Pragmatic Existential Counseling and Psychotherapy: Intimacy, Intuition, and the Search for Meaning

Books

Jerrold Lee Shapiro

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    Acknowledgements

    To Viktor Frankl who lit a new path for my life

    And to Susan Bernadett-Shapiro who has walked with me down that winding road

    Preface

    Existential philosopher Martin Buber profoundly declared that “life is meeting” (between an I and a thou). A Pragmatic Existential Approach to Counseling and Psychotherapy: Intimacy, Intuition, and the Search for Meaning is potentially our sole such meeting.

    The book is intended as an invitation for you to share with me both a personal journey and a still-evolving, professional memoir of my 5-decade career in the field of psychotherapy. I have been honored to be able to serve as a therapist, a mentor, a licensed clinical psychologist, and a professor in graduate programs training for practitioners since the late 1960s.

    Practical application of esoteric existential philosophy seems on the surface to be enigmatic: at times counterintuitive, at times illogical, at times anxiety provoking, yet also the essence of human connection to self, others, and the world. Therein lies the curious and exciting conundrum. How may this one encounter of words on a page even begin to convey the levels of intimacy, intuition, and connection that mark the true I-thou meeting? My hope is that by sharing my personal experiences, those of my clients, and my intellectual understanding of those great minds from whom I have learned, I will convey some sense of the magic, wonder, and impact existential approaches bring to healing.

    It may seem unusual to find the words pragmatic and existential in the same sentence. Yet from my experience, it is exactly that curious combination that makes the work effective. Existential therapy as a practice involves finding our clients where they are in their subjective worlds, joining them there and helping them develop courage and skills to face the inevitable anxieties of living.

    There are some core principles here that center the work. These include the overriding importance of an individual’s subjective experience, the manner in which meaning is created in our lives, and, most of all, the power of caring and emotional intimacy in healing and in living the best possible life.

    I have long believed that intimacy is the antidote to our necessary human fears of mortality, meaninglessness, isolation, and freedom. This form of counseling and psychotherapy offers that possibility.

    Jerrold Lee ShapiroLos Altos, California, 2015

    Acknowledgments

    There are many influences and perspectives that are inevitably reflected in any book. Because this work represents an entire career as a psychotherapist and professor in graduate programs training clinicians, there is no way to comfortably pay proper respect to all of the mentors, clients, and students from whom I have learned about psychotherapy and life.

    I have had the incredible professional good fortune to have been in the right places at the right times: Colby College, Hawaii State Hospital, and the University of Waterloo in the 1960s, the University of Hawaii and University of California at Santa Cruz in the 1970s, and the Santa Clara University Counseling Psychology program since 1982.

    It is impossible to estimate all the powerful personal influences that have shaped my thinking. I have been blessed with many terrific colleagues, mentors, and students. Specifically, for this manuscript, several colleagues have read and made important recommendations for drafts of the manuscript. My colleague and editor for all of my writing is my wife of over 30 years, Dr. Susan Bernadett-Shapiro. She challenged my thinking and my writing and offered many valuable suggestions that appear in the book. In addition, my son, Gabriel Bernadett-Shapiro, provided artwork and editing. In alphabetical order, Nancy Andersen, MFT, Art Bohart, PhD, Dave Feldman, PhD, Susan Light, PhD, Jasmine Llamas, PhD, Lawrence Peltz, PhD, Kate Viret, MFT, and Jeffrey Zorn, PhD, generously provided valuable editing, insights, and recommendations.

    I have had the great pleasure and honor of being able to disagree with and learn from colleagues whom I hold in high esteem. Among them are psychodynamically oriented clinicians Drs. Michael J. Diamond and Teri Quatman; Gestalt therapist Dr. Tom Glass; Humanistic therapists Art Bohart and Rene Tillich; the pragmatically oriented Drs. Dave Feldman and Larry Peltz; and my Jungian analyst, the late Dr. Louis Vuksinick. They have had a continuing influence on my life and work.

    My graduate students over the years have helped shape my thinking by their thoughtful questions and avid discussions. In particular, the Santa Clara University students in my existential psychotherapy seminar during the past several years have, in many ways, made this possible.

    As is evident in the text, several mentors have made a major difference in my thinking about existential psychotherapy and my practice. I mention many in the text, but the late Dr. Viktor Frankl, who both brought me to the field of psychology and introduced me to existential thinking, deserves special notice.

    I want to especially thank Kassie Graves, my editor at SAGE Publications, for her faith in the project and for her gentle guidance through the process.

    SAGE Publications also wishes to thank the following reviewers for their assistance:

    Kirk Schneider, Saybrook University and Teachers College; Columbia University

    Elaine Hatfield, University of Hawaii

    Arthur C. Bohart, Professor Emeritus, California State University, Dominguez Hills; Saybrook University

    About the Author

    Jerrold Lee Shapiro, PhD, is professor in the graduate Department of Counseling Psychology at Santa Clara University, where he served three terms as department chair and a decade as director of the Center for Professional Development. He is managing partner of Family Business Solutions and was formerly president of PsyJourn Corporation, developers of self-help computer-assisted counseling software. Dr. Shapiro has been a licensed clinical psychologist in Hawaii and California, held a Diplomate from the American Board of Medical Psychotherapists and a Certified Clinical Consultantship with the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, and was a Certified Group Therapist. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association. He has authored and edited 13 books, several book chapters, and over 200 professional papers, presentations, and symposia. Three of his books have won literary awards. Born and raised in Boston, he received an AB from Colby College, an MA from Northwestern University, and a PhD from the University of Waterloo in Ontario. From 1970 to 1982, he taught at the University of Hawaii, where he was awarded the Regents Medal for Outstanding Teaching Among Senior Faculty. A Professor at Santa Clara University since 1982, he received the Award for Sustained Excellence in Scholarship in 2006—the highest honor for scholarship awarded by Santa Clara University. He lives with his wife, Susan, a clinical psychologist. They have two children and two grandchildren. He has been a singer and performer of folk music for several decades.

  • References

    American Psychological Association Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice. (2006). Evidence-based practice in psychology. American Psychologist, 61(4), 271285.
    Argyle, M. (1988). Bodily communication (
    2nd
    ed.). Madison, WI: International Universities Press.
    Bandler, R., & Grinder, J. (1975). The structure of magic: A book about language and therapy. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books.
    Barlow, S. (2010). Evidence bases for group practice. In R. K. Conyne, The Oxford handbook of group counseling pp. 207230. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Barrett-Lennard, G. T. (1962). Dimensions of therapist response as causal factors in therapeutic change. Psychological Monographs, 76(43, Whole No. 562), 133.
    Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an ecology of mind: Collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution, and epistemology. San Francisco, CA: Chandler.
    Battegay, R. (1989). Apparent and hidden changes in group members according to the different phases of group psychotherapy. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 39(3), 337353.
    Beck, A., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Beck, J. S. (2011). Cognitive behavior therapy, (
    2nd
    ed.): Basics and beyond. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Becker, E. (1973). Denial of death. New York, NY: Free Press.
    Beier, E. G., & Young, D. M. (1984). The silent language of psychotherapy, (
    2nd
    ed.). New York, NY: Aldine.
    Benedict, R. (1946). The chrysanthemum and the sword: Patterns of Japanese culture. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Bernadett-Shapiro, S. T., Peltz, L. S., Bischoff, R. J., Shapiro, J. L., & Kovachy, E. M. (1999, May). Increasing therapeutic effectiveness with interactive computer-assisted homework: Presentation, demonstration & ethics. Presented at the annual meeting of the California Association of Marital and Family Therapists, San Francisco, California.
    Berne, E. (1969). Games people play. New York, NY: Vintage.
    Beutler, L. E., Harwood, T. M., Michelson, A., Song, X., & Holman, J. (2011). Resistance level. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Relationships that work: Therapist contributions and responsiveness to patient needs (
    2nd
    ed.) pp. 261278. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Binswanger, L. (1958). The existential analysis school of thought. In R. May, E. Angel, & H. F. Ellenberger, (Eds.), Existence pp. 214236. New York, NY: Basic Books.
    Binswanger, L. (1963). Being-in-the-world: Selected papers of Ludwig Binswanger (Needleman, Trans.). New York, NY: Basic Books.
    Bion, W. R. (1962). Learning from Experience. London, UK: Heinemann.
    Boeree, C. George (1998). Otto Rank. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/rank.html
    Bohart, A. C., & Greenberg, L. S. (1997). Empathy reconsidered: New directions in psychotherapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Bohart, A. C., & Tallman, K. (2010). Clients, the neglected common factor in psychotherapy. In B. L. Duncan, S. D. Miller, B. E. Wampold, & M. A. Hubble (Eds.)., The heart and soul of change: Delivering what works in therapy (
    2nd
    ed., pp. 83111). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Boss, M. (1963). Psychoanalysis and daseinanalysis (L. Lefebre, Trans.). New York, NY: Basic Books.
    Boss, M. (1979). Existential foundations of medicine and psychology. New York, NY: Jason Aronson.
    Boszormenyi-Nagy, I. & Spark, G. (1973). Invisible loyalties: Reciprocity in intergenerational family therapy. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
    Bowen, M. (1985). Family therapy in clinical practice. Oxford, UK: Jason Aronson.
    Breitbart, W., Rosenfeld, B., Gibson, C., Pessin, H., Poppito, S., Nelson, C., & Olden, M. (2010). Meaning-centered group psychotherapy for patients with advanced cancer: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Psycho-Oncology, 19, 2128. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pon.1556
    Brown, M. W. (1942). The runaway bunny. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
    Buber, M. (1957). Distance and relation. Psychiatry, 20, 97104.
    Buber, M. (1966). I and thou (W. Kaufman, Trans.). New York, NY: Touchstone.
    Buber, M. (1970). I and thou (W. Kaufmann, Trans.). New York, NY: Scribner. (Original work published 1937)
    Buchanan, R. (2007). Retrieval of emotional memories. Psychological Bulletin 133(5), 761779.
    Bugental, J. F. T. (1965). The search for authenticity. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Bugental, J. F. T. (1987). The art of the psychotherapist. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.
    Bugental, J. F. T. (1999). Psychotherapy isn’t what you think. Phoenix, AZ: Zeig, Tucker & Co.
    Bugental, J. F. T., & Bugental, E. K. (1984). A fate worse than death: The fear of changing. Psychotherapy, 21(4), 543549.
    Burlingame, G., Fuhriman, A., & Johnson, J. (2004). Process and outcome in group counseling and psychotherapy: A perspective. In J. DeLucia-Waack, D. Gerrity, C. Kalodner, & M. Rive (Eds.), Handbook of group counseling and psychotherapy (pp. 4961). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Busteed, B. (2012, September 8). GPA, SAT, ACT…RIP. The Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/brandon-busteed/gpa-sat-actrip_b_3566672.html
    Cameron, W. B. (1963). Informal sociology, a casual introduction to sociological thinking. New York, NY: Random House.
    Cannadine, D. (2013). The undivided past. New York, NY: Knopf.
    Carey, B. (2014, May 21). Need therapy? A good man is hard to find. New York Times. Health Section, p. A1.
    Carkhuff, R. R., & Berenson, B. (1967). Beyond counseling and therapy. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Carlson, C. I., Ross, S. G., & Stark, K. H. (2012). Bridging systemic research and practice: Evidenced-based case study methods in couple and family therapy. Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice, 1(1), 4860.
    Chambless, D. L., & Crits-Christoph, P. (2006). The treatment method. In J. C. Norcross, L. E. Beutler, & R. F. Levant (Eds.), Evidence-based practices in mental health (pp. 191200). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Cissna, K. N., & Anderson, R. (1994). The 1957 Martin Buber-Carl Rogers dialogue, as dialogue. Journal of humanistic psychology, 34(1), 1145.
    Classen, C., Butler, L. D., Koopman, C., Miller, E., DiMiceli, S….Spiegel, D. (2001). Supportive-expressive group therapy and distress in patients with metastatic breast cancer—A randomized clinical intervention trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58(5), 494501.
    Coche, J. M. (1990). Resistance in existential-strategic marital therapy: A four-stage conceptual framework. Journal of Family Psychology, 3(3), 236250.
    Coche, J. M., & Coche, E. (1990). Couples group psychotherapy: A clinical practice model. New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel.
    Connell, G., Mitten, T., & Bumberry, W. (1998). Reshaping family relationships: The symbolic therapy of Carl Whitaker. Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel.
    Cooper, M. (2003). Existential therapies. London, UK: Sage.
    Cooper, M. (2013). Experiencing relational depth in therapy: What we know so far. In R. Knox, D. Murphy, S. Wiggins & M. Cooper (Eds.), Relational depth: New perspectives and developments (pp. 6276). Basingstoke: Palgrave.
    Cooper, M., & Reeves, A. (2012). The role of randomised controlled trials in developing an evidence-base for counselling and psychotherapy. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 12(4), 303307. doi:http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080/14733145.2012.687388
    Corey, G., & Corey, M. S. (1987). Groups process and practice (
    3rd
    ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Corey, M. S., Corey, G., & Corey, C. (2013.). Groups process and practice (
    9th
    ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Correia, E., Cooper, M., & Berdondini, L. (2014). Existential psychotherapy: An international survey of the key authors and texts influencing practice. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10879-014-9275-y
    Cuijpers, P., van Straten, A., Hollon, S. D., & Andersson, G. (2010). The contribution of active medication to combined treatments of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for adult depression: A meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 121, 415423. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.2009.01513.x
    Cummings, J. P., Ivan, M. C., Carson, C. S., Stanley, M. A., & Pargament, K. I. (2014). A systematic review of relations between psychotherapist religiousness/spirituality and therapy-related variables. Spirituality in Clinical Practice, 1(2), 116132.
    Cummings, N. A., O’Donahue, W. T., & Ferguson K. E., (Eds.). (2003). Behavioral health in primary care: Beyond efficacy to effectiveness. Cummings Foundation for Behavioral Health: Health utilization and cost series (Vol. 6). Reno, NV: Context Press.
    Davanloo, H. (1999). Intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy—Central dynamic sequence: Head-on collision with resistance. International Journal of Intensive Short Term Dynamic Psychotherapy, 13(4), 264282.
    Decety, J., & Ickes, W. (Eds.). (2009). The social neuroscience of empathy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Decety, J., & Lamm, C. (2009). Empathy versus personal distress: Recent evidence from social neuroscience. In J. Decety & W. Ickes (Eds.), The social neuroscience of empathy (pp. 199213). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    de Shazer, S. (1980). The death of resistance. Unpublished manuscript.
    Diamond, M. J. (2010). The impact of the mind of the analyst: From unconscious process to intrapsychic change. In M. J. Diamond & C. Christian, The second century of psychoanalysis: Evolving perspectives on therapeutic action pp. 205236. London, UK: Karnac.
    Diamond, M. J., & Shapiro, J. L. (1973). Changes in locus of control as a function of encounter group experiences: A study and replication. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83(3), 514518.
    Diamond, M. J., & Shapiro, J. L. (1975). Method and paradigm in encounter group research. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 15, 5970.
    Diamond, S. (2014). End of men: The “feminization” of psychotherapy. Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/evil-deeds/201210/end-men-the-feminization-psychotherapy
    Dies, R. R. (1985). Research foundations for the future of group work. Journal of Specialists in Group Work, 10(2), 6873.
    Dostoevski, F. (1917). Crime and punishment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Classics.
    Dreikurs, R. (1951). The unique social climate experienced in group psychotherapy. Group Psychotherapy, 3, 292299.
    duPlock, S. (1997). Case studies in existential psychotherapy and counseling. New York, NY: Wiley.
    Ehrenreich, B. (2009). Bright-sided: How positive thinking is undermining America. New York, NY: Metropolitan Books.
    Ehrensaft, D. (1987). Bringing in fathers: The reconstruction of mothering. New York, NY: The Free Press.
    Elliott, R., Bohart, A. C., Watson, J. C., & Greenberg, L. S. (2011). Empathy. Psychotherapy 48(1), 4349.
    Elliott, R., Watson, J., Goldman, R., & Greenberg, L. S. (2003). Learning emotion-focused therapy: The process-experiential approach to change. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Elliott, R., Watson, J., Greenberg, L. S., Timulak, L., & Freire, E. (2013). Research on humanistic-experiential psychotherapies. In M. J. Lambert (Ed.), Bergin & Garfield’s handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (
    6th
    ed., pp. 495538). New York, NY: Wiley.
    Englar-Carlson, M., Evans, M. P., & Duffey, T. (Eds.). (2014). A counselor’s guide to working with men. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
    Erickson, B. A., & Keener, B. (2006). Milton H. Erickson, M.D.: An American healer. Sedona, AZ: Ringing Rocks Books.
    Erikson, E. (1963). Childhood and society (
    2nd
    ed.). New York. NY: W. W. Norton.
    Erickson, M. (1978). Non-verbal hypnotherapeutic techniques. Personal communication, Phoenix, AZ.
    Falicov, C. J. (2014). Latino families in therapy (
    2nd
    ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.
    Feldman, D. B., & Kravetz, L. D. (2014). Supersurvivors: The surprising link between suffering and success. New York, NY: HarperWave.
    Fidelity Investments Retirement Planning. Retrieved from https://www.fidelity.com/retirement-planning/overview
    Fiebert, M. S. (1963). Sensitivity training: An analysis of trainer interventions and group process. Psychological Reports 22(8), 829838.
    Flavell, J. H. (1968). The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget. New York, NY: Van Nostrand.
    Foulds, M. L., & Hannigan, P. S. (1974). Effects of psychomotor group therapy on ratings of self and others. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 11(4), 351353.
    Foulds, M. L., & Hannigan, P. S. (1976). Effects of Gestalt marathon workshops on measured self-actualization: A replication and follow-up. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 23(1), 6065. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.23.1.60
    Framo, J. L. (1976). Family of origin as a therapeutic resource for adults in marital and family therapy: You can and should go home again. Family Process, 3, 193210.
    Frank, J. D. (1961/1993). Persuasion and healing: A comparative study of psychotherapy. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Frankl, V. E. (1959). From death camp to existentialism. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
    Frankl, V. E. (1959a). Man’s search for meaning: An introduction to logotherapy. New York, NY: Washington Square Press.
    Frankl, V. E. (1991). On the occasion of the presentation of a special honorary degree for life work. Santa Clara University.
    Frankl, V. E. (2006). Man’s search for meaning (Kushner, Trans.). Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
    Frazier, J. G. (1890). The golden bough: A study in comparative religion. London, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Freud, S. (1900/1952). A general introduction to psychoanalysis. New York, NY: Washington Square Press.
    Freud, S. (1911–1915). Papers on technique. Standard Edition, 12, 85346.
    Friedman, T. L. (2014, September 10). It takes a mentor. New York Times, p. A12.
    Frost, R. (1920). The road not taken. Mountain Interval. New York, NY: Harry Holt.
    Gebler, F. A., & Maercker, A. (2014). Effects of including an existential perspective in a cognitive-behavioral group program for chronic pain: A clinical trial with 6 months follow-up. The Humanistic Psychologist 42, 155171.
    Gelso, C. J. (2011). The real relationship in psychotherapy: The hidden foundation of change. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/12349-000
    Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2012). Family therapy: An overview (
    8th
    ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Goldfried, M. R. (2007). What has psychotherapy inherited from Carl Rogers? Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 44(3), 249252.
    Goldman, R. N., Greenberg, L. S., & Angus, L. (2006). The effects of adding emotion-focused interventions to the therapeutic relationship in the treatment of depression. Psychotherapy Research, 16, 537549.
    Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York, NY: Bantam.
    Gottman, J. M. (1999). The marriage clinic: A scientifically based marital therapy. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.
    Gould, W. B. (1993). Viktor E. Frankl: Life with meaning. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Greeley, A. M. (1969). Why can’t they be like us? New York, NY: Institute of Human Relations Press.
    Greenberg, L.S. (2015). Emotion-focused therapy: Coaching clients to work through their feelings (
    2nd
    ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
    Gurman, A. S. (Ed.). (2008). Clinical handbook of couple therapy (
    4th
    ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.
    Gurman, A. S. (Ed.). (2010). Clinical casebook of couple therapy. New York, NY: Guilford.
    Habibi, A., & Damasio, A. (2014). Music, feelings and the human brain. Psychomusicology: Music, Mind, and Brain, 24(1), 92102.
    Hackney, H. L., & Cormier, L. S. (2001). The professional counselor: A process guide to helping (
    4th
    ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Haldane, D., & McClusky, U. (1982). Existentialism and family therapy: A neglected perspective. Journal of Family Therapy, 4, 117132.
    Haley, J. (1963). Strategies of psychotherapy. New York, NY: Grune and Stratton.
    Haley, J. (1976). Problem solving therapy. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Haley, J. (1986, December 6). Zen and the art of therapy. Unpublished, spontaneous reaction to question. The Second Evolution of Psychotherapy Conference, Phoenix, AZ.
    Hannush, M. J. (2007). An existential-dialectical-phenomenological approach to understanding cultural tilts: Implications for multicultural research and practice. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 38(1), 723.
    Heatherington, L., Messer, S. B., Angus, L., Strauman, T. J., Friedlander, M. L., & Kolden, G. G. (2012). The narrowing of theoretical orientations in clinical psychology doctoral training. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 19(4), 364374. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cpsp.12012
    Heidegger, M. (1962). Being and time. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
    Henry, S. (1981). Group skills in social work: A four dimensional approach. Itasca, IL: Peacock.
    Hofmann, S. G., & Weinberger. J. (2007). The art and science of psychotherapy. New York, NY: Routledge.
    Hollis, J. (1993). The middle passage (Studies in Jungian psychology by Jungian analysts). Toronto, CA: Inner City Books.
    Hora, T. (1959). Existential group psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 13, 8392.
    Horney, Karen. (1945). Our inner conflicts. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co.
    Hubble, M. A., Duncan, B. L., & Miller, S. D. (1999). Directing attention to what works. In M. A. Hubble, B. L. Duncan, & S. D. Miller (Eds.), The heart and soul of change: What works in therapy (pp. 119). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Husserl, E. (1931). Ideas: General introduction to pure phenomenology (W. Gibson, Trans.). New York, NY: Macmillan.
    Husserl, E. (2008). On the phenomenology of the consciousness of internal time (1893–1917). Edmund Husserl Collected Works. New York, NY: Springer.
    Husserl, E. (2014). Ideas for a pure phenomenology and phenomenological philosophy (Dahlstrom, Trans.). Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.
    Jaspers, K. (1964). The nature of psychotherapy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Johnson, S., Hunsley, J., Greenberg, L., & Schindler, D. (1999). Emotionally focused couples therapy: Status & challenges (A meta-analysis). Journal of Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 6, 6779.
    Johnson, S. M. (2008). Emotionally focused couple therapy. In A. S. Gurman (Ed.), Clinical handbook of couple therapy. New York, NY: Guilford.
    Jordan, J. V. (2010). Relational-cultural therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Jung, C. G. (1955). Modern man in search of a soul. New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace, Jovavovich.
    Jung, C. G. (1959). The archetypes and the collective unconscious. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Kaiser, D. (2014, November 14). Is quantum entanglement real? New York Times Sunday Review, p. 10.
    Kaplan, A. (1964). The conduct of inquiry: Methodology for behavioral science. San Francisco, CA: Chandler.
    Kass, S. A. (2014). Don’t fall into those stereotype traps: Women and the feminine in existential therapy. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 54(2), 131157.
    Kelly, G. (1955). Principles of personal construct psychology. New York: Norton.
    Kierkegaard, S. (1841). The world historic split in Western philosophy: The expurgation of hegelism. Retrieved from https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/hegel/help/1841.htm
    Kierkegaard, S. (1980). The concept of anxiety: A simple psychologically orienting deliberation on the dogmatic issue of hereditary sin (R. Thomte, Ed. & Trans.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. (Original work published 1844)
    Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., & Martin, C.E. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    Kissane, D. W., Bloch, S., Miach, P., Smith, G. C., Seddon, A., & Keks, N. (1997). Cognitive-existential group therapy for patients with primary breast cancer—Techniques and themes. Psychooncology, 6, 2533. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1611 (199703)6:1<25::AID-PON240>3.0.CO;2-N
    Kissane, D. W., Bloch, S., Smith, G. C., Miach, P., Clarke, D. M., Ikin, J., & McKenzie, D. (2003). Cognitive-existential group psychotherapy for women with primary breast cancer: A randomised controlled trial. Psychooncology, 12, 532546. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pon.683
    Kissane, D. W., Grabsch, B., Clarke, D. M., Smith, G. C., Love, A. W., Bloch, S.,& Li, Y. (2007). Supportive-expressive group therapy for women with metastatic breast cancer: Survival and psychosocial outcome from a randomized controlled trial. Psychooncology, 16, 227286.
    Kitano, H. (1989). A model for counseling Asian Americans. In P. B. Pederson, J. Draguns, W. J. Lonner, & J. J. Trimble (Eds.), Counseling across cultures (
    3rd
    ed., pp. 139151). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
    Knox, R. (2013). Relational depth from the client’s perspective. In R. Knox, S. Wiggins, D. Murphy, & M. Cooper (Eds.), Relational depth: New perspectives and developments (pp. 2135). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave.
    Knox, R., & Cooper, M. (2010). Relationship qualities that are associated with moments of relational depth: The client’s perspective. Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapies, 9(3), 236256.
    Kohler, W. (1947). Gestalt psychology: The definitive statement of the Gestalt theory. New York, NY: Liveright (W. W. Norton).
    Krause, M. S., & Lutz, W. (2009). Process transforms inputs to determine outcomes: Therapists are responsible for managing process. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 16, 7381.
    Kristofferson, K., & Foster, F. (1970). Me and Bobby McGee. On Kristofferson album, Washington, DC: Monument Records.
    Krug, O.T. (2009). James Bugental and Irvin Yalom: Two masters of existential therapy cultivate presence in the therapeutic encounter. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 49(3), 329354.
    Kuhn, T. S. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Laing, R. D. (1960). The divided self. London, UK: Tavistock.
    Lambert, M. J. (1992). Psychotherapy outcome research: Implications for integrative and eclectic therapists. In J. C. Norcross & M. R. Goldfried (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy integration pp. 94129. New York, NY: Basic Books.
    Längle, A. (2001). Old age from an existential-analytical perspective. Psychological Reports, 89, 211215.
    Lantz, J. (1993). Existential family therapy. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
    Lantz, J., & Walsh, J. (2007). Short-term existential intervention in clinical practice. Chicago, IL: Lyceum Books.
    Lebow, J. (2000). What does the research tell us about couple and family therapies? Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56(8), 10831094.
    Levy, K. N., & Anderson, T. (2013). Is clinical psychology becoming less diverse? And if so, what can be done? Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 20, 211220.
    Lewin, K. I. (1951). The field theory in social science. New York, NY: Harper & Bros.
    Lorig, K. R., Sobel, D. S., Steward, A. L., Brown, B. W., Bandura, A., Ritter, P., . . . Holman, H. R. (1999). Evidence suggesting that a chronic disease self-management program can improve health status while reducing hospitalization: A randomized trial. Medical Care, 37, 514. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ 00005650-199901000-00003
    Luborsky, L., Singer, B., & Luborsky, L. (1975). Comparative studies of psychotherapies: Is it true that “everyone has won and all must have prizes”? Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 9951008.
    MacKenzie, K. R. (1990). Introduction to time limited group psychotherapy. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
    Markin, R. D., Kivlighan, D. W., Gelso, C. J., Hummel, A. M., & Siegel, E. B. (2014). Clients’ and therapists’ real relationship and session quality in brief therapy: An actor partner interdependence analysis. Psychotherapy, 51(3), 413423.
    Maslow, A. H. (1968). Toward a psychology of being (
    2nd
    ed.). New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
    May, R. (1969). Love and will. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.
    May, R. (1977). The meaning of anxiety. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.
    May, R. (1983). The discovery of being. New York, NY: Norton.
    May, R., Angel, E., & Ellenberger, H. F. (Eds.). (1958). Existence: A new dimension in psychiatry and psychology. New York, NY: Basic Books.
    McGoldrick, M., Giordano, J., & Garcia-Preto, N. (2005). Ethnicity and family therapy (
    3rd
    ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.
    McGoldrick, M., Pearce, J. K., & Giordano, J. (1982). Ethnicity & family therapy. New York, NY: Guilford.
    McHugh, R. K., Ott, M. W., Barlow, D. H., Gorman, J. M., Shear, M. K., & Woods, S. W. (2007). Cost-efficacy of individual and combined treatments for panic disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68, 103104.
    Medina, M. (2010). All for one and one for all? An existential perspective on family and systems work as a form of therapeutic intervention. Existential Analysis 21(2), 263271.
    Mehrabian, A., & Ferris, S. R. (1967). Inference of attitudes from nonverbal communication in two channels. Journal of Consulting Psychology 31(3): 248252.
    Mehrabian, A., & Wiener, M. (1967). Decoding of inconsistent communications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 6(1): 109114.
    Miklowitz, D. J., & Scott, J. (2009). Psychosocial treatments for bipolar disorder: Cost-effectiveness, mediating mechanisms, and future directions. Bipolar Disorder, 11(Supplement 2), 110122.
    Miller, R. (2008). Buddhist existentialism: From anxiety to authenticity and freedom. Victoria, GB: Shogam.
    Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2012). Motivational interviewing: Helping people change (applications of motivational interviewing) (
    3rd
    ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Minuchin, S. (1974). Families and family therapy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Minuchin, S., & Fishman, H.C. (1981). Family therapy techniques. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Moody, H. R., & Carroll, D. (1997). The five stages of the soul: Charting the spiritual passages that shape our lives. New York, NY: Anchor Books.
    Moyers, T. B., & Rollnick, S. (2002). A motivational interviewing perspective on resistance in psychotherapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(2), 185193.
    Mullen, H. (1955). The group analyst’s creative function. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 9, 320334.
    Mullen, H. (1992). Existential therapists and their group therapy practices. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 42, 453468.
    Mullen, H., & Rosenbaum, M. (1967). Group therapy: Theory and practice. New York, NY: New York Free Press.
    National Center for Educational Statistics. (2013). Table 318.30. Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred by postsecondary institutions, by sex of student and discipline division: 2011–12. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d13/tables/dt13_318.30.asp
    Nathan, P. E., Stuart, S. P., & Dolan, S. L. (2000). Research on psychotherapy efficacy and effectiveness: Between Scylla and Charybdis? Psychological Bulletin 126(6), 964981.
    Neill, J. R., & Kniskern, D. P. (1982). From psyche to system: The evolving therapy of Carl Whitaker. New York, NY: Guilford.
    Nickerson, R. S. (1998). Confirmation bias: A ubiquitous phenomenon in many guises. Review of General Psychology 2(2), 175220.
    Nietzsche, F. (1974). The gay science (W. Kaufman, Trans.). New York, NY: Vintage Books.
    Norcross, J. C. (1987). A rational and empirical analysis of existential psychotherapy. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 27, 41-68.
    Norcross, J. C. (2011). Psychotherapy relationships that work: Evidence-based responsiveness. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Norcross, J. C. (2014, May 1). Psychotherapy relationships and responsiveness that work: A look at evidence-based practice. Presentation at Santa Clara University.
    Norcross, J. C., Beutler, L. E., & Levant, R. F. (Eds.). (2006). Evidence-based practices in mental health: Debate and dialogue on the fundamental questions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Norcross, J. C., & Lambert, M.L. (2014). Relationship science and practice in psychotherapy: Closing commentary. Psychotherapy, 51(3), 398403.
    Ogden, T. H. (1997). Reverie and interpretation: Sensing something human. London, UK: Jason Aronson.
    O’Hara, M. M. (1986). Heuristic inquiry as psychotherapy: The client centered approach. Person Centered Review, 1(2), 172184.
    Osherson, S., Krugman, S. (1990). Men shame and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 27(3), 327339.
    Owen, J., Tao, K. W., Imel, Z. E., Wampold, B. E., & Rodolfa, E. (2014). Addressing racial and ethnic microaggressions in therapy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 45(4), 283290.
    Panksepp, J., & Biven, L. (2012). The archaeology of mind: Neuroevolutionary origins of human emotion. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.
    Panskepp, J., & Panskepp, J. B. (2013). Toward a cross-species understanding of empathy. Trends in Neurosciences, 36(8), 489496.
    Pascal, B. (1941). The works of Blaise Pascal: Pensees. New York, NY: Black’s Reader Services.
    Pedersen, P. B., Lonner, W. J., Draguns, J. G., & Trimble, J. E. (2007). Counseling across cultures (
    6th
    ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Perls, F. (1968). Gestalt therapy verbatim. New York, NY: Bantam.
    Piaget, J. (1967). Six psychological studies by Jean Piaget. New York, NY: Random House.
    Piper, W. (1930). The little engine that could. New York, NY: Platt & Munk.
    Popper, K. (2002). The logic of scientific discovery. New York, NY: Routledge.
    Portuges, S. H., & Hollander, N. C. (2011). The therapeutic action of resistance analysis: Interpersonalizing and socializing Paul Gray’s close process attention technique. In M. J. Diamond & C. Christian (Eds.), The second century of psychoanalysis: Evolving perspectives on therapeutic action. London, UK: Karnac Books.
    Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (2005). The transtheoretical approach. In J. C. Norcross & M. R. Goldfried (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy integration (
    2nd
    ed., pp. 141171.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Prochaska, J. O., & Norcross, J. C. (2001). Stages of change. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 38(4), Special Issue: Empirically Supported Therapy Relationships: Summary Report of the Division 29 Task Force (pp. 443448). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Qiu Y. H., Wu X. Y., Xu H., Sackett, D. (2009, October). Neuroimaging study of placebo analgesia in humans. Neuroscience Bulletin 25(5): 27782. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-009-0907-2, PMID 19784082
    Quatman, T. (2015). Essential psychodynamic psychotherapy: An acquired art. London, UK: Routledge.
    Ramos-Sanchez, L. (2009). Counselor bilingual ability, counselor ethnicity, acculturation, and Mexican Americans’ perceived counselor credibility. Journal of Counseling & Development 87(3), 311318.
    Rank, O. (1936). Willing therapy. New York, NY: Alfred Knopf.
    Rank, O. (2004). The myth of the birth of the hero. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
    Reeves, J. (2012). 17 frightening facts about retirement savings in America. The Motley Fool. Retrieved from http://www.fool.com/retirement/general/2012/10/15/17-frightening-facts-about-retirement-savings-in-.aspx
    Richards, M., & Bedi, R. (2014). Gaining perspective: How men describe incidents damaging the therapeutic alliance. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, Online First Publication, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036924
    Rogers, C. R. (1951). Client-centered therapy: Its current practice, implications, and theory. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Rogers, C. R. (1957). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21, 95103.
    Rogers, C. R. (1961). On becoming a person. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin.
    Rogers, C. R., Gendlin, E. T., Kiesler, D. J.,& Truax, C. (1967). The therapeutic relationship and its impact: A study of psychotherapy with schizophrenics. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Rogers, W. R. (1985). Tillich and depth psychology. In J. L. Adams, W. Paulk, & R. L. Shinn (Eds.), The thought of Paul Tillich pp. 102118. San Francisco, CA: Harper and Row.
    Rosen, S. (1982). My voice will go with you: The teaching tales of Milton H. Erickson. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.
    Rotter, J. B. (1990). Internal versus external control of reinforcement: A case history of a variable. American Psychologist, 45(4), 489493.
    Rutan, S. J., Stone, W. N., & Shay, J. J. (2007). Psychodynamic group psychotherapy. New York, NY: Guilford.
    Safran, J. D., & Muran, J. C. (2000). Negotiating the therapeutic alliance. New York, NY: Guilford.
    Samovar, L. A., Porter, R. E., McDaniel, E. R., & Roy, C. S. (2007). Communication between cultures (
    8th
    ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth.
    Sartre, J. P. (1943; 1956). Being and nothingness: A phenomenological essay on ontology. New York, NY: Washington Square Press.
    Sartre, J. P. (1964). Nausea. New York, NY: New Directions.
    Satir, V. (1967). A family of angels: An interview with Virginia Satir. In J. Haley & L. Hoffman, Techniques of family therapy (pp. 97117). New York/London: Basic Books.
    Schachter, S., & Singer, J. E. (1962). Cognitive, social, and physiological determinants of emotional state. Psychological Review, 65(5), 379399.
    Scharf, R. S. (2004). Theories of psychotherapy and counseling: Concepts and cases. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Scheflin, A. W., & Shapiro, J. L. (1989). Trance on trial. New York, NY: Guilford.
    Scher, M. (1990). Effect of gender role incongruities on men’s experience as clients in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 27(3), 322326.
    Schimmack, U. (2008). The structure of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 97123). New York, NY: Guilford.
    Schneider, K. J. (Ed.). (2008). Existential-Integrative psychotherapy: Guideposts to the core of practice. New York, NY: Routledge.
    Schneider, K. J., & Krug, O. T. (2010). Existential-humanistic therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Schneider, K. J., & May, R. (Eds.). (1995). The psychology of existence: An integrative clinical perspective. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
    Schutz, W. C. (1967). Joy: Expanding human awareness. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
    Schutz, W. C. (1973). Elements of encounter: A bodymind approach. New York, NY: Joy Press.
    Seligman, M. E. P. (1995). The effectiveness of psychotherapy: The Consumer Reports study. American Psychologist, 50(12), 965974.
    Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Positive psychology, positive prevention, and positive therapy. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 39). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 514.
    Sexton, T. L., Gordon, K., Gurman, A. S., Lebow, J., Holtzworth-Munroe, A., & Johnson, A. (2011). Guidelines for classifying evidence-based treatments in couple and family psychology. Family Process, 50, 337392.
    Shadish, W. R., & Baldwin, S. A. (2003). Meta analyses of MFT interventions. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 29, 547570.
    Shapiro, J. L. (1970). An investigation into the effects of sensitivity training procedures. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Waterloo, 1970). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1971, Vol. 32(2–A), p. 799.
    Shapiro, J. L. (1978). Methods of group psychotherapy and encounter. Itasca, IL: Peacock.
    Shapiro, J. L. (1978a). Positive implication of treatment at on-base, Family Resource Centers: personnel and fiscal considerations. Unpublished report to CINC, USAF-Pacific, CINCPACFLT (Pearl Harbor) and USAHAW (Tripler Army Medical Center).
    Shapiro, J. L. (1984). A brief outline of a chronological divorce sequence. Family Therapy, XI(3), 269278.
    Shapiro, J. L. (1987). Message from the masters or breaking old ground? The evolution of psychotherapy conference. Psychotherapy in Private Practice 5(3), 6572.
    Shapiro, J. L. (2010). At the risk of losing our misery: Existential couple therapy. In A. S. Gurman, Clinical Casebook of Couple Therapy (pp. 399426). New York, NY: Guilford.
    Shapiro, J. L. (2010a). Brief group therapy. In R. K. Conyne (Ed.), Oxford handbook of group counseling. New York, NY: Oxford.
    Shapiro, J. L. (2012). Finding meaning, facing fears in the autumn of your years (45–65). Atascadero, CA: Impact.
    Shapiro, J. L. (2013). Multi-person therapies. In T. G. Plante (Ed.), Abnormal psychology across the Ages (Vol. II, pp. 25258). New York, NY: Praeger.
    Shapiro, J. L. (2014a, August 8). Existential psychotherapy: Best evidence. Symposium presentation, American Psychological Convention, Washington, DC.
    Shapiro, J. L. (2014b). When she’s pregnant: The essential guide for expectant fathers. Bloomington, IN: Xlibris.
    Shapiro, J. L. (2014c). The psychology of money in professional relationships. Unpublished keynote address. Available at http://jerroldleeshapiro.com/uploads/BONUS_CHAPTER_of_FMFF_-_Money_and_retirement.pdf.
    Shapiro, J. L., & Diamond, M. J. (1972). Increases in hypnotizability as a function of encounter group training. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 79(1), 112115.
    Shapiro, J. L., & Gust, T. (1974). Counselor training for facilitative human relationships: Study and replication. Counselor Education and Supervision, 13(3), 198207.
    Shapiro, J. L., Peltz, L. S., & Bernadett-Shapiro, S. T. (1997). Brief group treatment: Practical training for therapists and counselors. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Shapiro, J. L., & Ross, R. R. (1971). Sensitivity training in an institution for adolescents. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 7(6), 710723.
    Shapiro, J. L., & Ross, R. R. (1973). Sensitivity training for staff in an institution for adolescent offenders. In J. G. Cull, J. G., & R. E. Hardy (Eds.), Law enforcement and correctional rehabilitation (pp. 237245). Springfield, IL: Thomas.
    Shedler, J. (2010). The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 65(2), 98109.
    Shedler, J. (2011). Science or ideology? American Psychologist, 66(2), 152154.
    Siegel, D. J. (1999). The developing mind: Toward a neurobiology of interpersonal experience. New York, NY: Guilford.
    Sifneos, P. E. (1973). Short term psychotherapy and emotional crisis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Solms, M., & Panskepp, J. (2012). The ‘ID’ knows more than the ‘Ego’ admits: Neuropsychoanalytic and primal consciousness perspectives on the interface between affective and cognitive neuroscience. Brain Sciences, 2(2), 147175.
    Spence, D. P. (1982). Narrative truth and historical truth: Meaning and interpretation in psychoanalysis. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.
    Spiegel, D., Butler, L. D., Giese-Davis, J., Koopman, C., Miller, E., DiMiceli, S., . . . Kraemer, H.C. (2007). Effects of supportive-expressive group therapy on survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer: A randomized prospective trial. Cancer, 110, 11301138.
    Spiegel, J. (1982). An ecological model of ethnic families. In M. McGoldrick, J. K Pierce, & J. Giordano, Ethnicity and family therapy. New York, NY: Guilford.
    Spinelli, E. (1997). Tales of un-knowing: Eight stories of existential therapy. New York: New York University Press.
    Spinelli, E. (2005). The interpreted world: An introduction to phenomenological psychology (
    2nd
    ed.). London, UK: Sage.
    Spinelli, E. (2007). Practicing existential psychotherapy: The relational world. London, UK: Sage.
    Stanislavski, C. (1989). An actor prepares. New York, NY: Routledge.
    Stiles, W. S. (2009). Responsiveness as an obstacle for psychotherapy outcome research: It’s worse than you think. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 16, 8691.
    Sue, D. W. (1993). Confronting ourselves: The white and racial/ethnic-minority researcher. The Counseling Psychologist, 21(2), 244249.
    Sue, D. W., Capodilupo, C. M., Torino, G. C., Bucceri, J. M., Holder, A. M. B., Nadal, K.L., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial microaggressions in everyday life: Implications for clinical practice. American Psychologist, 62(4), 271286.
    Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2012). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (
    6th
    ed.). New York, NY: Wiley
    Szentagotai, A., & David, D. (2010). The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy in bipolar disorder: A quantitative meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 71, 6672.
    Tillich, P. (1952). The courage to be. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Tillich, P. (1960, February 27). Existentialism and psychotherapy. Paper presented to Conference on Existential Psychotherapy in New York City.
    Tillich, S. R. (1972). The nature of group therapy: A debate. King Kalakaua Center, Honolulu, HI
    Todd, D. (2009, November 14). A new vocabulary for men. Retrieved from http://blogs.vancouversun.com/2009/11/14/a-new-vocabulary-for-men/11/14/09
    Tomkins, S. S., Sedgwick, E. K., & Frank, A. (Eds.). (1995). Shame and its sisters: A Silvan Tomkins reader. Durham NC: Duke University Press.
    Toseland, R. W., & Rivas, R. F. (1984). An introduction to group work practice. New York, NY: Macmillan.
    Truax, C. B., & Carkhuff, R. R. (1965). Experimental manipulation of therapeutic conditions. Journal of Consulting Psychology 29(2), 119124.
    Truax, C. B., & Carkhuff, R. R. (1967). Toward effective counseling and psychotherapy, training and practice. Chicago, IL: Aldine.
    Truax, C. B., & Mitchell, K. M. (1971). Research on certain therapist interpersonal skills in relation to process and outcome. In A. E. Bergin & S. L. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (pp. 299344). New York, NY: Wiley.
    Tseng, W. S., Maretzki, T. W., & McDermott, J. F. (1980). People and cultures of Hawaii, a psychocultural profile. Honolulu: University of Hawaii School of Medicine.
    Tuckman, B. W. (1965). Developmental sequences in small groups. Psychological Bulletin, 63, 384399.
    Van Deurzen, E. (2010). Everyday mysteries: A handbook of existential psychotherapy. East Sussex, UK: Routledge.
    Van Deurzen, E. (2012). Existential counselling and psychotherapy in practice (
    3rd
    ed.) [electronic edition]. London, UK: Sage.
    Van Deurzen, E., & Adams, A. (2010). Skills in existential counseling and psychotherapy. London, UK: Sage.
    Van Deurzen-Smith. (1988). Paradox and passion in psychotherapy: An existential approach to therapy and counseling. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley and Sons.
    Viorst, J. (1998). Necessary losses. New York, NY: Fireside.
    Vontress, C. E. (2003). On becoming an existential cross-cultural counselor. In F. D. Harper & J. McFadden, (Eds.). Culture and counseling: New approaches Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Vontress, C. E., & Epp, L. R. (2015). Existential cross-cultural counseling: The courage to be an existential counselor. In K. J. Schneider, J. F. Pierson, & J. F. T. Bugental, The handbook of humanistic psychology: Theory, Research and Practice (
    2nd
    ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Vos, J., Craig, M., & Cooper, M. (2014). Existential therapies: A meta-analysis of their effects on psychological outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Online First Publication, July 21, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0037167
    Wade, N. G., Worthington E. L., Jr., & Vogel, D. L. (2007). Effectiveness of religiously tailored interventions in Christian therapy. Psychotherapy Research, 17, 91105. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10503300 500497388
    Wampold, B. E. (2001). The great psychotherapy debate: Models, methods, and findings. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Wampold, B. E., Imel, Z. E., & Minami, T. (2007). The placebo effect: “relatively large” and “robust” enough to survive another assault. Journal of Clinical Psychology 63(4): 401403. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20350, PMID 17279522
    Wampold, B. E., Mondin, G. W., Moody, M., Stich, F., Benson, K., & Ahn, H. (1997). A meta-analysis of outcome studies comparing bona fide psychotherapies: Empirically, “all must have prizes.” Psychological Bulletin 122(3), 203215.
    Watson, J. C. (2001). Re-visioning empathy. In D. Cain & J. Seeman (Eds.), Humanistic psychotherapies: Handbook of research and practice (pp. 445471). Washington, DC: APA.
    Watzlawick, P., Bavelas, J. B., & Jackson, D. (1967). Pragmatics of human communication. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.
    Wertheimer, M., & Spillman, L. (2012). On perceived motion and figural organization. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Westra, H. A., Aviram, A., Connors, L., Kertes, A., & Ahmed, M. (2012). Therapist emotional reactions and client resistance in cognitive behavioral therapy. Psychotherapy, 49(2), 163172.
    Westwood, M. J., & Black, T. G. (2012). Introduction to the special issue. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 46, 285291.
    Whitaker, C. (1988, April 5). Meeting with the couple. Invited Address. Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA.
    White, M., & Epston, D. (1990). Narrative means to therapeutic ends. New York, NY: WW Norton.
    Whorf, B. (1956). Language, thought, and reality: Selected writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. In J. B. Carroll (Ed.), Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Wong, G., Derthick, A. O., David, E. J. R., Saw, A., & Okazaki, S. (2014). The what, the why, and the how: A review of racial microaggressions research in psychology. Race and Social Problems 62(2), 181200.
    World Health Organization (WHO). (2015). World health statistics: Part II global health indicators. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/gho/publications/world_health_statistics/EN_WHS2015_Part2.pdf?ua=1
    Yalom, I. D. (1970/2005 with M. Leszcz). The theory and practice of group psychotherapy (
    5th
    ed.). New York, NY: Basic Books.
    Yalom, I. D. (1980). Existential psychotherapy. New York, NY: Basic Books.
    Yalom, I. D. (1990). Understanding group therapy. Video. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Yalom, I. D. (2001). The gift of therapy. New York, NY: Harper Collins.
    Yalom, I. D. (2009). Staring at the sun: Overcoming the terror of death. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Young, D. M. & Beier, E. G. (1998). The silent language of psychotherapy: Social reinforcements of unconscious processes (
    3rd
    . Ed.) Chicago: Aldine Publishing.
    Zimmerman, J. L., & Dickerson, V. C. (1996). If problems talked: Narrative Therapy in Action. New York, NY: Guilford.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website