Progression in Primary English

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Linda Saunders

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    About the Author

    Linda Saunders is a senior lecturer in primary English at St Mary’s University, Strawberry Hill, Twickenham. She works on the primary PGCE and MA programmes. Prior to university work, Linda taught extensively in English primary and special schools as a class teacher, as an English and a special educational needs coordinator and as an advisory teacher for special educational needs. Following on from her doctoral thesis examining reading aliteracy, she has continued to research reading motivation.

    Acknowledgements

    I would like to thank my colleagues, students and former students who have advised and supported me during the process of writing this book.

        Linda Saunders

    SAGE would like to thank the following reviewers whose comments in the early stages of the project helped to shape this book:

    • Josephine Brady, Birmingham City University
    • Paul Gardner, University of Bedfordshire
    • Catherine Glavina, Warwick University
    • Deborah Jones, Brunel University

    Introduction

    Studying with Progression in Primary English

    Progression in Primary English is intended to encourage you, the student teacher, to reflect on the nature of progression in primary English. The text contains four reoccurring self-study elements within each chapter. These elements are designed to encourage you to relate an area of primary English subject knowledge to your own context, build confidence with subject specific terminology and to develop the focus of your classroom observations of primary English. The whole book deliberately omits any formal kind of tick lists of attainment targets or a detailed account of a primary English curriculum. It is best studied alongside the specified English curriculum and attainment criteria specific to your own school circumstances. However, each of the four study elements have been formed from or informed by the statutory national curriculum in England for primary schools (DFE, 2013), current and previous national curriculum assessment criteria in England (DFE, 2011; Qualification and Curriculum Authority, 2010; The National Literacy Strategy, 2000), principles from related research and theory and from primary classroom experience.

    Four study elements
    • Activities

      Short practical tasks are designed to encourage application to your own personal and professional school contexts, revise subject specific vocabulary and ensure that you re-examine the breadth of the primary English curriculum applicable in your own circumstances.

    • Pupil vignettes

      Each chapter contains fictitious examples of English work for four fictitious pupils, who are first outlined in Chapter 1. Although written to demonstrate different ages and facilities for primary English, the vignettes, with their fictitious samples of work, are not complete or definitive descriptions of English capability. This is most important. All children are different, learn in different ways and are subject to a vast range of different social, emotional, cultural and academic circumstances. Particular elements, such as social, emotional, cultural and school circumstances, have therefore been deliberately omitted. Some academic elements have been purposely included, where appropriate, to deepen an understanding of an important and overall feature of primary English progression.

      Every chapter contains a brief overview of the vignettes’ academic performance in one area of primary English with accompanying sets of fictitious work samples. You are encouraged to identify and suggest features and next steps for progression using these examples. Further reflection questions are included to complement each set of work samples. Essentially, the vignettes provide manufactured scenarios for discussion, debate and reflection. They stimulate further questions for deeper study. Blank versions of the vignette work sample charts may be used for your own classroom observations.

    • Observation guides

      An observation guide appears at the end of the main curriculum chapters. These introductory materials are intentionally very broadly based. By themselves they contain a minimum amount of detail with which to observe every aspect of primary English and must be supplemented by the statutory curriculum and attainment criteria specific to your own school circumstances.

    • Self-assessment questions

      Self-assessment questions appear at the end of every chapter. Some of the questions are cumulative with the intention of assisting you to build a picture of some of the features of primary English progression relevant to your own professional context. Illustrative answers are provided in the appendices.

    The Teachers’ Standards

    In relation to primary English progression, elements from each of the following Teaching Standards necessary for the award of Qualified Teacher Status are addressed throughout this book (DFE, 2013).

    A teacher must:

    • S1. Set high expectations which inspire, motivate and challenge pupils
    • S2. Promote good progress and outcomes by pupils
    • S3. Demonstrate good subject and curriculum knowledge
    • S4. Contribute to the design and provision of an engaging curriculum within the relevant subject area(s).
    • S5. Adapt teaching to respond to the strengths and needs of all pupils
    • S6. Make accurate and productive use of assessment
    • S8. Fulfil wider responsibilities
    References
    DFE. (2011) Assessing Pupils’ Progress (APP): Assessment guidelines. London: DFE. Retrieved from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110809101133/http://nsonline.org.uk/node/20683.
    DFE. (2013) The National Curriculum in England: Key stage 1 and 2 framework document. London DFE. Retrieved from www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/335133/PRIMARY_national_curriculum_220714.pdf.
    DFE. (2013) Teachers’ Standards. Guidance for school leaders, school staff and governing bodies. London: DFE. Retrieved from www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/301107/Teachers__Standards.pdf.
    Qualification and Curriculum Authority. (2010) The National Curriculum: Level descriptions for subjects. Coventry.
    The National Literacy Strategy. (2000) Target statements for writing. London: DFES.
    10.4135/9781473918603.n1
  • Self-assessment answers

    Use of multimodal, digital and paper based text is implied in all of these model answers.

    Chapter 1: What do we mean by progression in primary English?

    • Provide at least two reasons why behaviourism and nativism cannot be complete explanations of how children acquire language.

      Reasons may include the following:

      • Behaviourism does not give an explanation of how children acquire language that they have not heard.
      • Nativism does not fully address the conversational interaction necessary for language acquisition.
      • Nativism does not fully address the role of parents and carers in the development of children’s language.
    • List three examples of different types of primary English assessment.

      Examples include: diagnostic reading assessments, initial screening assessments for dyslexia, standardised reading tests of reading accuracy and language comprehension, miscue analysis, standardised spelling assessments, spelling error analyses, handwriting speed and fluency assessments, formative portfolios of annotated writing, reading attitude surveys.

    • List one classroom example of English progression characterised by two of the following: development, clarity, security, implicit or explicit learning.

      The following are illustrative examples.

      • Development: pupil’s reading age rises on a standardised reading assessment.
      • Clarity: pupil consistently edits written work to use range of connectives according to the purpose for writing.
      • Security: pupil takes turns and actively listens in all group discussions.
      • Implicit learning: pupil switches between standard and non-standard English forms in speech.
      • Explicit learning: pupil uses physical word banks, punctuation or connectives prompt sheets to edit own writing.
    Chapter 2: Speaking and listening

    • List the four components of language

      Phonemes, morphemes, syntax and pragmatics.

    • Provide at least three reasons why the pragmatic use of language is emphasised in the primary classroom.

      The following are illustrative examples. Pragmatics develops active listening, non-verbal language, turn-taking, ability to adapt speech for different purposes, encourages the use of Standard and non-Standard English, inference skills, conversation and group discussion skills.

    • List and justify three items that you consider important features or a suggested next step for progression in speaking and listening. Choose items for the oldest, mid-range and youngest pupils in the primary school.

      The following are illustrative examples.

      • Youngest: turn taking sets basic rules for conversation. It sits alongside an ability to speak full sentences audibly.
      • Mid-range: demonstrating empathy with the speaker allows for active listening skills.
      • Oldest: consistently adapt language and body language for different audiences and for effect. This allows for a deliberate selection of vocabulary and intonation.
    Chapter 3: English as an additional language

    • List and justify three items that you consider important features or a suggested next step for progression in learning English as a second language for communication and learning. Choose items for elementary, intermediate and advanced English language learning pupils in the primary school. Look at the NALDIC and older Hester descriptors to help you.

      This task is designed to encourage reflection on the types of language used in BICS and CALP communication and the effect of different social circumstances for each EAL child. The Hester scales note that elementary users of English will be developing language for communication and for meeting immediate social needs such as following routines, requesting basic needs and developing a labelling vocabulary. Intermediate users of English will be more able to hold conversations with their peers and be developing a wider vocabulary including some success with tenses. They may understand more than they can express. Advanced users of English have begun to master CALP through using English books and through writing English with increasing confidence. They are confident to use each language.

    Chapter 4: Reading acquisition

    • Compare and contrast the elements of psycholinguistic, cognitive and socio-cultural approaches to reading.

      The three approaches to reading differ in their conceptions of how reading takes place. Cognitive approaches are essentially processing models that address reading acquisition through the skills necessary to read words. Psycholinguistic and socio-cultural approaches prioritise the role of language, readers and their circumstances in the reading process. Although different in their techniques each approach develops the key skills of reading and language comprehension and decoding print. Classroom techniques for assessment and the teaching of reading will look different but the provision of a literature rich environment that builds a community of readers is accepted practice for each approach.

    • List the advantages and disadvantages of summative and formative assessments for monitoring daily reading progression.

      Choosing any assessment is closely linked to its purpose and the audience for whom the results are represented. The advantages and disadvantages of it will link to this. For example:

      • high stakes standardised summative assessment can cause curriculum imbalance;
      • summative assessments provide a baseline for classroom practice;
      • cumulative formative assessment feeds into the assess, plan, teach, practise, apply, and review cycle;
      • pupil self-assessment is empowering and formative.
    • List and justify three items that you consider important features of progression or a suggested next step in learning to read. Choose items for the oldest, mid-range and youngest pupils in the primary school.

      The following are illustrative examples with an emphasis on word recognition skills.

      • Youngest: fluent reading through rapid word recognition linking to vocabulary development and comprehension, pupils may use a mix of reading strategies that include phonics.
      • Mid-range: consistent use of a range of strategies to decode print builds on syntactic, grapho-phonic and semantic skills.
      • Oldest: consistent identification of unknown and key vocabulary before, during and after reading builds into a clear summary of what has been read, may return to phonics with unknown vocabulary out of context.
    Chapter 5: Reading comprehension

    • List and justify three items that you consider important features or next steps for progression in reading comprehension. Choose items for the oldest, mid-range and youngest pupils in the primary school.

      The following are illustrative examples with an emphasis on developing literal, inferential and evaluative comprehension.

      • Youngest: listening to stories for pleasure, reading and re-reading favourite books helps to secure concepts about print and the structure of narratives as well as fostering a love of reading. Prediction, recall and sequencing skills are developed through familiar books.
      • Mid-range: using a range of digital and paper based texts to read between the lines and make connections between ideas in small parts of a text. Pupils use inference in ideas from text and the pupil’s experiences, including some links to what has been read elsewhere.
      • Oldest: reads like a writer, recognises the way that words and sentences are chosen to interest the reader.
    • Draw Venn diagrams to show the connections between reading acquisition and reading comprehension strategies and the factors that influence their progression.

      This task is designed to encourage you to reflect on key skills and conditions for reading comprehension and reading acquisition from across Chapters 4 and 5. Illustrative examples of influences and connections are listed below.

      Progression in reading acquisition and comprehension is influenced by a literature rich community of readers, systematic development of a reading repertoire, word reading skills, phonics, opportunities to build reading fluency and reading stamina, availability of reading materials at home and at school.

      Acquisition and comprehension are connected by vocabulary, active reading for meaning with a range of reading strategies, the ability to transfer skills across a range of texts, phonics and word reading strategies and reading fluency.

    Chapter 6: Reading engagement

    • List and justify three items that you consider important features or tipping points of progression in reading engagement. Choose items for the oldest, mid-range and youngest pupils in the primary school.

      The following are illustrative examples with an emphasis on developing independent and extended reading for academic, social and personal purposes.

      • Youngest: choose books for own pleasure and have favourites. Enjoy listening to stories, songs and rhymes. This builds motivation to read for interest as well as pleasure. Use of stories, songs and rhymes builds phonological awareness and knowledge of narrative structure.
      • Mid-range: choose a range of texts for their own pleasure and/or given purpose. Be familiar with selecting text from a library and from online sources. Know favourite books and authors. Discuss favourite reading with peers. Swap reading material with reading friends.
      • Oldest: know favourite books, authors and genres. Established, growing repertoire. Read extended texts consistently. Use book recommendations. Write book reviews for pleasure. Readily take up reading challenges to read unfamiliar authors and genres. Discuss reading with peers. Use mixture of online and paper-based materials for research.
    • Draw Venn diagrams to show the connections between reading acquisition, reading comprehension strategies and reading engagement and factors that influence their progression.

      This task is designed to encourage you to reflect on key skills and knowledge required to promote reading engagement as part of reading acquisition. Necessarily, this is influenced by a literature rich environment and an active community of readers. Reading engagement is connected to reading purpose, practise and stamina which build fluency, word recognition and comprehension skills.

    • Write a definition of an effective reader for the oldest, mid-range and youngest pupil in the primary school. Note the similarities and differences between them.

      Answers to this question are influenced by your perception of what it means to be a reader. This will necessarily change as the reading demands of pupils’ social, cultural and school communities alter and your classroom teaching experience grows. The following are illustrative examples built on the premise of encouraging pupils to become life-long readers.

      • An effective reader in the youngest part of primary schooling loves books, rhymes, song and listening to stories. They can decode using an increasing range of strategies that include phonics. They read for meaning.
      • An effective reader in the mid-range part of the primary school loves to read and has a reading repertoire. They are confident to read, understand and interpret a range of fiction and non-fiction texts and to select the ‘just right’, book for their own reading pleasure. They can find information and present it in different ways. Reading stamina is developing.
      • An effective reader in the upper part of the primary school loves to read and has an established reading repertoire. They are confident to read, understand and interpret a range of fiction and non-fiction texts and to give and try reading recommendations. They can research. They can consistently read with a writer’s eye. They have reading stamina.
    Chapter 7: Writing composition

    • List and justify three items that you consider important features of or suggested next steps for progression in writing composition. Choose items for the oldest, mid-range and youngest pupils in the primary school.

      The following are illustrative examples with an emphasis on developing independent and extended writing for academic, social and personal purposes.

      • Youngest: know that print carries meaning, know a range of stories that support ability to recall and write simple stories and recounts, putting ideas together. Narrative understanding is an important aspect of early writing composition.
      • Mid-range: structure writing into recognisable parts, be able to edit writing, write a range of generic structures. Editing writing develops the process of writing like a reader, developing writing for an audience and purpose.
      • Oldest: redraft writing for content as well as transcription. Write a range of text forms. Use language and sentence structures to affect an identified audience and purpose for writing. These develop extended, short and sustained writing skills, all necessary for secondary school.
    • List linguistic, socio-cultural and cognitive perspectives of writing composition.

      This task is designed to develop awareness of the range of influences of pupils’ motivation and engagement in writing composition. Look at the similarities between them. Linguistic perspectives include pupils’ breadth of vocabulary, knowledge of text structure and genres, spoken and written grammar, choosing and using language (register) for audience and purpose. Cognitive perspectives look at information processing areas such as pupils’ oral and written comprehension of language, storage and retrieval of information in the memory and problem solving approaches to composition. Socio-cultural perspectives include the pupils’ school, community and culture as well as the broader influences from the media. The type, place and value of texts within a community are part of this area.

    • List linguistic, socio-cultural and cognitive aspects of writing composition

      Linguistic aspects include pupils’ use of implicit and explicit grammar and non-fiction and narrative structures and their range of vocabulary. Cognitive aspects include the use of meta-cognitive writing tools such as writing frames, sentence stems and early primary writing tools such as ‘rainbow writing’, where pupils trace over highlighted print that they have dictated to an adult. Socio-cultural aspects of writing composition link to the development of pupils’ identities as readers, writers, speakers and listeners. Relevant contexts for writing composition serve to promote writing engagement and serve as a springboard from which to broaden pupils’ reasons to write.

    Chapter 8: Grammar

    • List and justify three items that you consider important features or next steps for progression in written grammar. Choose items for the oldest, mid-range and youngest pupils in the primary school.

      This task is designed to illustrate the cumulative and recursive nature of grammar progression. The examples below track selected aspects of sentence writing skills to demonstrate how reading, composition and speaking and listening skills contribute to its progression.

      • Youngest: construct a descriptive sentence orally before writing, read back what has been written, use a full stop and a capital letter to demarcate the sentence, use commas in a list, read with intonation and growing fluency, experiment with sentence types, write simple and compound sentences.
      • Mid-range: construct a descriptive sentence orally before writing, use a range of vocabulary, edit what has been written, use a full stop and capital letters to demarcate a sentence, use capital letters for proper nouns, use commas to separate parts of a sentence and to alter the meaning, use different connectives to join and build sentence sections and expanded phrases to show shades of meaning, use all sentence structures.
      • Oldest: construct descriptive sentences planned for effect, edit and redraft what has been written, use a full range of punctuation to demarcate the sentence and to clarify meaning, accurately use a full range of connectives according to the purpose of the sentence and for the type of text as a whole, write the full range of sentence types and structures.
    • List linguistic, socio-cultural and cognitive perspectives on written grammar.

      This task is designed to clarify the three main types of grammatical study:

      Linguistic perspectives of grammar look at phonics, phonological awareness, morphology, syntax and semantics. Socio-cultural perspectives of grammar look at language variation, including non-Standard and Standard English based on the pupils’ school, community and culture as well as the broader influences from the media. The effect of context on meaning is part of this area and includes the development of genre. Cognitive perspectives of grammar address how language and grammar are acquired and processed through the four modes of English. They include pupils’ oral and written comprehension of language, storage and retrieval of information in the memory and problem solving approaches to using grammar.

    • Describe contrasting and comparable elements of written grammar in examples of digital and multimodal texts.

      This task is designed to encourage reflection on the reading and writing demands of different types of text. Three illustrative examples are given here:

      Interactive talking books that combine reading e-books with comprehension provide immediate and accessible pupil feedback and audio effects. Some schemes automatically provide ability based e-books based on the pupils’ responses. Pupils navigate the book with on-screen icons. Similar paper-based material is available without built-in feedback. Paper-based reading can be closely linked to modelled and shared writing. The navigation and self-selection of the text is different in both types of books.

      Films provide visual opportunities to look at structure and coherence through elements such as characterisation, screen shots and colour. Film can serve as an introduction to looking at cohesion and coherence in written text.

      Wordless picture books for all primary ages are a vehicle for developing pupils’ vocabulary without the presence of the author’s words. Picture books provide opportunities for multiple interpretations of layers of meaning within a range of genres. Oral work from picture books provides a vehicle for a range of writing work.

    Chapter 9: Spelling and handwriting

    • List and justify three items that you consider important features or next steps for progression in spelling or handwriting. Choose items for the oldest, mid-range and youngest pupils in the primary school.

      This task is designed to allow you to reflect on the connections between spelling and handwriting and to consider their links to the four modes of English. Illustrative examples are:

      Youngest: consistent letter formation in the early stages of writing promotes fluency, combined with application of phonics to reading and spelling patterns in words.

      Mid-range: modelling consistent strategies for self-editing of transcription skills that include spelling, promotes pupils’ awareness of the audience and purpose for writing and promotes the presentation of final written drafts.

      Oldest: looking at the etymology of words, and root words through word investigations promotes an interest in the construction and nature of words. It develops pupils’ vocabulary.

    • Relate linguistic, socio-cultural or cognitive research perspectives to common examples of classroom practice in the teaching of handwriting or spelling.

      This task is designed to illustrate multisensory teaching.

      Linguistic perspectives of spelling look at phonics, phonological awareness, and morphology. Graded daily spelling foci that concentrate on specific phonics or morphemes lead to cumulative weekly spelling tests. Cognitive perspectives address spelling acquisition and processing. Class work to promote pupils’ spelling strategies is relevant here. Socio-cultural perspectives look at word games, word play and the nature and function of spelling in different contexts.

    • List evidence for the importance of monitoring handwriting and spelling as part of writing composition; include digital and multimodal texts.

      This activity is designed to encourage you to reflect on the importance of spelling and handwriting skills in a word processing and digital age of technology.

      Monitoring the use of different written presentation skills and styles, including word processing, provides a range of evidence for pupils’ editing and spelling self-correction skills. Online and paper based dictionary forms are part of this.

      Analysis of pupils’ manual handwritten ‘try out’, spelling note pads in the classroom shows details of pupils’ exploratory attempts at spelling.

      Monitoring regular handwriting practice for itself allows teachers to observe pupils’ handwriting in action and their written results. Both provide information about letter formation, fluency and writing speed. Written spelling dictations with older pupils are another technique.

    Chapter 10: Looking forward

    • Write a pen portrait of one of the vignette pupils for the child’s next class teacher.

      Model examples of this activity appear in Chapter 1. Pen portraits are necessarily accompanied by evidence of pupils’ work and hard copies of summative and diagnostic assessments. Data statistics by themselves do not provide sufficient detail with which to monitor progression for the primary teacher.

    • Write a list of ten key English knowledge points and skills in preparation for secondary school transfer or for transfer from early years to primary education.

      The following are illustrative examples of generic points to consider before transfer. Individual, local and national priorities will add to these lists.

    Early years to primary
    • Specialist language and literacy and related special educational needs
    • Details of pupils with EAL
    • Details of stage of phonic and word reading acquisition
    • Standardised test data
    • Cumulative English portfolio of work
    • Reading book level
    • Favourite reading or book listening choices
    • Pencil control and eye hand coordination
    • Left or right handedness
    • Copy of latest home school reading or sharing books log
    Primary to secondary
    • Specialist language and literacy and related special educational needs
    • Details of pupils with EAL
    • Details of stage of phonic and word reading acquisition and preferred spelling strategies
    • Standardised test data
    • Examples of recent written work across subject areas
    • Recent reading attitudes and interest survey
    • Left or right handedness
    • Details of whether the pupil has used biro, ink or only pencil
    • Details of pupils’ favourite authors and genres, past and present
    • Pupils’ own English self-assessed goals for secondary school

    Appendix: Photocopiable Recording Sheets

    Glossary

    Analogies

    are used to explain something by comparing it to another.

    Analytic phonics

    segments parts of words and looks for common letter patterns.

    Automaticity

    describes pupils’ level of rapid word reading.

    Balanced approaches

    are those which use a mix or techniques and philosophies to meet pupils’ English needs.

    Blends

    are groups of letters where each letter sound can be heard.

    Cohesion

    refers to the sense of a whole piece of text through words or structure. Examples of cohesive links are conjunctions, pronouns and using synonyms to avoid repetition.

    Complex sentences

    have one chief clause and one or more subordinate clauses.

    Compound sentences

    have at least two clauses joined by a simple connective which could stand alone.

    Concepts about print

    was a term coined by Marie Clay. Her ‘Concepts about print’ test looks at pupils’ familiarity with aspects of the book such as reading left to right and understanding the purpose of punctuation.

    Coordinating conjunctions

    link equal parts of a sentence.

    Decode

    means to be able to decipher the printed word. Decoding is possible without comprehension.

    Determiners

    are used with a noun or noun phrase. Examples include a, the, this, some, its.

    Fluency

    describes the smoothness with which pupils read.

    Fronted adverbials

    are an example of a type of word, clause or phrase that comes before the verb, or clause, often followed by a comma.

    Graphemes

    are the written shapes of phonemes.

    Grapheme-phoneme correspondence

    is the ability to link the sound to written grapheme forms of the phoneme.

    High frequency sight words

    are words most frequently read in the early stages of reading.

    Homophones

    are words that sound the same but have different spellings and meanings.

    Hot seating

    describes a drama activity. Pupils in role are questioned.

    Instructional text

    describes a level of text difficulty. The terms and percentages for instructional, hard and easy text difficulty were devised by Marie Clay.

    Lexical terms

    refer to the use of words and language.

    Listening comprehension

    is the language pupils can hear and understand.

    Mantle of the Expert

    teaching is a drama, enquiry-based and cross-curricular approach to teaching that involves pupils working to solve real life problems. It was developed by Dorothy Heathcote.

    Miscue analysis

    is a diagnostic procedure for identifying pupils’ reading strategies to decode and comprehend print. Teachers mark a copy of the text while the pupil is reading to collate semantic, syntactic and grapho-phonic reading strategies and combinations of each. The level of self correction is important because this illustrates pupils’ reading for meaning. The term was coined by Kenneth Goodman.

    Morphemes

    are the smallest units of meaning in a language.

    Onsets

    are the first consonant phoneme in a word before a vowel: Ch (op)_

    Orthographic (systems)

    are the spelling aspects of a language.

    Phonemes

    are the smallest units of sound in a language.

    Phonics

    is a general term for the process of reading and articulating speech sounds by linking sounds (phonemes) to letter (graphemes).

    Phonological awareness

    is the ability to discriminate sounds in speech.

    Prefixes

    are morphemes added to the beginning of words.

    Reading Recoveryis

    an individual reading intervention designed to boost pupils’ reading fluency. Reading Recovery teachers are specifically trained.

    Reading strategies

    are adopted by pupils to decipher print. According to psycholinguistic approaches they may be semantic, syntactic, or grapho-phonic.

    Received Pronunciation

    describes a formal form of pronunciation and accent for British speakers. It used to be called BBC English because this pronunciation was historically used by BBC announcers.

    Relative clauses

    are often linked to the main clause with that, who, what, which, and where and why.

    Rimes

    are the vowel and final phoneme in a word: (ch) op

    Running records

    are simple forms of miscue analysis.

    Segment

    refers to the process of separating the phonemes in a word.

    Simple sentences

    have one clause, one subject and a verb.

    Standard English

    is the language given status in formal communications. It is taught to pupils with English as foreign language. It can be spoken with any accent.

    Subordinating conjunctions

    connect subordinate clauses to a main clause. They have specific purposes and can alter the meaning of a sentence.

    Suffixes

    are morphemes added to the ends of words.

    Synthetic phonics

    segments and blends phonemes to make words.

    Whole Language theory approaches

    to reading embrace the teaching of reading as a whole process in itself without breaking it down into its separate parts. Whole language teachers often advocate the use of non-scheme reading books. Reading engagement is a focal point.


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