Psychotherapy and Spirituality: Crossing the Line between Therapy and Religion


William West

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Perspectives on Psychotherapy

    editor: Colin Feltham

    Sheffield Hallam University

    Each book in this challenging and incisive series takes a particular perspective on psychotherapy to place it in its intellectual and cultural context. Disciplines which will be brought to bear in this series will include sociology, anthropology, philosophy, psychology, science and feminism.

    Books in the series

    Philosophy and Psychotherapy

    Edward Erwin

    Psychotherapy and Society

    David Pilgrim

    Feminism and Psychotherapy

    edited by

    I. Bruna Seu and M. Colleen Heenan

    Therapy Across Culture

    Inga-Britt Krause

    Psychotherapy and Science

    Robert Langs

    Psychotherapy and Spirituality

    William West

    Psychotherapy and Politics

    Nick Totton


    View Copyright Page


    I dedicate this book to the memory of my mother Margaret Ethel West (1911–92) who taught me more about spirituality than I usually know.


    Any book like this one that takes a long time to incubate leaves the author struggling with whom to acknowledge. Firstly, this book would never have appeared without the active encouragement and support of my editor Colin Feltham and of Susan Worsey at Sage. My colleagues Dr Henry Hollanders and Mary Berry at the Counselling Research and Training Group at Manchester University were invaluable and very understanding, especially during a period of study leave. The therapists who participated in my researches into therapy, healing and spirituality have made a huge contribution, especially the members of the PsychoSpiritual Initiative, but must inevitably remain anonymous.

    A number of the ideas in this book were thrashed out in doctoral supervision sessions with Professor John McLeod, in seminars with various groups of students, and in presentations at various conferences including SPR (International) at Salt Lake City (1998), the Durham International Counselling Conference (1998) and the BAC Research Conference (1997).

    I have been much influenced by contact with a number of people including: Linda Ankrah, Allen Bergin, Joy Dickinson, David Hay, Enid Hughes, Grace Jantzen, Kate Keogh, Bruce Liese, Fiona Moore, Clark Moustakas, David Orlinsky, Abdullah Popoola, Colin Purcell-Lee, David P. Smith, Richard Summers, Mary Swale (who gave valuable comments and feedback on a late draft of the book), Brian Thorne, Brian Wade and Alex Wildwood, none of whom should be held responsible in any way for the contents.

    Figure 6.1 ‘A multilevel multidimensional assessment strategy’, copyright American Psychological Association 1997, and Table 7.1 ‘Prayer behaviours in order of frequency’, copyright Jessica Rose 1993, are reprinted with permission.

    Finally my thanks to my wife without whom little of this would be possible. During the course of writing this book my daughter Emily Grace was born. She has had a huge impact on my life including my limited grasp of spirituality.

  • References

    Alexander, F. (1931) ‘Buddhist training as artificial catatonia’, Psychoanalytic Review, 18: 129–45.
    Allman, L.S., De La Rocha, O., Elkins, D.N. and Weathers, R.S. (1992) ‘Psychotherapists' attitudes towards clients reporting mystical experiences’, Psychotherapy, 29 (4): 654–69.
    Allport, G.W. and Ross, J.M. (1967) ‘Personal religious orientation and prejudice’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5: 432–43.
    American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,
    4th edn
    (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: APA.
    Assagioli, R. (1986) ‘Self-realisation and psychological disturbance’, Revision, 8 (2): 21–31.
    Barker, E. (1989) New Religious Movements: an Introduction. London: HMSO.
    Bates, B. (1993) ‘Visions of reality in shamanic psychology’, Changes, 11 (3): 223–8.
    Benner, D.G. (1988) Psychotherapy and the Spiritual Quest. Michigan: Baker.
    Bergin, A.E. (1980) ‘Psychotherapy and religious values’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48: 75–105.
    Bergin, A.E. and Jensen, J.P. (1990) ‘Religiosity of psychotherapists: a national survey’, Psychotherapy, 27: 3–7.
    Bilgrave, D.P. and Deluty, R.H. (1998) ‘Religious beliefs and therapeutic orientations of clinical and counseling psychologists’, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 37 (2): 329–49.
    Black, D. (1991) A Place for Exploration: the Story of the Westminster Pastoral Foundation 1969–1990. London: WPF.
    Boorstein, S. (ed.) (1986) Transpersonal Psychotherapy. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books.
    Boucouvalas, M. (1980) ‘Transpersonal psychology: an outline of the field’, Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 12 (10): 37–46.
    Brazier, D. (1996) ‘A Zen response’, Self & Society, 24 (4): 15–18.
    Brierley, P. (1991) Prospects for the Nineties: All England Trends and Tables from the English Church Census, with Denominations and Churchmanships. London: MARC Europe.
    British Association for Counselling (1996) Code of Ethics and Practice for the Supervision of Counsellors. Rugby: BAC.
    Bruce, S. (1995a) Religion in Modem Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Bruce, S. (1995b) ‘The truth about religion in Britain’, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 34 (4): 417–30.
    Buber, M. (1970) I and Thou (1923). Edinburgh: Clark.
    Byrd, R.C. (1988) ‘Positive therapeutic effects of intercessory prayer in coronary care unit population’, Southern Medical Journal, 81: 826–929.
    Capra, F. (1982) The Turning Point. London: Wildwood.
    Carlat, D.J. (1989) ‘Psychological motivation and the choice of spiritual symbols: a case study’, Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 21 (2): 139–48.
    Chaplin, J. (1989) ‘Rhythm and blues’, in W.Dryden and L.Spurling (eds), On Becoming a Psychotherapist. London: Tavistock/Routledge.
    Clark, F.V. (1979) ‘Exploring intuition: prospects and possibilities’, Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 5 (2): 156–70.
    Clarkson, P. (1989) Gestalt Counselling in Action. London: Sage.
    Clarkson, P. (1990) ‘A multiplicity of therapeutic relationships’, British Journal of Psychotherapy, 7 (2): 148–63.
    Claxton, G. (1996) ‘Therapy and beyond: concluding thoughts’, in G.Claxton (ed.), Beyond Therapy: the Impact of Eastern Religions on Psychological Theory and Practice. Dorset: Prism.
    Coleman, M.L. (1958) ‘The paranormal triangle in analytic supervision’, Psychoanalysis and Psychoanalytic Review, 45: 73–84.
    Cooper, D. (1970) Psychiatry and Anti Psychiatry. London: Paladin.
    Courtenay, A. (1991) Healing Now. London: Dent.
    Crabb, L. and Miller, K.D. (1996) The end of Christian psychology?”, Carer and Counsellor, 6 (4): 15–17.
    Cushman, P. (1990) ‘Why the self is empty: towards a historically situated psychology’, American Psychologist, May: 599–611.
    Dandelion, B.P. (1996) A Sociological Analysis of the Theology of Quakers. Lampeter: Mellen.
    Davie, G. (1994) Religion in Britain since 1945. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Deikman, A.J. (1982) The Observing Self: Mysticism and Psychotherapy. Boston: Beacon.
    Denzin, N.K. (1989) Interpretive Interactionism. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    de Silva, P. (1993) ‘Buddhism and counselling’, British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 21 (1): 30–4.
    de Silva, P. (1996) ‘Buddhism and behaviour change: implications for therapy’, in G.Claxton (ed.), Beyond Therapy: the Impact of Eastern Religions on Psychological Theory and Practice. Dorset: Prism.
    DiBlasio, F.A. and Proctor, J.H. (1993) ‘Therapists and the clinical use of forgiveness’, American Journal of Family Therapy, 21 (2): 175–83.
    Donington, L. (1994) ‘Core process psychotherapy’, in D.Jones (ed.), Innovative Therapy: a Handbook. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Dryden, W. and Feltham, C. (eds) (1992) Psychotherapy and its Discontents. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Dryden, W. and Spurling, L. (1989) On Becoming a Psychotherapist. London: Tavistock/Routledge.
    Edwards, G. (1992) ‘Does psychotherapy need a soul?’, in W.Dryden and C.Feltham (eds), Psychotherapy and its Discontents. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Egan, G. (1990) The Skilled Helper,
    4th edn
    . Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Ehrenwald, J. (1954) New Dimensions of Depth Analysis: a Study of Telepathy in Interpersonal Relationships. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Eliade, M. (1960) Myths, Dreams and Mysteries. New York: Harper and Row.
    Eliade, M. (1964) Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Elkins, D.N., Hedstorm, L.J., Hughes, L.L., Leaf, J.A. and Saunders, C. (1988) ‘Towards a humanistic-phenomenological spirituality’, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 28 (4): 5–18.
    Ellenberger, H. (1970) The Discovery of the Unconscious. New York: Basic Books.
    Enright, D. (1996) ‘Counseling within the forgiveness triad: on forgiving, receiving forgiveness, and self-forgiving’, Counsel and Values, 40 (2): 107–26.
    Erikson, E. (1977) Childhood and Society. London: Paladin.
    Farrow, J. (1984) ‘Spirituality and self-awareness’, The Friends Quarterly, July: 312–23.
    Feltham, C. (1995) What is Counselling?London: Sage.
    Ferguson, D.S. (ed.) (1993) New Age Spirituality. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox.
    Fielding, R.G. and Llewelyn, S. (1996) ‘The new religions and psychotherapy: similarities and differences’, in G.Claxton (ed.), Beyond Therapy: the Impact of Eastern Religions on Psychological Theory and Practice. Dorset: Prism.
    Forst, E. and Healy, R.M. (1990) ‘Relationship between self-esteem and religious faith’, Psychological Reports, 67: 378.
    Foskett, J. and Jacobs, M. (1989) ‘Pastoral counselling’, in W.Dryden, D.Charles-Richards and R.Woolfe (eds), Handbook of Counselling in Britain. London: Tavistock/Routledge.
    Foskett, J. and Lyall, D. (1988) Helping the Helpers. London: SPCK.
    Foundation for Inner Peace (1975) A Course in Miracles. Tiburon, CA: FIP.
    Fowler, J.W. (1981) Stages of Faith: the Psychology of Human Development and the Quest for Meaning. New York: Harper and Row.
    Fox, M. (1993) ‘Spirituality for a new era’, in D.S.Ferguson (ed.), New Age Spirituality. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox.
    Frankl, V.E. (1947) The Unconscious God. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Frankl, V.E. (1973) The Doctor and the Soul: from Psychotherapy to Logotherapy. London: Pelican.
    Frankl, V.E. (1978) Man's Search for Meaning. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
    Freud, S. (1933) New Introductory Lectures of Psychoanalysis. London: Hogarth.
    Freud, S. (1963) Civilization and its Discontents. New York: Basic Books.
    Friedman, M. (1993) Religion and Psychotherapy: a Dialogical Approach. New York: Paragon.
    Fromm, E. (1950) Psychoanalysis and Religion. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Fromm, E. (1986) Psychoanalysis and Zen Buddhism. London: Unwin.
    Fuller, R.C. (1984) ‘Rogers's impact on pastoral counseling and contemporary religious reflection’, in R.F.Levant and J.M.Shlien (eds), Client-Centered Therapy and the Person-Centered Approach. New York: Praeger.
    GergenK.J. (1991) The Saturated Self: Dilemmas of Identity in Modem Life. New York: Basic Books.
    Gergen, K.J. (1996) ‘Postmodern society as a concept’, Introductory lecture at International Conference for Psychotherapy, Vienna, July, audiotape.
    Goodman, F.D. (1986) ‘Body posture and the religious altered state of consciousness: an experiential investigation’, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 26 (3): 81–118.
    Graves, R. (1961) The White Goddess: a Historical Grammar of Poetic Myth. London: Faber and Faber.
    Greeley, A.M. (1975) The Sociology of the Paranormal: a Reconnaissance. Beverley Hills, CA: Sage.
    Greenleaf, E. (1978) ‘Active imagining’, in J.L.Singer and K.S.Pope (eds), The Power of Human Imagination: New Methods in Psychotherapy. New York: Plenum.
    Grof, C. and Grof, S. (1986) ‘Spiritual emergency: the understanding and treatment of transpersonal crisis’, Revision, 8 (2): 7–20.
    Grof, S. (1972) ‘Varieties of transpersonal experiences: observations from LSD psychotherapy’, Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 4 (1): 45–80.
    Grof, S. and Grof, C. (1989) Spiritual Emergency. Los Angeles: Tarcher.
    Guest, H. (1989) ‘The origins of transpersonal psychology’, British Journal of Psychology, 6 (1): 62–9.
    Guntrip, H. (1956) Mental Pain and the Cure of Souls. London: Independent.
    Hall, J. (1990) ‘Transformation in counselling’, British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 18 (3): 269–80.
    Hall, J.A. (1984) ‘Dreams and transference/countertransference: the transformative field’, Chiron, a Review of Jungian Analysis.
    Halmos, P. (1965) The Faith of the Counsellors. London: Constable.
    Hardy, A. (1979) The Spiritual Nature of Man. Oxford: Clarendon.
    Hawkins, P. and Shohet, R. (1989) Supervision in the Helping Professions. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Hay, D. (1979) ‘Religious experience among a group of post-graduate students — a qualitative study’, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 18 (2): 164–82.
    Hay, D. (1982). Exploring Inner Space: Scientists and Religious Experience. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Hay, D. and Morisy, A. (1978) ‘Reports of ecstatic, paranormal, or religious experiences in Great Britain and the United States — a comparison of trends’, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 17 (3): 255–68.
    Healey, B.J. (1993) ‘Psychotherapy and religious experience: integrating psychoanalytic psychotherapy with Christian religious experience’, in G.Stricker and J.R.Gold (eds), Comprehensive Handbook of Psychotherapy Integration. New York: Plenum.
    Heelas, P. and Kohn, R. (1996) ‘Psychotherapy and techniques of transformation’, in G.Claxton (ed.), Beyond Therapy: the Impact of Eastern Religions on Psychological Theory and Practice. Dorset: Prism.
    Hendricks, G. and Weinhold, B. (1982) Transpersonal Approaches to Counseling and Psychotherapy. Colorado: Love.
    Herman, N. (1987) Why Psychotherapy?London: Free Association.
    Heron, J. (1992) Feeling and Personhood. London: Sage.
    Heron, J. (1998) Sacred Science: Person-Centred Inquiry into the Spiritual and Subtle. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS.
    Heron, J. and Reason, P. (eds) (1985) Whole Person Medicine. London: British Postgraduate Medical Federation.
    Hillman, J. and Ventura, M. (1992) We've Had a Hundred Years of Psychotherapy and the World's Getting Worse. San Francisco: Harper Collins.
    Hollanders, H. (1997) ‘Eclecticism/integration among counsellors in the light of Kuhn's concept of paradigm formation’. Doctoral thesis, Department of Applied Social Studies, Keele University.
    Hopson, R.E. (1996) ‘The 12—step program’, in E.P.Shafranske (ed.), Religion and the Clinical Practice of Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 533–58.
    Howard, A. (1995) Challenging Counselling and Psychotherapy. London: Macmillan.
    Hughes, G. (1989) Getting Away from It All: a Guide to Retreat Houses and Centres for Spiritual Renewal. Cambridge: Lutterworth.
    Hurding, R. (1985) Roots and Shoots: a Guide to Counselling and Psychotherapy. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
    Isbister, J.N. (1985) Freud: an Introduction to his Life and Work. Cambridge: Polity.
    Jackson, M.L. (1995) ‘Multicultural counseling: historic perspectives’, in J.G.Ponterotto, J.M.Cases, L.A.Suzuki and CM.Alexander (eds), Handbook of Multi Cultural Counseling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    James, W. (1901) The Varieties of Religious Experience. London: Collins.
    Jantzen, G. (1987) Julian of Norwich. London: SPCK.
    Jeff, M. (1987) Spiritual Direction for Every Christian. London: SPCK.
    Jones, D. (1994) Innovative Therapies: a Handbook. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Jones, D. (1996) ‘The psychospiritual: psychospiritual and transpersonal psychotherapies’, Self & Society, 24 (4): 4–6.
    Jung, C.G. (1933) Modem Man in Search of a Soul. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Jung, C.G. (1958) Psychology and Religion. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Jung, C.G. (1967) Memories, Dreams, Reflections. London: Fontana.
    Jung, C.G. (1968) Axon: Researches in the Phenomenology of the Self. London: Routledge.
    Kaberry, S. (1999) ‘Abuse in supervision’, in B.Lawton and C.Feltham (eds), Taking Supervision Forward: Dilemmas, Insights and Trends. London: Sage.
    Kirschenbaum, H. and Henderson, V. (eds) (1990a) The Carl Rogers Reader. London: Constable.
    Kirschenbaum, H. and Henderson, V. (eds) (1990b) Carl Rogers Dialogues. London: Constable.
    Kirschner, S.R. (1996) The Religious and Romantic Origins of Psychoanalysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Krippner, S. (1992) ‘The shamen as healer and psychotherapist’, Voices: the Art and Science of Psychotherapy, Winter: 12–23.
    Krishnamurti, J. (1975) Life Ahead. New York: Harper and Row.
    Kurjo, S. (1988) ‘Humanistic psychology: the new global religion?’, Self & Society, 16 (5): 229–32.
    Lago, C. and Thompson, J. (1996) Race, Culture and Counselling. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Laing, R.D. (1967) The Politics of Experience. New York: Ballantine.
    Laing, R.D. (1972) ‘Metanoia: some experiences at Kingsley Hall, London’, in H.M.Ruitenbeck (ed.), Going Crazy. New York: Bantam.
    Laing, R.D. (1985) Wisdom, Madness and Folly: the Making of a Psychiatrist, 1927–1957. London: Macmillan.
    Lake, F. (1981) Tight Comers in Pastoral Counselling. London: Darton, Longman and Todd.
    Lannert, J.L. (1991) ‘Resistance and countertransference issues with spiritual and religious clients’, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 31 (4): 68–76.
    Lao, Tzu (1963) Tao Te Ching, trans. D.C.Lau. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Laungani, P. (1997) ‘Replacing client-centred counselling with culture-centred counselling’, Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 10 (4): 343–51.
    Lee, C.C. and Armstrong, K.L. (1995) ‘Indigenous models of mental health interventions: lessons from traditional healers’, in J.G.Ponterotto, J.M.Cases, L.A.Suzuki and C.M.Alexander (eds), Handbook of Multicultural Counseling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Leech, K. (1994) Soul Friend. London: Darton, Longman and Todd.
    Levy, J. (1983) ‘Transpersonal and Jungian psychology’, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 23 (2): 42–51.
    Liese, B. (1998) ‘Spirituality and cognitive therapy: a match made in heaven’. Paper to Society for Psychotherapy Research (International) 29th Annual Meeting, 24–28 June, Salt Lake City.
    Linehan, M. and Schmidt, H. (1995) ‘The dialectics of effective treatment of borderline personality disorder’, in W.T.O'Donohue and L.Krasner (eds), Theories of Behavior Therapy: Exploring Behavior Change. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Lovelock, J. (1979) Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Lovinger, R.J. (1984) Working with Religious Issues in Therapy. New York: Aronson.
    Lukoff, D. (1985) ‘The diagnosis of mystical experiences with psychotic features’, Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 17 (2): 155–81.
    Lyall, D. (1995) Counselling in the Pastoral and Spiritual Context. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Mahrer, A.R. (1978) ‘The therapist-patient relationship’, Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 15 (3): 201–15.
    Mahrer, A.R. (1993) ‘Transformational psychotherapy sessions’, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 33 (2): 30–7.
    Maslow, A.H. (1970) Religions, Values, and Peak Experiences. New York: Viking.
    May, R. (1982) ‘The problem of evil: an open letter to Carl Rogers’, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 22 (3): 10–21.
    McCullough, M.E. and Worthington, E.L. (1994) ‘Models of interpersonal forgiveness and their application to counseling: review and critique’, Counseling and Values, 39 (1): 2–14.
    McFadden, J. (1996) ‘A transcultural perspective: reaction to C.H. Patterson's “Multicultural counseling: from diversity to universality”’, Journal of Counseling and Development, 74: 232–5.
    McLeod, J. (1993) Introduction to Counselling. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    McLeod, J. (1998) Introduction to Counselling,
    2nd edn
    . Buckingham: Open University Press.
    McNeice, M. (1996) ‘Premature forgiveness’, Self & Society, 24 (2): 11–13.
    McNeill, J.T. (1951) A History of the Cure of Souls. New York: Harper and Row.
    Mearns, D. (1994) Developing Person-Centred Counselling. London: Sage.
    Mearns, D. and Thorne, B. (1988) Person-Centred Counselling in Action. London: Sage.
    Mintz, E.E. (1978) ‘Transpersonal events in traditional psychotherapy?’, Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 15 (1): 90–4.
    Mollon, P. (1991) ‘Psychotherapists' healing attitude’. Paper presented to Symposium on the Crucial Factor in Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis, Department of Psychotherapy, Manchester Royal Infirmary, 9 November.
    Moody, R. (1975) Life after Life. Atlanta: Mockingbird.
    Moore, T. (ed.) (1990) The Essential James Hillman. London: Routledge.
    Moreno, J. (1947) The Theatre of Spontaneity. Boston: Beacon.
    Moustakas, C. (1994) Phenomenological Research Methods. London: Sage.
    Nelson, S.H. and Torrey, E.F. (1973) The religious function of psychiatry’, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 43: 362–7.
    Norcross, J.C. and Dryden, W. (1990) Eclecticism and Integration in Counselling and Psychotherapy. London: Gale.
    Northcott, M.S. (1992) The New Age and Pastoral Theology: Towards the Resurgence of the Sacred. Lightwater, Surrey: Contact Pastoral Trust.
    Obeyesekere, G. (1984) Medusa's Hair. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Olds, G.A. (1993) ‘The New Age: historic and metaphysical foundations’, in D.S.Ferguson (ed.), New Age Spirituality. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox.
    Oxford English Dictionary (1989) Oxford: Clarendon.
    Pagels, E. (1982) The Gnostic Gospels. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Pahnke, W.N. and Richards, W.A. (1966) ‘Implications of LSD and experiential mysticism’, Journal of Religion and Health, 5: 176–208.
    Parry, S.J. and Jones, R.G.A. (1996) ‘Beyond illusion in the psychotherapeutic enterprise’, in G.Claxton (ed.), Beyond Therapy: the Impact of Eastern Religions on Psychological Theory and Practice. Dorset: Prism.
    Patterson, C.H. (1996) ‘Multicultural counseling: from diversity to universality’, Journal of Counseling and Development, 74 (1): 227–31.
    Payne, I.R., Bergin, A.E. and Loftus, P.E. (1992) ‘A review of attempts to integrate spiritual and standard psychotherapy techniques’, Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 2: 171–92.
    Peck, M.S. (1990) The Road Less Travelled: a New Psychology of Love, Traditional Values and Spiritual Growth. London: Arrow.
    Pedersen, P. (1996) ‘The importance of both similarities and differences in multicultural counseling: reaction to C.H. Patterson’, Journal of Counseling and Development, 74 (1): 236–7.
    Pendzik, S. (1988) ‘Drama therapy as a modern form of shamanism’, Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 20 (1): 81–92.
    Perls, F. (1969a) Ego Hunger and Aggression: the Beginning of Gestalt Therapy. New York: Random House.
    Perls, F. (1969b) Gestalt Therapy Verbatim. Lafayette, CA: Real People Press.
    Peters, L.G. and Price-Williams, D. (1980) ‘Towards an experiential analysis of shamanism’, American Ethnologist, 7: 397–418.
    Pietroni, P. (1993) The return of the spirit’, in A.Beattie, M.Gott, L.Jones and M.Sidell (eds), Health and Wellbeing: a Reader. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Pollner, M. (1989) ‘Divine relations, social relations, and well-being’, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 30: 92–104.
    Ponterotto, J.G., Casas, J.M., Suzuki, L.A. and Alexander, C.M. (eds) (1995) Handbook of Multicultural Counseling. London: Sage.
    Propst, L.R., Ostrom, R., Watkins, P., Dean, T. and Mashburn, D. (1992) ‘Comparative efficacy of religious and non-religious cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of clinical depression in religious individuals’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60: 94–103.
    Purcell-Lee, C. (1999) ‘An existential approach to the therapeutic/educative relationship in the light of Buber's I — Thou/I — It distinction and his concept of inclusion’. Paper to Colloquium, Faculty of Education, Manchester University, 20 January.
    Reason, P. (ed.) (1988) Human Inquiry in Action. London: Sage.
    Reason, P. (ed.) (1994) Participation in Human Inquiry. London: Sage.
    Reich, I. O. (1969) Wilhelm Reich: a Personal Biography. New York: St Martin's.
    Reich, W. (1952) The Murder of Christ. New York: Orgone Institute Press.
    Richards, P.S. and Bergin, A.E. (1997) A Spiritual Strategy for Counseling and Psychotherapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Rogers, C.R. (1951) Client-Centred Therapy: its Current Practice, Implications and Theory. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Rogers, C.R. (1962) ‘Some learnings from a study of psychotherapy with schizophrenics’, Pennsylvania Psychiatric Quarterly, Summer: 3–15.
    Rogers, C.R. (1980) A Way of Being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Rose, J. (1993) ‘The integration of prayer and practice in the counselling relationship’. MA thesis, Roehampton Institute of Higher Education.
    Rose, J. (1996) A Needle-Quivering Poise: between Prayer and Practice in the Counselling Relationship. Surrey: Contact Pastoral Monograph no. 6.
    Rowan, J. (1976) Ordinary Ecstasy. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Rowan, J. (1983) ‘The real self and mystical experiences’, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 23 (2): 9–27.
    Rowan, J. (1989) ‘A late developer’, in W.Dryden and L.Spryling (eds), On Becoming a Psychotherapist. London: Tavistock/Routledge.
    Rowan, J. (1993) The Transpersonal, Psychotherapy and Counselling. London: Routledge.
    Sandford, J.A. (1993) ‘Foreword’, in D.S.Ferguson (ed.), New Age Spirituality. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox.
    Seymour, E. (1998) ‘Towards a pagan/magickal approach to counselling’. MSc thesis, University of Bristol.
    Shafranske, E.P. (1988) ‘The contribution of object relations theory in Christian counseling’. Paper presented at the International Convention of Christian Psychology, Atlanta.
    Shafranske, E.P. and Malony, H.N. (1985) ‘Religion, spirituality, and psychotherapy: a study of Californian psychologists’. Paper presented to meeting of the California State Psychological Association, San Francisco, February.
    Shafranske, E.P. and Malony, H.N. (1990) ‘Clinical psychologists' religious and spiritual orientations and their practice of psychotherapy’, Psychotherapy, 27 (1): 72–8.
    Shah, I. (1969) The Sufis. London: Jonathan Cape.
    Sheldrake, R. (1994) Seven Experiments that Could Change the World. London: Fourth Estate.
    Sills, M. (1996) ‘Psychotherapy as a spiritual journey’, Self & Society, 24 (4): 7–14.
    Skovholt, T.M. and Ronnestad, M.H. (1992) The Evolving Professional Self: Stages and Themes in Therapist and Counselor Development. Chichester: Wiley.
    Smail, D. (1987) Taking Care: an Alternative to Therapy. London: Dent.
    Sollod, R.N. (1978) ‘Carl Rogers and the origins of client-centred therapy’, Professional Psychology, 9: 93–104.
    Spangler, D. (1993) The New Age: movement towards the divine”, in D.S.Ferguson (ed.), New Age Spirituality. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox.
    Spanos, I. (1978) ‘Witchcraft in histories of psychiatry: a critical analysis and alternative conceptualisation’, Psychological Bulletin, 85: 417–39.
    Stoltenberg, C.D. and Delworth, U. (1988) Supervising Counselors and Therapists. London: Jossey-Bass.
    Stone, M. (1976) The Paradise Papers: the Suppression of Women's Rites. London: Virago.
    Strupp, H.H. (1972) ‘On the technology of psychotherapy’, Archives of General Psychiatry, 26: 270–8.
    Sue, D.W. and Sue, D. (1990) Counselling the Culturally Different,
    2nd edn
    . New York: Wiley.
    Summers, R. (1997) ‘Glimpsing something of the spirit’, The Friends Quarterly, 30 (7): 328–32.
    Swinton, V. (1996) ‘A study of the attitudes to the exploration of spiritual awareness in counselling training’. MA thesis, Department of Applied Social Studies, Keele University.
    Symington, N. (1994) Emotion and Spirit: Questioning the Claims of Psychoanalysis and Religion. London: Cassell.
    Szasz, T. (1988) The Myth of Psychotherapy. New York: Syracuse University Press.
    Tart, C.T. and Deikman, A.J. (1991) ‘Mindfulness, spiritual seeking and psychotherapy’, Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 23 (1): 29–52.
    Thomas, L.E. and Brewer, S.J. (1993) ‘Two patterns of transcendence: an empirical examination of Wilber's and Washbyrn's Theories’, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 33 (3): 66–81.
    Thomas, L.E. and Cooper, P.E. (1980) ‘Incidence and psychological correlates of intense spiritual experiences’, Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 12 (1): 75–85.
    Thorne, B. (1988) ‘Psychotherapy and original sin’, Self and Society, 16 (5): 207–14.
    Thorne, B. (1991) Person-Centred Counselling: Therapeutic and Spiritual Dimensions. London: Whurr.
    Thorne, B. (1994) ‘Developing a spiritual discipline’, in D.Mearns (ed.), Developing Person-Centred Counselling. London: Sage. pp. 44–7.
    Thorne, B. (1998) Person-Centred Counselling and Christian Spirituality: the Secular and the Holy. London: Whurr.
    Tick, E. (1992) ‘Attending the soul’, Voices, 28 (2): 7–8.
    Tillich, P. (1952) The Courage To Be. Newhaven and London: Yale University Press.
    Tornatore, N.V. and Tornatore, R. (1977) ‘The paranormal event in psychotherapy: a survey of 609 psychiatrists’, Psychic, 7: 34–7.
    Totton, N. and Edmondson, E. (1988) Reichian Growth Work. Dorset: Prism.
    Valla, J-P. and Prince, R.H. (1989) ‘Religious experiences as self-healing mechanisms’, in C.A.Ward (ed.), Altered States of Consciousness and Mental Health, a Cross-Cultural Perspective. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Van Belle, H.A. (1990) ‘Rogers' later move towards mysticism, implications for client-centred therapy’, in G.Lietaer and R.Van Balen (eds), Client-Centred and Experiential Psychotherapy in the Nineties. The Netherlands: University of Leuven.
    Vaughan, F. (1986) The Inward Arc: Healing and Wholeness in Psychotherapy and Spirituality. California: Shambhala.
    Vaughan, F. (1989) ‘True and false mystical experiences’, Revision, 12: 4–10.
    Vaughan, F. (1991) ‘Spiritual issues in psychotherapy’, Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 23 (2): 105–19.
    Veness, D. (1990) ‘Spirituality in counselling: a view from the other side’, British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 18 (3): 250–60.
    Vigne, J. (1991) ‘Guru and psychotherapist: comparisons from the Hindu tradition’, Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 23 (2): 121–37.
    Vitz, P. (1993) Sigmund Freud's Christian Unconscious. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
    Walker, A. (1998) Restoring the Kingdom, the Radical Christianity of the House Church Movement. Guildford: Eagle.
    Wallis, J.H. (1993) Findings: an Inquiry into Quaker Religious Experience. London: Quaker Home Service.
    Walsh, R. (1989) ‘What is a shamen?’, Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 21 (1): 1–11.
    Walsh, R. (1994) ‘The making of a shaman: calling, training and culmination’, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 34 (3): 7–30.
    Walsh, R. and Vaughan, F. (1994) ‘The worldview of Ken Wilber’, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 34 (2): 6–21.
    Washburn, M. (1990) ‘Two patterns of transcendence’, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 30 (3): 84–112.
    Watson, K.W. (1994) ‘Spiritual emergency: concepts and implications for psychotherapy’, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 34 (2): 22–45.
    Watts, A. (1961) Psychotherapy Hast and West. New York: Pantheon.
    West, M. (1983) The World is Made of Glass. Sevenoaks: Hodder and Stoughton.
    West, W.S. (1985) Loving Contact. Leeds: Energy Stream.
    West, W.S. (1994) ‘Post Reichian therapy’, in D.Jones (ed.), Innovative Therapy: a Handbook. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    West, W.S. (1995a) ‘Integrating psychotherapy and healing: an inquiry into the experiences of counsellors and psychotherapists whose work includes healing’. PhD thesis, University of Keele.
    West, W.S. (1995b) ‘Supervision difficulties for psychotherapists and counsellors whose work includes healing’. Paper presented at First Annual Research Conference of the British Association for Counselling, Birmingham University, 25 February.
    West, W.S. (1995c) ‘The relevance of Quakerism for counsellors’, The Friends Quarterly, 28 (5): 222–6.
    West, W.S. (1996) ‘Using human inquiry groups in counselling research’, British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 24 (3): 347–55.
    West, W.S. (1997) ‘Integrating psychotherapy and healing’, British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 25 (3): 291–312.
    West, W.S. (1998a) ‘Developing practice in a context of religious faith: a study of psychotherapists who are Quakers’, British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 26 (3): 365–75.
    West, W.S. (1998b) ‘Therapy as a spiritual process’, in C.Feltham (ed.), Witness and Vision of Therapists. London: Sage. pp. 158–79.
    West, W.S. (1998c) ‘Critical subjectivity: use of self in counselling research’, Counselling, 9 (3): 228–30.
    West, W.S. (1998d) ‘Spirituality and work’, The Friends Quarterly, 31 (3): 138–42.
    West, W.S. (1999a) ‘Counselling as a spiritual space’. In Counselling and Creation, Proceedings of the 6th Annual International Counselling Conference, School of Education, Durham University.
    West, W.S. (1999b) ‘Eclecticism and integration in humanistic therapy’, in S.Palmer and R.Woolfe (eds), Eclectic and Integrative Counselling and Psychotherapy. London: Sage.
    West, W.S. (1999c) ‘Supervision difficulties and dilemmas for counsellors and psychotherapists around healing and spirituality’, in B.Lawton and C.Feltham (eds), Taking Supervision Forward: Dilemmas, Insights and Trends. London: Sage.
    Whitmore, D. (1996) ‘The psychospiritual and the transpersonal’, Self & Society, 24 (4): 26–9.
    Wilber, K. (1975) ‘Psychologia perennis: the spectrum of consciousness’, Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 1 (2): 105–32.
    Wilber, K. (1979a) ‘Eye to eye: the relationship between science, reason and religion and its effect on transpersonal psychology’, Revision, Winter/Spring: 3–26.
    Wilber, K. (1979b) ‘A developmental view of consciousness’, Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 11 (1): 1–21.
    Wilber, K. (1980) The Atman Project. Illinois: Quest.
    Wilber, K. (1983) A Sociable God: Towards a New Understanding of Religion. Boulder, CO: Shambhala.
    Wilber, K. (1990) ‘Two patterns of transcendence: a reply to Washburn’, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 30 (3): 113–36.
    Willis, R. (1992a) ‘Initiation into healing’, Doctor-Healer Network Newsletter, 3: 9–11.
    Willis, R. (1992b) ‘What makes a healer?’, International Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, November: 11.
    Wilson, B.R. (ed.) (1981) The Social Impact of New Religious Movements. New York: Rose of Sharon.
    Winkleman, M. (1989) ‘A cross-cultural study of shamanic healers’, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 21 (1): 17–24.
    Yalom, I.D. (1980) Existential Psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.
    Young, C. (1988) ‘New Age Spirituality’, Self & Society, 16 (5): 195–201.
    Young Friends General Meeting (1998) ‘Who do we think we are? Young Friends commitment and belonging’. Swarthmore Lecture, Quaker Home Service, London.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website