Psychotherapy and Politics


Nick Totton

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  • Perspectives on Psychotherapy

    editor: Colin Feltham

    Sheffield Hallam University

    Each book in this challenging and incisive series takes a particular perspective on psychotherapy to place it in its intellectual and cultural context. Disciplines which will be brought to bear in this series will include sociology, anthropology, philosophy, psychology, science and feminism.

    Books in the series:

    Philosophy and Psychotherapy

    Edward Erwin

    Psychotherapy and Society

    David Pilgrim

    Feminism and Psychotherapy

    edited by

    I. Bruna Seu and M. Colleen Heenan

    Therapy Across Culture

    Inga-Britt Krause

    Psychotherapy and Science

    Robert Langs

    Psychotherapy and Spirituality

    William West

    Psychotherapy and Politics

    Nick Totton


    View Copyright Page

  • Notes

    1 Although one can discern precursors to psychotherapy virtually throughout human history (Ellenberger 1994, 3ff.), the specific activity clearly originated with Freud's invention of psychoanalysis in Vienna around the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries.

    2 Foucault portrays power not as a top-down phenomenon of control, but as ‘the multiplicity of force relations immanent in the sphere in which they operate and which constitute their own organization … relations of power … have a directly productive role’ (Foucault 1979, 93–4).

    3 As I proceed, I will sometimes spell out the phrase ‘psychotherapy and counselling’, sometimes distinguish between the two, and sometimes use ‘psychotherapy’, or just ‘therapy’, to stand for the whole field. Context should make clear which is meant.

    4 Rice and Greenberg (1992, 198–9) identify four themes of humanistic therapy: a phenomenological approach based in individual experience; emphasis on an actualizing or growth tendency in human beings ‘guided by awareness of the future and the immediate present rather than only by the past’; belief in a capacity for self-determination – ‘individuals … are agents in the construction of their world’; and person-centredness – ‘each person's subjective experience is of central importance’.

    5 David Cooper calls this ‘psycho-technology’, and concedes cuttingly that ‘I've no doubt that after some of these experiences some people feel better, or begin to “feel”, or feel more “real” – or whatever the ideals of capitalism prescribe for them’ (Cooper 1980, 118–19).

    6 Cost-effectiveness is not a simple concept, as the environmental movement has long argued: we have to decide which costs to include, and in what terms to define effectiveness. These are political decisions.

    7 In 1927, Jung wrote: ‘it is a quite unpardonable mistake to accept the conclusions of Jewish psychology as generally valid. … The cheap accusation of anti-semitism that has been levelled at me on the ground of this criticism is about as intelligent as accusing me of anti-Chinese prejudice’ (Jung 1928, 149n.). In other words, some of his best friends are Jewish (or Chinese); which of course does not acquit anyone of intellectual racism.

    8 Jung also explicitly states that a European is born with a brain that works differently from the brain of ‘an Australian black fellow’ – quoted Dalal 1988, 10–11.

    9 A T-Group is a form of largely unstructured group work developed by Kurt Lewin in the late 1940s.

    10 A number of important articles from IRT are more easily available in Wyckoff 1976.

    11 We should perhaps also consider that it is a time-honoured tactic of cults and cadres to make it hard to understand what they are about; so that curiosity acts to draw the enquirer further in.

    12 Contact details for these and many other organizations appear in Parker et al. 1995.

    13 It is not entirely clear how far the field is regarded as a useful metaphor, and how far as literally real.

    14 In the culture of worldwork, however, there does seem to be a strong tendency to triumphalism, to the belief that this technique is what every conflict situation truly needs. ‘There wasn't a murder for 25 days following our [Oakland] seminar’ (Mindell 1995, 164). Mindell turns aside the idea that the seminar caused this very unusual statistic – but if not, why mention it at all?

    15 This was the original intention, but on reading the contributions the editors realized that all they could offer was ‘something more elusive and evocative – hints and glimpses rather than practical proposals’ (Kennard and Small 1997, 5).

    16 Wherever possible, page references to Freud are given for the Penguin Freud Library edition.

    17 Freud's term ‘trieb’ was mistranslated by Strachey in the Standard Edition as ‘instinct’: see Ornston 1992, 93–5.

    18 ‘Genital achievements’ are alarmingly described elsewhere in the article as having ‘phallic-intrusive qualities, pleasure in attack and conquest’ (Levitt and Rubenstein 1974, 330). This seems to indicate a simple confusion between the phallic and genital stages of development.

    19 Academic reactions were equally strong, apparently including refusal of membership of scholarly associations, loss of tenure, refusal of doctoral degrees to students using deMause's work, etc. (deMause 1982, 300). I have myself experienced the enormous difficulty of persuading other people even to look at deMause's ideas.

    20 This critique began within the psychoanalytic movement itself in the 19205, with Freud's views on femininity opposed by figures including Ernest Jones and Karen Horney as ‘phallocentric’ and ignoring social factors (Wieland 1988, 57n.).

    21 Pilgrim (1992, 227) calls this ‘an unsupportable stereotyping of complete strangers’; he criticizes the generalization but not, apparently, the pathologization.

    22 The anthropologist Melvin Harris offers a powerful statement of the view that both aggression and sexism are wholly the effect of material conditions: ‘War and sexism will cease to be practised when their productive, reproductive and ecological functions are fulfilled by less costly alternatives’ (Harris 1978, 77).

    23 Of course, Freud may here actually mean men, as opposed to women; and this is one of the ways in which questions of aggression and sexism interact.

    24 Harris (1978), not a psychotherapist but an anthropologist, traces out how this might be the case for war, patriarchy and the state. Other anthropologists like Sahlins (1972), however, have argued equally strongly that life in a hunter-gatherer society can be relatively easy and luxurious; if this changes with the invention of farming, one has to account for why farming was invented. Like psychotherapeutic material, the anthropological evidence can be interpreted in many ways, depending upon the assumptions of the interpreter.

    25 Nowadays, of course, there is also the new category of counselling psychologist to contend with Much of what I say about counselling and psychotherapy seems to apply here as well, with counselling psychology simply providing another route to qualification for another group of prospective practitioners.

    26 Some clearly succeed in doing so, however – for instance, the authors of these criticisms, many of whom are very eminent analysts.

    27 Riccardo Steiner has explored how the IPA was shaped by ‘the political and cultural strategy of [the British analyst Ernest] Jones in founding and developing the “International Journal of Psycho-Analysis’” so as ‘to have administrative and cultural control of psychoanalysis in the English-speaking countries’ (Steiner 1994, 883).

    28 This has diminished somewhat in 1982 45 per cent were North American, with 18 per cent from Latin America, and 37 per cent from the rest of the world (Kurzweil 1989, 208).

    29 Jacoby points out (1986, 148) that medicalization also had the effect in the USA of excluding women, who constituted only about 7 per cent of physicians in the 1960s.

    30 For details of some of these, see Kurzweil 1989, 55.

    31 Although the IPA has frequently compromised, it has of course also frequently expelled and suppressed. A famous and fascinating example of compromise is the ‘gentlemen's agreement’ whereby three different trainings coexist in the British Institute of Psychoanalysis (Kurzweil 1989, 202–3).

    32 For documentation of the Lacanian side of all this, see Lacan 1990.

    33 Kurzweil, in a strongly anti-Lacanian account, mentions both personal tensions between Lacan and the SPP president Sacha Nacht, and the claim that ‘Lacan was supervising about forty of the candidates [for SPP analytic training] and therefore was unable to give any of them more than twenty to thirty minutes a week’ (Kurzweil 1989, 221).

    34 By 1986, according to Kurzweil (1989, 224) ‘there were fourteen Lacanian groups, each claiming to be the “true” successor’.

    35 A second group, the ‘Documento’ group, also split away from the Argentinian Psychoanalytic Association at the same time, and for reasons which from the outside are hard to distinguish from those of the Plataforma group: see Langer 1989, 119–20, 247–9.

    36 I am sure that I am not the only practitioner whose clients constantly distinguish between what happens in therapy and what happens in ‘the real world’; which tends to create a rather spectral sense of oneself!

    37 The nature of this registration is not specified, but the authors probably refer to the United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy register.

    38 In some ways this is not an argument specifically about therapy, but one about society in general. Many things are reserved for the rich. However, it might be chastening for therapists to think of themselves as purveyors of luxury trinkets.

    39 I should emphasize that Casement is very aware of his own counter-transference here, and critical of his own remarks. However, I don't believe that his self-critique goes deep enough.

    40 The use of the word ‘explore’ here connects with one of the analytic critiques of mutuality, that it constitutes simply an acting out of the client's fantasies – in this case, perhaps, of exploring the mother's body.

    41 Writing from an analytic perspective, the authors make no reference to the fact that humanistic therapies have, rightly or wrongly, long insisted on the crucial importance of such a ‘real relationship’.

    42 For ease of reading, in all quotations in this section I have restored capital letters to a text that has none.

    43 For therapy-linked accounts of these matters, see Heron 1997, Samuels 1997a.


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