Poverty is Not a Learning Disability: Equalizing Opportunities for Low SES Students
Publication Year: 2009
These strategies, training resources, and more help improve the performance of students of low socioeconomic status by preventing their misidentification as learning disabled and supporting school-readiness skills.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Chapter 1: The Changing Realities of America's Public Education: Foundational Facts and Implications
- School Readiness
- Lack of Parent Involvement
- Deficit Perceptions
- Special Education and NCLB
- Chapter 2: The Unfortunate Link between Low Socioeconomic Status and Learning Disabilities
- Understanding Learning Disabilities
- Poverty is Not a Learning Disability
- Educators' Lack of Understanding of Poverty
- Teachers' Role in Learning Disability Referrals
- The Cost of Misidentifying Children as Learning Disabled
- Chapter 3: Teaching Strategies and Techniques Proven to work with Low SES Children
- Four Teaching Strategies that Work
- Building Positive Relationships with Students and their Families
- Conducting Formative and Summative Assessments
- Integrating Learning Experiences
- Linking what is known to what is Unknown
- Promoting Discovery Learning
- Integrating Instruction
- Creating a Positive Climate for Instruction
- Creating a User-Friendly Classroom
- Creating a Democratic Learning Environment
- Providing Positive Feedback Early and often
- Providing Verbal and Nonverbal Cues
- Structuring Time Effectively
- Cultural and Academic Flexibility
- Employing a Sense of Humor
- Celebrating Students' Successes
- Chapter 4: The Importance of Strong School-Home Relationships in Educating Low SES Children
- The Importance of Parent Involvement
- The Importance of Home-Based Involvement
- The Importance of School Climate
- Setting the Right Example
- Making the Parent-Friendly Climate Pervasive
- Meeting the Challenges Presented by Low SES Neighborhoods
- Overcoming Time and Transportation Challenges
- Overcoming the Lack of Education Resources in Low SES Homes
- Dealing Effectively with Language Limitations
- Developing Effective Lines of Communication
- Embracing Cultural Diversity
- Chapter 5: How Strong School-Business Relationships Can Benefit Low SES Students
- Creating a Partnership with Structure and Reciprocity
- The Principal's Role
- The Role of the Business Partnership Coordinator
- Looking beyond Dollars in School-Business Partnerships
- Recognizing the Partnership Value of Small Local Businesses
- Chapter 6: The Role Networking Can Play in the Effective Education of Low SES Students
- Networking with Central Offices
- Networking beyond the School District
- Expanding the Reach of your Network
- Networking to Develop New Sources of Talent
- Chapter 7: Managing Change Successfully
- Why People Resist Change
- Strategies to Reduce Resistance to Change and Promote Successful Implementations
- Articulating your Vision
- Developing the Master Plan
- Chapter 8: Selecting the Right People
- Identifying the Characteristics and Qualifications you're Looking for
- Assessing your Faculty and Staff's Strengths and Weaknesses to Clarify your Needs
- Communicating your Needs and Interests to Human Resources
- Structuring the Interview Process
- Managing the Interview and Selection Process
- Put your Best Foot Forward
- Play by the Rules
- Need a Second Opinion?
- Don't Let a Good Candidate Get Away
- Recruit Talent
- Chapter 9: Identifying the Core and Individual Competencies that Promote the Most Successful Learning Environment
- What we Mean by Competencies
- Individual Competencies
- Organizational or Core Competencies
- Identifying Core School and Individual Competencies that Promote Student Success
- Identifying Your School's Core Competency
- Identifying the Individual Competencies that Promote Success in your School
- Chapter 10: Identifying Expectations and Managing Performance
- Some Basic Assumptions
- Communicating your Expectations
- Communicating Group Expectations
- Communicating Individual Expectations
- Setting Reasonable Expectations
- Managing Performance around your Expectations
- What if you're Wrong?
- Providing Constructive Feedback
- Chapter 11: A Proven Approach to Improving Educational Opportunities for Low SES Children
- Professional Climate
- Behavioral Climate
- Community Climate
- Instructional Practices
- Chapter 12: Summary and Conclusions
- Being the Leader in your School
- Making the Most of an “Ambiguous” Situation
Copyright © 2009 by Corwin
All rights reserved. When forms and sample documents are included, their use is authorized only by educators, local school sites, and/or noncommercial or nonprofit entities that have purchased the book. Except for that usage, no part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
A SAGE Company
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
Fax: (800) 417-2466
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE India Pvt. Ltd.
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd.
33 Pekin Street #02-01
Far East Square
Printed in the United States of America.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Poverty is Not a learning disability: equalizing opportunities for low SES children / Tish Howard and Sandy Grogan Dresser; with Dennis R. Dunklee.
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 978-1-4129-6903-1 (cloth)
ISBN 978-1-4129-6904-8 (pbk.)
1. Children with social disabilities—Education (Elementary)—United States. 2. Poor children—Education (Elementary)—United States. 3. Readiness for school—United States. 4. Educational equalization—United States. I. Dresser, Sandy Grogan. II. Dunklee, Dennis R. III. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
09 10 11 12 13 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Arnis Burvikovs
Associate Editor: Desirée A. Bartlett
Production Editor: Jane Haenel
Copy Editor: Adam Dunham
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Gail Fay
Cover and Graphic Designer: Michael Dubowe
From the time the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, through the publication in 1983 of the A Nation at Risk report by the National Commission on Excellence in Education, and since the enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, we've been told—and shown statistics to prove—that our public schools are failing to teach our children to read, write, and do basic mathematics, let alone keep up with the education successes of other industrialized countries. At least since the 1980s, the focus of criticism has been on inner-city or urban schools where student standardized test scores have most consistently been low. These are schools that serve a high number of students who come from poverty- or near-poverty-level homes, a high percentage of whom are also from minority or recent immigrant cultures. The unfortunate, but almost inevitable, conclusion that our nation's print and broadcast media have drawn from this situation is that children of poverty are somehow unable to learn as effectively as their middle- and upper-class peers. While the authors of this book can't argue with the reported standardized test scores, we adamantly disagree with the conclusion. We don't believe that poverty makes children unable, or even unwilling, to learn.
The statistics that compelled us to take a stand on the education of children of poverty are those that report the incredibly high percentage of children of poverty, which we define as children from low socioeconomic environments, who are annually referred for special education identification as learning disabled (LD)—a symptom, we believe, of a perception in the minds of educators that poverty is a learning disability. Our years of experience in the field of education led us to believe that the problems low socioeconomic status (low SES) students experience in school are not based on identifiable learning disabilities but rather on the lack of readiness skills needed to be successful in schools that assume all students come to school equally prepared to learn and educators' inability to recognize and mitigate this lack.
This book is based on the findings of a 2006 study (Howard, 2007) of teachers and principals of low SES students who have successfully, and over [Page x]an extended period of time, provided equal education opportunities to low SES children and brought them into the successful mainstream of students, without resorting to special education identification. In it, we present strategies and techniques the exemplary teachers and principals we observed use to humanize the school and classroom environments and make it possible for their low SES, minority, and multicultural students to overcome the challenges of poverty, cultural differences, and school readiness and succeed academically on a par with their more economically advantaged peers. In addition to identifying the successful pedagogical and school leadership strategies and techniques we observed, we offer proven management strategies to facilitate implementation of the changes we recommend in the way schools that serve low SES children operate.
As the authors of this book, we combined our more than 75 years of experience in the field of education, as teachers, principals, central office administrators, and university professors, with many years of experience in the fields of human resources and organizational management to present a comprehensive look at the problem and its solutions. Although the focus of this book is the overwhelming misidentification of low SES children as LD, we believe that the education and management strategies and techniques we present are applicable to the education enterprise as a whole and will be valuable to educators everywhere.
Corwin gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following individuals:
Elizabeth Alvarez, Assistant Principal
John C. Dore Elementary School
Rebecca S. Compton, Professor
East Central University
Mary Beth Cunat, Director, Principal Professional Development
Chicago Public Schools
Daniel C. Elliott, Professor and Curriculum Specialist
Center for Online Learning and Technology
Azusa Pacific University
Jim Hoogheem, Retired Principal
Fernbrook Elementary School
Maple Grove, MN
Kevin Olds, Principal
Estacada Junior High School
[Page xii]Cathy Patterson, Assistant Principal
Evergreen Elementary School
Diamond Bar, CA
Belinda J. Raines, Principal
Northwestern High School
Hema Ramanathan, Associate Professor
University of West Georgia
Karen L. Tichy, Associate Superintendent for Instruction
Catholic Education Office
Archdiocese of Saint Louis
Saint Louis, MO
About the Authors[Page xiii]
Tish Howard has 20 years of experience as an educator working with children and parents in low SES schools. She is an elementary principal in a Title I school in which 43% of its families are classified as living in poverty. In this position, Dr. Howard is responsible for the design and implementation of numerous programs and a school climate that raised the level of student academic success and closed the achievement gap between students of poverty and those residing in homes of economic stability. Dr. Howard works with parents, civic associations, clergy, and the business community to level the economic playing field for disadvantaged students and has implemented numerous initiatives to provide the necessary background knowledge many children from poverty lack when entering school.
Prior to her role as a school administrator, Dr. Howard served 10 years as a speech and language pathologist with a full caseload of language delayed children. She spent 8 of those 10 years delivering services to emotionally disturbed adolescent males in an alternative educational setting. It was in that capacity that Dr. Howard introduced inclusion language therapy to her school district, as opposed to the standard pull out method. This form of therapeutic delivery is now widely used districtwide.
Dr. Howard has served as an education consultant for local preschool and summer camp experiences. She designed an educational summer experience for low SES children that focused on providing a foundation for the academic challenges they would face in the upcoming academic year. She also served on the Minority Student Achievement Board for her school system and has presented programs on intervention methods at the local school and university level.
Dr. Howard earned her bachelor's and master's degrees in speech and language pathology from Indiana University of Pennsylvania and her PhD in education leadership from George Mason University. While completing her [Page xiv]postgraduate work, Dr. Howard was a contributing writer to the USA Today educational website, and she continues to mentor prospective administrators through the university mentoring program. She has been nominated for Principal of the Year honors in her school district, recognized by the Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development for development of positive school climate, and featured in numerous television and print articles.
Sandy Grogan Dresser is a human resources management consultant who consults with clients in the areas of compensation, performance management, management development, employee communications, and human resources policy and administration. She has more than 30 years experience in the field of human resources management, including 6 years in her private consulting practice and 15 years as an assistant vice president with Aon Consulting in Bethesda, Maryland. Prior to joining Aon, Ms. Dresser served as a human resources director in both the public and private not-for-profit sectors. She has also served as an executive development consultant to a number of federal departments and agencies.
Ms. Dresser served 12 years as a public school teacher and administrator, during which time she was instrumental in the development and implementation of significant educational change in the implementation of middle schools and managed the human resources function of a metropolitan school district. In addition to standard personnel administration, she was responsible for coordinating a reorganization plan that included the closing of nine junior high schools, the opening of six new middle schools, and the reassignment of 300 employees. In this role, she devised and directed a staff reassignment procedure that effected minimum disruption and a high level of satisfaction among teachers, administrators, students, and parents.
A graduate of the University of North Carolina and Kansas University, Ms. Dresser holds bachelor's degrees in history and education and a master's degree in education policy and administration. She is the author of numerous articles published in professional journals, and she frequently presents seminars for professional associations on topics in the human resources management field.
Dennis R. Dunklee is professor emeritus in the Education Leadership Department in the Graduate School of Education at George Mason University. During his 25 years in public schools, he served as a teacher, elementary school principal, junior high and middle school principal, high school principal, and central office administrator. During his tenure as a professor, he [Page xv]taught courses in education law and school leadership and served as an advisor and chair for masters in school administration candidates. He continues to advise doctoral candidates in school leadership and serves as an adjunct professor. Because of his expertise and practical experience, he is frequently called on to consult in the areas of effective schools, school law, administrator evaluation, instructional supervision, school-community relations, problem solving, and conflict resolution. In addition, he has been involved as a consultant and expert witness in numerous school-related lawsuits nationwide. As a university scholar and researcher, he published 10 textbooks, 2 monographs, and more than 100 articles on issues in the fields of school law, business management, administrative practice, and leadership theory. He is active in a number of professional organizations; has presented papers at international, national, regional, state, and local conferences; and is a widely sought-after clinician for inservice workshops. Dr. Dunklee was an invited participant and presenter in the 2005 Oxford (University) Round Table on Education Law: Individual Rights and Freedoms, and in 2007, he was recognized by Kappa Delta Pi as an educator “who exemplifies the high professional, intellectual, and personal standards our society promotes, who demonstrates dedication to educators, students, and the field of education.”
Dr. Dunklee has written or cowritten seven books for Corwin. His other Corwin books are You Sound Taller on the Telephone: A Practitioner's View of the Principalship (1999), If You Want to Lead Not Just Manage (2000), The Principal's Quick Reference Guide to School Law (with Robert J. Shoop, 2002), Strategic Listening for School Leaders (with Jeannine Tate, 2005), Anatomy of a Lawsuit: What Every Education Leader Should Know About Legal Actions (with Robert J. Shoop, 2006), and The Principal's Quick Reference Guide to School Law, 2nd edition (with Robert J. Shoop, 2006).
He received his PhD in school administration and foundations from Kansas State University. His major area of research was in the field of education law, and his dissertation was on tort liability for negligence. He holds a master's degree in elementary and secondary school administration from Washburn University.
“Whose child is this?” I asked one day
Seeing a little one out at play
“Mine,” said the parent with a tender smile
“Mine to keep a little while To bathe his hands and comb his hair To tell him what he is to wear To prepare him that he may always be good And each day do the things he should.”
“Whose child is this?” I asked again
As the door opened and someone came in
“Mine,” said the teacher with the same tender smile
“Mine, to keep just for a little while To teach him how to be gentle and kind To train and direct his dear little mind To help him live by every rule And get the best he can from school.”
“Whose child is this?” I ask once more
Just as the little one entered the door
“Ours,” said the parent and the teacher as they smiled
And each took the hand of the little child
“Ours to love and train together.”
This book is dedicated to all the hopeful children waiting for us to discover their possibilities.
References[Page 135]1988). Achievement in the first two years of school: Patterns and processes. Monographs of the Society for Research on Child Development, 53 (2, Serial No. 218)., & (1987). School performance, status relations and the structure of sentiment: Bringing the teacher back in. American Sociological Review, 52, 665–682., , & (1995). Differentiating low achieving students: Thoughts on setting the record straight. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 10, 140–144., , & (1993). Classroom assessment techniques. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass., & (2002). Proportion of LD placements associated with low socioeconomic status: Evidence for a gradient?The Journal of Special Education, 36, 14–22., & (1982). The one minute manager. New York: William Monroe and Company., & (1999). Parenting. In L.Balter & C.Tamis-LaMonda (Eds.), Child psychology: A handbook of contemporary issues (pp. 339–362). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press., & (Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).1992). Defining family-centered early education: Beliefs of public school, child care and Head Start teachers. Early Education and Development, 3, 45–59.(C.A.R.E. Advisory Committee. (2003). CARE: Strategies for closing the achievement gaps [Brochure]. Washington, DC: Author.1991). Education for young children in inner city classrooms. American Behavioral Scientist, 4, 440–453.(1996). Parent involvement: A call for prudence. Educational Researcher, 25 (8), 30–32.(2002). What are we spending on special education services in the United States, 1999–2000?Washington, DC: Special Education Project, Center for Special Education Finance, U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Projects., , & ([Page 136]Children's Defense Fund. (2006). 2004 Facts on child poverty in America. Retrieved July 8, 2008, from http://www.chilrensdefense.org/child-research-data-publications/data/children-born-poor-in-2006.htmlChild Trends Data Bank. (2007). Learning disabilities, child trends of national health interview survey data, 1998–2004. Retrieved March 20, 2009, from http://www.childtrendsdatabank.org1994). Theories of mathematical learning and constructivism: A personal view. Paper presented at the symposium on trends and perspectives in Math Education by the Institute for Mathematics, University of Klazenfurt, Austria.(2002). Effort and excellence in urban classrooms. New York: Teachers College Press.(1999). Relationships between parents and schools: A case study. Educational Review, 5 (13), 253–262., & (2003). Getting inside the “black box” of Head Start quality and what matters and what doesn't (Working Paper 10091). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research., & (1994). Socialization mediators of the relation between socioeconomic status and child conduct problems. Child Development, 65, 649–665., , & (2002). Sociocultural context effects on teacher's readiness to refer for learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 69, 41–53.(2000). If you want to lead not just manage: A primer for principals. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2006). The principal's quick reference guide to school law: Reducing liability litigation and other potential legal tangles. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., & (1989). Leadership is an art. New York: Doubleday.(Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, Pub. L. No. 94–142, 89 Stat. Education Week. (2004, September 21). Special education. Retrieved March 18, 2009, from http://www.edweek.org/rc//issues/special-education/1992). School and family partnerships. In M.Alkin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of educational research (pp. 1139–1151). New York: Macmillan.(2001, Fall). Closing the achievement gap. American Educator, 25 (3), 7–9.(1994). Cognitive profiles of reading disability: Comparisons of discrepancy and low achievement definitions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 6–23., , , , , & (2000). Voices for America's children: The progress and the promise. Baltimore, MD: National Association of Child Advocates.(1995). What's “special” about special education?Phi Delta Kappan, 76 (7), 522–530., & (1991). Resiliency and vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes associated with poverty. American Behavioral Scientist, 34, 416–430.(2003). Low income and the development of America's kindergartners (Report No. 4, pp. 1–8). New York: National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University.([Page 137]2007, September 19). High achieving students in low income families said likely to fall behind. Education Week, 12.(1985). Report to the mayor's commission on Committee on the Handicapped practices in New York City. In R. I.Beattie (Ed.), Special education: A call for quality (pp. 1–35, App. B). New York: Office of the Mayor.(1994). Evaluation study of the overrepresentation of children of color referred to special education. Unpublished final report to New York State Education Department, Office of Children With Handicapping Conditions. New York: New York University., & (1991). Parent and teacher referrals for a psycho-educational evaluation. Journal of Special Education, 25, 155–167., , & (1999). Comparison of students referred and not referred for special education. The Elementary School Journal, 99, 188–199., & (2007, Spring). Special education myth: Don't blame private options for rising cost. Education Next, 7 (2), 67–71., & (1996). Learning disabilities, low achievement, and mild mental retardation. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29, 570–581.(2003). All children ready for school: The case for early care and education. A guide for policy makers. New York: National Center for Children in Poverty., , & (1995). Star teachers of children in poverty. Bloomington, IN: Kappa Delta Pi.(1994). The disproportionate representation of minorities in special education: Theories and recommendations. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education.(Harvard Public Health. (2007). American metropolitan areas fail Hispanics and Black children. Retrieved March 12, 2009, from http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/2007, September 25). Too many remedies? Education Week, 30–31., & (2003). Parent-school involvement and school performance: Mediated pathways among socioeconomically comparable African American and Euro-American families. Journal of Education Psychology, 91, 74–83., & (2003). Einstein never used flash cards. Emmaus, PA: Rodale., , & (2002). Public elementary and secondary students, staff, schools and school districts: School year 2002. Education Statistics Quarterly, 2002 (356), 1–8. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.(2007). How exemplary teachers educate children of poverty, having low school readiness skills, without referrals to special education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA.(1991). What puts pupils at risk: An analysis of classroom teacher's judgments of pupils' behavior. Remedial and Special Education, 12, 155–167., , , , & (1995). Setting the record straight on learning disabilities and achievement: The tortuous path of ideology. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 10, 145–152.([Page 138]1994). Setting the record straight on learning disabilities and low achievement: Implications for policy making. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 9, 70–77., , & (2003, February). Creating a competency-based workplace. Benefits & Compensation Journal, 42 (2), 20–23., & (2008, February). Strategic competencies, basic compensation concepts. Certificate Series course for the International Foundation of Employee Benefits: Buena Vista, FL., & (1963). Behavioral diagnosis and remediation of learning disabilities. In Proceedings of the conference on the exploration into the problems of the perceptually handicapped child. Evanston, IL: Fund for the Perceptually Handicapped Child.(2005). Engaging African-American parents in the schools: A community based consultation model. Journal of Education and Psychology, 16 (1), 55–74., & (1994). Parent involvement in schooling: A dissenting view. In C.Fagano & B. Z.Werber (Eds.), School, family and community interaction: A view from the firing lines (pp. 61–73). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.(2002). Inequality at the starting gate. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute., & (1996). Children in special education. The Future of Children, 6, 139–51., & (2001). Low-income parents and the pubic schools. Journal of Social Issues, 57 (2), 247–259., (1952). The prince (L.Ricci, Trans.). New York: The New American Library of World Literature.(2004). Building background knowledge for academic achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.(1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychology Review, 50, 370–96.(1973). Testing for competence rather than intelligence. American Psychologist, 28 (1), 1–14.(1998). Family contributions to risk and resilience in African American children. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29 (1), 215–230., & (National Association for the Education of Young Children. (1995). School readiness. Position statement. Washington, DC: Author.National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2004). Where we stand. Position statement. Washington, DC: Author.National Center for Children in Poverty. (2004). Columbia University mailman school of public health. Retrieved March 13, 2009, from http://www.nccp.org/pub_lic06b.htmlNational Center for Education Statistics. (2005). Number of students exiting special education, by basis of exit and disability [Excel data file]. Available from Digest of Education Statistics Tables and Figures. Retrieved March 13, 2009, from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d03/tables/dt109.aspNational Education Goals Panel. (1997). Special early childhood report. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.[Page 139]National Education Summit. (1999). Discussion of schools and standards. Palisades, NY: National Governor's Association.National Research Council. (1999). In Bransford, J., Brown, A., Cocking, R., (Eds.), How people learn: Brain, mind, experience and school (p. 21). Washington, DC: Washington Academy Press.1979). Development of perception of own attainment and causal attributions for success and failure in reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 94–99.(2006). The social psychology of education: Adults matter. Retrieved March 13, 2009, from http://collegiateway.org/news/2006-what-it-takes-to-make-a-student(2002). The history of special education. Rethinking Schools Online, 16 (3). Retrieved March 20, 2009, from http://www.rethinkingschools.org/archive/16_03/Hist163.shtml(2005). Design, implementation, and outcomes of a school readiness programs for diverse families. The School Community Journal, 15, 89–116.(1992). The external validity of age versus IQ-discrepancy definitions of reading disability: Lessons from a twin study. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25, 562–573., , , & (1993). Lives on the edge: Single mothers and their children in the other America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1999). Will fifty cooks spoil the broth?American Psychologist, 54, 327–343., , , & (2002). Relationships among perceptions of parent involvement, time allocation, and demographic characteristics: Implication for policy formation. Journal of Community Psychology, 305 (5), 519–549., , , & (1994, September). Integrating skills, competencies, and pay. In Chapter 34A, Compensation Guide (p. 6). Northbrook, IL: Center for Workforce Effectiveness., , , & (Shonkoff, J., & Phillips, D. (Eds.). (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.2005, March). Success for ESL students: 12 practical tips to help second language learners. Scholastic Online. Retrieved March 20, 2009, from http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=4336&FullBreadCrumb=%3C(1990). Critical voices on special education: Problems and progress concerning the mildly handicapped. Albany: State University of New York Press.(1997). Consequences of growing up poor for young children. In G. J.Duncan & J.Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 101–132). New York: Russell Sage., , & (1992). The child at school. In M.Bornstein & M.Lamb (Eds.), Developmental psychology: An advanced test (pp. 579–625). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.(1999). Success in school-for a head start in life. In S. S.Luthar, J. A.Burack, D.Cicchetti, & J. R.Wiesz (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Perspectives on adjustment, risk, and disorder (pp. 75–92). New York: Cambridge University Press.([Page 140]2004). Fulfilling the promise of the differentiated classroom. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Curriculum Development.(U.S. Department of Education. (1997). Nineteenth annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Washington, DC: Author. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 412 721)U.S. Department of Education. (2003). President's commission on excellence in education. Washington, DC: Author.U.S. Department of Education. (2008). Twenty-sixth annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Washington, DC: Author.2007, Spring). Late to class: Social class and schooling in the new economy. Educational Horizon, 85, 156–167.(2007, November 14). No easy answers about NCLB and efforts of “poverty gap”. Education Week, 12.(1982). Similarities and differences between low achievers and students classified as learning disabled. The Journal of Special Education, 16, 73–85., , , & (1994, February). Head Start: Criticisms in a constructive context. American Psychologist, 49 (2), 27–132., & ([Page 141][Page 142]
Corwin a SAGE Company[Page 143]
The Corwin logo—a raven striding across an open book—represents the union of courage and learning. Corwin is committed to improving education for all learners by publishing books and other professional development resources for those serving the field of PreK-12 education. By providing practical, hands-on materials, Corwin continues to carry out the promise of its motto: “Helping Educators Do Their Work Better.”[Page 144]