Psychology for the Third Millennium: Integrating Cultural and Neuroscience Perspectives
Rom Harré and Fathali M. Moghaddam have designed a textbook and brought together additional voices that speak to the similarities and differences of two seemingly separate domains in psychology. This bridge-building seeks to encourage a new generation of undergraduate students studying psychology to more fully appreciate the real potential for the study of human behavior, and as such it will represent a more provocative alternative to standard general psychology textbooks. It also be used in a host of courses, namely on the conceptual and philosophical nature of psychology, social psychology, critical psychology and cognitive science.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Principles and Methods
- Chapter 1: Psychoneurology: The Program
- Chapter 2: Methods of Research: Cultural/Discursive Psychology
- Chapter 3: Methods of Research: Neuroscience and Genetic/Evolutionary Psychology
- Chapter 4: The Brain and Consciousness
Part II: Applications and Illustrations
- Chapter 5: Perception
- Chapter 6: Becoming a Person
- Chapter 7: Learning and Memory
- Chapter 8: Social Psychology
- Chapter 9: Motivation and Social Representations
- Chapter 10: Emotions
- Chapter 11: Intelligence
- Chapter 12: Personality
- Chapter 13: Disorders and Treatments
- Chapter 14: Psychology and Justice
- Chapter 15: Intergroup Relations and Diversity in a Global Context
SAGE has been part of the global academic community since 1965, supporting high quality research and learning that transforms society and our understanding of individuals, groups, and cultures. SAGE is the independent, innovative, natural home for authors, editors and societies who share our commitment and passion for the social sciences.
Find out more at: http://www.sagepublications.com
© Rom Harré and Fathali Moghaddam 2012
First published 2012
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
Library of Congress Control Number: 2011930454
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-0-85702-269-1 (pbk)
Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed in India at Replika Press Pvt Ltd
Printed on paper from sustainable resources
Notes on the Authors[Page vii]
Christina E. Erneling is Associate Professor at Lund University, Sweden, where she teaches Psychology, Communication and Philosophy of Social Science. She is the author of Towards discursive education: Philosophy, technology and modern education (2010), Understanding language acquisition: The framework of learning (1993) and co-editor of two books on cognitive science: The mind as a scientific object: Between brain and culture (2005) and The future of the cognitive revolution (1997). She is currently working on a four-year research project investigating conceptual issues in evolutionary psychology and education: Evolutionary educational psychology: a biologising of education?
Vlad P. Glăveanu is a PhD candidate and teaching assistant at the Institute of Social Psychology, LSE. He holds a BA in Psychology from the University of Bucharest and an MSc in Social and Cultural Psychology from LSE (Himmelweit Prize for best overall performance). His main interests are in creativity, the psychology of art and crafts, social representations and qualitative methodologies. His doctoral research, funded by the ESRC, is focused on proposing a cultural psychological understanding of creativity and has been the subject of published work in different journals, among them New Ideas in Psychology, Culture & Psychology, Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, Thinking Skills and Creativity, Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, Theory & Psychology. He is also founding member and current Editor of Europe's Journal of Psychology. (http://www.ejop.org).
P. M. S. Hacker is Emeritus Research Fellow at St. John's College, Oxford. His main interests are in philosophy of psychology, philosophy of language, the philosophy of Wittgenstein, and the history of analytical philosophy. He has written extensively on the philosophical problems in cognitive neuroscience, including Philosophical foundations of neuroscience (2003) and A history of cognitive neuroscience ((2008) both co-authored with M. R. Bennett). He is well known for his numerous books on the philosophy of Wittgenstein, including the four volume Analytical commentary on the Philosophical Investigations ((1980–96), revised editions of volumes 1 and 2, 2003, 2009), the first two volumes of which were co-authored with G. P. Baker, and Wittgenstein's place in twentieth-century analytical philosophy (1996). He published Human nature: the categorial framework in 2007, which is the first volume of a trilogy on human nature. He is currently writing the second volume: The cognitive and cogitative powers of man.
Rom Harré studied chemical engineering, turning to mathematics and then philosophy of science. Currently he is Distinguished Research Professor at Georgetown University, Washington DC and Emeritus Fellow of Linacre College, Oxford. He has published widely on the ways language and languages impact our ways of being, including our cognitive and emotional skills and propensities (particularly The Explanation of Social Behaviour with P.F. Secord). His latest book is Pavlov's and Schrodinger's cat, a study of the uses of animals and plants as scientific apparatus.[Page viii]
Sandra Jovchelovitch is Professor of Social Psychology at the London School of Economics where she directs the Masters programme in Social and Cultural Psychology. Her research focuses on how different socio-cultural contexts shape the development and transformation of knowledge, and in particular how different systems of knowing meet and clash in contemporary public spheres. She has a special interest on the genetic and historical methods developed by Piaget and Vygotsky to the study of mind and on the development of dialogical perspectives to the study of knowledge in context. She is the author of Knowledge in context: Representations, community and culture (Routledge, 2007), Social representations and the public sphere: The symbolic construction of public spaces in Brazil (Vozes, 2000) and The health beliefs of the Chinese community in England (HEA, 1998). Her new book, How communities think is coming out in 2012.
Fathali M. Moghaddam is Professor, Department of Psychology, and Director, Conflict Resolution Program, Department of Government, Georgetown University. Dr. Moghaddam was born in Iran, educated from an early age in England, and worked for the United Nations and for McGill University before joining Georgetown in 1990. He has researched a broad range of topics, toward developing psychology for and of humankind. Among his recent books are: The individual and society (2002), Great ideas in psychology (2005), Multiculturalism and intergroup relations (2008), and The new global insecurity (2010). He is currently writing a book on The psychology of dictatorship. For more details, visit http://fathalimoghaddam.com
Steven R. Sabat is Professor of Psychology at Georgetown University. The focus of his research, published in numerous scientific journal articles has been on the intact cognitive and social abilities, and the subjective experience of people with moderate to severe dementia, as well as on how to enhance communication between people with dementia and their carers. He is also the author of The experience of Alzheimer's Disease: Life through a tangled veil and co-editor of Dementia: mind, meaning, and the person.
Gordon Sammut is Lecturer in Social Psychology at the University of Malta. His work investigates the psychological study of points of view. His main interests include psychosocial models in the social sciences, attitude measurement and public opinion, the epistemology of representations and phenomena, gestalt social psychology, and issues relating to opinion formation and argumentation. (email@example.com)
Brady Wagoner completed his PhD at the University of Cambridge and is now Associate Professor at the Aalborg University, Denmark. He has received a number of prestigious academic awards, including the Sigmund Koch Award, Gates Cambridge Scholarship and the Jefferson Prize. His publications span a range of topics, including the history of psychology, cultural psychology, research methodology and the psychology of remembering. He is chief organizer of the Frederic Bartlett Internet Archive. Additionally, he is on the editorial board of four international Journals (Culture & Psychology, Frontiers of Quantitative Psychology and Measurement, and Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science) and is founding co-editor of the journal Psychology & Society. His books include Symbolic transformation: The mind in movement through culture and society (Routledge, 2010), Dialogicality in focus: Challenges to theory, method and application (Nova Science, 2011), and Culture and Social Change: Transforming society through the power of ideas (Information Age, 2012). Currently, he is writing a book titled Frederic Bartlett in Reconstruction: Where Culture and Mind Meet (Cambridge University Press).
References2003). Gender positioning. In R.Harré & F.Moghaddam (Eds.), The self and others. Westport, CT: Praeger., & (1963). Toward an understanding of inequity. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, 422–436. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0040968(2007). Remembering the past and imagining the future: Common and distinct neural substrates during event construction and elaboration. Neuropsychologia, 45(7), 1363–1377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.10.016, , & (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper & Row., , , & (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. New York: Earlbaum.(2000). Neural science: A century of progress and the mysteries that remain. Review suppl. to Cell, 100 and Neuron, 25, S40., , , & (1979). Hospitals, mad houses, and asylums: Cycles in the care of the insane. British Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 321–324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.134.4.321(2004). The tragedy of the commons revisited. In Y.T.Lee, C.McCauley, F.M.Moghaddam, & S.Worchel (Eds.), The psychology of ethnic and cultural conflict (pp. 23–47). Westport, CT.: Praeger., & (1961). Pattern and growth in personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.(1967). Attitudes. In M.Fishbein (Ed.), Readings in attitude theory and measurement (pp. 1–13). New York: Wiley.(1997). A cross-cultural developmental study of directional asymmetries in circle drawing. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 28, 730–742. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022197286005, , , & (2010). Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in Eastern and Western countries. Psychological Bulleting, 136, 151–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018251, , , , , , et al. (2009). Does sexual selection explain human sex differences in aggression?Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 249–311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X09990951(1984). The psychology of happiness. London: Methuen.(1972). Do personality traits apply to social behavior?Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 2, 1–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5914.1972.tb00302.x, & (2004). Attributions of implicit prejudice, or “Would Jesse Jackson ‘fail’ the Implicit Association Test?,” Psychological Inquiry, 15, 257–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli1504_01, & (1987 ). Social psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1975). How to do things with words. Oxford: Clarendon Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198245537.001.0001, (1982). Anger and aggression: An essay on emotion. New York: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-5743-1(Ayer, A.J. (Ed.) (1978). Logical positivism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.2008). Are we free? Psychology and free will. Oxford: OUP. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189636.001.0001, , & (1895). Mental development in the child and race. New York: Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10003-000(1906). Thought and things or genetic logic. London: Library of Philosophy.(1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.([Page 289]1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1992). The adapted mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press., , & (2005). Exploring the neurological substrate of emotional and social intelligence. In J.T.Cacioppo, & G.G.Bernston (Eds.), Key readings in social psychology: Social neuroscience (pp. 223–237). New York: Psychology Press., , , & (1916). An experimental study of some problems of perceiving and imagining. British Journal of Psychology, 8, 222–266.(1932). Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1935). ‘Remembering’, Scientia, 57: 221–226.(1998). Visual specialization and brain evolution in primates. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, 265B, 1933–1937. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1998.0523(2002). A plague of rats and rubber vines. Washington, DC: Island Press.(1999). Towards a paradigm for research on social representations. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 29(2), 163–186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-5914.00096, & (2008). Social representations theory: A progressive research programme for social psychology. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 38(4), 335–353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5914.2008.00374.x, & (Bayne, T., Cleeremans, A., & Wilken, P. (Eds.). (2009). The Oxford companion to consciousness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.1996). Failure to respond automatically to anticipated future outcomes following damage to prefrontal cortex. Cereb. Cortex, 6, 215–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/6.2.215, , , & (2005). Wild justice and fair play: Cooperation, forgiveness, and morality in animals. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.(2002). The motor system in neuroscience: A history and analysis of conceptual developments. Progress in Neurobiology, 67, 1–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0301-0082%2802%2900012-6, & (2003). Philosophical foundations of neuroscience. Oxford: Blackwell., & (2002). Emotions are not feelings, Consciousness & Emotion, 3(2), 81–89.(1966). The social construction of reality. Harmondsworth: Penguin., & (2008). The neuroevolution of motivation. In J.Y.Shah, & W.L.Gardner (Eds.), Handbook of motivation science (pp. 188–200). New York: Guilford Press., & (2008). Decision utility, the brain, and pursuit of hedonic goals. Social Cognition, 26(5), 621–646. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/soco.2008.26.5.621, & (1998). The role of dopamine in reward: Hedonics, learning, or incentive salience?Brain Research Reviews, 28, 308–367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0173%2898%2900019-8, & (2011). Cross-cultural psychology: Research and applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511974274, , , , & (1999). Freudian repression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1994). Schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, and delusional paranoid disorder. In J.A.Talbott, R.E.Halas, & S.C.Yudofsky (Eds.), American Psychiatric Press textbook of psychiatry (pp. 411–463). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.& (1970). Development of the brain depends on visual environment. Nature, 228, 477–478. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/228477a0, & (1911). Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias (J.Zinkin, & D.C.Lewis, Trans.). New York: International Universities Press, 1950.(1999). The performance effects of pay dispersion on individuals and organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 42, 25–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256872(1997). The sound of the violin. In M.Cole, Y.Engestrom, & O.Vasquez (Eds.), Mind, Culture and activity: Seminal papers from the Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition (pp. 164–184). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.([Page 290]1978). Family therapy in clinical practice. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc.(1978). The making and breaking of affectional bonds. London: Tavistock.(1997–8). Attachment and loss. Vols 1–3. London: Pimlico.(1999). Wittgenstein's philosophical investigations. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.(2010). Psychology as a moral science. New York: Springer.(2003). Construct validation of the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test: Comment and reanalysis. Intelligence, 31, 319–329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-2896%2801%2900087-3(2010). An evolutionary perspective on responses to inequity. Paper presented at the 13th Biennial Conference of the International Society for Justice Research, Banff, Canada.(2003). Monkeys reject unequal pay. Nature, 425, 297–299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature01963, & (2001). Prenatal rubella, premorbid abnormalities, and adult schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 49, 473–486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223%2801%2901068-X, , , & (1960). The pronouns of power and solidarity. American Anthropologist, 4, 24–39., & (1983). In search of mind. New York: Harper and Row.(1986). Actual minds, possible worlds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1993). Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A. Science, 268, 1763–1766., , , , & (1984). Piaget, teachers and psychologists. Oxford Review of Education, 10, 251–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305498840100302(2008). MAOA and the neurogenetic architecture of human aggression. Trends in Neurosciences, 31, 120–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2007.12.006, & (1945). A grammar of motives. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1969). A grammar of motives. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.(2000 ). The anatomy of melancholy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2005). Social neuroscience: Key readings. London: Psychology Press., & (2000). A prospective cohort study of genetic and perinatal influences in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26, 351–366. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.schbul.a033458, , , , , & (1997). Anterior cingulated gyrus dysfunction and selective attention deficits in schizophrenia: 15OH2O PET study during single-trial Stroop task performance. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1670–1675., , , & (2005). Keep'it real: School success beyond black and white. New York: Oxford University Press.(2003). The making of a memory mechanism. Journal of the History of Biology, 36, 153–195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022596107834(2000). Remembering: Phenomenological study. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.(2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 197, 851–854. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1072290, , & (2005). Genotype-dependent activity of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 determines the response to citalopram in a mouse model of depression. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 8165–8172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1816-05.2005, , , , , , , , , & (1997). Yanomamo ((5th ed.). New York: Harcourt Brace.1996). The conscious mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1995). Schizophrenia: Understanding and coping with the illness. London: Thorsons., & (2003). The English version of the Chinese personality assessment inventory. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34, 433–452. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022103034004004, , , , & (1959). Review of B. F. Skinner's Verbal behaviour. Language, 35, 26–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/411334([Page 291]1995). Schizophrenia: A brain disease?British Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 563–582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.166.5.563, & (2007). Amygdala and orbitofrontal reactivity to social threat in individuals with impulsive aggression. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 168–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.08.024, , , & (1996). Cultural psychology: A once and future discipline. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1990). Narrative semiotics and cognitive discourses. London: Pinter., & (1995). The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. New York: Oxford University Press., & (1997). The modular nature of intelligence. In B.Scheibel, & J.W.Schop (Eds.), The origin and evolution of intelligence (p. 92). Boston, MA: Jones & Bartlett., & (1992). Why British psychology is not social: Frederic Bartlett's promotion of the new academic discipline. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 33(3), 633–639.(2009). Against theory of mind. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230234383, & (1994). The astonishing hypothesis: The scientific search for the soul. New York: Scribners.(1992). Mind and brain. Scientific American, 267(Sept.). http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0992-152, & (2000). Language death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139106856(1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper and Row.(1995). The end of racism. New York: Free Press.(2009). Conscious and non-conscious representation in social representations theory: Social representations from the phenomenological point of view. Culture & Psychology, 15, 372–385.(1988). Homicide. New York: Aldine de Gruyter., & (2000). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. London: Quiller.(2010). Self comes to mind: Constructing the conscious brain. New York: Pantheon.(1990). Constructing the subject. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511524059(2002a). Sealing off the discipline: Wilhelm Wundt and the psychology of memory. In C.D.Green, M.Shore, & T.Teo (Eds.), The transformation of psychology: Influences of 19th-century philosophy, technology, and natural science (pp. 45–62). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.(2002b). How old is psychology, particularly concepts of memory?History and Philosophy of Psychology, 4(1), 1–12.(1979 ). The expression of emotion in man and animals. London and New York: St. Martin's Press.(1993 ). The origin of species by natural selection or the preservation of favored races in the struggle for life. New York: Modern Library.(1989). The selfish gene ((2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.2006 ). The selfish gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1996). Good natured: The origins of right and wrong in humans and other animals. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1969). Content and consciousness. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1978). Brainstorms: Philosophical essays on mind and psychology. Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books/MIT Press.(1989). Consciousness. In R.L.Gregory (Ed.). The Oxford companion to the mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1991). Consciousness explained. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.(2005). Sweet dreams: Philosophical obstacles to a science of consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(2010). Through the language glass: Why the world looks different in other languages. New York: Metropolitan.([Page 292]1896). The reflex arc concept in psychology. Psychological Review, 3, 357–370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0070405(1916). Democracy and education. New York: Macmillan.(1925). Experience and nature. Chicago: Open Court.(1934). Art as experience. New York: Penguin.(1991). Origins of the modern mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1978). Children reasoning. In et al., Early childhood development and education (pp. 246–250). New York: Guilford Press.(1983). Early childhood development and education. New York: Guilford Press., , & (1969). Distraction and habituation in monkeys with limbic lesions. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 69(3), 473–480. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0028163, & (DSM IV TR (2004). Diagnostics and statistical manual of mental disorders IV TR. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.2004). The neurobiology of consolidations, or, how stable is the engram?Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 51–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.142050(2007). Evolutionary psychology. Oxford: One World., , & (1962 ). Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology. New York: Dover.(2001). David Marr. International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences., & (1992). Discursive psychology. London: SAGE., & (2007). Understanding genetic risk for aggression: Clues from the Brain's response to social exclusion. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 1100–1108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.08.007, , , , & (2003). Emotions revealed. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson.(1983). The relationship between moral reasoning and political orientation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 1073–1080. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1993, , & (2002). Physiological mapping of human auditory cortices with silent event-related fMRI technique. Neuroimage, 16(4), 944–953. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/nimg.2002.1149, , , , , & (2007). Capturing the naturally occurring superior performance of experts in the laboratory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 346–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00533.x, & (2000). How experts’ adaptations to representative task demands account for the expertise effect in memory recall: Comment on Vicente and Wang (1998). Psychological Review, 107, 578–592. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.107.3.578, , & (1997). Aristotle on perception. Oxford: Clarendon Press.(1967). The biological basis of personality. Springfield, IL: Thomas.(1970). The structure of personality. London: Methuen.(1985). Decline and fall of the Freudian empire. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.(1952). Psychoanalytic studies of the personality. New York: Basic Books.(1996). The roots of modern social psychology. Oxford: Blackwell.(Farr, R., & Moscovici, S. (Eds.). (1984). Social representations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.2010). Effects of victimization on the belief in a just world in four ex-Yugoslavian countries. Social Justice Research, 23, 17–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11211-010-0111-6, & (1997). The fatal Englishman. London: Vintage.(Finkel, N.J., & Moghaddam, F.M. (Eds.). (2005). The psychology of rights and duties: Empirical contributions and normative commentaries. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10872-0002001). Commonsense morality across cultures: Notions of fairness, justice, honor and equity. Discourse Studies, 3, 5–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1461445601003001001, , & (Flanagan, D.P., & Harrison, P.L. (Eds.). (2005). Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues ([Page 293]2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.2007). What is intelligence? Beyond the Flynn effect. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511605253(2005). Social motivation: Introduction and overview. In J.P.Forgas, K.D.Williams, & S.M.Laham (Eds.), Social motivation: Conscious and unconscious processes (pp. 1–17). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., , & (1965). Madness and civilization. New York: Random House.(1982). Psychoanalytic psychology of normal development. London: Hogarth Press. Freud, S. (1955). Group psychology and the analysis of the ego. In J.Strachey (Ed. & Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 18, pp. 67–143). London: Hogarth Press.(1957 ). Thoughts for the times on war and death. In J.Strachey (Ed. & Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 14, pp. 271–302). London: Hogarth Press.(1961 ). Civilization and its discontents. In J.Strachey (Ed. & Trans.), The standard edition of complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 21, pp. 64–145). London: Hogarth Press.(1974). Type A behavior and your heart. New York: Knopf., & (1980). Seeing: illusion, brain and mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2001). Basic visual processes. In E.B.Goldstein (Ed.), Blackwell Handbook of Perception. Oxford: Blackwell.(2001). In E.Goldstein (Ed.). Handbook of perception (p. 55). Malden, MA and Oxford: Blackwell.(2010). An empirical analysis of ‘acting white’. Journal of Public Economics, 94, 380–396. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.10.011, & (1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligence in the 21st century. New York: Basic Books.(2004). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences.(20th anniversary edition. New York: Basic Books.1967). Studies in ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(2010). Neuroscience and the correct level of explanation for understanding mind. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14, 291–292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2010.04.005(1985). The social constructionist movement in modern psychology. American Psychologist, 40, 266–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.40.3.266(1950). The perception of the visual world. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.(1962). Observations on active touch. Psychological Review, 69, 477–491. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0046962(1966). The senses considered as perceptual systems. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.(1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(2009). Dishonesty in the name of equity. Psychological Science, 20, 1153–1160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02421.x, & (2008) Phenomenology. In J.A.Smith (Ed.), Qualitative psychology: A practical guide. London and Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE., & (2010). Sympathy, compassion and empathy in English and Russian: A linguistic and cultural analysis. Culture & Psychology, 16, 267–285.(1967). The discovery of grounded theory. Chicago, IL: Aldine., & (2010). Paradigms in the study of creativity: Introducing the perspective of cultural psychology. New Ideas in Psychology, 28(1), 79–93.(1999). Anatomy of thought. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.(Goddard, C., & Wierzbicka, A. (Eds.). (2002). Meaning and universal grammar: Theory and empirical findings. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.1967). Interaction ritual. New York: Anchor Books.(1968). Asylums. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1975). Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. Harmondsworth: Penguin.([Page 294]1981). Forms of talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.(1990 ). The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Doubleday.(Goldstein, E.B. (Ed.). (2001). Blackwell handbook of perception. Oxford: Blackwell.1997). Words, thoughts and theories. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press., & (1997). Theories of visual perception. Chichester: Wiley.(1991). Schizophrenia genesis: The origins of madness. New York: Freeman.(2008). The dispute over the fate of Terri Sciavo. In F.Moghaddam, R.Harré, & N.Lee (Eds.), Global conflict resolution through positioning analysis. New York: Springer.(2000). Neurocognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia: Are we measuring the ‘right stuff’?Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26, 119–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.schbul.a033430, , , & (1994). Social motivation. In B.Parkinson, & A.M.Colman (Eds.), Emotion and motivation (pp. 38–57). London: Longman.(2010). Manufacturing depression: The secret history of modern disease. New York: Simon and Schuster.(2004). The neural bases of cognitive conflict and control in moral judgment. Neuron, 44, 389–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2004.09.027, , , , & (2002). How (and where) does moral judgment work?Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6, 517–523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613%2802%2902011-9, & (1997). Mirrors in mind. London: Penguin.(1998). Eye and brain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1990). On meaning. In F.Collins, & P.Perran (Eds.), Narrative semiotics and cognitive discourses. London: Pinter.(1995). On killing: The psychological cost of learning to kill in war and society. New York: Little, Brown.(1977). The essential Piaget. New York: Basic Books., & (2008). Between naturalism and religion. Cambridge: Polity.(2000). Do innocent victims threaten the belief in a just world? Evidence from a modified stoop task. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 165–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.52(2005). Experimental research on just-world theory: Problems, developments, and future challenges. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 128–167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.131.1.128, & (2005). Belief in a just world and commitment to long-term deserved outcomes. Social Justice Research, 18, 429–444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11211-005-8569-3, , , & (1970). Dark current and retinal current in rods. Biophysical Journal, 10, 380–409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495%2870%2986308-1, , & (1988). Cortical glucose metabolic-rate correlates of abstract reasoning and attention studied with positron emission tomography. Intelligence, 12, 199–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0160-2896%2888%2990016-5, , , , , , et al. (1992). On collective memory. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.(2004). The God gene. New York: Doubleday.(2009). Essential Evolutionary Psychology. London: SAGE. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446214862(2012). Maintaining social order in the absence of codes. In A.J.Lock (Ed.), Discourse and Therapeutic Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.& (1984). Some reflections on the concept of social representations. Social Research, 51, 927–938.(1993). Social being ((2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.2006). Modeling: Gateway to the unknown. Amsterdam: Elsevier.(Harré, R. (Ed.). (1986). The social construction of emotions. Oxford: Blackwell.2003). The self and others. Westport, CT: Praeger., & (2010). The right to stand and the right to rule. In F.M.Moghaddam, & R.Harré (Eds.), Words of conflict, words of war (pp. 111–123). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger., & (1972). The explanation of social behavior. Oxford: Basil Blackwell., & (1999). Positioning theory. Oxford: Blackwell., & ([Page 295]2010). The last speakers: The quest to save the world's most endangered languages. Washington, DC: National Geographic.(2006). Moral minds. New York: HarperCollins.(1997). The antidepressant era. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1974). Cyril Burt: Psychologist. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.(2001). The construction of a person position repertoire; method and practice. Culture and Psychology, 7, 323–365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1354067X0173005(1973). Health and illness: A social psychological analysis. London: Academic Press.(2000). Motivational science: The nature and functions of wanting. In E.T.Higgins, & A.W.Kruglanski (Eds.), Motivational science: Social and personality perspectives (pp. 1–20). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press., & (1993). Towards a single-process uncertainty-reduction model of social motivation in groups. In M.Hogg, & D.Abrams (Eds.), Group motivation: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 173–190). New York: Harvester., & (2002). The motivation handbook. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development., & (1961). Social behavior: Its elementary forms. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.(Dissociable forms of implicit learning in aging. In M.Naveh-Benjamin, & N.Ohta (Eds.), Perspectives on human memory and aging. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press., & (in press).1959). Receptive fields of single neurons in the cat's striate cortex. Journal of Physiology, 148, 574–591., & (2010). Nailing the coffin shut on doubts that video games stimulate aggression: Comments on Anderson et al. (2010). Psychological Bulletin, 136, 179–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018567(1787 ). An enquiry concerning human understanding. Oxford: Clarendon Press.(1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order. New York: Simon & Schuster.(1991). Visual experience and blindsight. In J.Hyman (Ed.), Investigating psychology: Sciences of the mind after Wittgenstein (pp. 166–200). London: Routledge.(International Human Genome Consortium. (2004). Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome. Nature, 431, 931–945. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature030011992). Schizophrenia: Manifestations, incidence and course in different cultures: A World Health Organization ten-country study. Psychological Medicine Monograph Supplement20. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., , , , , , , & (1997). Wolfgang Köhler. In W.G.Bringmann, H.E.Luck, R.Miller, & C.E.Early (Eds.), A Pictorial History of Psychology (pp. 277–281). Chicago, IL: Quintessence Publishing.(2008). Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 105, 6829–6833. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0801268105, , , & (1884). What is an emotion?Mind, 9, 188–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mind/os-IX.34.188(1890). The principles of psychology. New York: Holt. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11059-000(2005). Culture and the sense of justice. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36, 14–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022104271425(2010). Schizophrenia, culture, and subjectivity: The edge of experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., & (1998). The g factor: The science of mental ability. Westport, CT: Praeger.(2006). Clocking the mind: Mental chronometry and individual differences. Amsterdam: Elsevier.(2001). Functional MRI: Introduction to methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press., , & (1992). The creativity of action. Cambridge: Polity.([Page 296]1991). Madness and social representations. Berkeley: University of California Press and London: Harvester/Wheatsheaf.(1999). Risk and ‘the other’. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2004). A decade of system justification theory: Accumulated evidence for conscious and unconscious bolstering of the status quo. Political Psychology, 25, 881–919. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9221.2004.00402.x, , & (2007). Knowledge in context: Representations, communities and culture. London: Routledge.(2008). Rehabilitation of common sense: Social representations, science and cognitive polyphasia. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 38(4), 431–449. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5914.2008.00378.x(2010). Constructing public worlds: Investigating children's representations of the public sphere. Presented at the 10th International Conference on Social Representations, Tunis., , & (1923). Psychological types (H.GodwinBaynes, Trans.). New York: Harcourt Brace.(2005). Introduction to psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Thompson Learning.(2010). Evolutionary psychology and intelligence research. American Psychologist, 65, 279–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0019378(2009). Positive association between cognitive ability and cortical thickness in a representative US sample of healthy 6 to 18 year-olds. Intelligence, 37, 145–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2008.09.006, , , , , , & (2008). An agent harms a victim: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study on specific moral emotions. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 1788–1798., , , , & (2005). Human functional neuroimaging of brain changes associated with practice. Cerebral Cortex, 15, 1089–1102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhi005, & (1963). Action, emotion and will. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1995). Introduction. In Remembering: A study of experimental and social psychology (pp. xi–xv). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511759185(1980). Disclosures to a stranger. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1981). A categorization of emotion definitions, with suggestions for a consensual definition. Motivation and Emotions, 5, 345–379. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00992553, & (2005). Stereotype threat in men on a test of social sensitivity. Sex Roles, 52, 489–496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-005-3714-x, & (1963). Moral development and identification. In H.W.Stevenson (Ed.), Year-book of the National Society for the Study of Children: Part I. Child psychology (pp. 277–332). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.(1976). Moral stages and moralization: The cognitive-developmental approach. In T.Lickona (Ed.), Moral development and behavior (pp. 31–53). New York: Holt.(1981). Philosophy of the moral development. San Francisco: Harper & Row.(1938 ). Gestalt psychology. New York: Mentes.(2010). Mutual radicalization. In F.M.Moghaddam, & R.Harré (Eds.), Words of conflict, words of war: How the language we use in political processes sparks fighting (pp. 155–171). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Security International., & (1992). The limbic system: A review of its empirical foundation. Behavioral Brain Research, 52, 105–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4328%2805%2980221-9, & (1905). Lectures on clinical psychiatry ((2nd ed.). London: Baillere, Tindall & Cox.1925). Physique and character: An investigation of the nature of constitution and of the theory of temperament (W.T.Sprott, Trans.). London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner.(1965). The divided self. Baltimore, MD: Penguin.(2003). Beyond individual and group differences: Human individuality, scientific psychology, and William Stern's critical personalism. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452229317([Page 297]2010). William Stern. Lengerich: Pabst.(1887). Ueber Gemuthbewgungen, 3 8. English translation.(1887 ). Les emotions etude psychophysiologique. (G.Dumas, Trans.) Paris: Alcan.(2006). Social modulation of pain as evidence for empathy in mice. Science, 312, 1967–1970. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1128322, , , , , , et al. (1934). Attitudes vs. Actions. Social Forces, 13, 230–237. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2570339(1950). In search of the engram. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology, 4, 454–482.(1998). Brain abnormality in schizophrenia: A systematic and quantitative review of volumetric magnetic resonance imaging studies. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 110–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.172.2.110, & (1947). The crowd. London: Benn.(2009). Women's discourse in beauty and class in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Culture & Psychology, 15, 147–167.(2000). Disordered eating in three communities of China: A comparative study of female high school students in Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and rural Hunan. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 27, 317–327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291098-108X%28200004%2927:3%3C317::AID-EAT9%3E3.0.CO;2-2, & (Lee, Y.T., Jussim, L., & McCauley, C.R. (Eds.). (1995). Stereotype accuracy: Toward appreciating group differences. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10495-0002009). Should IQ, perceptual speed, or both be used to explain response time?American Journal of Psychology, 122, 517–526.(1989). Clinical course and outcome of schizophrenia in Cali, Colombia: a ten-year follow-up study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177, 593–606.(1980). The belief in a just world: A fundamental delusion. New York: Plenum Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-0448-5(1935). The conflict between Aritotelian and Galilean modes of thought in contemporary psychology. In K.Lewin (Ed.), Dynamic theory of personality (pp. 1–42). New York: McGraw-Hill.(1999). Do we have free will?Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6(8–9), 47–57.(Libet, B., Freeman, A., & Sutherland, K. (Eds.). (2000). The volitional brain: Toward a neuroscience of free will. Thoverton: Imprint Academic.1700). An essay concerning human understanding.(1961). On aggressionLondon: Routledge.(1970). Studies in animal and human behavior (R.Martin, Trans.). London: Methuen.(1977). Behind the mirror. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.(2004). Rights and duties as group norms: Implications of intergroup research for the study of rights and responsibilities. In N.Finkel, & F.M.Moghaddam (Eds.), The psychology of rights and duties: Empirical contributions and normative commentaries (pp. 105–134). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press., & (1979). The making of mind: a personal account of soviet psychology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1987). The mind of a mnemonist: A little book about a vast memory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1988). Unnatural emotions. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.(2001). Homefront: A military city and the American 20th century. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.(2007). Emotion thought and estrangement. In H.Wulff (Ed.), The emotions: A cultural reader (ch. 2). New York: Oxford University Press.(2009). The bases of empire: The global struggle against US military posts. New York: New York University Press.(1993). Reading National Geographic. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press., & ([Page 298]2010). Carjacked: The culture of the automobile and its effect on our lives. New York: Palgrave Macmillan., & (2010). Breaking ranks: Iraq veterans speak out against the war. Berkeley: University of California Press., & (1980). Emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2000). An odd kind of fame: Stories of Phineas Gage. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(2000). Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 97, 4398–4403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.070039597, , , , , , & (1983). Essay on the principle of population as it affects the future improvement of society. London: J. M. Dent.(2008). Psychology of emotions. London: SAGE.(1961). The premise of inequality in Ruanda: A study of political relations in a central African kingdom. London: Oxford University Press.(2009). Tools for innovation. New York: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195381634.001.0001, & (2003). Dialogicality and social representations: The dynamics of mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1982). Vision: A computational investigation into the human representation and processing of visual information. San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman.(1977). The rules of disorder. London: Routledge., , & (2009). Relating psychology and neuroscience: Taking up the challenges. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(2), 113–125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01111.x(1967 ). Communist manifesto. New York: Pantheon., & (1966). The psychology of science. New York: Harper Row.(1970). Motivation and personality ((3rd ed.). New York: Longman.2006). Toward brain correlates of natural behavior: fMRI during violent video games. Human Brain Mapping, 27, 948–956. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.20234, & (1990). The person: An introduction to personality psychology. San Diego, CA and London: Harcourt Brace.(1977). Resource mobilization and social movements: A partial theory. American Journal of Sociology, 82, 1212–1241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/226464, & (2003). Personality in adulthood (, & (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/97802034284122010). Madness in Zanzibar: An exploration of lived experience. In J.H.Jenkins, & R.J.Barrett (Eds.), Schizophrenia, culture, and subjectivity: The edge of experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1993). Increased blood flow in Broca's area during auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Lancet, 342, 703–706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736%2893%2991707-S, , & (1998). Introduction to connectionist modelling of cognitive processes. Oxford: Oxford University Press., , & (1934). Mind, self, and society. (C.W.Morris Ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.(1997). Is being “sick” really better? Effect of the disease view of mental disorder on stigma. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 16, 405–419. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/jscp.19184.108.40.2065, & (2006). Chimpanzees recruit the best collaborators. Science, 311, 1297–1300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1123007, , & (1977). Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science, 198, 75–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.198.4312.75, & (1994). Imitation, memory, and the representation of persons. Infant Behavior and Development, 17, 83–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0163-6383%2894%2990024-8, & ([Page 299]2006). What frontotemporal dementia reveals about the neurobiological basis of morality. Medical Hypotheses, 67, 411–418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2006.01.048(2011). The construction of ethnic minority identity: A discursive psychological approach to ethnic self-definition in action. Discourse & Society, 22, 86–101., & (2010). Hope: The power of wish and possibility. Theory & Psychology, 20, 251–276., & (1981). Direct perception. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall., & (1990). Conversational remembering: A social psychological approach. In D.Middleton, & D.Edwards (Eds.), Collective remembering (pp. 23–46). London: SAGE., & (2001). Science and poetry. London: Routledge.(1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63(2), 343–355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0043158(2010). Mistreating psychology in the decades of the brain. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(6), 716–743. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691610388774(1960). Plans and the structure of behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10039-000, , & (1940). Situated actions and vocabularies of motive. American Sociological Review, 5(6), 904–913. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2084524(1962). Les troubles de la memorie accompagnant des lesions hippocampiques bilaterales. In P.Passouant (Ed.), Physiologie de l'hippocampe (pp. 257–272). Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.(1645). Il penseroso. The Poems of Mr John Milton. London: Moseley.(1986). Introduction to personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston.(2002). Medicine and the “Placebo Effect”. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2002). The individual and society: A cultural integration. New York: Worth.(2005). Great ideas in psychology: A cultural and historical exploration. Oxford: Oneworld.(2008a). Multiculturalism and intergroup relations: Psychological implications for democracy in global context. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11682-000(2008b). How globalization spurs terrorism. Westport, CT: Praeger.(2009). Omniculturalism: Policy solutions to fundamentalism in the era of fractured globalization. Culture & Psychology, 15, 337–347.(2010). The new global insecurity. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.(2010). Homeland security and support for multiculturalism, assimilation, and omniculturalism policies among Americans. Homeland Security Affairs, 4, 1–14., & (2005). Toward a cultural theory of rights and duties in human development. In N.Finkel, & F.M.Moghaddam (Eds.), The psychology of rights and duties: Empirical contributions and normative commentaries (pp. 75–104). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10872-004, & (1986). ‘Important’ and ‘trivial’ criteria in the minimal group paradigm. Journal of Social Psychology, 126, 345–354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1986.9713595, & (1990). Attitudes and behavior toward human rights across different contexts: The role of right-wing authoritarianism, political ideology, and religiosity. International Journal of Psychology, 25, 455–474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207599008247877, & (2003). Morals and the human brain: A working model. NeuroReport, 14, 299–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001756-200303030-00001, , & (2005). Functional networks in emotional moral and nonmoral social judgments. In J.T.Cacioppa, & G.E.Berntson (Eds.), Social neuroscience. New York and Hove: Psychology Press., , , & ([Page 300]1967). The naked ape. New York: McGraw-Hill.(1975). The nobility of failure. London: Secker and Warburg.(1963). Attitudes and opinions. Annual Review of Psychology, 14, 231–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.14.020163.001311(1985). The age of the crowd. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1997). Chronique des années égarées. Paris: Stock.(2000). Social representations: Explorations in social psychology. Cambridge: Polity.(2008 ). Psychoanalysis: Its image and its public. Cambridge: Polity.(2004). Understanding Wittgenstein's on certainty. London: Palgrave.(1990). Pronouns and people. Oxford: Blackwell., & (2007). The auditory system. London: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon., & (Nadel, J., & Butterworth, G. (Eds.). (1999). Imitation in infancy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.1974). What is it like to be a bat?Philosophical Review, 83(4), 435–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2183914(2004). The emergence of autobiographical memory: A social cultural developmental theory. Psychological Review, 111(2), 486–511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.111.2.486, & (Nelson, R.J. (Ed.). (2005). Biology of aggression. New York: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195168761.001.00012007). Neural mechanisms of aggression. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience, 8, 536–546. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrn2174, & (1990). Metamemory: A theoretical framework and new findings. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 26, 125–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-7421%2808%2960053-5, & (2009). Intelligence and neural efficiency. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 33, 1004–1023. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.04.001, & (1972). Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall., & (1983). Point of view in personal memories. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 467–482. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285%2883%2990016-6, & (2009). Intelligence and how to get it: Why schools and cultures count. New York: Norton.(1996). Culture of honor: Violence and the U.S. South. Boulder, CO: Westview Press., & (2005). The influence of culture: Holistic vs. analytic perception. Trends in Cognitive Science, 9, 467–473. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2005.08.004, & (2009). Out of our heads: Why you are not your brain and other lessons from the biology of consciousness. Hill and Wang: New York.(1997). Sex differences and brain morphology in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1648–1654., , & (2001). Upheavals of thought: The intelligence of emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511840715(1992). Best laid schemes: The psychology of the emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1996). Understanding emotions. London: SAGE., & (2003). Black American students in an affluent suburb: A study of academic disengagement. Oxford: Routledge., & (2003). Silent fMRI acquisition methods for large acoustic noise during scan. Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences, 2(4), 181–187. http://dx.doi.org/10.2463/mrms.2.181, & (1977). Similarity and attraction among majority and minority groups in a multicultural context. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 21, 113–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767%2896%2900016-8, , & (1935). The mind and society: A treatise on general sociology (Vols. 1–4). New York: Dover.(2002). Critical discursive psychology. Houndsmills and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9781403914651(1994). Introduction. In B.Parkinson, & A.M.Colman (Eds.), Emotion and motivation (pp. xi–xvi). London: Longman.& ([Page 301]Parrott, W.G. (Ed.). (2007). Emotions and social psychology. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.1996). Embarrassment and the threat to character. In R.Harré, & W.G.Parrott (Eds.), The emotions: Social, cultural, and biological dimensions (pp. 39–56). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE., & (1927). Conditioned reflexes: The investigation of the physiological activity of the cerebral cortex. London: Oxford University Press.(1962). Play, dreams and imitation in childhood. New York: Norton.(2010). Winner-take-all-politics: How Washington made the rich richer – and turned its back on the middle class. New York: Simon & Schuster., & (1958). Personal knowledge. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.(1987). Discourse and social psychology: Beyond attitudes and behavior. London: SAGE., & (2010). What does it mean to be human? Washington DC: National Geographic., & (2001). Everybody was Kung Fu fighting: Afro-Asian connections and the myth of cultural purity. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.(1978). Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 515–526. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00076512, & (1968). The morphology of the folk tale. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.(1999). When ideology hurts: Effects of belief in the protestant ethic and feeling overweight on the psychological well-being of women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 402–414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.112, & (1995). Extensions of justice theory: Justice evaluations and employees’ reactions in a natural setting. Social Psychology Quarterly, 58, 178–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2787041, & (1997). Cultural psychology and qualitative methodology. New York: Plenum Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-2681-7(1999). Postconventional moral thinking: A Neo-Kohlbergian approach. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., , , & (2002 ). Essays on the intellectual powers of man. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.(2003). Nature via nurture. New York: Harper Collins.(1927). The psychology of character with a survey of temperament. New York: Harcourt and Brace.(2007). The neural processing of moral sensitivity to issues of justice and care. Neuropsychologia, 45, 755–766. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.08.014, , , , , , & (1997). Review of Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology, Frederic C. Bartlett. Contemporary Psychology, 42, 488–492.(1973). On being sane in insane places. Science, 179, 250–258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.179.4070.250(1975). Personality. Glenview, IL: Scott Forsman., & (1966). Relative deprivation and social justice. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(2009). Artificial intelligence (, & (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle Hill, NJ: Prentice Hall.1987). Turn-taking in mother-infant interaction: An examination of vocalization and gaze. Developmental Psychology, 23, 54–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.168, & (2004). Who cares? The effect of gender and context on the self and moral reasoning. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 246–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2004.00142.x, , & (1997). Theories of personality. London: Brooks Cole.(1949). The concept of mind. London: Hutchinson.(2010). Stern words about the mind-brain problem: Keeping the whole person in mind. New Ideas in Psychology, 28, 168–174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2009.02.003(1981). Morality of everyday life. Oxford: Oxford University Press., & (1998). Emotion, character and responsibility. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195121674.001.0001, & ([Page 302]1983). Awakenings. New York: E. P. Dutton.(2010). Points of view, social positioning and intercultural relations. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 40, 47–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5914.2009.00422.x, & (2004). Social status and health in humans and other animals. Annual Review of Anthropology, 33, 393–418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.33.070203.144000(1916 ). Course in general linguistics: New York: Columbia University Press., (1962). Cognitive, social and physiological determinants of emotional state. Psychological Review, 69(5), 379–399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0046234, & (2007). Remembering the past to imagine the future: The prospective brain. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience, 8(9), 657–661., , & (2006). Consequences, actions, and intention as factors in moral judgments: An fMRI investigation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 803–817. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4328%2802%2900204-8, , , , & (1977). Scripts, plans, goals and understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum., & (2011). Criminology today ((6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.2006). Variations in the human pain stress experience mediated by ventral and dorsal basal ganglia. Journal of Neuroscience, 26(42), 10789–10795. http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2577-06.2006, , , , & (1999). Humour appreciation: a role of the right frontal lobe. Brain, 122, 657–666. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/122.4.657, & (1997). The Powerful Placebo. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press., & (1985). Attitudes of blame. New York: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-5094-4(2008). Intelligence and speed of information-processing: A review of 50 years of research. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 535–551. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2007.09.015, & (1966). Group conflict and cooperation: Their social psychology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.(1956). An outline of social psychology. New York: Harper., & (1975). EEG analysis: A history and a prospectus. Annual Review of Biophysics and Bioengineering, 4, 1–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.bb.04.060175.000245(1986). Paralysis: The rise and fall of a ‘hysterical’ symptom. Journal of Social History, 19, 549–582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jsh/19.4.549(1975). Images of man in psychological research. London: Methuen.(1991a). Thinking through cultures. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1991b). How to do things with words. Oxford: Clarendon Press.(1994) ‘You're not sick, you're just in love’: Emotion as an interpretative system. In P.Ekman, & R.J.Davidson (Eds.), The nature of emotions (pp. 32–44). New York: Oxford University Press.(1989). The semiotic subject of cultural psychology. In L.Previn (Ed.), Handbook of personality theory and research. New York: Guilford., & (1999). Social dominance: An intergroup theory of social dominance and oppression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139175043, & (2008). Neurobiology of aggression and violence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 429–442. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07111774(1993). Interpreting qualitative data. London: SAGE.(1994). Is thin really beautiful and good? Relationship between EWHR and female attractiveness. Personality and Individual Differences, 16, 123–132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869%2894%2990116-3(1948). ‘Superstition’ in the pigeon. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 168–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0055873(1974). About behaviorism. London: Cape.(1988). Psychologic. Berlin and New York: Springer.([Page 303]Smith, J.A. (Ed.). (2008). Qualitative psychology: A practical guide. London and Thousand Oaks: SAGE.1976). The dopamine hypothesis in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 133, 197–202.(2007). Emotion. Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. The encyclopedia is on-line only (available at: http://www.plato.stanford.edu).(2009). What intelligence tests miss: The psychology of rational thought. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(1996). Historical perspectives on grief. In R.Harré, & W.G.Parrott (Eds.), The emotions: Social, cultural, and biological dimensions (pp. 132–150). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE., & (1988). Emotion and social change. New York: Holmes and Meier., & (1938). General psychology from a personalist standpoint (H.D.Spoerl, Trans.). New York: Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11642-000(Sternberg, R.J., & Grigorenko, E.L. (Eds.). (2002). The general intelligence factor: How general is it?Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.the Rainbow Project Collaborators (2006). The rainbow project: Enhancing the SAT through assessments of analytical, practical, and creative skills. Intelligence, 34, 321–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2006.01.002, &2000). Brain wave representation of words by superposition of a few sine waves. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 97, 8738–8743. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.140228397, & (1959). Quantitative judgment in social perception. British Journal of Psychology, 50, 16–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1959.tb00677.x(1970). Experiments in intergroup discrimination. Scientific American, 223, 96–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican1170-96(Tajfel, H. (1978). (Ed.). Differences between social groups. London and New York: Academic Press.1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W.G.Austin, & S.Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33–47). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole., & (1985). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S.Worchel & W.G.Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7–24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall., & (1971). Social categorization and intergroup behavior. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1, 149–177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420010202, , , & (1993). Framing in discourse. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1994). Theories of intergroup relations (, & (2nd ed.). Westport, CT: Praeger.1996). Guilt and remorse. In R.Harré, & W.G.Parrott (Eds.), The emotions: Social, cultural, and biological dimensions. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.(1994). Ten-year course of schizophrenia. The Madras longitudinal study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 90, 329–336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1994.tb01602.x, , , , & (1986). Rights, restitution, and risk: Essays in moral theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1969). Ethology. In R.Harré (Ed.), Scientific Thought: 1900–1960 (pp. 238–268). Oxford: Clarendon Press.(1975). The tell-tale sign. Lisse: Peter de Ridder Press.(2005). Genetics of brain structure and intelligence. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 28, 1–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.28.061604.135655, & (1999). The cultural origins of human cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1980). Affect as amplification: Some modifications in theory. In R.Plutchik, & H.Kellerman (Eds.), Emotion: Theory, research, and experience (pp. 141–164). New York: Academic Press.(1978). The Mozart of psychology. New York Review of Books, 51–57.([Page 304]1950). Computing machinery and intelligence. Mind NS, 59, 433–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mind/LIX.236.433(2002). Trust in the law. New York: Russell Sage Foundation., & (2010). The motives underlying stereotype-based discrimination against members of stigmatized groups. Social Justice Research, 23, 1–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11211-010-0110-7, , & (2000). Culture and human development. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217924(2007). Culture in minds and societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9788132108504(Valsiner, J., & Rosa, A. (Eds.). (2007). The Cambridge handbook of socio-cultural psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO97805116111621987). The ethnic phenomenon. New York: Praeger.(2006). Association with brain-specific tryptophan hydroxylase, tph, with unipolar and bipolar bisorder in a Northern Swedish isolated population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 1103–1110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.63.10.1103, , , , , , , & (2003). Activation of serotonergic neurotransmission during the performance of aggressive behavior in rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 667–674. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7044.117.4.667, , , , , , , & (2009). A genetic analysis of brain volumes and IQ in children. Intelligence, 37, 181–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2008.10.005, , , , , , & (Von Cranach, M., & Harré, R. (Eds.). (1982). The analysis of action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.1992). Social representations and the social basis of knowledge. Lewiston, New York: Hogrefe & Huber., , & (1909). Umwelt und Innenweldt de Tiere. Berlin: Springer.(2009). Puzzlingly high correlations in fMRI studies of emotion, personality, and social cognition. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 274–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01125.x, , , & (1978a). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1978b). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1987). The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky. Volume 4: The history of the development of higher mental functions. New York: Plenum Press.(1994). Tool and symbol in child development. In R.van der Veer, & J.Valsiner (Eds.), The Vygotsky reader. Oxford: Blackwell., & (2007). On the linear relation between the mean and the standard deviation of a response time distribution. Psychological Review, 114, 830–841. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.114.3.830, & (1993). Can representations explain social behavior? A discussion of social representations as rational systems. Papers on Social Representations, 2, 236–249.(2005). Everyday discourse and common-sense: The theory of social representation. New York: Palgrave Macmillan., & (2011). Meaning construction in remembering: A synthesis of Bartlett and Vygotsky. In J.Stenner, J.Cromby, J.Motzkau, J.Yen, & Y.Haosheng (Eds.), Theoretical psychology: Global transformations and challenges (pp. 105–114). Toronto: Captus Press.(1976). Maslow reconsidered: A review of research on the need hierarchy theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 15(2), 212–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2876%2990038-6, & (Walker, I., & Smith, H.J. (Eds.). (2002). Relative deprivation: Specification, development, and integration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.1978). Equity: Theory and research. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon., , & (1913). Psychology as a behaviorist views it. Psychological Review, 20, 158–177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0074428(1920). Conditioned emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0069608, & ([Page 305]2010). Crazy like us. New York: Free Press.(2002). The illusion of conscious will. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1992). Human motivation: Metaphors, theories, and research. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.(1934). L'Unité des sens. Journal de Psychologie, 31, 190–205.(1938 ). Gestalt theory. In W.D.Ellis (Ed. and Trans.), A source book of Gestalt psychology (pp. 1–11). London: Routledge.(2002). Voices of collective remembering. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511613715(1964). Attention. Oxford: Blackwell.(1992). Semantics, culture and cognition. New York: Oxford University Press.(1999). Emotions across languages and cultures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511521256(2010). Experience, evidence and sense: The hidden cultural legacy of English. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195368000.001.0001(1998). On human nature. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1975). Sociobiology: The new synthesis. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.(1978). Human nature. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1894). Preludes, articles and speeches. Tubingen: Mohr.(1971). Playing and reality. London: Tavistock Publications.(1999). The exceptional brain of Alfred Einstein. The Lancet, 353, 2149–2153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2898%2910327-6, , & (1981). Cognitive styles: essences and origins. New York: International Universities Press., & (1922 ). Tractatus logico-philsophicus. In D.Pears & B.McGuiness (Eds.). London: Routledge.(1953). Philosophical investigations. Oxford: Blackwell.(1972). Emotions and life. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.(1976). On certainty. Oxford: Blackwell.(1986). Doing discourse analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452233291, & (World Health Organization. (1996). Schizophrenia and public health. WHO/MSA/NAM/97.61990). Responding to membership in a disadvantaged group: From acceptance to collective protest. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 994–1003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1244, , & (2007). The emotions: A cultural reader. New York: Oxford University Press.(1916). Elements of folk psychology (E.L.Schaub, Trans.). New York: Macmillan.(1966). The art of memory. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.(1998). Neuroendocrine bases of monogamy. Trends Neurosci, 21, 71–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-2236%2897%2901167-3, , & (2008). The neural basis of belief encoding and integration in moral judgment. NeuroImage, 40, 1912–1920. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.01.057, & (1967). On finished and unfinished tasks. In W.D.Ellis (Ed.), A sourcebook of Gestalt psychology. New York: Humanities Press.(2004). Tryptophan Hydrolase-2 controls brain serotonin synthesis. Science, 305, 217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1097540, , , , & (2008). Know your place: Neural processing of social hierarchy in humans. Neuron, 58, 273–283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2008.01.025, , , , , & (1977). Vulnerability: A new view of schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86, 103–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.86.2.103, & (