Primary Computing & Digital Technologies: Knowledge, Understanding & Practice

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Keith Turvey, John Potter, Jeremy Burton, Jonathan Allen & Jane Sharp

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    Acknowledgements

    We would like to thank Amy Thornton who has provided invaluable editorial support and assistance in the ongoing updating of this book. Similarly a number of colleagues in Initial Teacher Education have also supported this publication contributing their insights through various vignettes of classroom practice and projects. These include Lis Bundock and Pippa Totraku. Finally, we owe our gratitude to all of the children, teachers and schools referred to throughout this book, without whose partnerships the ongoing development of professional practice in primary computing and ICT would not be possible.

    About the Authors

    Keith Turvey is Principal Lecturer in Education at the Education Research Centre in the School of Education, University of Brighton. He teaches on a range of undergraduate and postgraduate courses, and plays a leading role in the MA Education course. As a primary school teacher of 15 years he led successfully a range of subjects, including music, ICT and mathematics, and took on a number of senior management roles both in the UK and abroad. Since joining the University of Brighton in 2003, he has researched and published widely in the fields of digital technologies, pedagogy and teacher education. He completed a PhD in 2011 focusing on teachers’ professional learning and digital technologies. Keith has provided research, CPD and consultancy on digital technologies in education, and on primary computing for a number of national and international agencies including local authorities, schools, the European Commission and UNESCO.

    John Potter is Reader in Media in Education at University College London Institute of Education (UCL IOE). He works in the UCL Knowledge Lab and was a founder member of the Digital Arts Research in Education collaborative (DARE). His research and publications are in the fields of: media education, new literacies, creative activity and learner agency; digital video production by young learners; the use of social software and online networks for publication and learning; and the changing nature of teaching and learning in response to the pervasive use in the wider culture of media technologies in formal and informal settings. Before becoming an education researcher and academic John worked as a primary school teacher in East London and, later, a local authority advisory teacher for ICT. He currently teaches on the MA in Digital Media Culture and Education and supervises doctoral students in the fields of learning, media and technology at the UCL IOE.

    Jeremy Burton is Senior Lecturer in Computing Education in the School of Education, University of Brighton. He leads the computing subject group and teaches on both undergraduate and postgraduate courses. While working as a primary school teacher and ICT co-ordinator, Jeremy developed a passion for digital media education. A self-taught web designer and developer, he coded his school's first website in 1998 and has since worked freelance for private clients. His experience in this area, and in digital media production more broadly, has informed his teaching of ICT/computing to student teachers. Jeremy is a co-founder of NumeracyReady (a web-based tuition package that prepares candidates for the Numeracy Skills Test) and Staffrm (an online professional network for teachers).

    Jonathan Allen is Strategic Lead for Teacher Education at the UCL Institute of Education. He was previously Director for Initial Teacher Education, involved across Primary, Secondary and Post-compulsory programmes, as well as in e-learning projects. Before joining the IOE Jonathan held posts responsible for Primary ICT in teacher education at University of Reading and Oxford Brookes University.

    Jane Sharp is a Learning Development Tutor at Bishop Grosseteste University, working with students at all levels to develop the academic practices, skills and attributes needed for effective study at university. Her current research centres on the academic writing experiences of students studying education at university. Jane was formerly Senior Lecturer in Primary Education and ICT at the University of Winchester and a researcher at the University of Exeter involved in innovative and largescale computing projects in schools.

  • Self-Assessment Questions

    Chapter 1 – Organising Digital Technologies in your Classroom
    • You may hear teachers in schools talking about ICT initiatives using the following acronyms. What do they stand for?
      • NGfL
      • RBCs
      • NOF
      • VLEs
    • What is the ‘skills gap’?
    • List three models of logon practice that you might encounter in schools.
    • Why is it important for children to save their work before printing?
    • Whole-class demonstrations of new software or introductions to new skills are recommended. What are the main drawbacks of the alternative ‘cascade’ model?
    • Match the following examples of hardware/peripherals that can be used to support children with additional and special educational needs to their descriptions:
      • Concept keyboard
      • Touch window
      • Big keys
      • Trackball
        • An inverted mouse system based on a large ball
        • A large-format keyboard for children with fine-motor control difficulties
        • A device attaching to the front of a monitor that acts as a touch screen or replacement mouse
        • A device creating touch-sensitive areas to be created on a flat board, allowing users to input text/commands
    Chapter 2 – Planning for Digital Technologies across the Curriculum
    • In what ways could the use of a wiki or Googledocs support the writing process?
    • Where you are using a three-part mathematics lesson, how can the use of digital technologies support each part?
    • For each of Key Stages 1 and 2, give two examples of the use of digital technologies to support science.
    • Match the uses of digital technologies with the appropriate foundation subject:
      • Art and Design
      • Geography
      • History
      • Design and Technology
      • Music
      • RE/PSHE/Citizenship
      • PE
      • Languages
        • Record and assess children's own compositions
        • Use a drill-and-practice vocabulary program
        • Use a digital camera to record in the locality
        • Use the internet to find out about other cultures and faiths
        • Use painting software to explore colour, pattern, texture, line and tone
        • Use videos of movements and actions to develop ideas
        • Undertake a virtual museum tour
        • Use a programmable robot to learn about control devices
    Chapter 3 – Planning to use Digital Technologies in the Early Years Foundation Stage
    • Whose theories underpin the organisation of Early Years settings?
    • How did he believe that young children refine their growing understanding?
    • What did he call the environment in which this takes place?
    • How can the use of digital technologies support talk in the EYFS?
    • In which prime or specific area of learning would each of the following uses of ICT support children's development?
      • Experiencing a story via the interactive whiteboard
      • Using graphics software to experiment with shape and colour
      • Using the internet to find out about other countries and cultures
      • Handling a range of ICT equipment requiring various fine-motor skills
      • Sharing and collaborating in the use of ICT equipment
      • Using software that develops counting/number identification
    Chapter 4 – Digital Display Technologies
    • What are IWBs?
    • What are visualisers?
    • What factors must be taken into account when siting the components of the IWB setup?
    • What are some of the identified benefits of using display technologies such as visualisers or IWBs?
    Chapter 5 – Mobile Technologies
    • Match the mobile technologies with their key features.
      • PDA
      • Smartphone
      • Laptop or notebook
      • Tablet device
      • MP3 player/DAP
        • Has all of the functionality of a desktop but is portable
        • Has a touch-sensitive screen but can also be operated with a pen-shaped stylus input device
        • Personal organiser with additional functionality, including versions of office software, internet connectivity, sound recording facility and photographic capability
        • Mobile phone with many applications, including internet access, camera, games, and communication via social networking
        • Originally only for music files, now capable of other media, for example storing still images and video playback
    • Explain how mobile technologies contribute to ‘anytime, anywhere’ learning.
    Chapter 6 – Planning for Primary Computing as a Subject
    • Why are the following aspects important when thinking about planning in the light of new technologies?
      • High expectations
      • Designing opportunities for learners to develop and practise their computing skills
    • What are the three main areas that underpin the National Curriculum programme of study for computing?
    • Test yourself on the definitions of the following terms: algorithm; input and output; selection; decomposition; debug; variable.
    • Which four aspects of context should be included in a longer-format lesson plan?
    • How can you brief another adult supporting you in the classroom?
    • List three types of possible differentiation that you might make in your planning.
    • How can you ensure that you are well prepared for a lesson?
    • Which three elements should be evaluated at the end of a lesson?
    Chapter 7 – Assessment in Primary Computing
    • Why is assessment a vital part of the planning process?
    • Why are samples of children's work insufficient as a record of progress in computing?
    • What is individual profiling of children in computing?
    • List six of the important elements of the context of an observation of a child's work in computing.
    • How can a whole-class snapshot support formative assessment?
    • Which assessment strategy described in this chapter would be most appropriate for use in the EYFS and why?
    Chapter 8 – Computational Thinking and Programming
    • Define computational thinking in a way that is accessible to a non-specialist.
    • Identify 3–4 applications of computer science in our physical environment.
    • How are the program languages Scratch and Logo different?
    • What strategies could teachers use to ensure there is progression in the development of children's computational thinking through programming?
    • How can flow charts be used to support children's computational thinking?
    Chapter 9 – Physical Computing
    • Define physical computing.
    • Match the following with their descriptions below:
      • Light emitting diodes (LED)
      • Microcontroller
      • Central processing unit (CPU)
      • General purpose input and output (GPIO)
        • A single chip usually containing an integrated circuit, inputs/outputs, a central processing unit and memory
        • The part of a microcontroller that carries out the instructions from a program relating to the inputs and outputs (a kind of digital clock)
        • The part of a microprocessor or computing device that connects to inputs and outputs in a system
        • A type of output that emits light
    • Why can Raspberry Pi be referred to as a single board computer?
    Chapter 10 – Web Literacy (Including Coding for the Web)
    • What is the difference between the internet and the world wide web?
    • What is a web browser?
    • Define the elements of the following URL: http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/reports/
    • What aspects of a web page do the following HTML tags identify
      • <h1>content here</h1>
      • <p>content here</p>
    • How do HTML and CSS differ?
    Chapter 11 - Digital Media/Digital Literacies
    • What are the main purposes of graphics software?
    • In settings with older hardware setups, what might be the problems with printing from graphics software?
    • There are many benefits of using digital video in schools. However, its use raises some issues. What are these?
    • When editing films, what features does editing software allow?
    • When considering what software to use to support composing and performing music, what important issues should you consider?
    • What is a podcast?
    Chapter 12 – Writing with Digital Technologies
    • What is the difference between word processing and desktop publishing?
    • Explain the three key features of word-processing software:
      • Editing
      • Formatting
      • Tools
    • What are the four stages of the writing process that word processing can support?
    • List six ways of text entry into a word processor.
    Chapter 13 – Social Media – Tools for Communicating, Collaborating and Publishing
    • To what should teachers give careful regard when considering using social media in the classroom?
    • What is the name that has been given to a form of blogging which enables groups of up to four schools at a time to blog between each other over a four-week period, taking it in turns to be the focus and commenters on each other's work?
    Chapter 14 – Graphing Programs
    • What are graphing programs?
    • When would it be better to use a database?
    • What are the three types of data that you might collect?
    • What are the potential drawbacks of the following?
      • A pie chart
      • Line graphs
    • What are the two categories of graphing programs?
    • Give examples of where a program with a set colour order may be inappropriate if not adjusted.
    Chapter 15 – Databases and Spreadsheets
    • What are databases?
    • What are spreadsheets?
    • What are the four main types of data-handling programs commonly used in schools?
    • Match the type of software with its possible use:
      • Branching tree or binary databases
      • Flatfile or tabular databases
      • Spreadsheets
      • Relational databases
        • Contain data arranged in fields, usually input through a form
        • Contain complex data that are tagged to enhance flexibility of interrogation and may have menus, indexes, keywords and hyperlinks
        • Facilitate the identification of objects, people or plants by posing yes/no questions about their attributes
        • A grid of cells arranged in rows and columns where data and formulae can be entered prior to searching, sorting and presenting graphically
    • What do the following terms mean?
      • Keyword searching
      • Hypertext literacy
    • List the formats of data that can be supported in a flatfile database.
    Chapter 16 – Professional use of Digital Technologies
    • In which two main ways can you improve your personal ICT capability?
    • How can you use ICT in support of your own professional development?
    Chapter 17 – Safety; Online and Off
    • What are ‘the 4 Cs’ of online safety identified by Childnet International?
    • What are the four main duties placed on you as an employee by the Health and Safety etc. at Work Act 1974 and the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999?
    • Which body provides regular updates and guidance on health and safety?
    Chapter 18 – Ethical and Legal Issues
    • Two organisations involved in the monitoring of copyright are CLA and FAST. Give their full titles and say which aspects of copyright they oversee.
    • What are the eight basic principles of data-protection legislation?
    • How are Creative Commons licences useful for teaching children about copyright and intellectual property?

    Answers to Self-Assessment Questions

    Chapter 1 – Organising Digital Technologies in your Classroom
    • The acronyms stand for:
      • NGfL: National Grid for Learning
      • RBCs: regional broadband consortia
      • NOF: New Opportunities Fund
      • VLEs: virtual learning environments
    • The ‘skills gap’ is the perceived difference between the ICT knowledge, skills and understanding of children who are experienced in using ICT at home, including PCs and gaming consoles, and teachers who are lacking in confidence and have a lower level of ICT capability.
    • The three models of logon practice that you might encounter in schools are:
      • the whole class with the same username and password into a general area for saving work;
      • group logon names/passwords;
      • each child has a unique username/password.
    • It is important for children to save their work before printing in case they lose their work or the printer fails.
    • The main drawbacks of the ‘cascade’ model are:
      • the teacher and/or child who are shown first may be wrongly perceived as the ‘ICT experts’;
      • ICT may be seen as something separate from the rest of children's learning.
    • Match the following examples of hardware/peripherals that can be used to support children with additional and special educational needs to their descriptions.
      • Concept keyboard – (iv) this is a device creating touch-sensitive areas to be created on a flat board, allowing users to input text/commands.
      • A touch window – (iii) this is a device attached to the front of a monitor that acts as a touch screen or replacement mouse.
      • Big keys – (ii) this is a large-format keyboard for children with fine-motor control difficulties.
      • Trackball – (i) this is an inverted mouse system based on a large ball.
    Chapter 2 – Planning for Digital Technologies across the Curriculum
    • A wiki or a Googledoc could support the writing process by enabling children to write collaboratively on a shared document both in school and at a distance.
    • Where you are using a three-part mathematics lesson, the use of digital technologies can support each part as follows.
      • Mental maths starter – resources can be varied by using the IWB.
      • Main/group activities – a range of software can be used to explore number patterns, practise and assess skills, handle data, develop subject knowledge in various aspects of maths, transform shapes, develop logical thinking and problem-solving skills.
      • Plenary – strands of the lesson can be drawn together by the use of electronic media.
    • Check the answers that you gave for each of Key Stages 1 and 2 in the section on planning to use digital technologies in science.
    • The uses of digital technologies match with the appropriate foundation subject as follows.
      • Art and Design – (v) use painting software to explore colour, pattern, texture, line and tone.
      • Geography – (iii) use a digital camera to record in the locality.
      • History – (vii) undertake a virtual museum tour.
      • Design and Technology – (viii) use a programmable robot to learn about control devices.
      • Music – (i) record and assess children's own compositions.
      • RE/PSHE/Citizenship – (iv) use the internet to find out about other cultures and faiths.
      • PE – (vi) use videos of movements and actions to develop ideas.
      • Languages – (ii) use a drill-and-practice vocabulary program.
    Chapter 3 – Planning to use Digital Technologies in the Early Years Foundation Stage
    • Vygotsky's theories underpin the organisation of Early Years settings.
    • He believed that young children refine their growing understanding through innate ‘inner speech’ that they verbalise and test/retest in their interactions with others.
    • He called the environment in which this takes place the ‘zone of proximal development’.
    • The use of digital technologies can support talk in the EYFS by providing starting points and stimuli for the inner dialogue and talk in the zone of proximal development, for example in imaginative and role-play scenarios.
    • The areas of learning that each would support are as follows.
      • Experiencing a story via the interactive whiteboard – communication and language.
      • Using graphics software to experiment with shape and colour – expressive arts and design.
      • Using the internet to find out about other countries and cultures – understanding of the world.
      • Handling a range of ICT equipment requiring various fine-motor skills – physical development.
      • Sharing and collaborating in the use of ICT equipment – personal, social and emotional development.
      • Using software that develops counting/number identification – mathematics.
    Chapter 4 – Digital Display Technologies
    • IWBs are touch-sensitive boards that allow teachers and children to engage directly with material projected onto a screen from a computer via a data projector.
    • Visualisers enable the live presentation and modelling with artefacts (e.g. documents, books, objects, pictures, tools) by way of a powerful overhead camera which can also be used to record events and processes (video).
    • Factors that must be taken into account when siting the components of the IWB set-up include whether it is fixed or mobile.

      If mobile:

      • the need to be recalibrated after being moved;
      • the vulnerability of the components;
      • security from theft;
      • health and safety, for example trailing wires.

      If fixed:

      • the position of the board on the wall, for example its height;
      • the space needed for it to be interactive;
      • the position of other light sources, for example windows;
      • the positioning of the computer or laptop for classroom activities;
      • the secure positioning of the data projector.
    • Key identified benefits of using IWBs and visualisers are:
      • capacity to vary the pace of learning;
      • enhanced modelling;
      • potential to improve quality of interactions;
      • opportunity to improve quality of assessment due to more effective questioning;
      • can redress balance between making resources and planning.
    Chapter 5 – Mobile Technologies
    • The mobile technologies match with their key features as follows.
      • PDA – (iii) Personal organiser with additional functionality, including versions of office software, internet connectivity, sound recording facility and photographic capability.
      • Smartphone – (iv) mobile phone with many applications, including internet access, camera, games and communication via social networking.
      • Laptop or notebook – (i) has all of the functionality of a desktop but is portable.
      • Tablet device – (ii) has a touch-sensitive screen but can also be operated with a pen-shaped stylus input device.
      • MP3 player/DAP – (v) originally only for music files, now capable of other media, for example storing still images and video playback.
    • Mobile technologies can contribute to ‘anytime, anywhere’ learning by extending the classroom so that learning is not restricted to the school day or site – it can take place at home, in the evenings or at weekends or even in the holidays.
    Chapter 6 – Planning for Primary Computing as a Subject
    • The following aspects are important when thinking about planning in the light of new technologies.
      • High expectations – it is important to have high expectations of all children in order to ensure that all are appropriately challenged. Your expectations must be based on knowing what children's knowledge, skills and understanding are already.
      • Designing opportunities for learners to develop their computing skills – whether planning for computing as a subject or ICT within another subject, you must always keep in mind that the learning should be purposeful rather than just allowing children to engage with the technology.
    • The three main areas that underpin the National Curriculum programme of study for computing are computer science, information technology and digital literacy.
    • Check your definitions against those given in the chapter.
    • The four aspects of context that should be included in a longer-format lesson plan are:
      • the school/class context;
      • the theoretical context;
      • the National Curriculum or Early Years Foundation Stage context;
      • the scheme of work context.
    • You can brief another adult supporting you in the classroom by:
      • talking to them about the lesson beforehand;
      • giving them a copy of your planning;
      • making clear their role in the lesson/any assessment that is taking place.
    • Three types of possible differentiation that you might make in your planning are:
      • for children of different abilities;
      • for those with additional or special educational needs;
      • for children with English as another language.
    • You can ensure that you are well prepared for a lesson by:
      • planning likely timings;
      • checking resources;
      • reviewing your own learning needs;
      • listing organisational memory joggers.
    • The three elements that should be evaluated at the end of a lesson are:
      • operational issues;
      • learning objectives/intentions;
      • what you would do/change next time.
    Chapter 7 – Assessment in Primary Computing
    • Assessment is a vital part of the planning process because, without proper assessment and recording in a subject, there is no real evidence or knowledge of where children are up to and planning becomes empty and meaningless. This can lead to activities being repeated inappropriately. Assessment allows teachers to track progress and plan for children to achieve.
    • Samples of children's work are insufficient as a record of progress in computing because the final copy of the work and printouts do not show the drafting process and may hide any misconceptions. Children often work collaboratively and only by observing individual children working can the teacher really assess their capabilities accurately.
    • Individual profiling of children in computing is a means of mapping their progress linking work with detailed observations by the teacher and taking into account the child's own views of their developing capabilities. It includes identification of next steps in learning, thus completing the planning cycle.
    • The important elements of the context of an observation of a child's work in computing include:
      • the hardware being used;
      • the software being used;
      • the relevant unit of work;
      • any other curriculum links;
      • whether they were working independently or with a partner/group;
      • the date/timing of the activity.
    • A whole-class snapshot can support formative assessment because it can help you to gain a picture of the ICT capability of the whole class at a particular time to support your planning. It could help you to group children appropriately and to plan relevant work for each group; it is therefore a useful part of the planning/ assessment cycle.
    • The assessment strategy most appropriate for use in the EYFS is individual profiling because observations of individual children fit in with the style of assessment prevalent in the EYFS and it allows you to assess/ record progress towards meeting the Early Learning Goals in all six areas of learning.
    Chapter 8 – Computational Thinking and Programming
    • An accessible way of describing computational thinking is that it is the way of thinking that people engage with as they employ the processes and tools of computing to solve problems.
    • The following are examples of the application of computer science in our physical environment:
      • traffic lights at a pedestrian crossing;
      • a drinks vending machine;
      • an automated entry and exit point for a car park.
    • Logo is a text-based programming language whereas Scratch is a visual-blocks programming language.
    • Strategies to develop children's computational thinking through programming are:
      • Children should be discouraged from copying chunks of code without understanding what they do as it is vital that they also understand why a certain piece of code within any program leads to a particular outcome within the system or game being designed. Getting children to explain chunks of code and what they do is important.
      • To develop higher levels of computational thinking children will need exposure to extended projects which require them to design their own games, simulations or scenarios.
    • Flow charts can be used to support children's computational thinking by helping them to sequence events and then to write algorithms. Some programming software also uses flow charts as the programming interface.
    Chapter 9 – Physical Computing
    • Check your definition of physical computing by re-reading the introduction to the chapter.
    • The components match with their descriptious as follows:
      • Light emitting diodes (LED) – (iv) type of output that emits light.
      • Microcontroller – (i) a single chip usually containing an integrated circuit, inputs/outputs, a central processing unit and memory.
      • Central processing unit (CPU) – (ii) the part of a microcontroller that carries out the instructions from a program relating to the inputs and outputs (a kind of digital clock).
      • General purpose input and output (GPIO) – (iii) the part of a microprocessor or computing device that connects to inputs and outputs in a system.
    • Raspberry Pi is a small single board computer that can be linked to a keyboard, monitor and network and runs on the open source Linux operating system. It is referred to as single board because all of the components are contained on one circuit board.
    Chapter 10 – Web Literacy (including coding for the web)
    • The internet is the global network of computers, connected by cables, satellites and other wireless technologies. The world wide web is part of the internet and is made up of hypertext pages that include text, images, sounds and animations interconnected by hypertext links, providing information, news, opinion, archive material, music and video.
    • A web browser is a piece of software that allows the user to locate, view and navigate web pages.
    • The elements of the URL http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/reports/ are:
      • http = hypertext transport protocol;
      • www = world wide web;
      • ofsted.gov.uk = the domain name of the organisation's server being accessed;
      • /reports/ = the directory or path on the server.
    • The HTML tags identify
      • <h1>content here</h1> = main heading of the web page
      • <p>content here</p> = a paragraph of content
    • HTML is used to determine the structure of web pages (e.g. headings, lists, paragraphs) whereas CSS is used to determine the style of content and how it is presented (e.g. format of text).
    Chapter 11 – Digital Media/Digital Literacies
    • The main purposes of graphics software are to enter, store, retrieve and manipulate images and their constituent elements, line, colour and texture.
    • In settings with older hardware setups, the problems with printing from graphics software might be the large size of graphics files that can fill up limited printer memory, preventing documents from printing out/ backlogging printer queues.
    • The problems of using digital video in schools include that, under the safeguarding agenda, publishing images of children introduces ethical and internet safety issues. Trainees should find out about and adhere to the school's and/or local authority's policies and protocols.
    • When editing films, editing software allows:
      • scenes to be trimmed to length;
      • scenes to be joined together along a timeline;
      • titles to be added;
      • music and sound effects to be added.
    • When considering what software to use to support composing and performing music, the important issues that you should consider are as follows:
      • Does it include any pre-recorded samples and how far can these be adapted or changed?
      • Does it have a facility for recording and combining live instruments, including the voice?
      • Does it support any links with different types of media, for example other audio material, still images, video clips, etc.?
    • A podcast is a sound (or video) file that can be transferred onto mobile devices or computers, providing a method of publishing files to the internet that allows users to subscribe to a feed and receive new files and updates automatically. Although the word subscriber is used, this does not mean that there is necessarily a cost.
    Chapter 12 – Writing with Digital Technologies
    • Word processing software focuses more on the entry, storage, retrieval and manipulation of text, with some formatting features allowing the inclusion of graphics and sound to enhance the layout and presentation of the final document. Desktop publishing software focuses more on the design of the documents and usually has less emphasis on the text content; often, designers require a final version of text to be provided before laying out the pages with the graphics and design features.
    • The three key features of word-processing software are:
      • editing – this allows the entry and manipulation of text, including insertion, deletion, correcting, cutting, copying, pasting, etc.;
      • formatting – this allows the use of different fonts, text sizes, styles, page size/orientation, and use of colour, bullets, tables and boxes, etc.;
      • tools – there is a range to support the functions described in editing and formatting, including checking of spelling, grammar and style, speech capability, use of templates, and word count.
    • The four stages of the writing process that word processing can support are:
      • planning and drafting;
      • editing (both structural and technical);
      • proofreading;
      • presentation.
    • Ways of text entry into a word processor include:
      • via a standard QWERTY keyboard and a mouse;
      • via an overlay keyboard;
      • using a touch screen;
      • using a word bank;
      • using voice-input/recognition software;
      • with the help of an adult scribe (amanuensis).
    Chapter 13 – Social Media – Tools for Communicating, Collaborating and Publishing
    • Teachers should show careful use and regard for pupil safety when using social media but these environments can provide authentic and rich experiences for communicating, collaborating and publishing as well as learning about how the internet works.
    • The term used to describe this form of blogging is ‘quadblogging’.
    Chapter 14 – Graphing Programs
    • Graphing programs facilitate communication of information through graphical representation, enabling data to be entered, stored, presented and interpreted graphically.
    • It would be better to use a database when the data-handling requires sophisticated sorting, searching or modelling.
    • The three types of data that you might collect are:
      • categorical, for example eye colour;
      • discrete, for example number of siblings;
      • continuous, for example heights of growing seedlings.
    • The potential drawbacks of the following are:
      • pie charts – they are unable to record a zero value and it can be confusing when there are similar values that are difficult to judge by eye;
      • line graphs – gaps in data collection may be interpreted as a zero value.
    • The two categories of graphing programs are:
      • pictogram programs – these usually represent data as pictograms or block graphs only;
      • more sophisticated graphing programs – these support a wider range of graph types and functions.
    • Examples of where a program with set colour order may be inappropriate if not adjusted include:
      • eye colour;
      • hair colour;
      • favourite colours;
      • colours of cars, bedroom walls, football strips, front doors, etc.
    Chapter 15 – Databases and Spreadsheets
    • Databases are structured stores of information that allow large amounts of data to be stored, organised, searched and retrieved quickly and easily.
    • Spreadsheets are another kind of data-handling software sharing some features with databases but are more appropriate for the manipulation of numerical data and therefore well suited to mathematical calculations and modelling.
    • The four main types of data-handling programs commonly used in schools are:
      • branching tree or binary databases;
      • flatfile or tabular databases;
      • relational databases;
      • spreadsheets.
    • Match the type of software with its possible use:
      • Branching tree or binary databases – (iii) facilitate the identification of objects, people or plants by posing yes/no questions about their attributes.
      • Flatfile or tabular databases – (i) contain data arranged in fields, usually input through a form.
      • Spreadsheets – (iv) a grid of cells arranged in rows and columns where data and formulae can be entered prior to searching, sorting and presenting graphically.
      • Relational databases – (ii) contain complex data that are tagged to enhance flexibility of interrogation and may have menus, indexes, keywords and hyperlinks.
    • The following terms mean:
      • Keyword searching – a feature of database software requiring the user to select a keyword to be the focus of a search; keywords must be carefully chosen and correctly spelled.
      • Hypertext literacy – the skills required to read and navigate hypertext documents.
    • The formats of data that can be supported in a flatfile database are:
      • text;
      • numeric;
      • dates;
      • yes/no;
      • multiple choice.
    Chapter 16 – Professional use of Digital Technologies
    • The two main ways that can you improve your personal ICT capability are:
      • by developing your keyboard skills;
      • by learning to use key software, including both office/admin programs and educational software.
    • You can use ICT in support of your own professional development by using key websites to keep you up to date and to source resources and find out required information. You can also build a PLN (professional/ personal learning network) using social media tools.
    Chapter 17 – Safety; Online and Off
    • The ‘4 Cs’ of online safety defined by Childnet International are:
      • Conduct – sometimes children and adults have a false sense of anonymity when online which can lead them to conduct themselves in ways that are inappropriate, putting themselves and others at risk.
      • Contact – this includes online grooming and cyberbullying.
      • Content – this includes any inappropriate material such as pornographic, hateful or violent content. It also includes any material that may be dangerous, illegal, age-inappropriate, inaccurate or biased. Under this category plagiarism and copyright issues are also considered as children, like adults, can put themselves at risk through the illegal use of copyright material.
      • Commercialism – including issues such as junk email, personal privacy and commercial exploitation of children and young people through aggressive marketing strategies and premium rate services.
    • The four main duties placed on you as an employee by the Health and Safety etc. at Work Act 1974 and the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 are to:
      • take reasonable care of your own and others’ health and safety;
      • co-operate with your employer over health and safety issues;
      • carry out all activities in accordance with training/instructions provided;
      • inform your employer of any serious risks.
    • The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) provides regular updates and guidance on health and safety.
    Chapter 18 – Ethical and Legal Issues
    • Two organisations involved in the monitoring of copyright are:
      • Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA) – printed materials; issuing licences to make copies of these;
      • Federation Against Software Theft (FAST) – monitors software use; gives advice to computer users.
    • The eight basic principles of data-protection legislation are that personal information must be:
      • fairly and lawfully processed;
      • processed for limited purposes;
      • adequate, relevant and not excessive;
      • accurate;
      • not kept longer than necessary;
      • processed in accordance with the data subject's rights;
      • secure;
      • not transferred to countries without adequate protection.
    • Work that is made available under Creative Commons remains the intellectual property of the person who created the original content, but the various different copyright licences allow the owner to be more specific about the permission they grant for others’ use of their content. Teaching children about Creative Commons can help to develop children's understanding of copyright and intellectual property.

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