Proactive School Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning

Books

Kenneth S. Trump

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Dedication

    This book is dedicated to my loving and supportive family, whose patience, understanding, encouragement, and reality-checks motivate me to continue my advocacy for safe schools and communities.

    Many thanks also go out to my close friends and colleagues who have consistently continued to stand with me through the long haul.

    KenTrump

    Copyright

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    Disclaimer and Legal Notices

    Although the author has attempted to ensure the accuracy of information contained herein, we do not warrant that it is complete or accurate. The author and publisher do not assume, and hereby specifically disclaim, any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage alleged to have been caused by any error or omission as well as for the use or misuse of strategies described, herein.

    All specific individual concerns should always be directed toward qualified professionals in those areas on an individual basis. Nothing in this book is provided as a substitute for legal, medical, mental health, public safety, or other professional advice or intervention.

    Information contained in this book is not applicable in states or localities with laws, ordinances, regulations, and/or other legal restrictions that specifically prohibit any suggestions or recommendations made in this book.

    Material from this publication may not be used in for-profit training without the express written permission of the publisher and the author.

    Foreword

    Only a few decades ago, school personnel were worried about students running in the halls and chewing gum, and parents were worried that their child might die of embarrassment from something that happened to them at school. The concerns for school personnel and parents in the United States have changed dramatically, and we are very fortunate to have Ken Trump who has dedicated his career to making our schools safer. It is my distinct pleasure to write a foreword for his third book.

    I have been very fortunate to not only have read his books and countless articles, but to have heard Ken speak about school safety and to have partnered with him on several projects. Ken is an exceptional, tireless, and very knowledgeable spokesperson on school safety who knows the inside story of what really needs to be done, having worked firsthand in the school security field. He is very familiar with the politics of school safety, knows how to lobby for better funding for school safety, and knows how to get the most benefit from the shrinking funding for school safety that schools are currently experiencing. This book covers everything from conducting safety audits and crisis drills to how to help the school board shape better policies for safer schools.

    Ken and I share that our highest professional priority has been prevention of school violence. We have both testified several times before the U.S. Congress on this topic, and in July 2009, we testified before the same committee on strengthening federal school safety policy. Ken's testimony, which stressed the need for better data about the incidence of school violence, was eloquent, thoughtful, and practical based on his unmatched knowledge of school safety and school crisis planning.

    I have been working in the field of school safety and crisis prevention and intervention for more than two decades, as my first book on the subject was published in 1989. I have also served on a national emergency assistance team for the past decade and have personally responded to provide assistance in the aftermath of 11 school shootings and many other school crisis situations. My background is in psychology, and I have been concerned that some experts in school safety seem only to be interested in promoting hardware measures such as metal detectors, surveillance cameras, and more police presence.

    Ken Trump believes in a comprehensive and balanced approach to school safety that includes all school personnel, parents, and students. He especially recognizes the important roles for support staff such as counselors and psychologists in both crisis prevention and intervention. Ken knows that one of the keys to school safety is creating a climate where close supportive relationships are developed between all school personnel and students.

    Students also must be involved in safety planning, as much of school safety is an inside job. There is no substitute for knowing all students and knowing them well. Ken knows that the student who was just bullied and harassed and who is humiliated or fearful is not in a state of mind to learn at an optimal level.

    Crisis planning is never a done deal, and our plans must be continually evolving. School faculty meetings and school board meetings must regularly include reviews of crisis plans and safety initiatives. Ken's book outlines what he has demonstrated throughout his career: how schools can work collaboratively with key community partners such law enforcement, emergency management, and mental health professionals for better crisis planning.

    I believe many of the incidents of school crises could have been, and should have been, prevented. The information in this landmark book will reduce school violence and save lives. I recommend it with the highest possible praise.

    Dr. ScottPoland, Associate Professor, Center for Psychological Studies, Coordinator of the Suicide and Violence Prevention, Office at Nova Southeastern University, Member, National Emergency Assistance Team, Past President of the National Association of School Psychologists

    Preface

    Today's school administrators are under enormous pressures to boost academic performance, maintain safe and orderly schools, and address many societal issues crossing their schoolhouse doors each day.

    School administrators are increasingly faced with tighter budgets. Time is the only thing scarcer than money in many school districts. Educators need practical, cost-effective school safety strategies from credible sources without a lot of theory and fluff.

    Proactive School Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning is designed to meet the needs of today's school leaders. Within it, readers will find straightforward information on school security and emergency preparedness. The book first looks at threats to school security and the politics surrounding it, and then moves right into the nuts-and-bolts strategies for preventing violence and preparing for crises.

    A number of best practices in school safety have remained constant since my first two books were published in 1998 and 2000. Yet this book is timely in refocusing on the fundamentals and in advancing conversations on current hot topics and future threats to safe and secure schools. School safety planning is an ongoing process, not a one-time event, and this book builds significantly upon the knowledge base covered in my first two books.

    Proactive School Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning introduces new, dedicated full chapters on managing the current national hysteria around bullying, preparing schools for terrorism, managing school safety on tight budgets, parents and school safety, and managing media and parent communications in the postcrisis stage of school emergency planning. These five new chapters offer practical, commonsense frameworks and steps school leaders can take to proactively manage and respond to highly visible, emotional, and political aspects of school safety leadership in today's security-sensitive school community. The guidance in these chapters will help school leaders navigate complex school safety issues while operating under unprecedented budget constraints.

    Educators and safety officials will also benefit from new subchapter sections on hot topics that have emerged over the years since my first books. Administration building and board meeting security, after-hours school security; athletic and large event security; cell phones; Election Day security; elementary school security; Federal Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) and school privacy exceptions; Tasers and school police; training staff on school security and emergency preparedness; transportation security; diversifying emergency drills; tabletop exercises; and financial and continuity of operations plans are among the new and expanded subchapters. Readers who found my earlier publications helpful in covering a wide range of school security issues will find more best practices and issues to consider with the addition of these new topics.

    School safety continues to be an evolving field, and keeping up with new information on school safety is as important as following the latest research in academic achievement. Updates on topics in this book will be added to my website at http://www.schoolsecurity.org. For timely and breaking updates on current trends, hot topics, free resources, news, opinion, and interactive dialogue on the latest developments in the school safety field, visit my blog at http://www.schoolsecurityblog.com and sign up for daily e-mail alerts.

    About the Author

    Kenneth S. Trump, M.P.A., is the President of National School Safety and Security Services, a Cleveland-based national firm specializing in school security and emergency preparedness training and consulting. He has more than 25 years of experience in the school safety profession and has advised school, public safety, and government officials from all 50 states and internationally.

    Ken served as a school security officer, investigator, and youth gang unit supervisor for the Cleveland City Schools' safety division. He also served as a suburban Cleveland school district security director and assistant gang task force director on a federally funded antigang initiative.

    As a graduate of Cleveland State University, Ken has a Master of Public Administration degree and a Bachelor of Arts degree in Social Service (Criminal Justice Concentration). He has extensive specialized training in school safety, gangs, and emergency/crisis preparedness.

    Ken has authored three books and more than 75 articles on school security and crisis issues. He is one of the most widely quoted school safety experts, appearing on all national news networks and cable TV and in top market newspapers. Ken also blogs on school safety issues at http://www.schoolsecurityblog.com.

    Ken is a four-time invited Congressional witness, testifying on school safety and emergency preparedness issues. He has briefed Israeli educators and safety officials on school safety issues at the request of the U.S. State Department and was an invited attendee at the White House Conference on School Safety in 2006.

    For updated biographical information, visit Ken's website at http://www.schoolsecurity.org.

  • References

    American Association of School Administrators. (1981). Reporting: Violence, vandalism and other incidents in schools. Arlington, VA: Author.
    American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (AFSP). (2011). Facts and figures: National statistics. Retrieved from http://www.afsp.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.viewpage&page_id=050FEA9F-B064-4092-B1135C3A70DE1FDA
    American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, American Association of Suicidology, & Annenberg Public Policy Center. (n.d. (n.d.). Reporting on suicide: Recommendations for the media. Retrieved from http://www.suicidology.org/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=231&name=DLFE-71.pdf
    Band, S. R., & Harpold, J. A. (1999, September). School violence. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 68 (9), 9–16.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Crisis and emergency risk communication. Retrieved from http://www.bt.cdc.gov/cerc/CERConline/index2.html
    Cullen, D. (2009). Columbine. New York, NY: Twelve.
    Dwyer, K., Osher, D., & Warger, C. (1998). Early warning, timely response: A guide to safe schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
    Federal Emergency Management Agency. (1995). Incident command system self-study unit. Jessup, MD: Author.
    Freedom Forum. (1998). Jonesboro: Were the media fair? [Online article]. New York, NY: Freedom Forum Media Studies Center. Retrieved from http://www.freedomforum.org/newsstand/reports/jonesboro/printjonesboro.asp
    Goldstein, A. P. (1999). Low level aggression: First steps on the ladder to violence. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Hill, M. S., & Hill, F. W. (1994). Creating safe schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Huff, C. R. (1988, May). Youth gangs and public policy in Ohio: Findings and recommendations. Paper presented at the meeting of the Ohio Conference on Youth Gangs and the Urban Underclass, Columbus.
    Johnson, K. (1993). School crisis management: A hands-on guide to training crisis response teams. Alameda, CA: Hunter House.
    Johnson, K., Casey, D., Ertl, B., Everly, G. S., Jr., & Mitchell, J. T. (1999). School crisis response: A CISM perspective. Ellicott City, MD: The International Critical Incident Stress Foundation.
    Kaufman, R., Saltzman, M., Anderson, C., Carr, N., Pfeil, M. P., Armistead, L., & Kleinz, K. (1999, August). Managing the unmanageable: Crisis lessons from the Columbine tragedy. NSPRA Bonus [Bulletin]. Rockville, MD: National School Public Relations Association.
    Kodluboy, D. W., & Evenrud, L. A. (1993). School-based interventions: Best practices and critical issues. In A. P.Goldstein & C. R.Huff (Eds.), The gang intervention handbook (pp. 257–294). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Lal, S. R., Lal, D., & Achilles, C. M. (1993). Handbook on gangs in schools: Strategies to reduce gang-related activities (pp. 7–8) Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Langman, P. (2009). Why kids kill. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan.
    Martin, J. (2006, September 7). Schools need to focus on bullying ‘hotspots,’ not just the bullies. Washington University in St. Louis [Newsroom]. Retrieved from http://news.wustl.edu/news/Pages/7451.aspx.
    National Advisory Committee on Children and Terrorism. (2003). Schools and terrorism: A supplement to the National Advisory Committee on Children and Terrorism recommendations to the Secretary. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.bt.cdc.gov/children/pdf/working/school.pdf
    National School Boards Association. (2010). Response letter to U.S. Department of Education's October 26, 2010, “Dear Colleague” letter. Retrieved from http://www.nsba.org/SecondaryMenu/COSA/Updates/NSBA-letter-to-Ed-12-07-10.aspx?utm_source=Council+of+School+Attorneys&utm_campaign=82252bf4b5-Dear_Colleague_Letter_12_10_2010&utm_medium=email
    National Strategy Forum. (2004). School safety in the 21st century: Adapting to new security challenges post-9/11: Report of the conference “Schools: Prudent Preparation for a Catastrophic Terrorism Incident.” Chicago, IL: National Strategy Forum, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.
    Poland, S., & McCormick, J. (1999). Coping with crisis: Lessons learned. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
    Quarles, C. L. (1993). Staying safe at school. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Reisman, W. (1998, June). The Memphis conference: Suggestions for preventing and dealing with student initiated violence. Indianola, IA: Author.
    Riley, R. W., & Reno, J. (1998). [Cover letter]. In K.Dwyer, D.Osher, & C.Warger, Early warning, timely response: A guide to safe schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
    Rubel, R. J., & Ames, N. (1986). Reducing school crime and student misbehavior: A problem-solving strategy. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Justice.
    Silver, J. M., & Yudofsky, S. (1992). Violence and aggression. In F. I.Kass, J. M.Oldham, H.Pardes, & L.Morris (Eds.), The Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons complete home guide to mental health (pp. 385–393). New York, NY: Henry Holt.
    Spergel, I. A. (1990). Youth gangs: Continuity and change. In M.Tonry & N.Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 12). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Steele, B. (1999, July). Guidelines for covering hostage-taking crises, prison uprisings, terrorist actions [Online article]. St. Petersburg, FL: The Poynter Institute for Media Studies. Retrieved from http://www.poynter.org/dj/tips/ethics/guidelines.htm
    Steele, W. (1998). Trauma debriefing for schools and agencies. Grosse Pointe Wood, MI: The Institute for Trauma and Loss in Children.
    Taylor, C. S. (1988, Spring). Youth gangs organize quest for power, money. School Safety: National School Safety Center News Journal, 26–27.
    Tompkins, A. (1999, April 30). After Littleton: Covering what comes next [Online article]. St. Petersburg, FL: The Poynter Institute for Media Studies. Retrieved from http://www.poynter.org/research/lm/lm_afterlittle.htm
    Trump, K. S. (1997). Security policy, personnel, and operations. In J.Conoley & A.Goldstein (Eds.), The school violence intervention handbook (pp. 265–289). New York, NY: Guilford.
    Trump, K. S. (1998). Practical school security: Basic guidelines for safe and secure schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Trump, K. S. (2000). Classroom killers? Hallway hostages? How schools can prevent and manage school crises. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Trump, K. S. (2007, May 17). Protecting our schools: Federal efforts to strengthen community preparedness and response [Hearings before the U.S. House Homeland Security Committee]. Retrieved from http://www.schoolsecurity.org/news/House_Homeland_Security07.html
    Trump, K. S. (2010a). Gangs and school safety. Retrieved from http://www.schoolsecurity.org/trends/gangs.html
    Trump, K. S. (2010b). Election day security. Retrieved from http://www.schoolsecurity.org/resources/election_day_security.html
    Trump, K. S. (2010c). Parents and school safety. Retrieved from http://www.schoolsecurity.org/faq/parents.html
    Trump, K. S. (2010d). School athletic event security. Retrieved from http://www.schoolsecurity.org/resources/athletic_event_security.html
    Trump, K. S. (2010e). Schools and terrorism: School terrorism preparedness. Retrieved from http://www.schoolsecurity.org/terrorist_response.html
    Trump, K. S. (2010f). School crime reporting and school crime underreporting. Retrieved from http://www.schoolsecurity.org/trends/school_crime_reporting.html
    Trump, K. S. (2010g). Steps parents can take to address school safety concerns. Retrieved from http://www.schoolsecurityblog.com/2010/01/steps-parents-can-take-to-address-school-safety-concerns/
    Trump, K. S. (2010h). Teaching school students to fight gunmen. Retrieved from http://www.schoolsecurity.org/trends/students_fight_gunmen.html
    Trump, K. S. (2010i). Zero tolerance and school safety. Retrieved from http://www.schoolsecurity.org/trends/zero_tolerance.html
    U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. (1995). Risks to students in school (OTA Publication No. ENV-633). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Department of Education. (2004, October). Letter to schools from Eugene Hickok, Deputy Secretary of Education. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/guid/secletter/041006.html
    U.S. Department of Education. (2007a). Balancing student privacy and school safety: A guide to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act for elementary and secondary schools. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/fpco/brochures/elsec.html
    U.S. Department of Education. (2007b). Model notification of rights for elementary and secondary schools. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/fpco/ferpa/lea-officials.html
    U.S. Department of Education. (2010a). Dear colleague letter: Harassment and bullying. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/letters/colleague-201010.pdf
    U.S. Department of Education. (2010b). The four phases of emergency management. Readiness and Emergency Management for Schools Technical Assistance Center. Retrieved from http://rems.ed.gov/index.php?page=about_Four_Phases
    U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. (1978). Violent schools–Safe schools: The safe school study report to Congress (Vol. 1, p. 75). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Recommended Readings
    Cullen, D. (2009). Columbine. New York, NY: Twelve.
    Dwyer, K., Osher, D., & Warger, C. (1998). Early warning, timely response: A guide to safe schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
    Goldstein, A. P. (1999). Low level aggression: First steps on the ladder to violence. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Goldstein, A.P., & Kodluboy, D.W. (1998) Gangs in schools: Signs, symbols, and solutions. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Johnson, K., Casey, D., Ertl, B., Everly, G. S., Jr., & Mitchell, J. T. (1999). School crisis response: A CISM perspective. Ellicott City, MD: The International Critical Incident Stress Foundation.
    Langman, P. (2009). Why kids kill. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan.
    Poland, S., & McCormick, J. (1999). Coping with crisis: Lessons learned. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

    Corwin A SAGE Company

    The Corwin logo—a raven striding across an open book—represents the union of courage and learning. Corwin is committed to improving education for all learners by publishing books and other professional development resources for those serving the field of PreK-12 education. By providing practical, hands-on materials, Corwin continues to carry out the promise of its motto: “Helping Educators Do Their Work Better.”


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