Poverty and Children's Adjustment

Books

Suniya S. Luthar

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  • Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Series

    Series Editor: Alan E. Kazdin, Yale University

    Recent volumes in this series …

    • 8: LIFE EVENTS AS STRESSORS IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE

      by James H. Johnson

    • 9: CONDUCT DISORDERS IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE,

      2nd Ed.

      by Alan E. Kazdin

    • 10: CHILD ABUSE, 2nd. Ed.

      by David A. Wolfe

    • 11: PREVENTING MALADJUSTMENT FROM INFANCY THROUGH ADOLESCENCE

      by Annette U. Rickel and LaRue Allen

    • 12: TEMPERAMENT AND CHILD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

      by William T. Garrison and Felton J. Earls

    • 13: EMPIRICALLY BASED ASSESSMENT OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOPATHOLOGY, 2nd Ed.

      by Thomas M. Achenbach and

      Stephanie H. McConaughy

    • 14: MARRIAGE, DIVORCE, AND CHILDREN'S ADJUSTMENT, 2nd Ed.

      by Robert E. Emery

    • 15: AUTISM

      by Laura Schreibman

    • 18: DELINQUENCY IN ADOLESCENCE

      by Scott W. Henggeler

    • 19: CHRONIC ILLNESS DURING CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE

      by William T. Garrison and Susan McQuiston

    • 20: ANXIETY DISORDERS IN CHILDREN

      by Rachel G. Klein and Cynthia G. Last

    • 21: CHILDREN OF BATTERED WOMEN

      by Peter G. Jaffe, David A. Wolfe, and Susan Kaye Wilson

    • 22: SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

      by Steven P. Schinke, Gilbert J. Botvin, and Mario A. Orlandi

    • 23: CHILD PSYCHIATRIC EPIDEMIOLOGY

      by Frank C. Verhulst and Hans M. Koot

    • 24: EATING AND GROWTH DISORDERS IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN

      by Joseph L. Woolston

    • 25: NEUROLOGICAL BASIS OF CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

      by George W. Hynd and Stephen R. Hooper

    • 26: ADOLESCENT SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND CHILDBEARING

      by Laurie Schwab Zabin and Sarah C. Hayward

    • 27: EFFECTS OF PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

      by John R. Weisz and Bahr Weiss

    • 28: BEHAVIOR AND DEVELOPMENT IN FRAGILE X SYNDROME

      by Elisabeth M. Dykens, Robert M. Hodapp, and James F. Leckman

    • 29: ATTENTION DEFICITS AND HYPERACTIVITY IN CHILDREN

      by Stephen P. Hinshaw

    • 30: LEARNING DISABILITIES

      by Byron P. Rourke and Jerel E. Del Dotto

    • 31: PEDIATRIC TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

      by Jeffrey H. Snow and Stephen R. Hooper

    • 32: FAMILIES, CHILDREN, AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF DYSFUNCTION

      by Mark R. Dadds

    • 33: ADOLESCENTS AND THE MEDIA

      by Victor C. Strasburger

    • 34: SCHOOL-BASED PREVENTION PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

      by Joseph A. Durlak

    • 35: CHILDHOOD OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER

      by Greta Francis and Rod A. Gragg

    • 36: TREATING CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN RESIDENTIAL AND INPATIENT SETTINGS

      by Robert D. Lyman and Nancy R. Campbell

    • 37: THE IMPACT OF FAMILY VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

      by Javad H. Kashani and Wesley D. Allan

    • 38: CHILDREN'S ADJUSTMENT TO ADOPTION

      by David M. Brodzinsky, Daniel W. Smith, and Anne B. Brodzinsky

    • 39: MOTOR COORDINATION DISORDERS IN CHILDREN

      by David A. Sugden and Helen Wright

    • 40: CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

      by David M. Fergusson and Paul E. Mullen

    • 41: POVERTY AND CHILDREN'S ADJUSTMENT

      by Suniya S. Luthar

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Dedication

    For my mother, Naresh Luthar, who has made so much possible.

    Series Editor's Introduction

    Interest in child development and adjustment is by no means new. Yet, only recently has the study of children benefited from advances in both clinical and scientific research. Advances in the social and biological sciences, the emergence of disciplines and subdisciplines that focus exclusively on childhood and adolescence, and greater appreciation of the impact of such influences as the family, peers, and school have helped accelerate research on developmental psychopathology. Apart from interest in the study of child development and adjustment for its own sake, the need to address clinical problems of adulthood naturally draws one to investigate precursors in childhood and adolescence.

    Within a relatively brief period, the study of psychopathology among children and adolescents has proliferated considerably. Several different professional journals, annual book series, and handbooks devoted entirely to the study of children and adolescents and their adjustment document the proliferation of work in the field. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of resource material that presents information in an authoritative, systematic, and disseminable fashion. There is a need within the field to convey the latest developments and to represent different disciplines, approaches, and conceptual views to the topics of childhood and adolescent adjustment and maladjustment.

    The Sage Series on Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry is designed to uniquely serve several needs of the field. The Series encompasses individual monographs prepared by experts in the fields of clinical child psychology, child psychiatry, child development, and related disciplines. The primary focus is on developmental psychopathology which refers broadly here to the diagnosis, assessment, treatment, and prevention of problems that arise in the period from infancy through adolescence. A working assumption of the Series is that understanding, identifying, and treating problems of youth must draw on multiple disciplines and diverse views within a given discipline.

    The task for individual contributors is to present the latest theory and research on various topics including specific types of dysfunction, diagnostic and treatment approaches, and special problem areas that affect adjustment. Core topics within clinical work are addressed by the Series. Authors are asked to bridge potential theory, research and clinical practice, and to outline the current status and future directions. The goals of the Series and the tasks presented to individual contributors are demanding. We have been extremely fortunate in recruiting leaders in the fields who have been able to translate their recognized scholarship and expertise into highly readable works on contemporary topics.

    In this book, Dr. Suniya Luthar examines Poverty and Children's Adjustment. The broad and pervasive impact of poverty on children's mental and physical health and adjustment are well-known. Dr. Luthar focuses on processes that exacerbate or ameliorate the effects on personal, emotional, and social development of the child. Among the many features that make this book unique is the focus on the moderators and mediators of poverty. Moderators, that is those factors that influence the impact of poverty, and mediators, the processes and mechanisms through which poverty influence child adjustment, lead to a meticulous evaluation of several topics critical to understanding child development. Examples include how poverty is influenced by characteristics of the child (e.g., intelligence, temperament), parents (e.g., parent psychopathology, teen pregnancy), family (e.g., marital relations, presence of extended family members), peer relations, schools, and neighborhoods, to mention a few of the topics. The book presents a sophisticated view of influences by emphasizing how the effects of risk and protective factors are modified by other influences such as ethnicity, child age and stage of development, and contexts and how influences can be reciprocal, bidirectional, and cumulative. The impact of poverty is enormous, as we are shown in this book. The global nature of the construct and the dependence on complex forces (e.g., education, economics) not easily harnessed can make conceptualization, research, and intervention daunting. Dr. Luthar conveys many specific mechanisms and processes through which the influences of poverty operate and hence provides multiple leads for advancing research and for intervening to help children. Her in-depth knowledge of key issues, current research, and theory, as well as her own program of research on risk and protective factors of children and adolescents, provide the basis for an authoritative, comprehensive, and cohesive presentation. The book is quite extraordinary in its contribution to understanding poverty and advancing prospects for improving child adjustment.

    ALAN E.Kazdin, PhDSeries Editor

    Preface

    The focus of this book is on risk and protective processes that modify the effects of poverty on children's social and emotional adjustment. The attempt is to integrate findings of empirical research conducted over the past three decades, on processes implicated in the adjustment of children facing socioeconomic deprivation. The bulk of the research presented here derives from developmental psychology, a discipline which accords much emphasis to elucidating the psychological processes that underlie effects of “social address” variables, such as socioeconomic status, on child development (Bronfenbrenner, 1986; Zigler, Lamb, & Child, 1982). In addition, this review draws upon empirical evidence from several other disciplines concerned with children in poverty, including anthropology, sociology, epidemiology, pediatrics, psychiatry, and social work.

    I am deeply grateful to Alan Kazdin for the invitation to write this book, as well as for his unfailing good humor throughout the process. My special thanks to Herbert Ginsburg and Jacob Burack for their substantive comments on previous drafts, and to my students Bronwyn Becker and Shawn Latendresse for their many contributions to this effort.

    For diverse forms of support of my work, all critical, I am indebted to my mentors Edward Zigler and S. Anandalakshmy; to colleagues at Teachers College, Columbia University, the Yale Substance Abuse Center, and the APT Foundation, New Haven; and to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (grants ROM 1498, RO1-10726, P50-09241, K21-00202), the Social Sciences Research Council, and the William T. Grant Foundation. For their moral support over time and particularly through the preparation of this book, I am very grateful to my family: the late Mr. L. N. Suri, Anju Seth, Karuna Kumar, Judith Benenson, and especially my husband, Shiv, and children, Nikhil and Nina Kumar.

    Finally, I owe a great deal to collaborators in Connecticut—Andrew Karchich, Richard Mayer, George Moran, and Joyce Undella—who made it possible for me to begin, and later continue, my research on resilience and vulnerability among urban high school students. And for the many invaluable insights provided and lessons taught, my heartfelt appreciation goes to the children and families who have generously joined me in my research efforts over the years.

    Suniya S.Luthar
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    Author Index

    • Abbott, R. D., 35
    • Aber, J. L., 11, 17, 20, 35, 46, 49
    • Aber, M. S., 48
    • Adelman, A., 70, 71
    • Adler, N. E., 4
    • Ageton, S. S., 71
    • Alexander, K. L., 11
    • Allen, J. P., 20
    • Allen, L., 35, 46
    • Allen, P. J., 17
    • Allison, D., 24
    • Allison, K. W., 25
    • Alpern, L., 41
    • Amato, P. R., 31, 60
    • Anderson, E. A., 66
    • Anderson, J., 12
    • Andrews, D. W., 64
    • Anglin, T. M., 71
    • Angold, A., 35
    • Apfel, N., 10, 26, 28, 47, 60, 61
    • Apfel, N. H., 34
    • Arroyo, C. G., 32, 64
    • Asher, S. R., 65
    • Astone, N. M., 84
    • Attar, B. K., 46, 68
    • Azuma, S. D., 43
    • Baldwin, A. L., 29, 36, 47, 61
    • Baldwin, C., 47
    • Barbera-Stein, L., 25
    • Barnes, H. V., 89
    • Barnett, W. S., 89
    • Barocas, R., 53
    • Bassuk, S. S., 45
    • Bates, J. E., 8, 13
    • Bauger, E., 30
    • Baumrind, D., 29, 78
    • Beaty, A. L., 66, 67
    • Belluck, P., 1
    • Belsky, J., 44, 49, 60
    • Benjamin, B., 66
    • Bennett, S., 25
    • Bergman, L., 84
    • Berman, S. L., 60, 70, 71
    • Berrueta-Clement, J. R., 89
    • Best, K. M., 3
    • Bettes, B. A., 33
    • Biederman, J., 43
    • Billingsley, A., 46, 66
    • Block, J., 16
    • Block, J. H., 16
    • Blount, W. R., 68
    • Bolger, K. E., 8, 23(n4), 52
    • Bornstein, M. H., 42, 43
    • Borquez, J., 8
    • Botvin, G. J., 33
    • Bowman, P. J., 10, 34
    • Boxili, N. A., 66, 67
    • Brandt, L. J., 28
    • Brathwaite, J., 11
    • Bredin, E., 43
    • Brillon, L., 28
    • Brody, G. H., 51, 52, 61, 79, 87
    • Broman, C. L., 36
    • Bronfenbrenner, U., xi, 75, 83
    • Brooks-Gunn, J., 10, 12, 13, 23(n4), 25, 26, 44, 69, 83
    • Brown, B. B., 83
    • Browne, A., 45
    • Brunelli, S. A., 25
    • Brunswick, A., 20
    • Bryant, D. M., 27
    • Burack, J. A., 65, 80
    • Burchinal, M. R., 27, 60
    • Burgos, W., 68
    • Burns, B. J., 35
    • Burns, E., 47, 78
    • Burton, L., 25, 28, 77, 78, 79
    • Cadenhead, C., 50
    • Cameron, R. P., 41
    • Canino, I., 33
    • Cantwell, D., 82
    • Carlson, E., 2
    • Carlson, V., 49
    • Caspi, A., 8
    • Casten, R., 60
    • Catalano, R. F., 35
    • Cauce, A. M., 29, 47, 48, 63, 64
    • Ceballo, R., 8
    • Chaffin, M., 43, 50
    • Chaiyasit, W., 3
    • Chandler, M. J., 75
    • Chase-Lansdale, P. L., 10, 25, 27, 28, 32, 44, 68
    • Chasnoff, I. J., 43
    • Chavez, E. L., 31
    • Chow, J., 69
    • Christoffel, K. K., 34
    • Chute, C., 40
    • Cicchetti, D., 16, 18, 41, 49, 50, 51, 64, 71, 75, 78
    • Clark-Lempers, D., 13
    • Clifford, E., 9
    • Cohler, B. J., 3, 78, 79, 92
    • Coie, J. D., 63, 64, 65, 71
    • Cole, R. E., 47
    • Cole, S. P., 16
    • Comer, J. P., 62, 89, 90
    • Conger, K. J., 9
    • Conger, R. D., 9, 51, 53
    • Connell, D., 44
    • Connell, J. P., 9, 11, 16, 19, 27, 48
    • Costa, F. M., 8
    • Costello, E. J., 2, 35, 84
    • Coulton, C. J., 69
    • Cowen, E. L., 14, 16, 17, 44, 48, 52, 75, 87
    • Crichlow, W., 9
    • Crittenden, P. M., 15, 50
    • Crosby, L., 64
    • Cross, C. E., 15
    • Crum, R. M., 43
    • Cummings, E. M., 41
    • Cushing, G., 20, 27, 36
    • Danziger, S., 4
    • Darling, N. E., 83
    • Davies, P. T., 41
    • Davis, P. W., 68
    • de Vries, M.W., 15
    • deCubas, M. M., 43
    • Dembo, R., 68
    • Denner, J., 46
    • DeRosier, M. E., 68
    • Dialdin, D., 62
    • DiBiase, R., 67
    • Dishion, T., 64, 83
    • Disney, E. R., 43
    • Dodge, K. A., 8, 13, 35, 51, 52, 63, 72
    • Dornbusch, S. M., 83
    • Drake, M., 62
    • Duan, N., 66
    • DuBois, D. L., 8, 46, 48, 62
    • Dubow, E. F., 64
    • Dubrow, N., 71
    • Dumas, J. E., 42
    • Duncan, G. J., 12, 13, 23(n4), 30, 68, 83
    • Dunn, L. M., 45
    • Dunn, M., 8
    • DuPree, D., 16
    • DuRant, R. H., 50, 71
    • Dusenbury, L., 33
    • Earls, F., 70
    • Eastman, K. L., 3
    • Eckenrode, J., 11, 49, 69
    • Edwards, S., 64
    • Egami, Y., 43, 49
    • Egeland, B., 2, 15, 19, 23(n4), 44, 46, 50
    • Elder, G., 8, 51, 52
    • Elder, G. H., 2, 9, 15, 51, 76
    • Elliott, D. S., 71
    • Emans, S. J., 50
    • English, K., 33
    • Ensminger, M. E., 11, 12, 27, 67, 68
    • Entwisle, D. R., 11, 84
    • Epstein, A. S., 89
    • Erkanli, A., 35
    • Fabrega, H., 36
    • Fantuzzo, J., 76
    • Farber, E. A., 15
    • Farmer, M. Z., 35
    • Feehan, M., 12
    • Feinman, J., 35
    • Feiner, R. D., 8, 48, 51, 52, 62, 84
    • Felsman, J. K., 19
    • Fergusson, D. M., 14, 54, 57n, 85
    • Field, T., 43
    • Finn, J. D., 19
    • Fitzpatrick, K. M., 12, 70
    • Flaherty, L. T., 15
    • Flanagan, C. A., 9
    • Flannery, D. J., 29
    • Fletcher, A. C., 83
    • Flickinger, S., 60
    • Flor, D., 61
    • Florsheim, P., 33
    • Follmer, A., 27
    • Ford, D. E., 43
    • Ford, D. Y., 62, 63
    • Fordham, S., 32
    • Fowler, C. M., 74
    • Freedman, A. H., 15
    • Freeman, L. N., 71
    • Friedman, R., 47
    • Fritz, J., 28, 66
    • Furstenberg, F. F., Jr., 10, 26, 49
    • Garbarino, J., 69, 70, 71
    • Garcia-Castro, M., 25
    • Garcia Coll, C., 2, 25, 28, 33, 55, 75, 76
    • Garcia Coll, C. T., 3, 26, 61
    • Garmezy, N., 2, 3
    • Gaudin, J. M., 60
    • Ge, X., 51
    • Geronimus, A. T., 25
    • Getts, A., 50
    • Gilman, E., 88
    • Ginsburg, H. P., 31
    • Giovannoni, J., 46, 66
    • Glueck, E., 52
    • Glueck, S., 52
    • Glymph, A., 16
    • Gonzales, N., 29, 47
    • Goodman, R., 45
    • Gordon, R. A., 32, 68
    • Gorman-Smith, D., 33
    • Gould, M., 33
    • Graham, S., 17, 18, 76, 77, 85, 91
    • Greenfield, S. F., 43
    • Griesler, P. C., 68
    • Grove, K., 29
    • Grunebaum, H. U., 44
    • Guerra, N. G., 46
    • Gulliver, L., 85
    • Haapasalo, J., 47
    • Hall, N. W., 75
    • HalpernFelsher, B. L., 9
    • Hammen, C., 66, 67
    • Hammond, W. R., 34, 64
    • Harnish, J. D., 52
    • Harris, J. J., III, 62, 63
    • Harris, K. M., 49
    • Harwood, R. L., 29, 78, 79
    • Hashima, P. Y., 31, 60
    • Hauser, R. M., 84
    • Hausman, B., 66, 67
    • Hawkins, J. D., 35, 71
    • Hawley, T. L., 43
    • Haynes, N. M., 89, 90
    • Hellner, I., 17
    • Herrnstein, R. A., 31
    • Hetherington, M. E., 10, 26, 35
    • Hiraga, Y., 29
    • Hobfoll, S. E., 41, 85
    • Hoehn, S., 17, 77
    • Holden, E. W., 8
    • Hollenberg, J., 43
    • Holt, K. D., 16
    • Hommerding, K. D., 8
    • Hook, M. P. V., 9
    • Horwood, L. J., 57n
    • Hubbs-Tait, L., 42
    • Hudley, C., 17, 18, 77
    • Huizinga, D., 71
    • Hulsizer, M. R., 41
    • Huston, A. C., 2, 39(n2), 53, 55, 65, 66, 75, 92
    • Hyman, C., 65
    • Ippolito, M. F., 64
    • Jackson, J. S., 36
    • Jacobs, M. R., 64, 71
    • Jacobson, N., 11
    • James-Ortiz, S., 33
    • Jarrett, R. L., 47, 52, 79, 80, 92
    • Jayaratne, T. E., 8
    • Jessor, R., 8, 13, 33, 54
    • Johnson, D. J., 76
    • Juarez, S. C., 8, 48
    • Kagan, J., 18
    • Kagan, S. L., 75
    • Kazdin, A. E., 8, 82, 91
    • Keenan, K., 8, 48
    • Kellam, S. G., 27, 81
    • Kelleher, K., 43
    • Kelley, M. L., 25, 30, 61
    • Kendler, K., 55
    • Kerley, J. H., 16
    • Kerner, J., 33
    • Kessler, R. C., 30, 35, 39(n4)
    • Ketterlinus, R. D., 28
    • Kiely, K., 43
    • Kilpatrick, A. C., 60
    • Klebanov, P. K., 23(n4)
    • Klerman, L. V., 42
    • Knitzer, J., 75, 87, 88, 91, 92
    • Koblinsky, S. A., 66, 67
    • Koot, H. M., 81
    • Korbin, J. E., 69
    • Korenman, S., 25
    • Kostelny, K., 71
    • Kreutzer, J. C., 28
    • Kreutzer, T., 19
    • Krier, M., 8
    • Kupersmidt, J. B., 8, 68
    • Laird, M., 11
    • Lamison-White, L., 30
    • Lamkin, R. P., 11
    • Laub, J. H., 51, 52
    • Lavin, J., 41
    • Leadbeater, B. J., 17, 20, 42, 48, 49
    • LeCompte, M. D., 79
    • Lempers, J. D., 13, 51, 52
    • Lenox, K., 65
    • Lepper, M. R., 62
    • Lerman, R. L., 38(nl)
    • Lewis, C., 20
    • Lewis, O., 53
    • Liker, J. K., 15
    • Lipman, E. L., 4
    • Lochman, J., 64, 65
    • Loeber, R., 36, 83
    • Lorenz, F. O., 51
    • Lunghofer, L., 71
    • Luster, T., 19, 27, 44, 45, 47, 53
    • Luthar, S. S., 5, 8, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 27, 31, 33, 36, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 64, 65, 75, 76, 80, 81, 84, 85, 87, 91
    • Lynam, D., 12, 32
    • Lynch, M., 16, 49, 50, 51
    • Lynskey, M. T., 14, 54, 57n, 85
    • Lyons-Ruth, K., 41, 44
    • MacPhee, D., 28, 66
    • Magnusson, D., 84, 85
    • Marans, S., 70, 71, 75
    • Markstron-Adams, C., 76, 81
    • Martinez, P., 70, 71, 72
    • Mason, C. A., 29, 47, 68
    • Masten, A. S., 3, 5, 14, 61, 67
    • Maton, K. I., 27
    • Mayer, S. E., 83
    • Mayes, L. C., 42, 43
    • McAdoo, H., 19, 27, 44, 45, 47, 53
    • McCarty, C. A., 3
    • McDill, E. L., 88
    • McGee, R., 8, 12
    • McLanahan, S., 25, 26
    • McLoyd, V. C., 2, 8, 9, 12, 13, 28, 30, 47, 51, 53, 55, 60, 61, 66, 75, 76
    • McMahon, T., 27, 64, 81
    • McNamara, G., 64
    • Meares, G., 8
    • Merikangas, K., 36
    • Merton, R. K., 76
    • Messeri, P., 20
    • Meyer, E. C., 28
    • Miller, G. E., 80
    • Miller-Heyl, J., 66
    • Miringoff, M., 2
    • Miringoff, M. L., 2
    • Mitchell, C., 35
    • Moffitt, T., 12
    • Moffitt, T. E., 13, 18, 65, 82
    • Moisan, P. A., 33
    • Morgan, K. M., 66
    • Morgan, S., 33
    • Mo wry, J., 7
    • Murphy, J. M., 42
    • Murray, C., 31
    • Musick, J. S., 3, 92
    • Nakagawa, K., 76
    • Natriello, G., 88
    • Necos, B., 25
    • Neighbors, H. W., 30, 36
    • Nguyen, T., 8
    • Nitz, K., 28
    • Obeidallah, D., 25
    • O'Connor, T. G., 81, 82, 83
    • Oetting, E. R., 31
    • Offord, D. R., 4
    • Ogbu, J. U., 21, 28, 32
    • Olson, L. S., 11
    • Ooms, T. J., 38(nl)
    • Opdycke, S., 2
    • Osborn, A. F., 26, 48
    • Osofsky, J. D., 70, 72
    • Owens, E. B., 48
    • Pallas, A. M., 88
    • Parker, G. R., 14
    • Paskewitz, D. A., 15
    • Patterson, C. J., 8, 68
    • Peterson, P. L., 35, 47
    • Pettit, G. S., 8, 13, 63
    • Phinney, J. S., 81
    • Pianta, R., 44, 46, 47
    • Pierre, P., 16
    • Plomin, R., 18, 54, 55, 58n, 83
    • Polansky, N. A., 60
    • Posner, J. K., 62
    • Power, T. G., 25, 30
    • Preissle, J., 79
    • Price, J. M., 63
    • Primavera, J., 48
    • Prinz, R. J., 80
    • Prior, M., 14, 15, 46, 47
    • Proescher, E. J., 15
    • Prupis, S., 33
    • Quay, H. C., 18
    • Quinton, D., 85
    • Raden, A., 48
    • Raudenbush, S. W., 70
    • Rauh, V. A., 25
    • Reis, J., 25, 41
    • Rende, R., 55
    • Reynolds, A. J., 19, 86
    • Richards, M. H., 8
    • Richters, J. E., 64, 70, 71, 72
    • Ripple, C., 11, 12, 13, 19, 31, 33
    • Ritter, C., 41
    • Rock, D. A., 19
    • Rodgers, J. L., 55
    • Rogler, L. H., 2, 84
    • Rogosch, F. A., 16
    • Rounsaville, B. J., 36
    • Rowe, D. C., 29, 30, 55
    • Rowe, E., 11
    • Rutter, M., 3, 8, 15, 18, 19, 53, 62, 66, 75, 78, 81, 82, 83, 85
    • Salem, D. A., 27
    • Sameroff, A. J., 53, 75
    • Sampson, R. J., 51, 52, 70
    • Sandefur, G., 25
    • Sanders-Phillips, K., 33
    • Schmeidler, J., 68
    • Schnitzer, P. K., 92
    • Schoelmerich, A., 29
    • Schulze, P. A., 29
    • Schwab-Stone, M. E., 70, 71
    • Schweinhart, L. J., 89
    • Seidman, E., 35, 46, 64
    • Seifer, R., 53
    • Seitz, V., 10, 26, 28, 34, 47, 60, 61, 75, 87
    • Sethi, S., 62
    • Shafer, D., 33
    • Shaw, D. S., 8, 48, 54
    • Sherman, D., 69
    • Shilton, P., 60
    • Simon, D., 47, 78
    • Simonoff, E., 45
    • Simons, R. L., 13, 51
    • Singer, M. I., 71
    • Slaughter-Defoe, D. T., 76
    • Smith, J., 14, 15, 46, 47
    • Smith, R. S., 2, 5, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 47, 61, 62, 63
    • Song, L. Y., 71
    • Sontag, D., 59
    • Spencer, M. B., 11, 16, 32, 34, 75, 76, 81, 91
    • Spencer, T. J., 43
    • Sroufe, A., 50
    • Sroufe, L. A., 2, 18, 19, 44, 75, 78
    • Stattin, H., 85
    • Steele, C. M., 11, 31, 32, 36
    • Steinberg, L., 65, 83
    • Stevens, J. H., 44, 60
    • Stevenson, J., 45
    • Stipek, D., 62
    • Stoneman, Z., 61
    • Stott, F. M., 3, 92
    • Stouthamer-Loeber, M., 12
    • Styfco, S., 94(n3)
    • Su, M., 69
    • Suchman, N. E., 42, 43, 44, 87
    • Sullivan, M. L., 32
    • Suwanlert, S., 3
    • Swaim, R. C., 31
    • Sweeney, M. M., 84
    • Takanishi, R., 76
    • Tarter, R. E., 17
    • Taylor, R. D., 60, 61
    • Terry, R., 63, 64, 65
    • Thompson, W. W., 8
    • Tolan, P. H., 33, 46
    • Tolan, P. T., 17
    • Toth, S. L., 18, 41, 75
    • Tremblay, R. E., 47
    • Trickett, P. K., 49
    • Tubin, M. S., 8
    • Turner, R. J., 27
    • Ulrich, R., 36
    • Usinger, P., 9
    • Vaccaro, D., 64
    • Vaillant, G. E., 19
    • Valente, E., 52
    • Van Den Bos, J., 8
    • Vandell, D. L., 62
    • Vanderryn, J., 8
    • Vanyukov, M., 17
    • Vasquez Garcia, H. A., 3, 26, 33, 61
    • Vazsonyi, A. T., 29
    • Ventura-Cook, E., 29
    • Verhulst, F. C., 81
    • Viega, B., 8
    • Vondra, J. I., 8, 48
    • Waddell, S., 67
    • Wadlington, S., 33
    • Wakschlag, L. S., 44
    • Wall, J. E., 8
    • Wasserman, G. A., 25, 33, 41
    • Way, N., 48
    • Weikart, D. P., 89
    • Weis, J. G., 71
    • Weist, M. D., 15, 48
    • Weisz, J., 3, 36
    • Wekerle, C., 42
    • Wells, K. B., 66
    • Wentzel, K. R., 65
    • Werner, E. E., 2, 5, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 47, 61, 62, 63
    • Wilens, T. E., 43
    • Williams, S., 12
    • Wills, T., 64
    • Wilson, L., 9, 12, 13, 61, 66
    • Wilson, M. N., 27, 60
    • Wilson, S. K., 9
    • Wilson, S. P., 29
    • Wilson, W. J., 12, 32, 69
    • Wimbush, D. D., 25, 30
    • Winslow, E. B., 48
    • Wolfe, D. A., 9
    • Woods, E. R., 50
    • Woolston, J. W., 82
    • Work, W. C., 14, 16, 17
    • Wright, V., 63
    • Wyman, P. A., 14, 16, 17, 46
    • Yoshikawa, H., 46, 75, 87
    • Yung, B., 34, 64
    • Zakriski, A., 64
    • Zamsky, E. S., 25
    • Zaslow, M. J., 76
    • Zax, M., 53
    • Zigler, E., xi, 5, 14, 32, 64
    • Zigler, E. F., 75, 88, 92, 94(n3)
    • Zima, B. T., 66, 67
    • Zimmerman, M. A., 27, 49
    • Zoll, D., 44
    • Zuckerman, B., 43

    About the Author

    Suniya S. Luthar is Associate Professor of Psychology and Education at Teachers College, Columbia University, and Director of Child & Family Research at the APT Foundation, New Haven. She received a Masters degree in Child Development from Delhi University, India, and a PhD in Developmental/Clinical Psychology from Yale University. Her interests are in developmental psychopathology and current studies involve adjustment processes among inner-city and suburban youth; vulnerability and resilience among substance abusers' children; and group psychotherapy for at-risk mothers. Professional honors include a dissertation award from the American Psychological Association's Division 37 and a Boyd McCandless Young Scientist Award from APA's Division 7.


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