• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

Fifty research-based literacy strategies designed for busy K-8 classroom teachersOrganized around 10 key areas for teaching and learning literacy—phonemic awareness, phonics, reading fluency, vocabulary, story comprehension, comprehension of informational text, questioning for understanding, discussion for understanding, narrative writing, and writing to learn-Promoting Literacy Development offers 50 clearly written, step-by-step strategies for developing proficient readers and writers. The authors also include suggestions for differentiating instruction for English language learners and for students with special needs.

Question-Answer Relationships
Question-answer relationships
Speaking Briefly: An Overview of the Literacy Strategy

Question-Answer Relationships (QAR) is a technique to help students differentiate the types of questions they can ask of text (Raphael, 1986). Research confirms that QAR is an effective method for developing self-efficacy and confidence in readers as they grapple with processing text (Duke & Pearson, 2002).

This modified version of QAR is designed to be used with pictures (Cortese, 2003). Visual imagery is a key component of digital text, and the ability to make an inference from a picture is a critical skill in the new literacies (Dalton & Proctor, 2009). As students construct the main idea and generate inferences using visual images, they are internalizing critical strategies to also process printed text.

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