL, VERBAL

    ‘Oral’ means by mouth. ‘This medicine should be taken orally twice a day.’

    ‘Verbal’ means in words—in speech or in writing, not visual. Do not say, ‘verbal presentation’ because presentation implies oral, that is, in reading/speech.


    ‘Persecute’ means ‘mistreat’ whereas ‘prosecute’ means ‘to bring to trial’.

    Poverty is often the cause for persecution. But poor people are not persecuted only for poverty; they are put to untold trouble if they belong to a low caste, and if they are landless, jobless and especially, if they are women and children.

    The trouble-makers are prosecuted, if caught.


    To ‘precede’ is to go ahead of; to proceed is to go forward.

    ‘The legislators preceded the Speaker at the Assembly meeting. When they took their assigned seats, the Governor and the Speaker proceeded to the dais (pronounced days not dayas).’


    ‘Replace’ takes as its object the item being abandoned. For example, ‘Ms Elizabeth Vergis replaced her old Contessa with a new Nano’.

    The same idea can be expressed using ‘substituted’ first: ‘Ms Vergis substituted a new Nano for her old Contessa’.


    Do not use one for the other, you will be in trouble.

    Sensual means sexual, voluptuous, etc., whereas sensuous means ‘of the senses’, ‘beautiful’, ‘receptive’, etc., (a respectable distance from sex).

    D.H. Laurence and Henry Miller have written sensual novels; Keats and Shelley have written sensuous odes.

    31. WHO'S, WHOSE

    ‘Who's’ is a contraction for ‘Who Is’ (Like It's), whereas Whose indicates possessive form of who.

    ‘Who's Coming to Dinner?’ (meaning ‘Who Is Coming to Dinner?’, title of an old American movie).

    Whose motorcycle is this? (Who owns this motorcycle?)

    32. YOU'RE, ‘YOUR’

    ‘You're’ is a contraction for ‘You Are’, whereas your is the possessive form of you. Peering into her eyes, he whispered: ‘Dear, you're beautiful!’

    ‘Why, dear?’ she asked him with some expectation.

    ‘Your glasses are shapely!’ he replied.

    Appendix C
    A List of Commonly Misspelled (Misspelt) Words, Correctly Spelt (Spelled) for You


    Accommodate; acknowledgment; adolescence; advice (noun in British English)∗∗; advise (both verb, in American English; but noun and verb in American English), aging/ageing; all right; altar (noun, at the church); alter (verb, meaning change); always, altogether; analysis (singular noun); analyses (plural of analysis); analyse (British), analyze (American); Antarctica, Arctic Ocean; athlete (person), athletic (adjective); athletics


    Benefit, benefiting; bigot; bigoted; billionaire; breadth (length and breadth); breath (noun), pronounced ‘breth’); breathe (verb) pronounced ‘breeth’; breath-analyzer (an instrument used by the traffic police to detect if a driver is under the influence of alcohol; pronounced ‘breth’-analyzer); bureau; business; busyness (being busy)


    Cafeteria (two e's after initial ‘a’); calendar; capital (city); capitol (state house); category; ceiling; cellular (pronounce with a short ‘a’); cemetery; changeable; choose (verb), use two ‘o's; chose (past tense of ‘choose’); chord (tones); cord (rope); cite (verb, meaning mention); sight (view, eyesight); site (location); climactic (relating to climax); climatic (relating to climate); coarse (rough, coarse cloth); color (American); colour (British); course (direction), course (what you take up for study); commit; committee; competent; concomitant; conscience; conscientious; conscious; consistent; consistency; consummate; control; controlled; controlling; controversy; coolly; corollary; correlate; corroborate; counterfeit; criticism; criticize (British); criticize (American)


    Dairy (pronounced ‘dai-ry’ rhyming with ‘fairy’); diary (is the small note-book) (You cannot get milk from ‘diary’ but you can, from MILMA DAIRY); dais (pronounced ‘days’ not ‘dias’. Dias, like D'Cruz happens to be the last name of a person. For example, Shri Dias of Kollam, Kerala, nominated to the Kerala Legislative Assembly); deceive; defendant; defence (British); defense (American); deity; deleterious; desperate; desperation; die, dying (expiring); dye (colour); dilapidated; discipline; dual (double); duel (fight); duly; dynamic


    Ecstasy; eighth; elicit (draw forth); illicit (unlawful); emanate; embarrass, embarrassed, embarrassing; embrace; embracing; envelop (surround); envelope (for mailing); environment; equip; equipped; equipment (Note: There is no word ‘equipments’, the plural is ‘pieces of equipment’); evenness; exaggerate (pronounced ‘exajerate’); exhilarate; existence; exonerate; exorbitant; exhort; extraordinary


    Fallacy; familiar; fascinate; fascist; fascism (pronounced ‘faashism’) faze (daunt); phase (period); February; fiend; fiery, focused (American); focussed (British); forbear (refrain); forebear (ancestor); forehead; foresee; foreseeable; foreword (preface); forward (ahead); forfeit; forgo; forty; fourth; friend; fulfil (British); fulfill (American); fulsome; futilely


    Gases; gauge; glamour (American and British); glamorous; grammar; grammatically; greenness; grievance; grievous; gruesome; guarantee; guard (pronounced ‘gaard’)


    handkerchief; hangar (for airplanes); hanger (for shirts and pants); harangue; harass; heroes; heterogeneous; hindrance; homogeneous; honest, honesty

    (pronounced as ‘onest’ and ‘onesty’; hoping, hypocrisy; hypocrite (pronounced ‘hipocrit’; it is a noun, used for a person; adjectival form is ‘hypocritical’, and the quality of being a hypocrite is hypocrisy (pronounced hipawcrisy); but hypochondria is pronounced ‘hipucondria’, although hypothesis is pronounced ‘hypothesis’


    Idiosyncrasy; imagery; inadvertent; incidentally; indestructible; indispensable; infinitely; innuendo; inoculate; interrupt; irrelevant; irreparable; irreparably; irreplaceable; irresistible, italics (prounounced as ‘It-alics’, ‘it-alicise’, etc.)


    Jeopardy (pronounced ‘jepardy’, with a short ‘a’); judgment (American); judgement (British)


    Knell; knit; knoll; know; knowledge; knowledgeable (in all these words, ‘k’ is silent)


    Laboratory; lead (noun, pronounced ‘led’; a metal); lead (verb pronounced ‘leed’); led (verb, past tense of lead); legitimate; leisure; lessen (to reduce); lesson (teaching); library; licence (British); license (American); lightening (getting lighter); lightning (flash); loath (reluctant); loathe (despise); loathsome; loneliness; loose (slack); lose (mislay); losing; lying


    Maintenance; maneuver (American); manouever (British); manual; marriage; marshal (verb and noun); marshaled (American); marshalled (British); marshaling (American), marshalling (British); material (pertaining to matter); materiel (military supplies); mathematics; medicine; memento; millennium; millionaire; mimic; mimicked; mimicry; miner (one who works in the mines); minor (as noun, one who has not attained majority); minor (adjective, small, lesser); mischief, mischievous; missile; moral (ethical); morale (confidence, pronounced ‘moraal’); mortgage


    Naval (nautical, pertaining to the Navy); navel (bellybutton); necessary; nickel; niece; noncommittal; noticeable; noticing


    Occasion; occur, occurred, occurring, occurrence; omit, omitted, omitting, omission; opportunity, opportunities; optimist; ordinance (Legislative Assembly); ordnance (explosives)


    Pajamas; parallel; paralleled; paralyse, paralysis, paralyze; parliament; passed (went by); past (previous); pastime; peace, (tranquillity, British); tranquility (American); piece (part); perceive; perennial; perfectible; perfectibility; perform; performance; permanent; permissible; personal (individual); personnel (employees, often pronounced with stress on the last ‘e’ to distinguish it from ‘personal’); perspiration; phony; physical; physician; playwright; pleasant; pleasurable; possess, possession; practically, practice (noun, British and American), practise (verb, British noun and American verb); pray (verb-implore); prayer (noun); prey (noun and verb, meaning victim, victimize); principal (adjective and noun), principal of a school/college); principle (only as noun, meaning ‘rule’) (for example, ‘The Principal's action is based on a principle.’); privilege; probably; professor; pronunciation; propaganda; propagate; prophecy (noun, meaning prediction); prophesy (verb, predict); prostate (gland); prostrate (verb meaning, fall at the feet of, adjective, prone); psychiatry; psychology; pumpkin; pursue, pursuit; putrefy


    Quisling (noun, meaning a betrayer of the nation, politically, militarily); quiz, quizzes, quizzical


    Rack (framework); wrack (ruin); wreck (accidental destruction as in ‘shipwreck’); wreak (pronounced ‘reek’); rain; rein (restrain); reign (rule); rarefied; receipt (pronounced receet, without the ‘p’ sound); recognizable; recommend; refer, referred, referring; regretted, regretting; relevance, relevant; relieve; remembrance; reminisce; repellent; repentance; repetition; resistance; restaurant; rhythm; ridiculous; roommate


    sacrilegious; said; schedule (pronounced ‘skedule’ in American English, but ‘shedule’ in British English); secretary; seize; separate; sergeant (pronounced ‘saarjent’); sheriff; shining; shriek; siege; significance; similar; simile; smooth

    (adjective and verb); solely; soliloquy; sophomore (second year in college in a 4-year undergraduate programme); sovereign, sovereignty; specimen; sponsor; stationary (still, not moving); stationery (paper, pen, etc.); strength; stupefy; subtle, subtlety, subtly; succeed; success; succinct; succumb; suffrage; superintendent; supersede; suppose; symmetry; sympathize


    Tariff; temperament; temperature; tendency; their (possessive case of ‘they’); there (at that place); therefore; thinness; thorough; threshold; through; to (towards), too (also); two (one+one); track (path); tract (area); traffic, trafficked, trafficking; tranquil, tranquility; transcendent, transcendental; transfer, transferred, transferring; tries, tried; truly (no ‘e’)


    unconscious; unmistakable, unmistakably; unnecessary; unshakable, unshakeable; utility; utilize, unwieldy


    Vacillate; vacuum; vegetable; vengeance; venomous; vice; vilify, vilification; villain; waive (relinquish), wave (of the sea), waving of the hand (movement); weather (state of the atmosphere); whether (if)


    Wednesday; wield; wintry; withdrawal; withhold; woeful; worldly, unworldly; worshipped (British), worshiped (American), worshipping (British), worshiping (American); wreak (inflict, pronounced as ‘reek’); wreck (ruin, pronounced ‘rek’); write, wrote, writing, written

    Appendix D
    Unprecedented Growth of Indian Newspapers in the New Millennium

    Tables given below are based on the facts and figures given in the 2006–2007 edition (the latest available) of the 51stAnnual Report of the Registrar of Newspapers for India.

    Table D2 Assamese

    In Assamese there was only one big newspaper, having a circulation between 75,000 and 100,000. Its circulation during 2006–2007 was 81,443.

    There was only one periodical in Assamese, with a circulation under 25,000 (the actual figure was 20,833).

    Table D3 Bengali Dailies

    Table D4 Gujarati Dailies

    Table D5 Hindi Dailies

    In total, there are 1,063 dailies with a total circulation of 4.34 crores, in Hindi. This is language with the highest circulation of dailies. May be by 2010, the figures have exceeded 1,100 in number and 5 crores in circulation.

    Table D6 Karnataka Dailie

    Table D7 Malayalam Dailies

    Table D8 Marathi Dailies

    Table D9 Oriya Dailies

    Table D10 Punjabi Dailies

    Table D11 Tamil Dailies

    Table D12 Telugu Dailies

    Table D13 Urdu Dailies

    Table D14 English Dailies and Periodicals in States and Union Territories, 2006–2007 and Their Percentage of Total Dailies and Periodicals in India in Different Languages

    As far as journalism/communication is concerned, there are 23 principal languages, but 15 languages do not have journals and periodicals of significant circulation; nor are there TV/radio channels telecasting and broadcasting in these languages to any large segment of the population. These languages are: Bhojpuri, Dogri, Garhwali, Garo, Halbi, Kashmiri, Konkani, Manipuri, Mizo, Naga, Nepali, Rajasthani, Samskrit, Sindhi and Tulu.

    But it is significant that English newspapers and periodicals are circulating among substantial segments of population in each of the 15 major states as follows.

    The number and circulation of newspapers and periodicals in English in the major states of India are given in Table D14. Table 14 indicates that publications (dailies, weeklies, fortnightlies, monthlies, annuals, quarterlies) in English form 80 per cent in Nagaland, 61.53 per cent in Arunachal Pradesh, 49.5 per cent in Chandigarh, 48.3 per cent in Andaman & Nicobar islands, 35.11 per cent in Delhi, 30.01 per cent in Goa, 28.57 per cent in Meghalaya, 28.4 per cent in Jammu and Kashmir, 25 per cent in Sikkim, 22.55 per cent in Maharashtra, 21.82 per cent in Puducherry, 17.73 per cent in Tamil Nadu and almost 15 per cent each in West Bengal and Karnataka. Barring Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Daman, Diu, Nagar Haveli and Puducherry, 11 of the 28 states of India are full-fledged states where English publications are in high circulation.


    ∗∗ Plural of ‘advice’ is ‘pieces of advice’; similarly, ‘pieces of equipment’ is the plural of ‘equipment’, not ‘equipments’.


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    About the Author

    J.V. Vilanilam was Vice Chancellor (1992–96) and Head of the Department of Communication and Journalism (1982–92), University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. He has taught in several universities and colleges in India and abroad, besides lecturing in universities and colleges in Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Thailand, Hong Kong, Canada and the US during his long teaching and research career spanning about half a century.

    Dr Vilanilam was the first VC of any affiliated university in India to introduce the flexible credit and semester system (CSS) in higher education, which he maintained, would empower both students and faculty.

    Almost all the leading newspapers and periodicals of India have published his articles on topics as varied as literature and communication, history of journalism, journalism education, occupational safety and health, work-related diseases, advertising, rubber technology, etc., besides poems, short stories and light essays.

    Dr Vilanilam has so far published six books through SAGE/Response books and 25 others (both in English and Malayalam) through other publishers during the past 25 years. His publications include: Mass Communication in India: A Sociological Perspective, Advertising Basics (co-author: A. K. Varghese), Communication and Mass Communication in India, and Growth and Development of Mass Communication in India. His website is and email:

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