Power and Organizations


Stewart R. Clegg, David Courpasson & Nelson Phillips

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  • Foundations for Organizational Science

    A SAGE Publications Series

    Series Editor

    David Whetten, Brigham Young University


    Anne S. Huff, University of Colorado and Cranfield University (UK)

    Benjamin Schneider, University of Maryland

    M. Susan Taylor, University of Maryland

    The FOUNDATIONS FOR ORGANIZATIONAL SCIENCE series supports the development of students, faculty, and prospective organizational science professionals through the publication of texts authored by leading organizational scientists. Each volume provides a highly personal, hands-on introduction to a core topic or theory and challenges the reader to explore promising avenues for future theory development and empirical application.

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    Knowledge works as a tool of power … the measure of the desire for knowledge depends upon the measure to which the will to power grows in a species: a species grasps a certain amount of reality in order to become master of it, in order to press it into service.

    Frederick Nietzsche, from A will to power,

    Book Three: Principles of a new evaluation,

    I: The will to power as knowledge,

    Aphorism 480 (March–June 1888)

    About the Authors

    Stewart R. Clegg is Professor at the University of Technology, Sydney, Australia and Aston Business School, UK, as well as the Director of ICAN Research (http://www.ican.uts.edu.au). He is Visiting Professor of Organizational Change Management at the Maastricht University Faculty of Business; Visiting Professor at both EM-Lyon Business School, France, as well as the Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands, where he is also International Fellow in Discourse and Management Theory, Centre of Comparative Social Studies.

    David Courpasson is Associate Dean for Research and Professor in Organizational Sociology at EM Lyon Business School (France). He is Visiting Professor at Lancaster University Management School, UK. He is also co-editor of Organization Studies.

    Nelson Phillips is Professor of Strategy and Organizational Behaviour and the Head of the Organization and Management Group at the Tanaka Business School, Imperial College London.


    As the project began a small number of people contributed significantly to the clarification, refinement and extension of the ideas herein; in particular, we would like to thank Tyrone Pitsis and John Gray for asking smart questions at an early stage of the project's development. As the project gathered pace, we were fortunate to have many more occasions for gratitude. In particular, we owe thanks to Eduardo Ibarra-Colado who made incisive, extended scholarly comments on a great deal of the manuscript; Jacqueline Kenney for her deep engagement and commentary on the evolving text; Chris Carter who was a wonderful supporter of the project, giving freely of his time to provide frequent, supportive and thoughtful commentaries, good friendship, and shared experiences (not to mention Cobras and eggplant curries at Mosley's K2); Tim Ray for his insights into knowledge management; John Sillince for many acts of considerate criticism of the text as it evolved; Mark Haugaard for his engagement with some of the central questions concerning power, his commitment to debate and exchange, and his doggedness in ensuring that we got some important things right; David Silverman for his guidance on some matters of ethnomethodological and Goffman interpretation, as well as some details related to the Holocaust; and Richard Badham for his comments on our general approach, as well as for reminding us of Isaiah Berlin.

    A number of people helped in small but significant ways: Delia With advised us about the state of Romania under the Ceausescus; Brian Torode offered some comments on total institutions; Hugh Willmott sought some clarification from Stewart of a cryptic response to a discussion site posting, which reflections were then incorporated and expanded in the final chapter; Suzanne Benn gave us feedback on our treatment of Ulrich Beck's work; Jean-François Chanlat offered comments on the dissemination of management in France in the early years of the last century; Peter Meijby offered some thoughts on Foucault and on Danish politics; Peter Clarke made suggestions concerning time; Julie Gustavs contributed some comments on the ‘politics of truth’; Dirk Bunzel provided advice on German language, history and Luhmann; Tor Hernes also offered advice on Luhmann; Sonya Pearce provided guidance on the Stolen Generation; Margaret Grieco suggested inclusion of the Magdalene Laundries and gave us some advice on the gendering of total institutions; Ray Gordon looked over our criticisms of Foucault; Paula Jarzabkowski suggested, early in the manuscript's development, the necessity of restructuring the early chapters through the use of more subheadings, a suggestion which led to considerably enhanced clarity; Saku Mantere also made some good suggestions about clarity and restructuring. We'd like to acknowledge Malcolm Warner for alerting us to Kafka's critique of Taylorism; Halleh Ghorashi for her insights into matters of Islamic identity; and finally, Julie Gustavs and David Bubna-Litic for drawing our attention to the website maintained by Phillip Zimbardo.

    More generally, Arie Lewin and Bill McKelvey stimulated thought about metaroutines, while Ralph Stablein and J.C. Spender provided insightful comments about the ways in which these meta-routines have been conceptualized in the mainstream, all of which occurred at the 2005 Organization Science Winter Conference (for which Stewart would like to thank Arie Lewin for the invitation to participate); Martin Kornberger, Alexandra Pitsis, George Ritzer, and Carl Rhodes all offered some feedback on different aspects of the manuscript, and we also wish to acknowledge Jean-Claude Thoenig's insightful comments on the elite dimension of power studies. In addition, Kevin Foley has been a constant source of enthusiasm and support for this and other projects, which Stewart appreciates greatly.

    We would also wish to thank Chris Carter and Martin Kornberger for allowing us to draw on a small section of their joint work with Stewart Clegg, to frame the discussion of negative and positive power, deconstruction and translation in Chapter 10 (the paper in question, ‘Rethinking the polyphonic organization: managing as discursive practice’, was published in the Scandinavian Journal of Management in 2006). We also wish to thank Steve Little for ideas on the Internet economy in Chapter 13 (which, together with Stewart Clegg, were first explored at greater length in ‘Recovering experience, confirming identity, voicing resistance: the Braceros, the Internet and counter-coordination’, published in Critical Perspectives on International Business in 2005).

    In addition to people, institutions should be acknowledged. Stewart wishes to thank the following universities and research centers that have supported this endeavor in some way or another: first, the University of Technology, Sydney and its Key Research Center, ICAN (Innovative Collaborations Alliances and Networks) Research, and especially the support received from Rob Lynch, Ian Palmer, Anne Ross-Smith and Siggi Gudergan in the Faculty of Business, as well as to acknowledge the stimulation he receives from his good colleagues Tyrone, Martin, Carl, Ray, Julie, and from the team at ICAN Research; second, the University of Aston, especially the Aston Research Centre and Work and Organizational Psychology Group, and, in particular, Michael West, John Saunders, John Sillince, and Debbie Evans; third, the Strategy and Organization Studies Department of the University of Maastricht, especially Robert Roe and Ad van Iterson; fourth, the Centre of Comparative Social Studies, Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam, especially Heidi Dahles, Bert Klannermans, Ismintha Waldring, and all the good colleagues and support staff whom he has encountered and enjoyed working with there; fifth, Arne Lindseth Bygdås, Kjersti Bjørkeng, Arne Carlsen, Erlend Dehlin, Morten Hatling, Roger Klev, Emil Røyrvik and all the other researchers at SINTEF KUNNE, in Trondheim, Norway, who hosted him as he completed the penultimate phase of revising the manuscript, after being ‘First Opponent’ at Arne Carlsen's successful PhD defense in the Department of Interdisciplinary Studies of Culture at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. David wishes to thank EM Lyon Business School and the Fuqua Business School at Duke University; Nelson wishes to acknowledge the support of the Judge Institute of Management at Cambridge University and the Tanaka Business School at Imperial College, London. Both Nelson and Stewart wish to thank David and EM Lyon Business School for providing facilities for two days in July 2005 when we completed a great deal of the final work for the preparation of the manuscript.

    As the project drew to its conclusion and Stewart worked on the final manuscript, Cleo Lester assisted in preparing it for submission. As ever, she was invaluable, and we want to record our appreciation of her efforts. Olga Bruyaka and Alan Johnson helped David finish off the bibliography, and we appreciate their assistance greatly. Without a couple of special people the book would never have happened. David Whetten was a cheerful and efficient series editor, who first commissioned the book, accepted Stewart's idea of having co-authors, and then tolerated our initial delays, due to other projects, with good humor. Kiren Shoman, as ever, was an exemplary editor at Sage, although occasionally inclined to worry. Of course, the writing buck stops with the names on the title page – despite all this fantastic friendship and exemplary editorial support.

    Finally, all books have very special acknowledgements as their production definitely takes it toll on those loving and intimate relationships that sustain us as the people we strive to be; Stewart's, as ever, are to Lynne, Jonathan, and William; David's to Françoise, Salome and Eleana; and Nelson's to Neri for her love and support (and whose turn it is to write a book now).

    Stewart R.Clegg
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