Psychobiological Processes in Health and Illness


Kate Hamilton-West

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page


    To Tim, Honor and Phoebe


    Conceptualisations of health, illness and disease have changed considerably over the past few decades. These changing conceptualisations have influenced (and been influenced by) the development of new fields of study, many of which span traditional disciplinary boundaries.

    Perhaps the most important boundary to be bridged in health research is that between the study of the mind (psychology) and the study of the body (biology). The emergence of disciplines such as health psychology, behavioural medicine and psychoneuroimmunology reflects a growing recognition that while particular psychological and biological processes can be isolated for research purposes, this isolation can distort the processes we aim to understand. To understand the nature of biological processes and their implications for health, we must also consider the influence of psychological processes; to understand the nature of psychological processes and their implications for health, we must also consider the influence of biological processes.

    This integration between psychological and biological approaches is essential if we are to tackle the health challenges facing us today. Take, for example, the rise in chronic illness associated with behaviours such as drinking, smoking and overeating. How do we get to the root cause of this problem?

    Explaining the causes of human behaviour has traditionally been the domain of psychologists, and there are numerous theories within this field to explain why individuals may engage in behaviours that are apparently self-defeating. These theories, however, tend to explain health-related behaviour in terms of consciously accessible beliefs, attitudes and expectations. It is becoming increasingly evident that explanations at this level cannot fully account for behaviour. People who want to follow a healthy diet, quit smoking or cut down on alcohol frequently fail, despite their best intentions, and recent research suggests that biological processes may be to blame. ‘Will power’ apparently relies on limited resources, and the energy required to constantly resist temptation may simply ‘run out’. Such resources may be even more limited during stressful periods or periods of illness as the organism must redirect resources towards dealing with more immediate threats. Research also suggests that behaviours such as drinking, smoking and overeating may function in a similar manner to the body's own homeostatic mechanisms, allowing the individual to maintain normal functioning during challenging periods.

    So, while psychologists still play a key role in explaining health-related behaviours, there is now increasing recognition that theories must be expanded to incorporate a role for psychobiological processes and that these processes may not necessarily be accessible to conscious awareness or self-report.

    Other bodies of research are also important to this endeavour. Genetic research, for example, has important implications when considering to what extent health (and health-related behaviour) is ‘written in the genes’. Perhaps the risk of disease is genetically predetermined. If so, does behaviour really matter? Perhaps some people are predestined to become obese or addicted to alcohol or cigarettes. If so, can we really do anything to change these outcomes?

    Alternatively, perhaps it is the environment that is truly to blame. For example, epidemiological research highlights marked social gradients in health, both between and within countries. How do we account for these gradients? Why should life expectancy and the risk of disease depend on the country we live in or our occupation?

    If we really want to tackle global health issues, should we be trying to change people's attitudes, genes or environments? It is clear that no one discipline can provide a complete answer to the health challenges that face us today. Scientists across a number of health-relevant disciplines will need to work together more closely, and we will need to train more scientists to work at the interface of psychology, biology and medicine.

    The Aims of This Book

    While integration of the disciplines is important if we are to further understand, prevent and treat disease, it is not necessarily easy to achieve.

    Differences in terminology exist between relevant disciplines and these render much research inaccessible to readers from other disciplinary backgrounds. Differences in research methods also present barriers to integration. For example, the process of defining and measuring psychological constructs may appear mysterious to researchers who are more accustomed to studying biological processes. This means that, outside the discipline of psychology, psychological constructs can appear ‘woolly’ or difficult to apply. Researchers with a pure psychology background may find immune or endocrine processes just as mysterious. While the discoveries arising from the Human Genome Project undoubtedly have important implications for all disciplines concerned with understanding the causes of disease and illness, scientists outside the genetic field may not be aware of the methods used to differentiate environmental and genetic contributions to disease or identify disease genes.

    The purpose of this book, then, is to begin to break down some of these barriers and provide an accessible introduction to psychobiological processes relevant to health and illness, summarising key findings across a number of disciplines. Research methods within these disciplines are also discussed and key terms are defined as we proceed (these are also listed in the Glossary at the back of this book). Since the literature summarised in the following chapters is both vast and diverse, we have not attempted to cover it all, but instead provide a useful entrée. The structure of the book is described in greater detail below.

    The Structure of This Book

    The first chapter invites you to take a step back and consider what we mean by commonly used terms such as ‘health’, ‘illness’ and ‘disease’, as well as what it means to be ‘normal’ (or ‘abnormal’). In this chapter we also explain what we mean by ‘psychobiological processes’; we consider disciplines concerned with these processes and discuss the methods used to define and measure theoretical constructs.

    In this chapter we summarise research focusing on stress - a concept that has been defined and measured in a number of ways and is therefore often viewed as particularly ‘woolly’. Despite problems of definition, the stress concept is critical to an understanding of how changes in the external environment may influence processes within the body. Research focusing on psychobiological responses to stress also requires us to consider how the health effects of toxic environments should be measured - how do we quantify changes across multiple physiological systems, for example?

    Here we turn our attention to positive processes in health and illness. If negative emotions can damage our health, do positive emotions have the power to cure? Why is it that some people appear relatively resilient to life's challenges? How do patients find positive meaning in their experiences of illness? Are happier people healthier (or vice versa)? This chapter also aims to highlight trends in the psychological research literature - particularly the growing body of research focusing on promotion of positive psychological outcomes (as opposed to amelioration of psychopathology).

    In this chapter we consider the role that our genes play in determining personality, behaviour, health and well-being and how the Human Genome Project has contributed (and continues to contribute) to our understanding of the determinants of health and illness. You are invited to consider the opportunities and challenges presented by predictive genetic testing - is it useful, desirable or even ethical to predict an individual's risk of disease months or even years before symptoms appear? Would you want to know your risk? What are the implications of predictive genetic testing for the prevention and treatment of illness?

    Here we discuss an aspect of human experience in which psychological and biological processes are particularly closely interrelated - the experience of pain. Like stress, pain has proved difficult to define and measure, and a number of theories have been presented over the years to account for our experience of it. Nonetheless, pain is a very real and a very common problem. We consider how pain may influence and be influenced by psychological and biological processes and how understanding of psychobiological interactions may help to develop more effective treatments.

    While the research reviewed in Chapters 1 to 5 highlights implications of psychobiological processes for health and illness at an individual level, it is also important to consider to what extent these processes may account for variations in the risk of disease at the group level. For example, do we see higher rates of infectious illness or heart disease in groups exposed to chronic stress over a number of years (the stress associated with long-term caregiving or economic hardship, for example)? If not, we need to question whether associations between psychological and biological processes observed in the laboratory have any relevance in the real world. In this chapter, then, we take a look at a number of ‘at risk’ populations and consider the extent to which real-world evidence supports the findings of laboratory research.

    Next, we shift our attention from theory to intervention. In this chapter we consider to what extent psychobiological research has resulted in changes in the way we treat or prevent illness and disease. We discuss a wide range of approaches, including both coping-based interventions for patients with chronic illness and cognitive behavioural therapies for patients with chronic illness or pain. You are asked to consider the relative strengths and limitations of alternative approaches and the extent to which intervention effects may be explained by the theories and processes described in previous chapters.

    We focus here on methodological issues. We consider what kind of evidence is needed to demonstrate that psychological processes actually produce alterations in physical functioning, or that psychobiological processes actually produce changes in health outcomes. We describe the principles of experimental design and discuss alternative research designs, considering the relative advantages and disadvantages of each. The methods available for evaluating the effects of intervention are also discussed and we consider the complexities involved in developing and applying theory-based interventions.

    The final chapter presents a summary of the research discussed in previous chapters, highlighting themes that cut across disciplines and present opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration. We draw some tentative conclusions regarding the nature of ‘toxic’ and ‘optimal’ conditions in relation to social, psychological and biological functioning and take a look into the future in order to consider how psychobiological research could benefit from recent technological advances. These include advances in information and communication technologies, brain imaging technologies and virtual reality applications. In this chapter we also consider how psychobiological research could be expanded to include a role for macro-level influences, those related to religion, culture and community.

    Notes on Features of This Book
    Key Terms and the Glossary

    Key terms are highlighted in bold the first time they appear and are listed at the end of each chapter. They are also listed in the Glossary at the end of this book, together with a brief definition or explanation - for a more detailed explanation please refer to the chapter.


    Some points require a more detailed explanation than is practicable within the main body of the text. These are therefore explained in greater detail in boxes. Some boxes summarise controversies in the research literature - for example, ‘Can stress shrink your brain?’, ‘Does coping influence cancer survival?’

    While research findings are summarised throughout this book, it is also important to take a detailed look at individual studies - what methods did the researchers use, what did they find and what conclusions did they draw? The ‘Research in focus’ boxes provide detailed descriptions of key studies in relation to the topics discussed in each chapter.

    Discussion Questions and Further Reading

    Each chapter ends with a list of discussion questions and further reading. These are to encourage you to delve further into the literature and relate the research discussed in each chapter to your own experience - clinical, research-based or real life.

    About the Author

    I completed a PhD in health psychology in 2003 and have since qualified as a chartered psychologist and practising health psychologist. I have a very long-held interest in health and have previously worked in medical education and training, in health and social care research and in health psychology education and training. I am now a lecturer in health psychology at the University of Kent. My research focuses on relationships between emotions and health and the psychological implications of living with chronic illness. Much of my current research is multidisciplinary and I enjoy collaborating with colleagues (both academics and clinicians) across a range of health-related disciplines.


    I would like to thank a number of people who have contributed to the process of writing this book: Chris Bridle, Christina Chryssanthopoulou, Aileen McGettrick, Katja Rudell and Derek Rutter for reading and commenting on early drafts, and Sarah Hotham for her work on the References section.

    Publisher's Acknowledgements

    The author and publisher wish to thank the following for permission to use copyright material:

    We thank the American Psychiatric Association for permission to use Figure 1.1 Hierarchy of Natural Systems. From Engel, G. L. (1980). The Clinical Application of the Biopsychosocial Model. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 535–544. Reprinted with permission from the American Journal of Psychiatry, (Copyright 1980). American Psychiatric Association.

    We thank the American Psychological Association for permission to use Table 3.1 Components of subjective well-being. From Diener, E., Suh, E., Lucas, R. & Smith, H. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological bulletin, 2, 276–302.

    We thank BioMed Central for permission to use Figure 4.2 Diagram Showing Inheritance in Hybrid Pea Plants. From Porteous, J.W. (2004). We still fail to account for Mendel's observations. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, 1, 1–4.

    We thank BMJ Publishing Group for permission to use:

    Figure 5.1. From Holdcroft, A. & Power, I. (2003) ‘Recent Developments: Management of Pain’. British Medical Journal, 326, 635–9.

    Figure 8.2 Sequential Phases of Developing Randomised Controlled Trials of Complex Interventions. Campbell, M., Fitzpatrick, R., Haines, A., Kinmonth, A.L., Sandercock, P., Spielgelhalter, D., & Tyrer, P. (2000) ‘Framework for Design and Evaluation of Complex Interventions to Improve Health’. British Medical Journal, 321, 694–696.

    We thank Elsevier for permission to use:

    An excerpt from Slagboom, P.E. & Meulenbelt, I. (2002) ‘Organisation of the Human Genome and our Tools for Identifying Disease Genes’. Biological Psychology, 61, 11–31.

    Figure 1.2 An Integrative Model of Psychoneuroimmunology and Health Psychology. From Lutgendorf and Costanzo (2003) ‘Psychoneuroimmunology and Health Psychology: An Integrative Model’. Brain and Behavior and Immunity, 17, 225–315.

    Figure 1.4 Social Readjustment Rating Scale. From: Holmes, T. H. & Rahe, R H. (1967) ‘The Social Readjustment Rating Scale’. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213–18.

    Figure 2.5 Theoretical Model of the Coping Process. From Folkman, S. (1997) ‘Positive Psychological States and Coping with Severe Stress’. Social Science and Medicine, 45, p1207–1221.

    Figure 2.6 The Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress. From Ursin, H., & Eriksen, H. R. (2004) ‘The Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress’. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29, 567–592.

    Table 2.1 From Homeostasis to Pathology. From LeMoal, M.L. (2007) ‘Historical Approach and Evolution of the Stress Concept: A Personal Account’. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32. S3–S9.

    Figure 3.1 Theoretical Model of the Coping Process and Figure 3.2. Revised theoretical Model of the Coping Process. From Folkman, S. (1997) ‘Positive Psychological States and Coping with Severe Stress. Social Science Medicine, 45, 1207–1221.

    Figure 4.5 Causal Model of Emotional Dysregulation as a Candidate Endophenotype of Alcohol Dependence. From Lesch, K. P. (2005) ‘Alcohol Dependence and Gene X Environment Interaction in Emotion Regulation: Is Serotonin the Link? European Journal of Pharmacology, 526, 113–124.

    Table 5.1 Definitions of Pain. From Summers, S. (2000) ‘Evidence-based Practice Part 1: Pain Definitions, Pathophysiologic Mechanisms, and Theories’. Journal of PeriAnaesthesia Nursing, 15, 357–365.

    Figure 5.3 The Gate Control Theory of Pain and Figure 5.4 The body-self Neuromatrix. From Melzack, R. (1999) ‘From the Gate to the Neuromatrix’. Pain, 82, S121–S126.

    Figure 5.5. Site of Endogenous Opioid Receptors. From Pleuvry, B. J. (2005). Opioid Mechanisms and Opioid Drugs. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, 6, 30–34.

    Figure 6.1 Life expectancy plotted against GDP per head. From Marmot, M. (2006) ‘Health in an Unequal World’. Lancet, 368, 2081–2094.

    Figure 6.4 from Spolentini, I., Gianni, W., Repetto, L., Bria, P., Caltagirone, C., Bossu, P., & Spalletta, G. (2008) ‘Depression and Cancer: An unexplored and unresolved Emergent Issue in Elderly Patients. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 65, 143–155.

    Figure 6.5 from Gilley, D., Herbert, B-S., Huda, N., Tanaka, H., & Reed, T. (2008) ‘Factors Impacting Hman Tlomere Hmeostasis and Age-related Disease’. Mechanisms of Aging and Development, 129, 27–34.

    Figure 7.1 Diagram Showing Relationships between Placebo Treatment, Internal Regulatory Processes, and Outcomes. Wager, T. D. & Nitschke, J. B. (2005) ‘Placebo Effects in the Brain: Linking Mental and Physiological Processes. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 19, 281–282.

    Table 8.1 Hierarchy of Scientific Evidence for Inferring Causality. From Ketterer, M. W., Mahr, G., & Goldberg, A. D. (2000) ‘Psychological Factors Affecting a Medical Condition: Ischemic Coronary Heart Disease’. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 48, 357–367.

    Table 8.2 from Glasgow, R. E., McKay, H. G., Piette, J. D., & Reynolds, K. D. (2001) ‘The RE-AIM Framework for Evaluating Interventions: What can it tell us about Approaches to Chronic Illness Management?’ Patient Education and Counselling, 44, 119–127.

    We thank Merck & Co. for permission to use Figure 5.2 Referred Pain. From The Merck Manual of Medical Information - Home Edition, edited by Robert S. Porter. Copyright 2007 by Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ. Available at: Accessed on 2/5/2008.

    We thank the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), part of the National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services for permission to use Figure 6.2 Coronary Atherosclerosis.

    We thank Nature Publishing Group for permission to use Figure 4.4 from Boomsma, D., Busjahn, A., & Peltonen, L. (2002) ‘Classical Twin Studies and Beyond’. Nature, 3, 872–882.

    We thank Oxford University Press for permission to use:

    Figure 2.1 The Autonomic Nervous System. From “Dictionary of Psychology” by Coleman Andrew (2006). By permission of Oxford University Press.

    Fig 2.2 The Endocrine System. From ‘The Oxford Companion to the Body’ by Colin Blakemore and Sheila Jennett. By permission of Oxford University Press.

    We thank Taylor and Francis for permission to use Figure 3.3. Schematic representation of Leventhal et al.'s (1980) Common Sense Model of Illness Representations. From Hagger, M.S. & Orbell, S. (2003) ‘A Meta-analytic Review of the Common-sense Model of Illness Representations. Psychology and Health, 18, p141–184.

    We thank the Public Library of Science (PLoS) for permission to use Figure 4.6 Waddington's epigenetic landscape. From Mitchell, K.J. (2007) ‘The Genetics of Brain Wiring: From Molecule to Mind. PLoS Biology, 5, e113–115

    We thank Wiley-Blackwell for permission to use Figure 2.7 Four Types of Allostatic Load. From McEwen, B.S. (1998) ‘Stress, Adaptation, and Disease: Allostasis and Allostatic Load’ Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 840, 33–44.

  • Glossary

    A-beta fibres Rapidly conducting non-nociceptive fibres. See gate control theory.

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) A mindfulness-based therapy that encourages patients to disentangle from troubling thoughts or sensations, develop deepened conscious contact with the present moment and construct patterns of action linked to chosen values.

    Acupressure Stimulation of acupuncture points without piercing the skin, applying pressure instead. Used to relieve pain.

    Acupuncture Involves insertion of solid needles at acupuncture points. Used to relieve pain.

    Acute pain Pain elicited by substantial injury to body tissue and activation of nociceptive transducers.

    Adaptive immunity (also called acquired or specific immunity) Highly targeted immune response to overcome specific foreign invaders.

    A-delta fibres Fast, myelinated fibres carrying information about intense, sharp pain. See gate control theory.

    Alleles Alternative forms of a gene at a specific chromosomal location.

    Allocation bias Deviation from random assignment in which group allocation is related to (known or unknown) risk factors or confounding variables.

    AllodyniaSee stimulus-evoked pain.

    Allostasis The process of maintaining stability through change.

    Allostatic load The biological ‘cost’ associated with allostatic systems.

    Altered homeostatic theory Suggests that age-associated diseases result from a shift from parasympathetic to sympathetic regulation and loss of maintenance and repair functions.

    Appraisal Cognitive evaluation of a situation or stimulus.

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) The division of the peripheral nervous system responsible for controlling the functioning of a number of organs and glands.

    Autosomal dominant inheritance A mutant gene from one parent is sufficient to cause the disease, even if a normal copy is inherited from the other parent.

    Autosomal recessive inheritance Each individual must inherit two copies of the mutant gene (one from each parent) to develop the disease.

    Autosome Any chromosome other than a sex chromosome.

    Behaviour therapy A therapeutic approach involving the use of a range of techniques aimed at eliminating problem behaviours by manipulating response contingencies.

    Behavioural genetics The genetic study of behaviour.

    Behavioural medicine An interdisciplinary field concerned with the integration and application of behavioural, environmental and biomedical knowledge relevant to health and disease.

    Benefit-finding Finding positive meaning (benefit) in stressful experiences.

    Biochemical theory of pain Describes biochemical mechanisms implicated in pain.

    Biofeedback A technique used to produce learned control of a wide range of physiological responses, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, peripheral vascular responses and various brain rhythms.

    Biomedical model Considers disease to be fully explained by deviations from the norm of biological variables.

    Biopsychosocial model Considers health to result from complex interactions between biological, social and psychological factors. Blinding Withholding information from the participant about the assigned intervention (drug v. placebo, for example). Information may also be withheld from the person delivering the intervention (‘double blind trial’) and from the person responsible for analysing the data (‘triple blind trial’).

    Broaden and build theory Suggests that positive emotions perform an important adaptive function by broadening the thought–action repertoire and building resources.

    Catastrophising A coping strategy aimed at increasing attention or empathy from others.

    Cellular immunity, cell-mediated immunity, Th1 response Involves the use of killer T cells and NK cells to destroy infected cells.

    Central nervous system (CNS) The brain and spinal cord.

    Central sensitisation Increased excitability of neurons in the central nervous system.

    C fibres Slow, unmyelinated fibres carrying information about dull, throbbing pain. See gate control theory.

    Chromosomal disorders Result from an abnormal chromosome number or structural rearrangement of chromosomes.

    Chromosome Large stretches of DNA.

    Chronic pain Pain that persists beyond the normal time of healing.

    Circadian pattern A rhythmic, 24-hour cycle in relation to sleep.

    Classical conditioning An associative learning process resulting in a conditioned response to a previously neutral stimulus, such as dogs salivating in response to a bell.

    Cognitive activation theory (CAT) Conceptualises stress and coping in terms of expectancy.

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) A therapeutic approach involving the use of behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy techniques. See behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy.

    Cognitive therapy A therapeutic approach involving the use of a range of techniques developed to challenge problem thinking.

    Commonsense model of illness representations Proposes that individuals hold cognitive and emotional representations of illness, and these guide their attempts to cope.

    Complex interventions Interventions involving several components that may be difficult to describe and standardise, such as in pain clinics and stroke units.

    Complex or multifactorial disorders Result from complex interactions between genes and the environment.

    Conditioned immunomodulation Alteration of immune function via classical conditioning.

    Confounding variables Variables that could influence the relationship between an independent (manipulated or measured) variable and a dependent (outcome) variable.

    Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement A set of evidence-based guidelines for reporting randomised controlled trials.

    Coping skills training A psychological intervention based on coping theory.

    CopingEither efforts to alter a stressful situation, and/or minimise resulting distress (see transactional model of coping) or positive outcome expectancy (see cognitive activation theory).

    Coronary atherosclerosis A progressive disease involving a gradual thickening of the walls of the coronary arteries.

    Corticosteroids Steroid hormones produced by the adrenal glands (cortisol in humans, corticosterone in rats and mice).

    Cytokines Chemical messengers released by cells of the immune system.

    Deep brain or motor cortex stimulation Electrical stimulation of the brain. Used to treat refractory neuropathic pain states.

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) The primary material (in most organisms) containing the information for all hereditary traits of the organism.

    Disease An organising construct for explaining and responding to constellations of symptoms. Dizygotic (DZ) twins Derive from two distinct fertilised eggs and, therefore, have the same genetic relationship as non-twin siblings.

    Double blind trialsSee blinding.

    Ecological momentary assessments Involve the use of methods by which a participant in research can report on his or her emotions, cognitions or behaviours as they are experienced.

    Electroacupuncture Weak, pulsed electric current passed through acupuncture needles. Used to relieve pain.

    Electrodermal response (EDR) A technique used to monitor sweat gland activity.

    Electroencephalography (EEG) A technique used to monitor brainwave activity.

    Electromyography (EMG) A technique used to monitor muscle tension.

    Emotional disclosure A psychological intervention that involves expressing negative thoughts and feelings. Typically, it involves writing in a diary for three to four days.

    Endocrine system A system of glands that produce and secrete hormones.

    Endocrinosenescence Age-related changes in endocrine function.

    Endophenotype Higher-order variables explaining individual variability in self-reported and observed behaviour.

    Endorphins Endogenous, morphine-like substances that attach to pain receptors to modulate or decrease pain.

    Enteric nervous system Division of the autonomic nervous system responsible for controlling intestinal functions.

    Environmental epigenomics A new field of study that aims to determine which human genes are likely to be involved in susceptibility to disease when epigenetically deregulated.

    Epidural block Injection of anaesthetic into the epidural space near the spinal cord to relieve pain.

    Epigenetic landscape A theoretical model that explains phenotypic variance in terms of environmental forces acting on an organism, represented by a ball rolling over a landscape.

    Epigenetics Localised changes in gene expression that take place without a change in the DNA sequence.

    Epigenomics Changes in gene expression across many genes in a cell or organism.

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) The process of systematically reviewing, appraising and using research evidence to guide the delivery of clinical care.

    Experimental design Involves manipulating one or more independent variable(s) in order to observe changes in the outcome (dependent) variable, while controlling for potential confounding variables.

    External or ecological validity The extent to which the results of a study may be generalised beyond the study sample or experimental setting.

    Extinction Lack of reinforcement for a previously reinforced (conditioned) response, resulting in cessation of the conditioned response.

    Fight or flight response Bodily changes associated with fear and rage, as described by Walter Cannon (1871–1945). See relaxation response.

    Flow A state of optimal psychological functioning in which challenges are matched to the individual's level of skill.

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) A non-invasive brain imaging technique used to map brain activity, evidenced by changes in blood flow.

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) The primary inhibitory neurotransmitter of the nervous system.

    Gate control theory (GCT) A theory of pain that incorporates both physiological and psychological dimensions.

    Gene Unit of genetic material made up of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

    Gene expression How and when genes are ‘switched on’.

    Gene therapy An experimental technique that uses genes to prevent or treat disease.

    General adaptation syndrome (GAS) A three-stage response to prolonged stress, as described by Hans Selye (1907–1982).

    Genome The entire complement of genetic material of a cell. Genotype The individual's unique set of genes.

    Graded exposure therapy Involves repeatedly presenting a feared stimulus under conditions in which the stimulus will not result in unfavourable consequences.

    Habituation The process by which an animal (or person) learns to ignore a stimulus that does not predict anything of value.

    Hardiness A personality construct characterised by commitment, control and challenge.

    Health An evaluative notion based on adherence to physical, social and mental ‘normality’.

    Health psychology An applied branch of psychology concerned with understanding and improving health and the healthcare system.

    Health psychology interventions Psychological (cognitive, emotional, behavioural) interventions designed to improve health or target processes contributing to illness and disease.

    Homeostasis The process of maintaining physiological equilibrium.

    Humoral immunity, antibody-mediated immunity, Th2 response Involves the use of molecules that bind with an antigen in order to clear it from the body.

    HyperalgesiaSee stimulus-evoked pain.

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis Refers to interactions between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and adrenal gland.

    Illness A deviation from physical, social or mental ‘normality’ that is perceived by the patient as distressing and a title to special treatment.

    Immune surveillance hypothesis Suggests that tumours develop when the normal surveillance function of the immune system is suppressed.

    Immune system A network of cells, tissues and organs responsible for defending the organism against attack by ‘foreign’ invaders, such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses.

    Inflamma-ageing An increased inflammatory immune response with advancing age.

    Innate immunity (also called natural immunity) Non-specific immune response that acts near entry points into the body.

    INUS Stands for causes that are Insufficient but Necessary components of Unnecessary but Sufficient causes.

    Leukocytes White blood cells of the immune system.

    Local anaesthetic A drug that causes reversible local anaesthesia.

    Lymphocytes Cells of the immune system responsible for identifying and eliminating foreign invaders.

    Lymphoid organs Organs of the immune system.

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) A non-invasive brain imaging technique used to map brain activity, evidenced by changes in magnetic fields.

    Mediator A variable that explains how or why the relationship between two other variables exists.

    Mere measurement effect or question–behaviour effect The phenomenon in which behaviour is altered simply by asking the participant to answer a question.

    Meta-analysis The use of statistical methods to summarise the results of a number of relevant studies and examine the consistency of evidence across studies.

    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) An adaptation of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), used for treating chronic depression.

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) A group intervention that involves training in mindfulness meditation and its applications in daily living and coping with stress, pain and illness.

    Moderator A variable that explains under which conditions a relationship between two other variables exists.

    Monozygotic (MZ) twins Derive from a single egg and, therefore, inherit identical genetic material.

    Multifactorial causality Outcomes that are produced by multiple causal inferences for which several different causal pathways may lead to the same outcome.

    Mutations Changes in DNA sequence with an effect on gene function.

    Natural experiment A study design that involves examination of naturally occurring risk and protective factors using design elements that allow an approximation to experimental conditions.

    Naturalistic studies Studies that involve recording risk and protective factors under natural (rather than experimental) conditions.

    Negative automatic thoughts (NATs) Dysfunctional thoughts that arise automatically, without deliberation or reasoning, and have the capacity to produce dysfunctional behaviours.

    Neurofeedback Self-regulation of functional brain networks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) feedback. See fMRI.

    Neuromatrix theory of pain A theory of pain that incorporates genetic, cognitive neurohormonal and neural mechanisms.

    Neuropathic pain Pain that is not thought to indicate tissue damage, but results from changes to the nervous system.

    NeuropeptidesSee neurotransmitters.

    Neurosignature The characteristic pattern of nerve impulses produced by the pattern of synaptic connections in the neuromatrix.

    Neurotransmitters Chemical messengers released by neurons. Includes small molecule neurotransmitters (such as ACTH, GABA) and neuropeptide neurotransmitters (such as CRH, ACTH).

    Nociception The physiological response to tissue injury.

    Nociceptive transducers Peripheral terminals of nociceptors.

    Nociceptors Nerves that transmit pain signals to the brain.

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) Non-steroid drugs used to treat inflammation.

    Normal distribution A bell-shaped distribution of measurements or scores, with the highest frequency around the average value for the group.

    Obesity epidemic A term used to refer to the rapid rise in obesity levels recorded by the World Health Organisation in the late twentieth and early twenty-first century.

    Operant conditioning Involves pairing an unconditioned response (such as spontaneously pressing a lever) with an unconditioned stimulus (such as food) in order to produce a conditioned response (pressing the lever to obtain food).

    Opiate drugs Drugs that bind to opioid receptors, used in the treatment of pain.

    Opioid receptors Receptors that bind opiates or opioid substances.

    Parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) Division of the autonomic nervous system responsible for rest and storing energy.

    Patient preference trials Involve randomising participants without strong preferences, and allowing those with a strong preference to receive their preferred treatment.

    Patient-centred care Emphasises the role of the patient in their own care.

    Pattern theory One of the main theories of pain until the 1960s. Suggested that the intensity of the stimulus and central summation are the main determinants of pain.

    Perceived control The individual's belief that he or she is able to alter the outcome of a situation.

    Peripheral nerve stimulation Non-noxious stimulation of peripheral nerves, used to relieve pain.

    Peripheral nervous system Nerves that carry information to and from the central nervous system.

    Pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics The targeting of pharmaceuticals based on an individual's genetic characteristics.

    Phenotype The individual's set of observable characteristics or traits.

    Placebo therapies Therapies that involve the administration of dummy pills or sham treatments in place of active therapies.

    Polymorphisms Changes in DNA sequence that have no effect on the functioning of the gene.

    Population ageing The process by which older individuals become a proportionally larger share of the population.

    Positional cloning The process of localising and identifying a disease gene. Predictive genetic testing The use of a genetic test to predict risk of a disease in the future.

    Progressive relaxation A technique used to produce relaxation by first tensing and then releasing muscles.

    Prospective longitudinal design A study design that involves the measurement of independent (predictor) variables at time 1 and outcome variables at time 2.

    Proteins Large molecules made of one or more chains of amino acids.

    Psychological resilience The ability to ‘bounce back’ from negative emotional experiences and adapt to the changing demands of stressful experiences.

    Psychological well-being (PWB) Conceptualisation of well-being in relation to meaning or self-realisation and the degree to which a person is functioning fully.

    Psychoneuroendocrinology (PNE) The study of interactions between the brain and endocrine system and resulting implications for health.

    Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) The study of interactions between the brain and immune system and resulting implications for health.

    Psychophysiology (PP) The study of relations between psychological manipulations and physiological responses.

    Psychosocial threat Sense of threat resulting from the interpretation of changes in the environment.

    Psychosomatic medicine The study of relations between the mind, body and health.

    Quantitative genetic strategies Methods used to determine if, and to what extent, a disease may be heritable.

    Random assignment A process of assigning participants to groups, ensuring that the probability of being assigned to either the experimental or control group is the same for each participant.

    Randomisation check A statistical comparison of experimental and control group data performed to test for group equivalence at baseline.

    Randomised controlled trial (RCT) or randomly assigned controlled clinical trial (RACC) Involves randomly assigning participants to receive either an active intervention or an inactive control (such as a dummy pill) using an experimental design.

    Randomised waiting list study A study design that involves randomly allocating participants to intervention or waiting list conditions (participants in the waiting list condition receive the intervention at a later point in time).

    RE-AIM framework A framework used to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of interventions when delivered in real-world settings, considering both individual-level factors (such as cost, transport, inconvenience to patients) and organisation-level factors (such as level of resources, expertise required, fit with current practice).

    Referred pain Pain felt at a site remote from the site of origin or stimulation.

    Relationship-centred care Emphasises the role of both patients and clinicians (and relationships between patients and clinicians) in the care process.

    Relaxation response (RR) The physiological counterpart of the fight or flight response. See fight or flight response.

    Replicative senescence The characteristic of all normal somatic cells to undergo a limited number of cell divisions (the Hayflick limit).

    Self-determination theory (SDT) Suggests that fulfilment of basic psychological needs is essential for well-being.

    Self-management interventions Interventions that aim to increase patients’ interest and involvement in their own care and empower them to manage their condition.

    Self-regulation The process by means of which individuals maintain control over thoughts, feelings and actions.

    Serotonin (also called 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) A neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the regulation of mood and is used in the treatment of depression.

    Sex chromosomes Either of a pair of chromosomes that combine to determine the sex of an organism.

    Single-gene disorders Caused by a mutation in a single gene. Somatic marking The process by which threats to homeostasis activate feeling states and initiate attempts at self-regulation.

    Specificity theory One of the main theories of pain until the 1960s. Suggested that pain signals are carried to the brain by specific types of fibres in the spinal nerves.

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) Non-noxious stimulation of the spinal cord, used to relieve pain.

    Spontaneous pain Pain arising owing to spontaneous activity in the primary sensory neurons.

    Statistical normality A statistically defined concept of ‘normality’ based on the distribution of scores for a particular group or population. See normal distribution.

    Steroids Anti-inflammatory substances that occur naturally in the body (such as cortisol) or are produced synthetically in order to treat inflammation.

    Stimulation-produced analgesia (SPA) Pain relief via nerve stimulation.

    Stimulus-evoked pain Heightened reaction to a painful stimulus evoked by brushing or pressure (hyperalgesia) or tactile pain to an innocuous stimulus (allodynia).

    Stressful life events Events that normally demand readjustment of the average person's routine.

    Subjective well-being (SWB) Conceptualisation of well-being as a subjective construct, dependent on the individual's personal evaluation of their own life circumstances.

    Sympathetic nervous system Division of the autonomic nervous system responsible for arousal and energy release.

    Sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis (SAM) Links between the sympathetic nervous system and adrenal medulla.

    Systematic review A methodically rigorous review of relevant literature using explicit scientific methods to synthesise findings of individual studies in an unbiased manner.

    Telehealth The use of advanced telecommunications to provide access to healthcare, such as assessment, diagnosis and intervention, to underserved or isolated populations.

    Teletherapy (also called e-therapy, telepsychotherapy or telepsychology) The use of computer-mediated communication to deliver psychotherapy.

    Telomere hypothesis Suggests that the counting mechanism for replicative senescence is provided by progressive shortening of telomeres.

    Telomeres Specialised DNA or protein structures at the ends of chromosomes that act to protect chromosome caps.

    Thymic involution Age-related degeneration of the thymus.

    Transactional model (TM) of coping Conceptualises stress and coping in relation to dynamic interactions between the individual and environment.

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) A non-invasive method of applying electrical stimulation to the skin for pain control.

    Tricyclic antidepressants Antidepressant drugs that prevent the reabsorption of noradrenalin and serotonin. Also used as frontline therapies for neuropathic pain states.

    Triple blind trialsSee blinding.

    Type A personality A personality construct characterised by impatience, competitiveness and hostility.

    Undoing effect A reduction in physiological arousal to negative emotion resulting from exposure to positive emotion stimuli. See broaden and build theory.

    Viral challenge studies Involve exposing participants to a virus under experimental conditions and then measuring the relationship between risk factors (assessed prior to exposure) and the subsequent development of symptoms.

    Virtual reality (VR) The use of technologies that involve immersion of the user in a virtual environment.

    X-linked dominant inheritance Diseases linked to the X chromosome. Individuals need inherit only one copy of the mutant gene to inherit the disease.

    X-linked recessive inheritance Disease linked to the X chromosome. Females must inherit two copies of the mutant gene to inherit the disease, but males will inherit the disease if only one mutant gene is inherited.


    Abramson, L.Y., Metalsky, G.I., & Alloy, L.B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: a theory based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358–372.
    Abramson, L.Y., Seligman, M.E.P., & Teasdale, J.D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49–74.
    Adams, P., Hurd, M.D., Merrill, A., & Ribeiro, T. (2003). Healthy, wealthy, and wise? Tests for direct causal paths between health and socioeconomic status. Journal of Econometrics, 112, 3–56.
    Adda, J., Chandola, T., & Marmot, M. (2003). Socio-economic status and health: causality and pathways. Journal of Econometrics, 112, 57–63.
    Ader, R. (2003). Conditioned immunomodulation: research needs and directions. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 17, 51–57.
    Ader, R., & Cohen, N. (1975). Behaviourally conditioned immunosuppression. Psychosomatic Medicine, 37, 333–340.
    Ader, R., & Cohen, N. (1982). Behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression and murine systemic lupus ery-thematosus. Science, 215, 1534–1536.
    Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (2004). Questions raised by a reasoned action approach: comment on Ogden (2003). Health Psychology, 23, 431–434.
    Ajzen, I., & Madden, T.J. (1986). Prediction of goal-directed behavior: attitudes, intentions and perceived behavioral control. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 22, 453–474.
    Alonso, Y. (2004) The biopsychosocial model in medical research: the evolution of the health concept over the last two decades. Patient Education and Counseling, 53, 239–244.
    Altman, D.G., & Bland, J.M. (1999). Statistics notes: how to randomise. British Medical Journal, 319, 703–704.
    Altman, D.G., Schulz, K.F., Moher, D., Egger, M., Davidoff, F., Elbourne, D., Gotzsche, P.C., & Lang, T. (2001). The revised CONSORT statement for reporting randomized trials: explanation and elaboration. Annals of Internal Medicine, 134, 663–694.
    Alzheimer's Society (2007). Dementia UK 2007: full dementia UK report, available online at:
    American Academy of Pediatrics (2006). Prevention and management of pain in the neonate: an update. Pediatrics, 118, 2231–2241.
    American Psychological Association (2008). How technology changes everything (and nothing) in psychology: 2008 annual report of the APA policy and planning board. American Psychologist, 64, 454–463.
    Anagnostopoulos, F., & Spanea, E. (2005). Assessing illness representations of breast cancer: a comparison of patients with healthy and benign controls. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 58, 327–334.
    Anand, K.J., & Craig, K.D. (1996). New perspectives on the definition of pain. Pain, 67, 3–6.
    Andersen, B.L., Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K., & Glaser, R. (1994). A biobehavioral model of cancer stress and disease course. American psychologist, 49, 389–404.
    Anderson, B.L., Farrar, W.B., Golden-Kreutz, D., Emery, C.F., Glaser, R., Crespin, T., & Carson, W.E. (2007). Distress reduction from a psychological intervention contributes to improved health for cancer patients. Brain Behavior and Immunity, 21, 953–961.
    Anderson, B.L., Farrar, W. B., Golden-Kreutz, D.M., Glaser, R., Emery, C.F., Crespin, T.R., Shapiro, C.L., & Carson, W.E. (2004). Psychological, behavioral, and immune changes after a psychological intervention. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 22, 3570–3580.
    Anderson, B.L., Golden-Kreutz, D.M., Emery, C.F., & Thiel, D.L. (2009). Biobehavioral intervention for cancer stress: conceptualization, components, and intervention strategies. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 16, 253–265.
    Anderson, B.L., Yang, H.C., Farrar, W.B., Golden-Kreutz, D.M., Emery, C.F., Thornton, L.M., Young, D.C., & Carson, W.E. (2008). Psychological intervention improves survival for breast cancer patients: a randomized clinical trial. Cancer, 113, 3450–3458.
    Andreassi, J.L. (2000). Psychoneuroimmunology: human behavior and physiological response. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Arendt-Nielsen, L., & Svensson, P. (2001). Referred muscle pain: basic and clinical findings. Clinical Journal of Pain, 17, 11–19.
    Armstrong, D., Michie, S., and Marteau, T. (1998) Revealed identity: a study of the process of genetic counselling. Social Science and Medicine, 47, 1653–1658.
    Aschbacher, K., Mills, P.J., von Kanel, R., Hong, S., Mausbach, B.T., Roepke, S.K., Dimsdale, J.E., Patterson, T.L., Ziegler, M.G., Ancoli-Israel, S., & Grant, I. (2008). Effects of depressive and anxious symptoms on norepinephrine and platelet P-selectin responses to acute psychological stress among elderly caregivers. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 22, 493–502.
    Assal, J. (1999). Revisiting the approach to treatment of long-term illness: from the acute to the chronic state. A need for educational and managerial skills for long-term follow-up. Patient Education and Counselling, 37, 99–111.
    Bakker, A.B. (2005). Flow among music teachers and their students: the crossover of peak experiences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 26–44.
    Balkenius, C. (2000). Attention, habituation and conditioning: toward a computational model. Cognitive Science Quarterly, 1, 171–204.
    Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.
    Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44, 1175–1184.
    Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 50, 248–287.
    Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman.
    Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: an agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1–26.
    Barlow, J., Wright, C., Sheasby, J., Turner, A., & Hainsworth, J. (2002). Self-management approaches for people with chronic conditions: a review. Patient Education and Counselling, 48, 177–187.
    Barnett, J.E., & Scheetz, K. (2003). Technological advances and telehealth: ethics, law, and the practice of psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 40, 86–93.
    Baron, R.M., & Kenny, D.A. (1986). The moderator- mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.
    Bartholomew, L.K., Parcel, G.S., Kok, G., & Gottlieb, N. (2001). Intervention Mapping: A process for designing theory- and evidence-based health promotion programs. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing.
    Bartlett, D. (1998). Stress perspectives and processes. Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press.
    Bauer, M., Vedhara, K., Perks, P., Wilcock, G., Lightman, S., Shanks, N. (2000). Chronic stress in caregivers of dementia patients is associated with reduced lymphocyte sensitivity to glucocorticoids. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 103, 84–92.
    Baum, A., & Posluszny, M.D. (1999). Health psychology: mapping biobehavioral contributions to health and illness. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 137–163.
    Baumeister, R.F., Vohs, K.D., & Tice, D.M. (2007). The strength model of self-control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 351–355.
    Beck, A.T. (1964). Thinking and depression: II. Theory and therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 10, 561–571.
    Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.
    Becker, M.H. (1974). The health belief model and sick role behavior. Health, Education Monographs, 2, 409–419.
    Benedetti, F., Pollo, A., Lopiano, L., Lanotte, M., Vighetti, S., & Rainero, I. (2003). Conscious expectation and unconscious conditioning in analgesic, motor, and hormonal placebo/nocebo responses. Journal of Neuro-science, 23, 4315–4323.
    Biderman, A., Yeheskel, A., & Herman, J. (2005). The biopsychosocial model: have we made any progress since 1977?Families, Systems & Health, 23, 379–386.
    Bieri, D., Reeve, R.A., Champion, G.D., Addicoat, L., & Ziegler, J.B. (1990). The Faces Pain Scale for the self-assessment of the severity of pain experienced by children: development, initial validation, and preliminary investigation for ratio scale properties. Pain, 41, 139–150.
    Bijttebier, P., Vertommen, H., & Vander-Steene, G. (2001). Assessment of cognitive coping styles: a closer look at situation-response inventories. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 85–104.
    Bildner, J., & Krechel, S.W. (1996). Increasing awareness of postoperative pain management in the NICU. Neonatal Network, 15, 11–16.
    Blakemore, C., & Jennett, S. (2001). The endocrine system. Oxford: Oxford Reference Online, Oxford University Press.
    Blalock, J.E. (1984). The immune system as a sensory organ. Journal of Immunology, 132, 1067–1070.
    Blalock, J.E., & Smith, E.M. (2007). Conceptual development of the immune system as a sixth sense. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 21, 23–33.
    Boomsma, D., Busjahn, A., & Peltonen, L. (2002). Classical twin studies and beyond. Nature, 3, 872–882.
    Boomsma, D.I., Koopmans, J.R., van Doornen, L.J.P., & Orlebeke, J.F. (1994). Genetic and social influences on starting to smoke: a study of Dutch adolescent twins and their parents. Addiction, 89, 219–226.
    Boorse, C. (1977). Health as a theoretical concept. Philosophy of Science, 44, 542–573.
    Boothby, J.L., Beverly, E., Overduin, L.Y., & Ward, L.C. (2004). Catastrophizing and perceived partner response to pain. Pain, 109, 500–506.
    Borrell-Carrio, F., Suchman, A.L., & Epstein, R.M. (2004). The biopsychosocial model 25 years later: principles, practice and scientific inquiry. Annals of Family Medicine, 2, 576–582.
    Boutron, I., Moher, D., Altman, G., Schulz, K.F., & Ravaud, P. (2008). Extending the CONSORT statement to randomised trials of nonpharmacological treatment: explanation and elaboration. Annals of Internal Medicine, 148, 295–309.
    Bower, P., King, M., Nazareth, I., Lampe, F., & Sibbald, B. (2005). Patient preferences in randomised controlled trials: conceptual framework and implications for research. Social Science & Medicine, 61, 685–695.
    Brambilla, F. (2000). Psychoneuroendocrinology: a science of the past or a new pathway for the future?European Journal of Pharmacology, 405, 341–349.
    Brand, A., & Crutzen, R. (2009). Public Health Genomics and its potential for health psychology: an interview with Angela Brand. European Health Psychologist, 11, 61–63.
    Brewin, C.R. (1996). Theoretical foundations of cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety and depression. Annual Review of Psychology, 47, 33–57.
    Brickman, P., Coates, D., & Janoff-Bulman, R. (1978). Lottery winners and accident victims: is happiness relative?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 917–927.
    Brummet, B.H., Boyle, S.H., Siegler, I.C., Kuhn, C.M., Surwit, R.S., Garrett, M.E., Collins, A., Ashley-Koch, A., & Williams, R.B. (2008). HPA axis function in male caregivers: effect of the monoamine oxidase-A gene promoter (MAOA-uVNTR). Biological Psychology, 79, 250–255.
    Burgner, D., Jamieson, S.E., & Blackwell, J.M. (2006). Genetic susceptibility to infectious disease: big is beautiful, but will bigger be even better. Lancet Infectious Disease, 6, 653–663.
    Burke, W., Olsen, A.H., Pinsky, L.E., Reynolds, S.E., & Press, N.A. (2001). Misleading presentation of breast cancer in popular magazines. Efficient Clinical Practice, 4, 58–64.
    Burnet, F.M. (1957). Cancer: a biological approach. British Medical Journal, 1, 841–847.
    Burns, A.B., Brown, J.S., Sachs-Ericsson, N., Plant, E.A., Curtis, J.T., Fredrickson, B.L., & Joiner, T.E. (2008). Upward spirals of positive emotion and coping: replication, extension, and initial exploration of neurochemical substrates. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 360–370.
    Burns, D.D., & Spangler, D.L. (2001). Do changes in dysfunctional attitudes mediate changes in depression and anxiety in cognitive behavioral therapy?Behavior Therapy, 32, 337–369.
    Busnach, G., Piselli, P., Arbustini, E., Baccarani, U., Burra, P., Carrieri, M.P., Citterio, F., De Juli, E., Bellelli, S., Pradier, C., Rezza, G., & Serraino, D. (2006). Immunosuppression and cancer: a comparison of risks in recipients of organ transplants and in HIV-positive individuals. Transplantation Proceedings, 38, 3533–3535.
    Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive behavioral therapy. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17–31.
    Cahn, B.R., & Polich, J. (2006). Meditation states and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 180–211.
    Cameron, L.D., & Jago, L. (2008). Emotion regulation interventions: a common-sense model approach. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 215–221.
    Cameron, L.D., & Nicholls, G. (1998). Expression of stressful experiences through writing: effects of a self-regulation manipulation for pessimists and optimists. Health Psychology, 17, 84–92.
    Campbell, M., Fitzpatrick, R., Haines, A., Kinmonth, A.L., Sandercock, P., Spiegelhalter, D., & Tyrer, P. (2000). Framework for design and evaluation of complex interventions to improve health. British Medical Journal, 321, 694–696.
    Cannon, W.B. (1925). Bodily changes in pain, hunger, fear and rage: an account of recent researches into the function of emotional excitement. New York: Appleton.
    Cannon, W.B. (1939). The wisdom of the body (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Norton.
    Cano, A., Johansen, A.B., & Geisser, M. (2004). Spousal congruence on disability, pain and spousal responses to pain. Pain, 109, 258–265.
    Capuron, L., & Dantzer, R. (2003). Cytokines and depression: the need for a new paradigm. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 17, S119–S124.
    Carter, L.L., & Dutton, R.W. (1996). Type 1 and Type 2: a fundamental dichotomy for all T-cell subsets. Current Opinion in Immunology, 8, 336–342.
    Carter, N.M. (2004). Implications for medicine in the ‘post-genomic era’. Current Anaesthesia and Critical Care, 15, 37–43.
    Carver, C.S., & Scheier, M.F. (1981). Attention and self-regulation: a control-theory approach to human behavior. New York: Springer-Verlag.
    Carver, C.S., & Scheier, M.F. (1982). Control theory: a useful conceptual framework for personality, social, clinical, and health psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 111–135.
    Carver, C.S., & Scheier, M.F. (1998). On the self-regulation of behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T.E., Taylor, A., Craig, I.W., Harrington, H.L., McClay, J., Mill, J., Martin, J., Braithwaite, A., & Poulton, R. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301, 386–389.
    Cassileth, B.R., & Vickers, A.J. (2004). Massage therapy for symptom control: outcome study at a major cancer center. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 28, 244–249.
    Castelnuovo, G., Gaggioli, A., Mantovani, F., & Riva, G. (2003). New and old tools in psychotherapy: the use of technology for the integration of traditional clinical treatments. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 40, 33–44.
    Castes, M., Palenque, M., Canelones, P., Hagel, I., & Lynch, N. (1998). Classic conditioning and placebo effects in the bronchodilator response of asthmatic children. Neuroimmunomodulation5, 70.
    Castle, S.C. (2000). Clinical relevance of age-related immune dysfunction. Clinical Infectious Disease, 31, 578–585.
    Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (2009). Systematic reviews: CRD's guidance for undertaking reviews in health care. York: University of York.
    Chandola, T., Kuper, H., Singh-Manoux, A., Bartley, M., & Marmot, M. (2004). The effect of control at home on CHD events in the Whitehall II study: gender differences in psychosocial domestic pathways to social inequalities in CHD. Social Science & Medicine, 58, 1501–1509.
    Chrousos, G.P., & Gold, P.W. (1992). The concepts of stress and stress system disorders: overview of physical and behavioral homeostasis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 267, 1244–1252.
    Ciechanowski, P., Sullivan, M., Jensen, M., Romano, J., & Summers, H. (2003). The relationship of attachment style to depression, catastrophizing and health care utilization in patients with chronic pain. Pain, 104, 627–637.
    Clark, B.F.C. (2008). Healthy human ageing. New Biotechnology, 25, 13–15.
    Clow, A. (2001). The physiology of stress. In F.Jones & J.Bright (eds), Stress: myth, theory and research. Harlow: Pearson. pp. 47–72.
    Cohen, F., & Lazarus, R.S. (1979). Coping with the stresses of illness. In G.C.Stone, F.Cohen & N.E.Adler (eds), Health psychology: a handbook. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Cohen, S., & Herbert, T.B. (1996). Health psychology: psychological factors and physical disease from the perspective of human psychoneuroimmunology. Annual Review of Psychology, 47, 113–142.
    Cohen, S., & Lazarus, R.S. (1979). Coping with the stress of illness. In G.C.Stone, F.Cohen & N.E.Adler (eds), Health psychology: a handbook. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. pp. 217–254.
    Cohen, S., Frank, E., Doyle, W.J., Skoner, D.P., Rabin, B.S., & Gwaltney, J.M., Jr (1998). Types of stressors that increase susceptibility to the common cold in healthy adults. Health Psychology, 17, 214–223.
    Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385–396.
    Cohn, M.A., & Fredrickson, B.L. (2006). Beyond the moment, beyond the self: shared ground between selective investment theory and the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Psychological Inquiry, 17, 39–44.
    Collaziol, D., Luz, C., Dornelles, F., da Cruz, I.M., & Bauer, M.E. (2004). Psychoneuroendocrine correlates of lymphocyte subsets during healthy ageing. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 125, 219–227.
    Colman, A.M. (2006). A dictionary of psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Costa, P.T., & McCrae, R.R. (1980). Influence of extraversion and neuroticism on subjective well-being: happy and unhappy people. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 668–678.
    Coster, S., & Norman, I. (2009). Cochrane reviews of educational and self-management interventions to guide nursing practice: a review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46, 508–528.
    Cousins, N. (1990). Head first: the biology of hope and the healing power of the human spirit. London: Penguin.
    Coyne, J.C., & Tennen, H. (2010). Positive psychology in cancer care: bad science, exaggerated claims, and unproven medicine. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 39, 16–26.
    Craig, P., Dieppe, P., Macintyre, S., Mitchie, S., Nazareth, I., & Petticrew, M. (2008). Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new Medical Research Council guidance. British Medical Journal, 337, a1655.
    Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Play and intrinsic rewards. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 15, 41–63.
    Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1999). If we are so rich, why aren't we happy?American Psychologist, 54, 821–827.
    Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Beyond boredom and anxiety. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    DAFNE Study Group (2002). Training in flexible intensive insulin management to enable dietary freedom in people with type 1 diabetes: dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE) randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 325, 746–751.
    Dahl, J., Wilson, K.G., & Nilsson, A. (2004). Acceptance and commitment therapy and the treatment of persons at risk for long-term disability resulting from stress and pain symptoms: a preliminary randomized trial. Behavior Therapy, 35, 785–801.
    Damasio, A.R. (1996). The somatic marker hypothesis and the possible functions of the prefrontal cortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 351, 1413–1420.
    Dantzer, R. (2005). EuroConference on cytokines in the brain: expression and action of cytokines in the brain and pathophysiological implications. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 19, 263–267.
    de Moor, J.S., Moye, L., Low, M.D., Rivera, E., Singletart, S.E., Fouladi, R.T., & Cohen, L. (2008). Expressive writing as pre-surgical stress management intervention for breast cancer patients. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology, 6, 59–66.
    De Ridder, D., Greenen, R., Kuijer, R., & van Middendorp, H. (2008). Psychological adjustment to chronic disease. The Lancet, 372, 246–255.
    De Ridder, D., & Schreurs, K. (2001). Developing interventions for chronically ill patients: is coping a helpful concept?Clinical Psychology Review, 2, 205–240.
    De Vogli, R., Brunner, E., & Marmot, M.G. (2007). Unfairness and the social gradient of metabolic syndrome in the Whitehall II study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 63, 413–419.
    Dean, K. (2004). The role of methods in maintaining orthodox beliefs in health research. Social Science & Medicine, 58, 675–685.
    Deary, V. (2008). A precarious balance: using a self-regulation model to conceptualise and treat chronic fatigue syndrome. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 231–236.
    Decruyenaere, M., Evers-Kiebooms, G., Cloostermans, T., Boogaerts, A., Demyttenaere, K., Dom, R., & Fryns, J.-P. (2003). Psychological distress in the 5-year period after predictive testing for Huntington's disease. European Journal of Human Genetics, 11, 30–38.
    DeNeve, K.M., & Cooper, H. (1998). The happy personality: a meta-analysis of 137 personality traits and subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 197–229.
    Department of Health (1996). Immunisation against infectious disease: ‘The Green Book’, available online at:
    Department of Health (2004). The NHS Improvement Plan: Putting people at the heart of public services. Retrieved 12th July 2010, from:
    Department of Health (2005). Choosing Health: Making healthy choices easier. Retrieved 12th July 2010, from:
    Department of Health (2006). Immunisation against infectious disease: ‘The Green Book’, 3rd edition. Available online at:
    Devins, G.M., & Binik, Y.M. (1996). Facilitating, coping and chronic illness. In Zeidner, N. & Endler, N.S.Handbook of coping. New York: Wiley. pp. 640–696.
    Diener, E., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2002). Will money increase subjective well-being? A literature review and guide to needed research. Social Indicators Research, 57, 119–169.
    Diener, E., Diener, M., & Diener, C. (1995). Factors predicting the subjective well-being of nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 851–864.
    Diener, E., & Fujita, F. (1995). Resources, personal strivings and subjective well-being: a nomothetic and idio-graphic approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 926–935.
    Diener, E., Suh, E., Lucas, R., & Smith, H. (1999). Subjective well-being: three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 2, 276–302.
    Diener, E., Wolsic, B., & Fujita, F. (1995). Physical attractiveness and subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 120–129.
    Dunn, G.P., Bruce, A.T., Ikeda, H., Old, L.J., & Schreiber, R.D. (2002). Cancer immunoediting: from immunosurveil-lance to tumor escape. Nature Immunology, 3, 991–998.
    Ebner-Priemer, U.W., & Trull, T.J. (2009). Ambulatory assessment: an innovative and promising approach for clinical psychology. European Psychologist, 14, 109–119.
    Eccleston, C., Morley, S., Williams, A., Yorke, L., & Mastryannopoulou, K. (2002). Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials of psychological therapy for chronic pain in children and adolescents. Pain, 99, 157–165.
    Effros, R.B., & Pawelec, G. (1997). Replicative senescence of T cells: does the Hayflick limit lead to immune exhaustion?Immunology Today, 18, 450–454.
    Ekman, P. (1992). Facial expression of emotion: new findings, new questions. Psychological Science, 3, 34–38.
    Elenkov, I.J., & Chrousos, G.P. (1999). Stress, cytokine patterns and susceptibility to disease. Best Practice & Research in Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 13, 583–595.
    Elenkov, I.J., & Chrousos, G.P. (1999a). Stress hormones, Th1/Th2 patterns, pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines and susceptibility to disease. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 10, 359–368.
    Enck, P., Benedetti, F., & Schedlowski, M. (2008). New insights into the placebo and nocebo responses. Neuron, 59, 195–206.
    Engel, G.L. (1977). The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science, 196, 129–136.
    Engel, G.L. (1980). The clinical application of the biopsycho-social model. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 535–544.
    Engelhardt, H.T. (1981). The concepts of health and disease. In A.L.Caplan, H.T.Engelhardt, & J.J.McCartney (eds), Concepts of health and disease: interdisciplinary perspectives. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. pp. 31–46.
    Epel, E.S. (2009). Telomeres in a life-span: a new ‘psycho-biomarker’?Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 6–10.
    Epel, E.S., Blackburn, E.H., Lin, J., Dhabhar, F.S., Adler, N.E., Morrow, J.D., & Casthon, R.M. (2004). Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 17312–17315.
    Eriksen, H.R., Murison, R., Pensgaard, A.-M., & Ursin, H. (2005). Cognitive activation theory of stress (CATS): from fish brains to the Olympics. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30, 933–938.
    Ershler, W.B., & Keller, E.T. (2000). Age associated increased interleukin-6 gene expression, late-life disease and frailty. Annual Review of Medicine, 51, 245–270.
    Esch, T., Guarna, M., Blanchi, E., Zhu, W., & Stefano, G.B. (2004). Commonalities in the central nervous system's involvement with complementary medical therapies: lim-bic morphinergic processes. Medical Science Monitor, 10, MS6-MS17.
    Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F., & Clow, A. (2000). Mind, immunity and health: the science of psychoneuroimmu-nology. London: Free Association Books.
    Felten, D.L., Felten, S.Y., Carlson, S.L., Olschowka, H.A., & Livnat, S. (1985). Noradrenergic and peptidergic innervation of lymphoid tissue. Journal of Immunology, 135, 755–765.
    Fife, B.L., Scott, L.L., Fineberg, N.S., & Zwickl, B.E. (2008). Promoting adaptive coping by persons with HIV disease: evaluation of a patient/partner intervention model. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 19, 75–84.
    Fletcher, L., & Hayes, S.C. (2005). Relational frame theory, acceptance and commitment therapy and a functional analytic definition of mindfulness. Journal of Rational- Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 23, 315–336.
    Folkman, S. (1997). Positive psychological states and coping with severe stress. Social Science and Medicine, 45, 1207–1221.
    Folkman, S., & Moskowitz, J.T. (2000). Positive affect and the other side of coping. American Psychologist, 55, 647–654.
    Folkman, S., & Moskowitz, J.T. (2004). Coping: pitfalls and promise. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 745–774.
    Folkman, S., Chesney, M., McKusick, L., Ironson, G., Johnson, D.S., & Coates, T.J. (1991). Translating coping theory into intervention. In J.Eckenrode (ed.), The social context of coping. New York: Plenum. pp. 239–259.
    Fordyce, W.E. (1976). Behavioral methods for chronic pain and illness. St Louis, MO: Mosby.
    Fortune, D.G., Richards, H.L., Griffiths, C.E.M., Main, C.J. (2004). Targeting cognitive behaviour therapy to patients’ implicit model of psoriasis: results from a patient preference controlled trial. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 65–82.
    Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual reality: a survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21, 95–113.
    Franceschi, C., Bonafe, M., Valensin, S., Olivieri, F., de Luca, M., Ottaviani, E., & de Benedictis, G. (2000). Inflamm-aging: an evolutionary perspective on immu-nosenescence. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 908, 244–254.
    Frankenhaeuser, M. (1982). Challenge control interaction as reflected in sympathetic and pituitary-adrenal activity: comparison between the sexes. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Supplement 1, 158–164.
    Frankenhaeuser, M. (1986). A psychobiological framework for research on human stress and coping. In M.H.Appley & R.Trumbell (eds), Dynamics of stress: physiological, psychological, and social perspectives. New York: Plenum. pp. 101–116.
    Frattaroli, J. (2006). Experimental disclosure and its moderators: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 823–865.
    Fredrickson, B.L. (1998). What good are positive emotions?Review of General Psychology, 2, 300–319.
    Fredrickson, B.L., Cohn, M.A., Coffey, K., Pek, J., & Finkel, S.M. (2008). Open hearts build lives: positive emotions, induced through loving kindness meditation build consequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1045–1062.
    Fredrickson, B.L., & Joiner, T. (2002). Positive emotions trigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being. Psychological Science, 13, 172–175.
    Fredrickson, B.L., & Levenson, R.W. (1998). Positive emotions speed recovery from the cardiovascular sequelae of negative emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 12, 191–220.
    Fredrickson, B.L., Mancuso, R.A., Branigan, C., & Tugade, M.M. (2000). The undoing effect of positive emotions. Motivation and Emotion, 24, 237–258.
    Fredrickson, B.L., Tugade, M.M., Waugh, C.E., & Larkin, G.R. (2003). What good are positive emotions in crises? A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 365–376.
    Frijda, N.H. (1986). The emotions. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Frisina, P.G., Borod, J.C., & Lepore, S.J. (2004). A meta-analysis of the effects of written emotional disclosure on the health outcomes of clinical populations. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192, 629–634.
    Fry, P.S., & Wong, P.T. (1991). Pain management training in the elderly: matching interventions with subjects’ coping style. Stress Medicine, 7, 93–98.
    Gallagher, S., Phillips, A.C., Evans, P., Der, G., Hunt, K., & Carroll, D. (2008). Caregiving is associated with low secretion rates of immunoglobulin A in saliva. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 22, 565–572.
    Gallagher, R.M., & Rosenthal, L.J. (2008). Chronic pain and opiates: balancing pain control and risks in long-term opioid treatment. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89, S77–S82.
    Garn, S.M., Bailey, S.M., Solomon, M.A., & Hopkins, P.J. (1981). Effect of remaining family members on fatness prediction. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 34, 148–153.
    Garssen, B., & Goodkin, K. (1999). On the role of immuno-logical factors as mediators between psychosocial factors and cancer progression. Psychiatry Research, 85, 51–61.
    Gatchel, R.J., & Rollings, K.H. (2008). Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with cognitive behavioral therapy. Spine Journal, 8, 40–44.
    Gatchel, R.J., Robinson, R.C., Pulliam, C., & Maddrey, A.M. (2003). Biofeedback with pain patients: evidence for its effectiveness. Seminars in Pain Medicine, 1, 55–66.
    Geronimus, A.T. (1992). The weathering hypothesis and the health of African-American women and infants: evidence and speculations. Ethnicity & Disease, 2, 207–221.
    Geronimus, A.T., Hicken, M., Keene, D., & Bound, J. (2006). ‘Weathering’ and age patterns of allostatic load scores among blacks and whites in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 826–833.
    Giamberardino, M.A., Affaitati, G., Lerza, R., & Vecchiet, L. (2004). Referred muscle pain and hyperalgesia from viscera: clinical and pathophysiological aspects. Basic Applied Myology, 4, 23–28.
    Gidron, Y., Russ, K., Tissarchondou, H., & Warner, J. (2006). The relation between psychological factors and DNA damage: a critical review. Biological Psychology, 72, 291–304.
    Gilley, D., Herbert, B.-S., Huda, N., Tanaka, H., & Reed, T. (2008). Factors impacting human telomere homeostasis and age-related disease. Mechanisms of Aging and Development, 129, 27–34.
    Gilron, I., Watson, P.N., Cahill, C.M., & Moulin, D. (2006). Neuropathic pain: a practical guide for the clinician. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 175, 266–275.
    Glantz, K., Rizzo, A., & Graap, K. (2003). Virtual reality for psychotherapy: current reality and future possibilities. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 40, 55–67.
    Glaser, R. (2005). Stress-associated immune dysregulation and its importance for human health: a personal history of psychoneuroimmunology. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 19, 3–11.
    Glasgow, R.E., McKay, H.G., Piette, J.D., & Reynolds, K.D. (2001). The RE-AIM framework for evaluating interventions: what can it tell us about approaches to chronic illness management?Patient Education and Counselling, 44, 119–127.
    Godoy-Izquierdo, D., Lopez-Chicheri, I., Lopez-Torrecillas, F., Velez, M., & Godoy, J.F. (2007). Contents of lay illness models dimensions for physical and mental diseases and implications for health professionals. Patient Education and Counseling, 67, 196–213.
    Goebel, M.U., Meykadeh, N., Kou, W., Schedlowski, M., & Hengge, U.R. (2008). Behavioral conditioning of antihis-tamine effects in patients with allergic rhinitis. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 77, 227–234.
    Goffaux, P., Redmond, W.J., Rainville, P., & Marchand, S. (2007). Descending analgesia - when the spine echoes what the brain expects. Pain, 130, 137–143.
    Gold, J.I., Belmont, K.A., & Thomas, D.A. (2007). The neurobiology of virtual reality pain attenuation. Cyber-Psychology & Behavior, 10, 536–544.
    Gonzalez-Bono, E., Rohleder, N., Hellhammer, D.H., Salvador, A., & Kirschbaum, C. (2002). Glucose but not protein or fat load amplifies the cortisol response to psychosocial stress. Hormones and Behavior, 41, 328–333.
    Graff, J.C. (2007). Integrating genetics and genomics into developmental disabilities nursing practice. International Journal of Nursing in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. 3. Retrieved 12th July 2010, from:
    Greenhalgh, T. (1997). How to read a paper: papers that summarise other papers (systematic reviews and meta-analyses). British Medical Journal, 315, 672–675.
    Greenhalgh, T. (2009). Chronic illness: beyond the expert patient. British Medical Journal, 338, 629–631.
    Greer, S., Morris, T., & Pettingale, K.W. (1979). Psychological response to breast cancer: effect on outcome. The Lancet, 13, 785–787.
    Griffiths, C., Foster, G., Ramsay, J., Eldridge, S., & Taylor, S. (2007). How effective are expert patient (lay led) education programmes for chronic disease?British Medical Journal, 334, 1254–1256.
    Gross, A.R., Kay, T., Hondras, M., Goldsmith, C., Haines, T., Peloso, P., Kennedy, C., & Hoving, J. (2002). Manual therapy for mechanical neck disorders: a systematic review. Manual Therapy, 7, 131–149.
    Gross, J.J., & John, O.P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348–362.
    Gross, J.J., & Levenson, R.W. (1997). Hiding feelings: the acute effects of inhibiting positive and negative emotions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 95–103.
    Grunau, R.E., Oberlander, T., Holsti, L., & Whitfield, M.F. (1998). Bedside application of the neonatal facial coding system in pain assessment of premature neonates. Pain, 76, 277–286.
    Grunau, R.V., & Craig, K.D. (1987). Pain expression in neonates: facial action and cry. Pain, 28, 395–410.
    Grunau, R.V., Johnston, C.C., & Kenneth, D. (1990). Neonatal facial and cry responses to invasive and non-invasive procedures. Pain, 42, 295–305.
    Hagger, M.S., & Orbell, S. (2003). A meta-analytic review of the commonsense model of illness representations. Psychology & Health, 18, 141–184.
    Hall, W., Madden, P., & Lynskey, M. (2002). The genetics of tobacco use: methods, findings and policy implications. Tobacco Control, 11, 119–124.
    Hallner, D., & Hasenbring, M. (2004). Classification of psychosocial risk factors (yellow flags) for the development of chronic low back and leg pain using artificial neural network. Neuroscience Letters, 361, 15–154.
    Hawkley, L.C., & Cacioppo, J.T. (2004). Stress and the aging immune system. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 18, 114–119.
    Hayes, N., & Joseph, S. (2003). Big 5 correlates of three measures of subjective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 723–727.
    Hayes, S.C., & Duckworth, M.P. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy and traditional cognitive behaviour therapy approaches to pain. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 13, 185–187.
    Hayney, M.S., Dienberg-Love, G., Buck, J.M., Ryff, C.D., Singer, B., & Muller, D. (2003). The association between psychosocial factors and vaccine-induced cytokine production. Vaccine, 21, 2428–2432.
    Head, J., Kivimaki, M., Siegrist, J., Ferrie, J.E., Vahtera, J., Shipley, M.J., & Marmot, M.G. (2007). Effort-reward imbalance and relational injustice at work predict sickness absence: the Whitehall II study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 63, 433–440.
    Health Survey for England (2008). Trend Tables. The NHS Information Centre, 2009. Available online at:
    Heath, A.C., Eaves, L.J., & Martin, N.G. (1998). Interaction of marital status and genetic risk for symptoms of depression. Twin Research, 1, 119–122.
    Hellstrom, H.R. (2006). The altered homeostatic theory: a hypothesis proposed to be useful in understanding and preventing ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes including reducing the risk of age and atherosclerosis. Medical Hypotheses, 68, 415–433.
    Herman, J. (2005). The need for a transition model: a challenge for biopsychosocial medicine?Families, Systems, & Health, 23, 372–376.
    Herr, K.A., Mobily, P.R., Kohout, F.J., & Wagenaar, D. (1998). Evaluation of the faces pain scale for use with the elderly. Clinical Journal of Pain, 14, 29–38.
    Hettinga, D.M., Hurley, D.A., Jackson, A., May, S., Mercer, C., & Roberts, L. (2008). Assessing the effect of sample size, methodological quality and statistical rigour on outcomes of randomised controlled trials on mobilisation, manipulation and massage for low back pain of at least 6 weeks’ duration. Physiotherapy, 94, 97–104.
    Higgins, J.P.T., & Green, S. (2009). Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions, Version 5.0.2 (updated September 2009). London: The Cochrane Collaboration.
    Hill, A.B. (1965). The environment and disease: association or causation?Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 58, 295–300.
    Hoffman, H.G., Patterson, D.R., Seibel, E., Soltani, M., Jewett-Leahy, L., & Sam, R. (2008). Virtual reality pain control during burn wound debridement in the hydrotank. Clinical Journal of Pain, 24, 299–304.
    Hoffmann, S.G., & Asmundson, G.J.G. (2008). Acceptance mindfulness-based therapy: new wave or old hat?Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 1–16.
    Hogan, B.E., & Linden, W., & Najarian, B. (2002). Social support interventions. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 381–440.
    Holahan, C.J., & Moos, R.H. (1987). Personal and contextual determinants of coping strategies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 946–955.
    Holdcroft, A., & Power, I. (2003). Recent developments: management of pain. British Medical Journal, 326, 635–639.
    Holman, H., & Lorig, K. (2000). Patients as partners in managing chronic disease: partnership is a prerequisite for effective and efficient health care. British Medical Journal, 320, 526–527.
    Holmes, T.H., & Rahe, R.H. (1967) The Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213–218.
    Holroyd, K.A., Penzien, D.B., Hursey, K.G., Tobin, D.L., Rogers, L., Holm, J.E., Marcille, P.J., Hall, J.R., & Chila, A.G. (1984). Change mechanisms in EMG biofeedback training: cognitive changes underlying improvements in tension headaches. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 1039–1053.
    Houtveen, J.H., & de Geus, E.J.C. (2009). Noninvasive psychophysiological ambulatory recordings: study design and data analysis strategies. European Psychologist, 14, 132–141.
    Huether, G. (1996). The central adaptation syndrome: psychosocial stress as a trigger for adaptive modifications of brain structure and brain function. Progress in Neurobiology, 48, 569–612.
    Hughes, J. (2008). An algorithm for choosing among smoking cessation treatments. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 34, 426–432.
    Human Genome Program, US Department of Energy (2003). Genomics and its impact on science and society: a 2003 primer. Washington, DC: US Department of Energy.
    Imamura, M., Furlan, A.D., Dryden, T., & Irvin, E. (2008). Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with massage. Spine Journal, 8, 121–133.
    Iversen, I.H. (1992). Skinner's early research: From reflex-ology to operant conditioning. American Psychologist, 47, 1318–1328.
    Jacobson, E. (1938). Progressive relaxation. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Jatzko, A., Rothenhofer, S., Schmitt, A., Gaser, C., Demirakca, T., Weber-Fahr, W., Wessa, M., Magnotta, V., & Braus, D.F. (2006). Hippocampal volume in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): MRI study using two different evaluation methods. Journal of Affective Disorders, 94, 121–126.
    Jirtle, R.L., & Skinner, M.K. (2007). Environmental epigenomics and disease susceptibility. Nature Reviews Genetics, 8, 253–262.
    Johnston, S.J., Boehm, S.G., Healy, D., Goebel, R., & Linden, D.E.J. (2010). Neurofeedback: a promising tool for the self-regulation of emotion networks. NeuroImage, 49, 1066–1072.
    Jones, F., & Bright, J. (2001). Stress: myth, theory and research. Harlow: Pearson.
    Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L., & Burney, R. (1985). The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 8, 163–190.
    Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L., Burney, R., & Sellers, W. (1986). Four-year follow-up of a meditation-based program for the self-regulation of chronic pain: treatment outcomes and compliance. Clinical Journal of Pain, 2, 159–173.
    Kaplan, K., Goldberg, D., & Galvin-Nadeau, M. (1993). The impact of a meditation-based stress reduction program on fibromyalgia. General Hospital Psychiatry, 15, 284–289.
    Kaplan, S.H., Greenfield, S., & Ware, J.E. (1989). Assessing the effects of physician-patient interactions on the outcomes of chronic disease. Medical Care, 27, S110–S127.
    Karasek, R., & Theorell, T. (1990). Healthy work: stress, productivity and the reconstruction of working life. New York: Basic Books.
    Kass, L.R. (1981). Regarding the end of medicine and the pursuit of health. In A.L.Caplan, H.T.Engelhardt & J.J.McCartney (eds), Concepts of health and disease: interdisciplinary perspectives. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. pp. 3–30.
    Keefe, F.J., & Blumenthal, J.A. (2004). Health psychology: what will the future bring?Health Psychology, 23, 156–157.
    Keefe, F.J., Caldwell, D.S., Williams, D.A., Gil, K.M., Mitchell, D., Robertson, C., Martinez, S., Nunley, J., Beckham, J.C., & Helms, M. (1990). Pain coping skills training in the management of osteoarthritic knee pain: II. Follow-up results. Behavior Therapy, 21, 435–447.
    Kemeny, M.E., & Schedlowski, M. (2007). Understanding the interaction between psychosocial stress and immune-related diseases: a stepwise progression. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 21, 1009–1018.
    Kerns, R.D., Haythornthwaite, J., Rosenberg, R., Southwick, S., Giller, E.L., & Jacob, M.C. (1991). The pain behaviour check list (PBCL): factor structure and psychometric properties. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 14, 155–167.
    Ketterer, M.W., Mahr, G., & Goldberg, A.D. (2000). Psychological factors affecting a medical condition: ischemic coronary heart disease. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 48, 357–367.
    Khoury, M.J., Gwinn, M., Burke, W., Bowen, S., & Zimmern, R. (2007). Will genomics widen or help heal the schism between medicine and public health. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33, 310–317.
    Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K., Cacioppo, J.T., Malarkey, W.B., & Glaser, R. (1992). Acute psychological stressors and short-term immune changes: what, why, for whom, and to what extent?Psychosomatic Medicine, 54, 680–685.
    Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K., Glaser, R., Shuttleworth, E.C., Dyer, C.S., Ogrocki, P., & Speicher, C.E. (1987). Chronic stress and immunity in family caregivers for Alzheimer's disease victims. Psychosomatic Medicine, 49, 523–535.
    Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K., Marucha, P.T., Malarkey, W.B., Mercado, A.M., & Glaser, R. (1995). Slowing of wound healing by psychological stress. The Lancet, 346, 1194–1196.
    Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K., McGuire, L., Robles, T., & Glaser, R. (2002). Psychoneuroimmunology: psychological influences on immune function and health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 537–547.
    King, T.L., & McCool, W.F. (2004). The definition and assessment of pain. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 49, 471–472.
    King, L.A., & Miner, K.N. (2000). Writing about the perceived benefits of traumatic events: implications for physical health. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 220–230.
    Kinlen, L. (2004). Infections and immune factors in cancer: the role of epidemiology. Oncogene, 23, 6341–6348.
    Knotkova, H., Clark, W.C., Mokrejs, P., Padour, F., & Kuhl, J. (2004). What do ratings on unidimensional pain and emotion scales really mean? A multidimensional affect and pain survey (MAPS) analysis of cancer patient responses. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 28, 19–27.
    Kobasa, S.C. (1979). Stressful life events, personality and health: an inquiry into hardiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1–11.
    Kochar (2006). Cancer Vaccines. Available online at:
    Kok, G., Schaalma, H., Ruiter, R.A.C., & van Empelen, P. (2004). Intervention mapping: protocol for applying health psychology theory to prevention programmes. Journal of Health Psychology, 9, 85–98.
    Kooijman, C.M., Dijkstra, P.U., Geertzen, J.H.B., Elzinga, A., & van der Schans, C.P. (2000). Phantom pain and phantom sensations in upper limb amputees: an epidemiological study. Pain, 87, 33–41.
    Korte, S.M., Koolhaas, J.M., Wingfield, J.C., & McEwen, B.S. (2005). The Darwinian concept of stress: benefits of allostasis and costs of allostatic load and the trade-offs in health and disease. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 3–38.
    Kotze, A., & Simpson, K.H. (2008). Stimulation-produced analgesia: acupuncture, TENS and related techniques. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine, 9, 29–32.
    Kraemer, H.C., Kiernan, M., Essex, M., & Kupfer, D.J. (2008). How and why criteria defining moderators and mediators differ between the Baron & Kenny and MacArthur approaches. Health Psychology, 27, S101–S108.
    Kraut, R., Olson, J., Banaji, M., Bruckman, A., Cohen, J., & Couper, M. (2004). Psychological research online: report of board of scientific affairs’ advisory group on the conduct of research on the internet. American Psychologist, 59, 105–117.
    Kristenson, M., Eriksen, H.R., Sluiter, J.K., Starke, D., & Ursin, H. (2004). Psychobiological mechanisms of socio-economic differences in health. Social Science & Medicine, 58, 1511–1522.
    Kudielka, B.M., & Kirschbaum, C. (2005). Sex differences in HPA axis responses to stress: a review. Biological Psychology, 69, 113–132.
    Lahdensuo, A., Haahtela, T., Herrala, J., Kava, T., Kiniranta, K., Kuusisto, P., Peramaki, E., Poussa, T., Saarelainen, S., & Svahn, T. (1996). Randomised comparison of guided self-management and traditional treatment of asthma over one year. British Medical Journal, 312, 748–751.
    Lazarus, R.S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Lazarus, R.S. (1993). Coping theory and research: past, present, and future. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 234–247.
    Lazarus, R.S. (1999). Stress and emotion: a new synthesis. New York, NY: Springer.
    Lazarus, R.S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer.
    Lehrer, P. (2003). Applied psychophysiology: beyond boundaries of the biofeedback (mending a wall, a brief history of our field and applications to control of the muscles and cardiorespiratory systems). Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 28, 291–304.
    LeMoal, M.L. (2007). Historical approach and evolution of the stress concept: a personal account. Psycho-neuroendocrinology, 32, S3–S9.
    Lesch, K.P. (2005). Alcohol dependence and gene x environment interaction in emotion regulation: is serotonin the link?European Journal of Pharmacology, 526, 113–124.
    Levav, I., Kohn, R., Iscovich, J., Abramson, J.H., Tsai, W.Y., & Vigdorovich, D. (2000). Cancer incidence and survival following bereavement. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 1601–1607.
    Leventhal, J., Meyer, D., & Nerenz, D. (1980). The common-sense representation of illness danger. In S.Rachman (ed.), Medical psychology. New York: Pergamon. pp. 27–30.
    Leventhal, H., Meyer, D., & Nerenz, D.R. (1985). The commonsense model of self-regulation of health and illness. In L.D.Cameron and H.Leventhal (eds), The self-regulation of health and illness behaviour. London: Routledge. pp. 42–65.
    Leventhal, H., & Nerenz, D.R. (1985). The assessment of illness cognition. In P.Karoly (ed.), Measurement strategies in health psychology. New York: Wiley. pp. 517–554.
    Levine, S., & Ursin, H. (1991). What is stress? In M.R.Brown, G.F.Koob, & C.Rivier (eds), Stress: neurobio-logy and neuroendocrinology. New York: Marcel Dekker. pp. 1–21.
    Levy, S.M., Heberman, R.B., Lippman, M., & Dangelo, T. (1987). Correlation of stress factors with sustained depression of natural killer cell activity and predicted prognosis in patients with breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 5, 348–353.
    Levy, S.M., Heberman, R.B., Lippman, M., Dangelo, T., & Lee, J. (1991). Immunological and psychosocial predictors of disease recurrence in patients with early stage breast cancer. Behavioral Medicine, 17, 67–75.
    Levy, S.M., Heberman, R.B., Whiteside, T., Sanzo, K., Le, J., & Kirkwood, J. (1990). Perceived social support and tumor estrogen/progesterone receptor status as predictors of natural killer cell activity in breast cancer patients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 52, 73–85.
    Levy, S.M., Herberman, R.B., Maluish, A.M., Schlien, B., & Lippman, M. (1985). Prognostic risk assessment in primary breast cancer by behavioral and immunological parameters. Health Psychology, 4, 99–113.
    Lewandowski, W. (2004). Psychological factors in chronic pain: a worthwhile undertaking for nursing?Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 18, 97–105.
    Lindley, S.E., Carlson, E.B., & Benoit, M. (2004). Basal and dexamethasone suppressed salivary cortisol concentrations in a community sample of patients with posttrau-matic stress disorder, Biological Psychiatry, 55, 940–945.
    Linton, S.J., & Hallden, K. (1997). Risk factors and the natural course of acute and recurrent musculoskeletal pain: developing a screening instrument. Proceedings of the 8th World Congress on Pain, 8, 527–536.
    Lipowski, Z.J. (1984). What does the word ‘psychosomatic’ really mean? A historical and semantic inquiry. Psychosomatic Medicine, 46, 153–171.
    Livingston, G., & Cooper, C. (2004). User and carer involvement in mental health training. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 10, 85–92.
    Loeser, J.D., & Melzack, R. (1999). Pain: an overview. The Lancet, 353, 1607–1609.
    Longmore, R.J., & Worrell, M. (2007). Do we need to challenge thought in cognitive behaviour therapy?Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 173–187.
    Lorig, K., Gonzalez, V., & Laurent, D. (1997). The expert patients program chronic disease self-management course: leader's manual. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Patient Education Research Center.
    Lorig, T.S. (2009). What was the question? fMRI and inference in psychophysiology. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 73, 17–21.
    Lucas, R.E., Clark, A.E., Georgellis, Y., & Diener, E. (2004). Unemployment alters the set point for life satisfaction. Psychological Science, 15, 8–13.
    Lucini, D., Cannone, V., Malacarne, M., Bruno, D., Beltrami, S., Pizzinelli, P., Piazza, E., Di Fede, G., & Pagani, M. (2008). Evidence of autonomic dysregulation in otherwise healthy cancer caregivers: a possible link with health hazard. European Journal of Cancer, 44, 2437–2443.
    Lundberg, U., & Frankenhaeuser, M. (1980). Pituitary- adrenal and sympathetic-adrenal correlates of distress and effort. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 24, 125–130.
    Lutgendorf, S.K., & Costanzo, E. (2003). Psychoneuro-immunology and health psychology: an integrative model. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 17, 225–315.
    Luz, C., Dornelles, F., Preissler, T., Collaziol, D., da Cruz, I., Moises, C., & Bauer, M.E. (2003). Impact of psychological and endocrine factors on cytokine production of healthy elderly people. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 124, 887–895.
    Lykken, D., & Tellegen, A. (1996). Happiness is a stochastic phenomenon. Psychological Science, 7, 186–189.
    Mackie, J.L. (1965). Causes and conditions. American Philosophical Quarterly, 2, 245–264.
    Mackie, J.L. (1974). The cement of the universe: a study of causation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    MacKinnon, D.P. (2008). Introduction to statistical mediation analysis. New York: Taylor & Francis.
    MacKinnon, D.P., & Luecken, L.J. (2008). How and for whom? Mediation and moderation in health psychology. Health Psychology, 27, S99–S100.
    Maier, S.F., & Seligman, M.E.P. (1976). Learned helplessness: theory and evidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 105, 3–46.
    Maier, S.F., & Watkins, L.R. (1998). Cytokines for psychologists: implications of bidirectional immune-to-brain communication for understanding behavior, mood, and cognition. Psychological Review, 105, 83–107.
    Maier, S.F., & Watkins, L.R. (2003). Immune-to-central nervous system communication and its role in modulating pain and cognition: implications for cancer and cancer treatment. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 17, S125–S131.
    Maigne, J.-Y., & Vautravers, P. (2003). Mechanism of action of spinal manipulative therapy. Joint Bone Spine, 70, 336–341.
    Manchikanti, L. (2008). Evidence-based medicine, systematic reviews and guidelines in interventional pain management, part I: introduction and general considerations. Pain Physician, 11, 161–186.
    Marmot, M. (2006). Health in an unequal world. The Lancet, 368, 2081–2094.
    Marmot, M., Bosma, H., Hemingway, H., Brunner, E., & Stansfeld, S. (1997). Contribution of job control and other risk factors to social variations in coronary heart disease incidence. The Lancet, 350, 235–239.
    Marmot, M.G., Davey Smith, G., Stansfeld, S.A., Patel, C., North, F., Head, J., White, I., Brunner, E., & Feeney, A. (1991). Health inequalities among British civil servants: the Whitehall II study. The Lancet, 1991, 1387–1393.
    Marmot, M.G., & Shipley, M.J. (1996). Do socioeconomic differences in mortality persist after retirement? Twenty-five year follow-up of civil servants from the first Whitehall study. British Medical Journal, 313, 1177–1180.
    Marmot, M.G., Shipley, M.J., & Rose, G. (1984). Inequalities in death: specific explanations of a general pattern. The Lancet, 1, 1003–1006.
    Martikainen, P., Stansfeld, S., Hemingway, H., & Marmot, M. (1999). Determinants of socioeconomic differences in change in physical and mental functioning. Social Science & Medicine, 49, 499–507.
    Mason, J.W. (1968). A review of psychoendocrine research on the pituitary-adrenal cortical system. Psychosomatic Medicine, 30, 575–607.
    Matarazzo, J.D. (1982). Behavioral health's challenge to academic, scientific, and professional psychology. American Psychologist, 37, 1–14.
    McBeth, J., & Cordingley, L. (2009). Current issues and new direction in psychology and health: epidemiology and health psychology - please bridge the gap. Psychology & Health, 24, 861–865.
    McCaffery, J.M., Frasure-Smith, N., Dube, M.-P., Theroux, P., Rouleau, G.A., Dun, Q., & Lesperance, F. (2006). Common genetic vulnerability to depressive symptoms and coronary artery disease: a review and development of candidate genes related to inflammation and serotonin. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68, 187–200.
    McCaffery, M. (1968). Nursing practice theories related to cognition, bodily pain and main environment interactions. Los Angeles, CA: University of California at LA Students Store.
    McCann, J.J., Hebert, L.E., Blenias, J.L., Morris, M.C., & Evans, D.A. (2004). Predictors of beginning and ending caregiving during a 3-year period in a biracial community population of older adults. American Journal of Public Health, 94, 1800–1806.
    McCracken, L.M., Carson, J.W., Eccleston, C., & Keefe, F.J. (2004). Acceptance and change in the context of chronic pain. Pain, 109, 4–7.
    McDougall, S.J., Widdop, R.E., & Lawrence, A.J. (2005). Central autonomic integration of psychological stress-ors: focus on cardiovascular modulation. Autonomic Neuroscience - Basic and Clinical, 123, 1–11.
    McEwen, B.S. (1998). Stress, adaptation, and disease: allostasis and allostatic load. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 840, 33–44.
    McEwen, B.S. (2000). Allostasis and allostatic load: implications for neuropsychopharmacology. Neuropsycho-pharmacology, 22, 108–124.
    McEwen, B.S., & Sapolsky, R.M. (1995). Stress and cognitive function. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 5, 205–216.
    McEwen, B.S., & Seeman, T. (1999). Protective and damaging effects of mediators of stress: elaborating and testing the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896, 30–47.
    McEwen, B.S., & Stellar, E. (1993). Stress and the individual: mechanisms leading to disease. Archives of Internal Medicine, 153, 2093–2101.
    McEwen, B.S., & Wingfield, J.C. (2003). The concept of allostasis in biology and biomedicine. Hormones and Behavior, 43, 2–15.
    McMinn, M.R., Buchanan, T., Ellens, B.M., & Ryan, M.K. (1999). Technology, professional practice, and ethics: survey findings and implications. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30, 165–172.
    McNair, D.M., Lorr, M., & Droppelman, L.F. (1971). Manual for the profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.
    Meads, C., Lyons, A., & Carroll, D. (2003). The impact of the emotional disclosure intervention on physical and psychological health: a systematic review (Report number 43). Birmingham: WMHTAC, Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, University of Birmingham.
    Meiser, B. (2005). Psychological impact of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility: an update of the literature. Psycho-Oncology, 14, 1060–1074.
    Meiser, B., & Dunn, S. (2000). Psychological impact of genetic testing for Huntington's disease: an update of the literature. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 69, 575–578.
    Melzack, R. (1975). McGill pain questionnaire: major properties and scoring methods. Pain, 1, 277–299.
    Melzack, R. (1987). The short form McGill pain questionnaire. Pain, 30, 191–197.
    Melzack, R. (1999). From the gate to the neuromatrix. Pain, S6, S121–S126.
    Melzack, R., & Wall, P.D. (1965). Pain mechanisms: a new theory. Science, 150, 971–979.
    MENCAP (2007). Death by indifference. London: Mencap. Available online at:
    Merskey, H.M., & Bogduk, N. (1994). Classification of chronic pain (
    2nd ed
    ). Seattle, WA: IASP Press.
    Meyerson, B.A., & Linderoth, B. (2006). Mode of action of spinal cord stimulation in neuropathic pain. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 31, S6–S12.
    Michie, S., & Abraham, C. (2004). Identifying techniques that promote health behaviour change: evidence based or evidence inspired?Psychology & Health, 19, 29–49.
    Michie, S., Bobrow, M., & Marteau, T.M. (2001). Predictive genetic testing in children and adults: a study of emotional impact. Journal of Medical Genetics, 38, 519–526.
    Michie, S., Johnston, M., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., & Eccles, M. (2008). From theory to intervention: mapping theoretically derived behavioral determinants to behaviour change techniques. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 57, 660–680.
    Michie, S., Miles, J., & Weinman, J. (2003). Patient-centredness in chronic illness: what is it and does it matter?Patient Education and Counselling, 51, 197–206.
    Michie, S., Smith, J.A., Senior, V., & Marteau, T.M. (2003). Understanding why negative genetic test results sometimes fail to reassure. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 119A, 340–347.
    Michie, S., Weinman, J., Miller, J., Collins, V., Halliday, J., & Marteau, T.M. (2002). Predictive genetic testing: high risk expectation in the face of low risk information. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 25, 33–50.
    Miller, C., & Newton, S.E. (2006). Pain perception and expression: the influence of gender, personal self-efficacy and lifespan socialisation. Pain Management Nursing, 7, 148–152.
    Miller, G.A., Elbert, T., Sutton, B.P., & Heller, W. (2007). Innovative clinical assessment technologies: challenges and opportunities in neuroimaging. Psychological Assessment, 19, 58–73.
    Miller, T.Q., Smith, T.W., Turner, C.W., Guijarro, M.L., & Hallet, A.J. (1996). Meta-analytic review of research on hostility and physical health. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 322–348.
    Millian, M.J. (1986). Multiple opioid systems and pain. Pain, 27, 303–347.
    Mitchell, K.J. (2007). The genetics of brain wiring: from molecule to mind. PLoS Biology, 5, 0690–0692.
    Moher, D., Schulz, K.F., & Altman, D.G. (2001). The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel group randomised trials. The Lancet, 357, 1191–1194.
    Morwitz, V.G., Johnson, E., Schmittlein, D. (1993). Does measuring intent change behaviour?Journal of Consumer Research, 20, 46–61.
    Mossman, T.R., & Coffman, R.L. (1989). Th1 and Th2 cells. Different patterns of lymphokine secretion. Annual Review of Immunology, 7, 145–173.
    Mueller, N. (1999). Overview of the epidemiology of malignancy in immune deficiency. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 21, S5–S10.
    Mullis, R., Hay, E., & Lewis, M. (2005). Outcome in low back pain: what matters to the patients?Rheumatology, 44, I160-I160.
    Muraven, M., & Baumeister, R.F. (2000). Self-regulation and depletion of limited resources: does self-control resemble a muscle?Psychological Bulletin, 126, 24–259.
    Mustanski, B.S., Viken, R.J., Kaprio, J., & Rose, R.J. (2003). Genetic influence on the association between personality risk factors and alcohol use and abuse. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 282–289.
    Nakamura, J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2002). The concept of flow. In C.R.Snyder & S.L.Lopez (eds), Handbook of positive psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.
    National Audit Office (2007). Improving services and support for people with dementia. London: National Audit Office. Available online at
    National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (2009). What is Atherosclerosis? Available online at:
    Neuman, Y. (2004). What does pain signify? A hypothesis concerning pain, the immune system and unconscious pain experience under general anaesthesia. Medical Hypotheses, 63, 1051–1053.
    Nicassio, P.M., Meyerowitz, B.E., & Kerns, R.D. (2004). The future of health psychology interventions. Health Psychology, 23, 132–137.
    Nicholas, M.K. (2007). The pain self-efficacy questionnaire: taking pain into account. European Journal of Pain, 11, 153–163.
    Nickelson, D.W. (1996). Behavioral telehealth: emerging practice, research, and policy opportunities. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 14, 443–457.
    Nosek, B.A., Banaji, M.R., & Greenwald, A.G. (2002). E-research: ethics, security, design, and control in psychological research on the internet. Journal of Social Issues, 58, 161–176.
    O'Donovan, A., Lin, J., Dhabhar, F.S., Wolkowitz, O., Tillie, J.M., Blackburn, E., & Epel, E. (2009). Pessimism correlates with leukocyte telomere shortness and elevated interleukin-6 in post-menopausal women. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 23, 446–449.
    O'Reilly, D., Connolly, S., Rosato, M., & Patterson, C. (2008). Is caring associated with an increased risk of mortality? A longitudinal study. Social Science & Medicine, 67, 1282–1290.
    Ogden, J. (2003). Some problems with social cognition models: a pragmatic and conceptual analysis. Health Psychology, 23, 424–428.
    Owen, D., Andrews, M.H., & Matthews, S.G. (2005). Maternal adversity, glucocorticoids and programming of neuroendocrine function and behaviour. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 209–226.
    Pacheco-Lopez, G., Engler, H., Niemi, M.-B., & Schedlowski, M. (2006). Expectations and associations that heal: immunomodulatory placebo effects and its neu-robiology. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 5, 430–446.
    Patenaude, A.F., Guttmacher, A.E., & Collins, F.S. (2002). Genetic testing and psychology: new roles, new responsibilities. American Psychologist, 57, 271–282.
    Pavlov, I.P. (1927). Conditioned reflexes: an investigation of the physiological activity of the cerebral cortex. translated and edited by G. V.Anrep. London: Oxford University Press.
    Pawelec, G., Barnett, Y., Forsey, R., Frasca, D., Globerson, A., McLeod, J., Caruso, C., Franceschi, C., Fulop, T., Gupta, S., Mariani, E., Mocchegiani, E., & Solana, R. (2002). T cells and aging: January 2002 update. Frontiers in Bioscience, 7, D1056-D1183.
    Pederson-Fischer, A., Zachariae, R., & Bovbjerg-Howard, D. (2009). Psychological stress and antibody response to influenza vaccination: a meta-analysis. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 23, 427–433.
    Peel, N.M., McClure, R.J., & Bartlett, H.P. (2005). Behavioral determinants of healthy aging. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28, 298–304.
    Pennebaker, J.W., & Beall, S.K. (1986). Confronting a traumatic event: toward an understanding of inhibition and disease. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 274–281.
    Perkins, F.M., & Kehlet, H. (2000). Chronic pain as an outcome of surgery. Anesthesiology, 93, 1123–1133.
    Peterson, C. (1988). Explanatory style as a risk factor for illness. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 12, 119–132.
    Petrie, K.J., Cameron, L., Ellis, C.J., Buick, D., & Weinman, J. (2002). Changing illness perceptions after myocardial infarction: an early intervention randomized controlled trial. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 580–586.
    Petticrew, M., Bell, R., & Hunter, D. (2002). Influence of psychological coping on survival and recurrence in people with cancer: systematic review. British Medical Journal, 325, 1066–1069.
    Peyrot, M., & Rubin, R.R. (2007). Behavioral and psycho-social interventions in diabetes: a conceptual review. Diabetes Care, 30, 2433–2440.
    Piasecki, T.M., Hufford, M.R., Solhan, M., & Trull, T.J. (2007). Assessing clients in their natural environments with electronic diaries: rationale, benefits, limitations, and barriers. Psychological Assessment, 19, 25–43.
    Pinquart, M., & Sorensen, S. (2007). Correlates of physical health of informal caregivers: a meta-analysis. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 62, 126–137.
    Plante, T.G., Aldridge, A., Su, D., Bogden, R., Belo, M., & Kahn, K. (2003). Does virtual reality enhance the management of stress when paired with exercise? An exploratory study. International Journal of Stress Management, 10, 203–216.
    Pleuvry, B.J. (2005). Opioid mechanisms and opioid drugs. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, 6, 30–34.
    Plomin, R. (2000). Behavioural genetics in the 21st century. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 24, 30–34.
    Plomin, R. (2002). Individual differences research in a post-genomic era. Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 909–920.
    Plomin, R., Pedersen, N.L., Lichtenstein, P., McClearn, G.E., & Nesselroade, J.R. (1990). Genetic influence on life events during the last half of the life span. Psychology and Aging, 5, 25–30.
    Porteous, J.W. (2004). We still fail to account for Mendel's observations. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, 1, 1–4.
    Porter, R.S. (2007). What is referred pain?Merck manual of medical information - home edition. Retrieved 2nd May 2008, from:
    Prochaska, J.O., & DiClemente, C.C. (1983). Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: toward an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 390–395.
    Ranger, M., Johnston, C.C., & Anand, K.J.S. (2007). Current controversies regarding pain assessment in neonates. Seminars in Perinatology, 31, 283–288.
    Ray, R., Schnoll, R.A., & Lerman, C. (2007). Pharma-cogenetics and smoking cessation with nicotine replacement therapy. CNS Drugs, 2, 525–533.
    Reibel, D.K., Greeson, J.M., Brainard, G.C., & Rosenzweig, S. (2001). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health-related quality of life in a heterogeneous patient population. General Hospital Psychiatry, 23, 183–192.
    Reiner, R. (2008). Integrating a portable biofeedback device into clinical practice for patients with anxiety disorders: results of a pilot study. Applied Psychophysiological Biofeedback, 33, 55–61.
    Reis, H.T., Sheldon, K.M., Gable, S.L., Roscoe, J., & Ryan, R.M. (2000). Daily well-being: the role of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 419–435.
    Risch, N. (2001). The genetic epidemiology of cancer: interpreting family and twin studies and their implications for molecular genetic approaches. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 10, 733–741.
    Risch, N., Herrell, R., Lehner, T., Liang, K.-Y., Eaves, L., Hoh, J., Griem, A., Kovacs, M., Ott, J., & Merikangas, K.R. (2009). Interaction between the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), stressful life events, and risk of depression: a meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 301, 2462–2471.
    Robinson, P., Gregg, J., Dahl, J., & Lundgren, T. (2004). ACT in medical settings. In S.Hayes & K.Strosahl (eds), Acceptance and commitment therapy: a practical guide. New York: Springer. pp. 295–314.
    Roger, D. (1998). Stress, health and personality: a new perspective. Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery, 4, 50–53.
    Rose, R.J. (2005). Prenatal programming of behavior: a twin-study perspective. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 321–327.
    Rosenstiel, A.K., & Keefe, F.J. (1983). The use of coping strategies in chronic low back pain patients: relationship to patient characteristics and current adjustment. Pain, 17, 33–44.
    Rotter, J.B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General & Applied, 80, 1–28.
    Roy-Byrne, P.P., Davidson, K.W., Kessler, R.C., Asmundson, G.J.G., Goodwin, R.D., Kubzansky, L., Lydiard, R.B., Massie, M.J., Katon, W., Laden, S.K., & Stein, M.B. (2008). Anxiety disorders and comorbid medical illness. General Hospital Psychiatry, 30, 208–225.
    Rudell, K., & Diefenbach, M.A. (2008). Current issues and new directions in psychology and health: culture and health psychology. Why health psychologists should care about culture. Psychology & Health, 23, 387–390.
    Russo, C.M., & Brose, W.G. (1998). Chronic pain. Annual Review of Medicine, 49, 123–133.
    Rutter, M. (2007). Proceeding from observed correlation to causal inference: the use of natural experiments. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2, 377–395.
    Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.
    Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: a review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141–166.
    Ryff, C.D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069–1081.
    Ryff, C.D., & Singer, B. (2000). Interpersonal flourishing: a positive health agenda for the new millennium. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4, 30–44.
    Ryff, C.D., Singer, B., & Love, G.D. (2004). Positive health: connecting well-being with biology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Biological Sciences, 359, 1383–1394.
    Saab, P.G., McCalla, J.R., Coons, H.L., Christensen, A.J., Kaplan, R., Bennett-Johnson, S., Ackerman, M.D., Stepanski, E., Krantz, D.S., & Melamed, B. (2004). Technological and medical advances: implications for health psychology. Health Psychology, 23, 142–146.
    Salanova, M., Bakker, A.B., & Llorens, S. (2006). Flow at work: evidence for an upward spiral of personal and organizational resources. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7, 1–22.
    Salzman, C., & Shader, R.I. (1978). Depression in the elderly: I: Relationship between depression, psychologic defense mechanisms and physical illness. Journal of the American Geriatics Society, 26, 253–260.
    Sapolsky, R. (1999). Stress and your shrinking brain. Discover Magazine, 20, 116–122.
    Sapolsky, R.M. (2002). Why zebras don't get ulcers: guide to stress, stress-related disease and coping. New York: Henry Holt & Company.
    Schedlowski, M., & Tewes, U. (1999). Psychoneuroim-munology: an interdisciplinary introduction. New York: Kluwer.
    Scheier, M.F., & Carver, C.S. (1987). Dispositional optimism and physical well-being: the influence of generalized outcome expectancies on health. Journal of Personality, 55, 169–210.
    Scheier, M.F., & Carver, C.S. (1992). Effects of optimism on psychological and physical well-being: theoretical overview and empirical update. Cognitive Perspectives in Health Psychology, 16, 201–228.
    Schmutte, P.S., & Ryff, C.D. (1997). Personality and well-being: re-examining methods and meanings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 549–559.
    Schott, G.D. (2004). Communicating the experience of pain: the role of analogy. Pain, 108, 209–212.
    Schulz, R., & Sherwood, P.R. (2008). Physical and mental health effects of family caregiving. American Journal of Nursing, 108, 23–27.
    Schwartz, G.E., & Weiss, S.M. (1977). What is behavioral medicine?Psychosomatic Medicine, 39, 377–381.
    Seckl, J.R. (2001). Glucocorticoid programming of the fetus: adult phenotypes and molecular mechanisms. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 185, 61–71.
    Seckl, J.R., & Meaney, M.J. (2004). Glucocorticoid programming. In R.Yehuda & B.McEwen (eds), Biobehavioral stress response: protective and damaging effects. New York: New York Academy of Sciences. pp. 63–84.
    Seeman, T.E., Crimmins, E., Huang, M.-H., Singer, B., Bucur, A., Gruenewald, T., Berkman, L.F., & Reuben, D.B. (2004). Cumulative biological risk and socioeconomic differences in mortality: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Social Science & Medicine, 58, 1985–1997.
    Seeman, T.E., Dubin, L.F., & Seeman, M. (2003). Religiosity/spirituality and health: a critical review of the evidence for biological pathways. American Psychologist, 58, 53–63.
    Segerstrom, S.C. (2003). Individual differences, immunity, and cancer: lessons from personality psychology. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 17, S92–S97.
    Segerstrom, S.C., Taylor, S.E., Kemeny, M.E., & Fahey, J.L. (1998). Optimism is associated with mood, coping and immune change in response to stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1646–1655.
    Seligman, M.E.P. (1975). Helplessness: on depression, development and death. New York: W.H. Freeman.
    Seligman, M.E.P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: an introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5–14.
    Selye, H. (1956). The stress of life. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Sheldon, K.M., Ryan, R.M., & Reis, H.T. (1996). What makes for a good day? Competence and autonomy in the day and in the person. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 1270–1279.
    Sherman, R.A. (1994). What do we really know about phantom limb pain?Pain Reviews, 1, 261–274.
    Shiloh, S., Ben-Sinai, R., & Keinan, G. (1999). Effects of controllability, predictability and information seeking style on interest in predictive genetic testing. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1187–1195.
    Siegrist, J., & Marmot, M. (2006). Social inequalities in health: new evidence and policy implications. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Slagboom, P.E., & Meulenbelt, I. (2002). Organisation of the human genome and our tools for identifying disease genes. Biological Psychology, 61, 11–31.
    Sloan, R.P., Bagiella, E., Shapiro, P.A., Kuhl, J.P., Chernikhove, D., Berg, J., & Myers, M.M. (2001). Hostility, gender, and cardiac autonomic control. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 434–440.
    Sluka, K.A., & Walsh, D. (2003). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: basic science mechanisms and clinical effectiveness. Journal of Pain, 4, 109–112.
    Sluzki, C.E. (2000). Patients, clients, consumers: the politics of words. Family, Systems and Health, 18, 347–352.
    Smyth, J.M. (1998). Written emotional expression: effect sizes, outcome types, and moderating variables. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 174–184.
    Smyth, J.M., & Pennebaker, J.W. (2008). Exploring the boundary conditions of expressive writing: in search of the right recipe. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 1–7.
    Sobal, J., & Stunkard, A.J. (1989). Socioeconomic status and obesity: a review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 105, 260–275.
    Solomon, G.F., & Moos, R. (1964). Emotions, immunity and disease. Archives of General Psychiatry, 11, 657–674.
    Somerfield, M.R., & McCrae, R.R. (2000). Stress and coping research: methodological challenges, theoretical advances and clinical applications. American Psychologist, 55, 620–625.
    Spiegel, D., & Giese-Davis, J. (2003). Depression and cancer: mechanisms and disease progression. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 269–282.
    Spolentini, I., Gianni, W., Repetto, L., Bria, P., Caltagirone, C., Bossu, P., & Spalletta, G. (2008). Depression and cancer: an unexplored and unresolved emergent issue in elderly patients. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 65, 143–155.
    Sprott, D.E., Spangenberg, E.R., Block, L.G., Fitzsimons, G.J., Morwitz, V.G., & Williams, P. (2006). The question behaviour effect: what we know and where we go from here. Social Influence, 1, 128–137.
    Stam, R. (2007). PTSD and stress sensitisation: a tale of brain and body. Part 1: Human studies. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 4, 530–557.
    Stanton, A.L., Danoff-Burg, S., Sworowski, L.A., Collins, C.A., Branstetter, A.D., Rodriguez-Hanley, A., Kirk, S.B., & Austenfeld, J.L. (2002). Randomized, controlled trial of written emotional expression and benefit finding in breast cancer patients. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 20, 4160–4168.
    Steptoe, A., Feldman, P.J., Kunz, S., Owen, N., Willemsen, G., & Marmot, M. (2002). Stress responsivity and socio-economic status: a mechanism for increased cardiovascular disease risk?European Heart Journal, 23, 1757–1763.
    Steptoe, A., Gibson, E.L., Hammer, M., & Wardle, J. (2007). Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular correlates of positive affect measured by ecological momentary assessment and by questionnaire. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32, 56–64.
    Steptoe, A., & Marmot, M. (2004). Socioeconomic status and coronary heart disease: a psychobiological perspective. Population and Development Review, 30, 133–150.
    Steptoe, A., Owen, N., Kunz-Ebrecht, S., & Mohamed-Ali, V. (2002). Inflammatory cytokines, socioeconomic status, and acute stress responsivity. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 16, 774–784.
    Sterling, P., & Eyer, J. (1988). Allostasis: a new paradigm to explain arousal pathology. In S.Fisher & J.Reason (eds), Handbook of life stress, cognition and health. Oxford: John Wiley. pp. 629–649.
    Stone, A.A., Broderick, J.E., Schwartz, J.E., Shiffman, S.S., Litcher-Kelly, L., & Calvanese, P. (2003). Intensive momentary reporting of pain with an electronic diary: reactivity, compliance, and patient satisfaction. Pain, 104, 343–351.
    Straub, R.H., Miller, L.E., Scholmerich, & Zietz, B. (2000). Cytokines and hormones as possible links between endo-crinosenescence and immunosenescence. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 109, 10–15.
    Stroebe, W., Stroebe, M., Abakoumkin, G., & Schut, H. (1996). The role of loneliness and social support in adjustment to loss: a test of attachment versus stress theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1241–1249.
    Strong, J., Unruh, A.M., Wright, A., & Baxter, G.D. (2002). Pain: a textbook for therapists. London: Elsevier.
    Suchman, A.L. (2005). The current state of the biopsychoso-cial approach. Families, Systems & Health, 23, 450–452.
    Sullivan, M.J.L., Tripp, D., & Santor, D. (2000). Gender differences in pain and pain behavior: the role of catastro-phizing. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24, 121–134.
    Suls, J., & Rothman, A. (2004). Evolution of the bio-psychosocial model: prospects and challenges for health psychology. Health Psychology, 23, 119–125.
    Summers, S. (2000). Evidence-based practice part 1: pain definitions, pathophysiologic mechanisms and theories. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 15, 357–365.
    Szanton, S.L., Gill, J.M., & Allen, J.K. (2005). Allostatic load: a mechanism of socioeconomic health disparities?Biological Research for Nursing, 7, 7–15.
    Targonski, P.V., Jacobson, R.M., & Poland, G.A. (2007). Immunosenescence: role and measurement in influenza vaccine response among the elderly. Vaccine, 25, 3066–3069.
    Taylor, S.E., Repetti, R.L., & Seeman, T. (1997). Health psychology: what is an unhealthy environment and how does it get under the skin?Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 411–447.
    Tellegen, A., Lykken, D.T., Bouchard, T.J., Wilcox, K.J., Segal, N.L., & Rich, S. (1988). Personality similarity in twins reared apart and together. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1031–1039.
    Tennen, H., & Affleck, G. (1999). Finding benefits in adversity. In C.R.Synder (ed.), Coping: the psychology of what works. New York: Oxford University. Press. pp. 279–304.
    Tewes, U., & SchedlowskiM. (1999). Psychological methods. In M.Schedlowski & U.Tewes (eds), Psycho-neuroimmunology: an interdisciplinary introduction. New York: Plenum. pp. 113–124.
    Theunissen, N.C., de Ridder, D.T.D., Bensing, J.M., & Rutten, G.E.H.M. (2003). Manipulation of patient provider interaction: discussing illness representations or action plans concerning adherence. Patient Education and Counseling, 51, 247–258.
    Thomas, L. (1959). Discussion. In H.S.Lawrence (ed.), Cellular and humoral aspects of the hypersensitivity states. New York: Hoeber-Harper. pp. 529–532.
    Thomas, P. (2008). Psychosocial and economic issues related to physical health in psychiatric illness. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 18, S115–S120.
    Thorn, B.E., Boothby, J.L., & Sullivan, M.J.L. (2002). Targeted treatment of catastrophizing for the management of chronic pain. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 9, 127–138.
    Tilbrook, H. (2008). Patients’ preferences within randomised trials: systematic review and patient level meta-analysis. British Medical Journal, 337, a1864.
    Trout, K.K. (2004). The neuromatrix theory of pain: implications for selected nonpharmacologic methods of pain relief. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 49, 482–488.
    Tschuschke, V., Hertenstein, B., Arnold, R., Bunjes, D., Denzinger, R., & Kaechele, H. (2001). Associations between coping and survival time of adult leukemia patients receiving allogenic bone marrow transplantation: results of a prospective study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 50, 277–285.
    Tschuschke, V. (2002). Wrong conclusions drawn from insufficient research. BMJ Rapid Response. Retrieved 12th July 2010, from:
    Tugade, M.M., & Fredrickson, B.L. (2004). Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 320–333.
    Turk, D.C., & Okifuji, A. (2002). Psychological factors in chronic pain: evolution and revolution. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 678–690.
    Turner, J.A., Holtzman, S., & Mancl, L. (2007). Mediators, moderators, and predictors of therapeutic change in cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic pain. Pain, 127, 276–286.
    Uher, R., & McGuffin (2010) The moderation by the serotonin transporter gene of environmental adversity in the etiology of depression: 2009 update. Molecular Psychiatry, 15, 18–22.
    Uhl, G.R. (2006). Molecular genetics of addiction vulnerability. Journal of the American Society for Experimental Neurotherapeutics, 3, 295–301.
    United Nations (2002). Report of the second world assembly on ageing. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: United Nations, Department of General Assembly Affairs and Conference Services.
    Ursin, H. (1998). The psychology in psychoneuroendo-crinology. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 23, 555–570.
    Ursin, H., & Eriksen, H.R. (2004). The cognitive activation theory of stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29, 567–592.
    US National Library of Medicine (2010). Handbook: help me understand genetics. Bethesda, MD: US National Library of Medicine. Available online at:
    Van Dam, H.A., van der Horst, F.G., Knoops, L., Ryckman, R.M., Crebolder, H.F.J.M., & van den Borne, B.H.W. (2005). Social support in diabetes: a systematic review of controlled intervention studies. Patient Education and Counseling, 59, 1–12.
    Van den Boer, H.M.A., & Maat-Kievit, A.A. (2001). The whole truth and nothing but the truth, but what is the truth?Journal of Medical Genetics, 38, 39–42.
    VandenBos, G.R., & Williams, S. (2000). The internet versus the telephone: what is telehealth anyway?Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31, 490–492.
    Veatch, R.M. (1981). The medical model: its nature and problems. In A.L.Caplan, H.T.Engelhardt & J.J.McCartney (eds), Concepts of health and disease: interdisciplinary perspectives. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. pp. 523–544.
    Vellas, B.J., Albarede, J., & Garry, P.J. (1992). Diseases and aging: patterns of morbidity with age: relationship between aging and age-associated diseases. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 55, 1225S-1230S.
    Verbrugge, L.M., Reoma, J.M., & Gruber-Baldini, A.L. (1994). Short-term dynamics of disability and well-being. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 35, 97–117.
    Vernon, H., Humphreys, K., & Hagino, C. (2007). Chronic mechanical neck pain in adults treated by manual therapy: a systematic review of change scores in randomized clinical trials. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 30, 215–227.
    Vicenzino, B., & Wright, A. (2002). Physical treatments. In J.Strong, A.M.Unruh, A.Wright & G.D.Baxter (eds), Pain: a textbook for therapists. London: Elsevier. pp. 87–206.
    Villani, D., & Riva, G. (2008). Presence and relaxation: a preliminary controlled study. PsychNology, 6, 7–25.
    Villani, D., Riva, F., & Riva, G. (2007). New technologies for relaxation: the role of presence. International Journal of Stress Management, 14, 260–274.
    Vissoci, R.E.M., Nunes, S.O.V., & Morimoto, H.K. (2004). Stress, depression, the immune system and cancer. The Lancet Oncology, 5, 617–625.
    Volkow, N.D., & Li, T.-K. (2005). Drugs and alcohol: treating and preventing abuse, addiction and their medical consequences. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 108, 3–17.
    Volkow, N., & Li, T.K. (2005a). The neuroscience of addiction. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 1429–1430.
    Von Korff, M., & Miglioretti, D.L. (2005). A prognostic approach to defining chronic pain. Pain, 117, 304–313.
    Waddell, G., Newton, M., Henderson, I., Somerville, D., & Main, C.J. (1993). A fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FABQ) and the role of fear avoidance beliefs in chronic low back pain disability. Pain, 52, 157–168.
    Waddington, C.H. (1957). The Strategy of the Genes. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Wager, T.D., & Nitschke, J.B. (2005). Placebo effects in the brain: linking mental and physiological processes. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 19, 281–282.
    Watson, D., Clark, L.A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.
    Watson, M. (2002). Influence of psychological coping on survival and recurrence: a response to the systematic review. BMJ Rapid Response. Retrieved 12th July 2010, from:
    Watson, M., Haviland, J., Greer, S., Davidson, J., & Bliss, J. (1999). Influence of psychological response on survival in breast cancer: a population-based cohort study. The Lancet, 354, 1331–1336.
    Weinman, J., Petrie, K.J., Moss-Morris, R., & Horne, R. (1996). The Illness Perception Questionnaire: a new method for assessing illness perceptions. Psychology and Health, 11, 431–445.
    West, R. (2006). Theory of Addiction. London: Blackwell.
    Williams, D.E., & Thompson, J.K. (1993). Biology and behavior: a set-point hypothesis of psychological functioning. Behavior Modification, 17, 43–57.
    Wilson, P., Kendall, S., & Brooks, F. (2005). Patient empowerment in primary care: an evaluation of the expert patient. Hatfield: CRIPACC, University of Hertfordshire.
    World Health Organisation (1946). Preamble to the constitution of the World Health Organisation as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19–22 June, 1946, signed on 22nd July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organisation, no. 2, p. 100) and entered into force on 7th April 1948.
    World Health Organisation (2003). Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health fact sheet. Geneva: WHO.
    World Health Organisation (2004). Global immunisation data. Geneva: WHO.
    World Health Organisation (2005). Chronic diseases and their common risk factors fact sheet. Geneva: WHO.
    Wright, A., Benson, H., & O'Callaghan, J. (2002). Pharmacology of pain management. In J.Strong, A.M.Unruh, A.Wright & G.D.Baxter (eds), Pain: a textbook for therapists. London: Elsevier. pp. 307–324.
    Yehuda, R. (2002). Current status of cortisol findings in post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 25, 341–368.
    Young Casey, C., Greenberg, M.A., Nicassio, P.M., Harpin, R.E., & Hubbard, D. (2008). Transition from acute to chronic pain and disability: a model including cognitive, affective, and trauma factors. Pain, 134, 69–79.
    Yunus, M.B. (2007). Role of central sensitization in symptoms beyond muscle pain and the evaluation of a patient with widespread pain. Best Practice & Research in Clinical Rheumatology, 2, 48–497.
    Zimmerman, C., & Tansella, M. (1996). Psychosocial factors and physical illness in primary care: promoting the biopsychosocial model in medical practice. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 40, 351–358.
    Zou, Y., Sfeir, A., Gryaznov, S.M., Shay, J.W., & Wright, W.E. (2004). Does a sentinel or a subset of short telom-eres determine replicative senescence?Molecular Biology of the Cell, 15, 3709–3718.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website