Preventing Problem Behaviors: Schoolwide Programs and Classroom Practices

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Bob Algozzine, Ann P. Daunic & Stephen W. Smith

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    Dedication

    In memory of a cherished colleague and dear friend, Pam Kay.

    Preface

    The first edition of Preventing Problem Behaviors, published in 2002, evolved from a group of research projects funded by the U.S. Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) to prevent serious emotional disturbance in school-aged children. It was an outgrowth of a collaborative design team comprised of representatives from the funded projects and spearheaded in large part by Pam Kay. In addition to the book, the collaboration resulted in much-appreciated collegiality, several published monographs about effective school practices in the prevention of behavior problems, panel presentations at OSEP Project Director's meetings in Washington, D.C., and some wonderful professional development exchanges over dinners in Georgetown. Design team membership also provided a “home base” at professional meetings—particularly for those new to special education research and writing—and a substantial opportunity to get to know and collaborate with researchers from a diverse group of universities around the country.

    Pam was a primary driving force behind the group. She was full of ideas that made any time spent with her very beneficial. She also was a tireless advocate for children and families. The mother of two boys with disabilities herself, she always found ways to balance professional and family responsibilities without shortchanging or upstaging either. We valued our professional and personal associations with Pam and were deeply saddened by her untimely passing in 2007. We thought it only fitting, therefore, to dedicate this edition of Preventing Problem Behaviors to Pam, who was an inspiration to us in planning it and in seeing it come to fruition. She took great pride in the first edition of the book, and we share the second edition as part of her legacy.

    One of Pam's most cherished causes was making sure that education professionals attended to the needs of students with emotional and behavioral problems. Along with many school administrators and professional colleagues, she was concerned about the frequent shortage of resources and expertise in school settings and an inability to provide needed interventions for these students (issues also cited by the Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health). Pam was especially troubled when older students, in particular, who presented emotional and behavioral challenges seemed to become “the unwanted” in their school systems. Her passion for making sure that efforts encompassing prevention and intervention were a top priority in all schools was inspirational to everyone who knew her.

    With these memories of Pam in mind, we developed the second edition of Preventing Problem Behaviors to (a) keep the spotlight on the array of strategies and interventions that teachers and administrators can use to serve students who present challenging behaviors and (b) continue her efforts to support and improve the quality of education for all students. As the education profession increasingly acknowledges the prime importance of social-emotional learning programs, along with a focus on academic learning and accountability, we are optimistic that the preventive, research-based approaches described in this book will provide a broad perspective on important issues, promote positive learning environments, and be responsive to all children's needs. The approaches described include schoolwide programming, classroom-based strategies, individualized behavior plans, and communication with families and the community. All are designed to address problems proactively and to promote the idea that education professionals share the responsibility for providing the best possible learning opportunities for all students, especially for those students with emotional and behavioral problems.

    Like the first edition, this book is a collaborative work that speaks for each of us, as well as for our colleagues who have shared their knowledge, expertise, and perspectives with us. We deeply appreciate all that they did to help make it happen, and we also acknowledge the assistance and support provided by the editorial and production professionals at Corwin.

    We hope you enjoy the book.

    BobAlgozzine
    AnnDaunic
    Stephen W.Smith

    Acknowledgments

    Corwin gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following individuals:

    • Melody Aldrich, English Teacher
    • Florence High School
    • Florence, AZ
    • Renee Bernhardt, Special Education Facilitator
    • Cherokee County School District
    • Canton, GA
    • DaShonera E. Griffin, Assistant Professor of Exceptional Education
    • School of Education
    • Clark Atlanta University
    • Atlanta, GA
    • Michael Humphrey, Assistant Professor
    • Department of Special Education and Early Childhood Studies
    • Boise State University
    • Boise, ID
    • Jane Hunn, Middle-Level Science Teacher
    • Tippecanoe Valley Middle School
    • Akron, IN
    • Erin Jones, Special Education Teacher
    • Tea Area Elementary School
    • Tea, SD
    • Sally Koczan, Science Teacher
    • Meramec Elementary School
    • Clayton, MO
    • Alison Martins, Special Education Teacher
    • Seven Hills Charter Public School
    • Worcester, MA
    • Gregory A. O'Connell, Facilitator/Assistant Principal
    • Cedar Rapids Community Schools/Grant Wood Elementary School
    • Cedar Rapids, IA
    • Cathy Patterson, Elementary Learning Specialist
    • Walnut Valley Unified School District
    • Walnut, CA
    • Laura Peterson, Special Education Teacher
    • Center School
    • Nashoba Regional School District
    • Stow, MA
    • Diane P. Smith, School Counselor
    • Port Allegany, PA
    • Deborah D. Therriault, Special Education Teacher POHI/EI
    • Clarkston Community Schools
    • Clarkston, MI
    • Marta Turner, Staff Development Coordinator
    • Northwest Regional Education Service District
    • Hillsboro, OR

    About the Authors

    Bob Algozzine is a Professor in the Department of Educational Leadership at the University of North Carolina and Project Codirector of the U.S. Department of Education-supported Behavior and Reading Improvement Center. With 25 years of research experience and extensive firsthand knowledge of teaching students classified as seriously emotionally disturbed, Algozzine is a uniquely qualified staff developer, conference speaker, and teacher of behavior management and effective teaching courses. He is active in special education practice as a partner and collaborator with professionals in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg schools in North Carolina and as an editor of several journals focused on special education. Algozzine has written more than 250 manuscripts on special education topics, including many books and textbooks on how to manage emotional and social behavior problems.

    Ann P. Daunic is an Associate Scholar in the Department of Special Education, School Psychology, and Early Childhood Studies at the University of Florida. For the past 12 years, she has directed applied research projects focused on the prevention of problem behaviors through school- and classroom-based interventions, including conflict resolution, peer mediation, and instruction in social problem solving. Her interest in preventive interventions for students at risk for school failure reflects an academic background in psychology and her experience as a college counselor for economically and educationally disadvantaged students from the New York City metropolitan area. She has also served as a private high school administrator and guidance counselor, collaborating with teachers and parents to address the social and instructional needs of students with behavioral and academic difficulties. She is currently Director of the Prevention Research Project, a four-year study funded by the Institute of Education Sciences to evaluate the efficacy of a social problem-solving curriculum for fourth- and fifth-grade students. Associated research interests include merging social-emotional and academic learning and the role of social cognition in the self-regulation of emotions and behavior.

    Stephen W. Smith is a Professor in the Department of Special Education at the University of Florida (UF). Prior to receiving his PhD in Special Education from the University of Kansas, he was a teacher of special education students for eight years. Dr. Smith teaches graduate courses in the area of emotional and behavioral disorders and research in special education at UF and has conducted multiple federally funded investigations of effective behavior management techniques, including the study of social conflict and the effects of schoolwide peer mediation programs. As the Principal Investigator of a large-scale prevention science research grant funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (IES), Dr. Smith is investigating the effects of a universal cognitive-behavioral intervention in the form of a social problem-solving curriculum to reduce student aggression and chronic classroom disruption. He has presented his findings and recommendations at numerous state, regional, national, and international professional conferences. While at UF, Dr. Smith has received three teaching awards and a University Research Award, and he has served twice as a UF Research Foundation Professor. He is a member of the IES Social and Behavioral Education Scientific Research Review Panel and is a member of the Executive Board of the Division for Research, Council for Exceptional Children.

    About the Contributors

    Kate Algozzine is currently working as a consultant with the National Center for Research on Early Childhood Education (NCRECE) Professional Development Study. She recently was a Research Associate and Coordinator of School-Wide Behavior Intervention for the Behavior and Reading Improvement Center at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. She has been a general education and special education classroom teacher and college instructor for more than 30 years in public and private schools and universities in Florida and North Carolina. Educational materials that she has published are used in teacher preparation courses around the country. She has been a featured speaker at local, state, national, and international professional conferences and is widely recognized as an expert on effective Schoolwide Behavior Intervention.

    Jeffrey P. Bakken, PhD, is Professor and Chair of the Department of Special Education at Illinois State University. He has a bachelor's degree in Elementary Education from the University of Wisconsin—LaCrosse and graduate degrees in the area of Special Education—Learning Disabilities from Purdue University. Dr. Bakken is a teacher, consultant, and scholar. His specific areas of interest include transition, teacher effectiveness, assessment, learning strategies, and technology. He has written more than 80 academic publications, including a book, journal articles, chapters, monographs, reports, and proceedings; and he has made over 190 presentations at local, state, regional, national, and international levels. Dr. Bakken has received the College of Education and the University Research Initiative Award, the College of Education Outstanding College Researcher Award, the College of Education Outstanding College Teacher Award, and the Outstanding University Teacher Award from Illinois State University. Additionally, he is on the editorial boards of many scholarly publications, including Multicultural Learning and Teaching and Remedial and Special Education. Recently, he was chosen as the Newsletter Editor for the Council on Children with Behavioral Disorders. Through his work, he has committed himself toward improving teachers' knowledge and techniques, as well as services for students with exceptionalities and their families.

    Rob Bartolotta is a doctoral candidate in the University of Maryland's Department of Special Education. Previous to his doctoral work, he taught in various restrictive settings, including a residential treatment center, a regional alternative educational program, and a juvenile detention facility. These experiences have contributed to his research interest in support programs for at-risk students and interventions designed to facilitate their reintegration into less restrictive settings.

    Douglas Cheney, PhD, is Professor of Special Education at the University of Washington—Seattle (UW), where he teaches courses in classroom and behavior management, functional behavioral assessment, and social skills instruction. He has 35 years' experience in special education and currently directs the UW's master's program with a specialization in emotional or behavioral disabilities (EBD). He also was Codirector of UW's doctoral training program in Positive Behavioral Support (PBS) from 2000 to 2005. He is currently the Principal Investigator at Washington's Behavior Research Center on Evidenced-Based Practices (federally funded) and codirects Washington's Positive Behavior Support Network. The network provides training and evaluation to Washington schools implementing PBS.

    Dr. Cheney is Coeditor of The Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, an Associate Editor for Intervention in the School and Clinic, and a Consulting Editor for Behavioral Disorders and Beyond Behavior. He cochaired Washington's Statewide Task Force on Behavioral Disorders from 1997 to 1999, which provided a blueprint for the state's Positive Behavior Support Network, and he is a Past President (1998–1999) of the International Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders. He was Director of the Institute on Emotional Disturbance at Keene State College, New Hampshire, from 1992 to 1997, where he evaluated model programs for students with emotional disturbance. Dr. Cheney presents his research findings frequently at national conferences and in publications and has had published numerous articles and chapters on Positive Behavioral Support for students with EBD and school and family collaboration.

    Rob Horner is the Alumni-Knight Endowed Professor of Special Education at the University of Oregon, where he directs the Educational and Community Supports research unit. He received his undergraduate degree in Psychology from Stanford University, his master's in Experimental Psychology from Washington State University, and his PhD in Special Education from the University of Oregon. Dr. Horner's research has focused on developing evidence-based interventions that result in socially significant changes for people with and without disabilities. As Codirector with Dr. George Sugai of the OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, Dr. Horner coordinates research and technical assistance activities with multiple partners across the nation. During the past 20 years, he has worked directly with schools and school administrators in the development of approaches for implementing schoolwide systems of Positive Behavior Support. He has been the editor of the Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, coeditor of the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, and associate editor for the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and the American Journal on Mental Retardation. In recognition of his achievements, Dr. Horner has received multiple awards, among them the SABA Public Service Behavior Analysis Award (2006), the AAMR Education Award (2002), the TASH Positive Approaches Award (2000), and the APA Fred Keller Educational Research Award (1996).

    Kelly Jewell, MEd, is a doctoral student in Special Education at the University of Washington—Seattle (UW), where she is focusing her studies on prevention research for students with behavioral problems, as well as interventions for students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders. She completed her master's degree at the University of Illinois in Emotional/Behavioral Disorders as a Behavior Specialist. While at the University of Illinois, she completed an internship with Illinois's Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports Network.

    Ms. Jewell taught public school for two years, with one of those years in the Chicago Public Schools. Her classroom experience included teaching high school students with autism. Ms. Jewell is currently Vice President of the Association of Positive Behavior Supports student network. She has presented at conferences focused on Positive Behavioral Supports for students at risk or with emotional or behavioral disabilities.

    Hazel Jones is an Associate Professor in the Department of Special Education, School Psychology, and Early Childhood Studies at the University of Florida, where she teaches in the Unified Early Childhood Program. Her work in the area of families and collaboration includes coauthoring Interactive Teaming: Enhancing Programs for Students With Special Needs (4th edition) and coediting two monographs for the Council for Exceptional Children, Division of Early Childhood. These are Young Exceptional Children Monograph No. 5: Family-Based Practices and Young Exceptional Children Monograph No 6: Interdisciplinary Teams.

    Debra Kamps is a Senior Scientist with the Schiefelbusch Institute for Life Span Studies at the University of Kansas, Associate Director of Juniper Gardens Children's Project, and Director of the recently established Kansas Center for Autism Research and Training. She has appointments in the Departments of Applied Behavioral Science and Special Education. Dr. Kamps has been a classroom teacher and consultant in the area of autism, behavior disorders, and school-based interventions for 30 years. Research and professional interests include peer networks, social skills, and behavioral interventions for children with autism and school-based academic, social, and behavioral interventions, including classwide peer tutoring and classwide group contingency programs for children at risk and with behavioral disorders. Research has included longitudinal studies of prevention intervention for young children and multitiered interventions, including Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support and small-group intensive reading instruction in elementary schools. She and collaborators recently completed a five-year longitudinal, randomized trial for the Center for Early Intervention in Reading and Behavior, a multisite national project.

    Peter E. Leone is a Professor in the Department of Special Education at the University of Maryland, where he trains teachers and conducts research in the area of behavior disorders. During his professional career, he has taught adolescents with behavioral disorders, monitored education programs in juvenile and adult corrections, and studied marginalized youth. A primary focus of his scholarship and related activities is academic competence and entitlement of adjudicated individuals with disabilities. His current research interests include studying school-based referrals to police and juvenile courts and the school life histories of incarcerated youth.

    Ya-yu Lo, PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Special Education and Child Development at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Dr. Lo's research interests include social skill instruction, Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports, effective academic instruction, challenging behavior, and behavioral disorders. Her current research project, Peers as Social Skills Instruction Trainers (PASSIT), funded by the Spencer Foundation, aims to quantify the effects of a peer-directed, multimedia-integrated social skills instruction program in which students at risk for behavioral disorders serve as peer trainers. Dr. Lo has coauthored 21 in-press or published articles, books, and book chapters and has made over 50 professional presentations at the national/international, state/regional, or local/community levels. She received the Council for Exceptional Children Division for Research Early Career Publication Award in 2008 and was a recipient of the 2007 North Carolina Association for Research in Education Distinguished Paper Award. She is currently the Managing Editor of The Journal of Special Education and the President-Elect of the North Carolina Association for Behavior Analysis.

    Tina McClanahan has worked for the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools (CMS) in North Carolina since her graduation from West Virginia State College. During her time with CMS, she has held the positions of classroom teacher, literacy teacher, Reading Recovery teacher, and K–2 Literacy Facilitator, and she is currently a PreK Literacy Facilitator. She also worked for the University of North Carolina at Charlotte's Behavior and Reading Improvement Center as a Center Support Coordinator. She received National Board status in 2001 as an Early Childhood Generalist. She resides in Matthews, North Carolina, with her husband and two daughters.

    Festus E. Obiakor, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Exceptional Education at the University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee. He is one of the leading scholars in the fields of general and special education—he is the author of more than 150 publications, including books and journal articles. In his works, he is interested in reducing the traditional misidentification, misassessment, miscatgorization, misplacement, and misintruction of studnts who come from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. In addition, he advocates a Comprehensive Support Model that takes advantage of the collaborative spirits of students, families, schools, community members, and government agencies in solving behavioral problems.

    Robert F. Putnam, PhD, BCBA, is Senior Vice President of School Consultation at the May Institute and was on the faculty of the Harvard Medical School. He also serves as Director of Consultation at the National Autism Center. Dr. Putnam oversees one of eight national collaboration sites in conjunction with the University of Oregon and the University of Connecticut, comprising the National Technical Assistance Center for Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports funded by the Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education. Dr. Putnam received his PhD from Boston College and currently serves on the faculty of Northeastern University. His research interests are in the use of function-based interventions to improve prosocial skills, behavioral support strategies for individuals with autism spectrum disorder, as well as Schoolwide Behavior Support Interventions. He has published extensively and presents regularly at national, regional, and local conferences on these topics.

    Cynthia Simpson, PhD, has more than 16 years of experience in the public and private sector as a preschool teacher, special education teacher, elementary teacher, educational diagnostician, and administrator. She received her graduate degree from Texas A&M University. She is currently an Associate Professor and Special Education Program Coordinator in the College of Education at Sam Houston State University, where she teaches courses in cognitive assessment and special education. Dr. Simpson maintains an active role in the field of special education as an educational consultant in the areas of assessment and inclusive practices. Her professional responsibilities include serving on the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education/National Association for the Education of Young Children Review Panel, as well as holding the position of State Advisor to the Texas Educational Diagnostician Association. She also represents college teachers as the Vice President of Legislative Affairs for Texas Association of College Teachers. Cynthia has numerous publications to her credit, including books, articles, and training materials, and is a featured speaker at the international, national, and state level. Cynthia was recently awarded the 2008 Susan Phillips Gorin Award, the highest honor that can be bestowed on a professional member of the Council for Exceptional Children by its student membership. Her honors also include the 2007 Katheryn Varner Award (awarded by the Texas Council for Exceptional Children) and the 2009 Wilma Jo Bush Award.

    George Sugai is Professor and Carole J. Neag Endowed Chair in the Neag School of Education at the University of Connecticut. His research and practice interests include Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support, emotional and behavioral disorders, applied behavior analysis, organizational management, and classroom and behavior management. He has been a classroom teacher, program director, personnel preparer, and applied researcher.

  • Postscript: What We Know About the Relationship Between Achievement and Behavior

    Administrators, teachers, researchers, and other professionals have a continuing interest in the relationship between social behavior and academic achievement. Most of the research on this relationship started with early epidemiological work documenting rates of problem behaviors in young children. For example, in seminal work known as the Isle of Wight studies, parents rated children identified as scoring poorly on a psychological test battery as squirmy, disobedient, and unable to settle, and teachers rated them as solitary, having poor concentration, having speech difficulties, or often engaged in bullying (Rutter, Tizard, & Whitmore, 1970). Other researchers have contrasted achievement and behavior characteristics and outcomes for different groups of individuals, often involving “normal” and “clinical” distinctions. Over time, researchers have consistently reported correlations between academic failure and behavior problems as early as first grade and between antisocial behavior and achievement problems later in life. The general and continuing interest in documenting both behavior and achievement problems reported by teachers, parents, and young people themselves is evidenced in recent cross-cultural studies by Rescorla and colleagues (see Rescorla, Achenbach, Ginzburg, et al., 2007; Rescorla, Achenbach, Ivanova, et al., 2007a, 2007b).

    The findings from this large body of research support the belief that interventions that prevent or reduce problem behaviors and promote social skill development are likely to improve academic achievement. They also support the belief that interventions that promote achievement are likely to improve problem behaviors. Prevention science, Response-to-Intervention, and other large-scale practices are grounded in this belief. From this perspective, children enter school with behaviors that restrict the quantity and quality of instruction that they receive or respond to, and they become academic casualties because no one is teaching them appropriate academic or behavior skills. Or they enter school with limited academic skills, do not receive or respond to appropriate or effective instruction for any of a number of reasons, fall behind, and develop patterns of problem behavior that further restrict the likelihood of success in school.

    The ability to read depends heavily on learning to use letters and their associated sounds to identify large numbers of words. Until those words are consistently read accurately growth of accepted and expected fluent literacy skills will be slowed. Likewise, the ability to behave depends heavily on learning to follow critical rules and procedures, Until those rules and procedures are consistently followed, growth of expected and accepted behavior skills will be slowed. Problems beget problems, and as the cycle of failure spins even more strongly, the problems become more intractable. Thus, the path is clear: What we know about the observed relationships between achievement and behavior makes sense and demands, directs, and promises dividends from change.

    At the schoolwide level, this means focusing on teaching social skills with the same willfulness, intensity, and scrutiny given to teaching academic skills. We have tools to identify children likely headed for early reading failure. We know that direct teaching of key literacy skills (e.g., alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension) improves reading. We know that direct teaching of other academic skills (e.g., counting, writing, speaking) improves other academic skills. We know that direct teaching of social skills (e.g., learning rules and following procedures, controlling anger) improves behavior. We know that effective instruction increases the amount of time students are actively engaged, which, in turn, increases achievement and decreases problem behavior. In this context, effective school, classroom, and individual systems of support enhance efforts to prevent academic achievement and social behavior problems by

    • ensuring that academic and behavior instruction are part of every child's educational program.
    • documenting that academic and behavior interventions are implemented with fidelity before measuring outcomes and assigning worth to them or blaming children for not achieving them.
    • documenting the extent to which achievement and behavior outcomes occur in meaningful, important, and powerful ways.

    In using what we currently know about the relationship between achievement and behavior, clearly “the greatest promise comes from the integration of preventive [achievement] and behavior support systems” (McIntosh, 2005a, p. 90). Widespread evidence is available for the practice of implementing schoolwide academic and behavioral systems to reduce incidences of academic and behavioral challenges (cf. McIntosh, 2005b; McIntosh, Chard, Boland, & Horner, 2006). Alternatively, progress on studying the relationship between achievement and behavior can be enhanced with research that extends what is known about designing and implementing highly efficient and practical interventions. These interventions should target all children, especially those at continued risk for serious achievement and behavior problems, despite living and learning in academically and behaviorally rich instructional environments.

    Behavior and achievement are related. This truth is limited if accepted as evidence that poor achievement causes poor behavior, poor behavior causes poor achievement, good achievement causes good behavior, and/or good behavior causes good achievement. For even if these conclusions are correct, the direction for change points to improved instruction of a global rather than particular nature. Achievement and behavior are related; more importantly, what happens in achievement happens again in achievement, and what happens in behavior happens again in behavior. This truth is prescriptive if accepted as evidence that poor achievement and poor behavior are consequences of incomplete, inadequate, or ineffective instruction. Again, the direction for change points to improved teaching of a global and preventive rather than particular and prescriptive nature.

    We know that large numbers of children fail to profit from the educational menu of experiences provided in schools. We know that systematic academic instruction and support improve achievement. We know that systematic behavior instruction and support improve behavior. We know that establishing reading and behavior skills early is predictive of later success in school. The trick at the school level is to determine if it is happening for all areas of academic achievement and social behavior and, if not, ensuring that it does. The trick at the level of the child who is evading this level of intensive attention to improve achievement in academics and behavior is to identify the antecedents and consequences of failure and manipulate changes that will enable the child to benefit from the high-quality instruction. Empirical evidence indicates that doing less leads to academic failure. The encouraging message from recent scholarship, however, is that effective tools for combining behavioral and academic supports are now available to prevent and ameliorate academic failure and problem behavior.

    The road ahead is clear.

    • Provide high-quality academic and behavior instruction for all children and regularly verify that it is happening with fidelity. The best medicine in the world will not produce desired effects if the patient does not take it. The best tools in the world do not help if nobody uses them properly. Evidence exists that implementing universal, schoolwide academic and behavior support systems reduces behavior and academic challenges, but more research is needed to convince educators to engage actively and relentlessly in evidence-based prevention.
    • Provide focused and direct instruction in natural classrooms and groups, verify fidelity of implementation, and continuously monitor progress when frequent and direct measurements suggest that academic and social problems exist. The promise of prevention practice and Response-to-Intervention as salvation for the rising numbers of children requiring special education and the failure of prior practices to solve the problem is grounded in the belief that this can and will happen and make a difference. However, research is needed to convince educators that the dream is a reality and the promise is an effective practice.
    • Continuously monitor progress and make appropriate adaptations as needed. Effective teaching is iterative, with every behavior of a learner serving as a basis for supportive or corrective subsequent action.

    The road is clear, even though the page of history documenting the effects of taking it remains unwritten. In the end, the value of what has been shown about the relationship between achievement and behavior is prescriptive: We need to know the effects of implementing high-quality instruction on achievement and behavior, and continuing to do one without the other is moving in the wrong direction.

    References
    McIntosh, K. (2005a). Academic, behavioral, and functional predictors of chronic problem behavior in elementary grades. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene.
    McIntosh, K. (2005b). Academic, behavioral, and functional predictors of chronic problem behavior in elementary grades (Research brief). Eugene, OR: Research Center on School-Wide Positive Behavior Support.
    McIntosh, K., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8, 146–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10983007060080030301
    Rescorla, L. A., Achenbach, T. M., Ginzburg, S., Ivanova, M. Y., Dumenci, L., Almqvist, F., et al. (2007). Consistency of teacher-reported problems for students in 21 countries. School Psychology Review, 36, 91–110.
    Rescorla, L. A., Achenbach, T. M., Ivanova, M. Y., Dumenci, L., Almqvist, F., Bilenberg, N., et al. (2007a). Behavior and emotional problems reported by parents of children ages 6 to 16 in 31 societies. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 15, 130–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10634266070150030101
    Rescorla, L. A., Achenbach, T. M., Ivanova, M. Y., Dumenci, L., Almqvist, F., Bilenberg, N., et al. (2007b). Epidemiological comparisons of problems and positive qualities reported by adolescents in 24 countries. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 351–358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.75.2.351
    Rutter, M., Tizard, J., & Whitmore, K. (Eds.). (1970). Education, health, and behaviour. London: Longmans.

    Corwin: A SAGE Company

    The Corwin logo—a raven striding across an open book—represents the union of courage and learning. Corwin is committed to improving education for all learners by publishing books and other professional development resources for those serving the field of PreK–12 education. By providing practical, hands-on materials, Corwin continues to carry out the promise of its motto: “Helping Educators Do Their Work Better.”


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