Political Parties and Electoral Change: Party Responses to Electoral Markets
Publication Year: 2004
How have Europe's mainstream political parties responded to the long-term decline in voter loyalties? What are the consequences of this change in the electoral markets in which parties now operate? Popular disengagement, disaffection, and withdrawal on the one hand, and increasing popular support for protest parties on the other, have become the hallmarks of modern European politics. This book provides an excellent account of how political parties in Western Europe are perceiving and are responding to these contemporary challenges of electoral dealignment. Each chapter employs a common format to present and compare the changing strategies of established parties and party systems in Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, and Ireland. The result is an invaluable portrait of the changing electoral environment and how parties ...
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction: Electoral Challenges and Party Responses
- Chapter 2: Party Responses to the Changing Electoral Market in Britain
- Chapter 3: Ephemeral Victories? France's Governing Parties, the Ecologists, and the Far Right
- Chapter 4: Embracing Dealignment, Combating Realignment: German Parties Respond
- Chapter 5: Party Responses to Electoral Dealignment in Italy
- Chapter 6: Party Responses to the Erosion of Voter Loyalties in Austria: Weakness as an Advantage and Strength as a Handicap
- Chapter 7: Political Parties and their Reactions to the Erosion of Voter Loyalty in Belgium: Caught in a Trap
- Chapter 8: Electoral Fortunes and Responses of the Social Democratic Party and Liberal Party in Denmark: Ups and Downs
- Chapter 9: Political Parties in Electoral Markets in Postwar Ireland
- Chapter 10: Conclusion: Political Parties in Changing Electoral Markets
Chapter 1 and Conclusion © Peter Mair, Wolfgang C. Müller and Fritz Plasser 2004
Chapter 2 © Paul Webb 2004
Chapter 3 © Andrew Knapp 2004
Chapter 4 © Susan E. Scarrow 2004
Chapter 5 © Luciano Bardi 2004
Chapter 6 © Wolfgang C. Müller, Fritz Plasser and Peter A. Ulram 2004
Chapter 7 © Kris Deschouwer 2004
Chapter 8 © Lars Bille and Karina Pedersen 2004
Chapter 9 © Peter Mair and Michael Marsh 2004
First published 2004
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Notes on Contributors[Page vii]
Luciano Bardi is Professor of Comparative Politics and International Relations at the University of Pisa. He is author and co-author of numerous books and articles on European Union politics and institutions and of several essays on Italian parties and on the Italian party system, as well as co-editor of Italian Politics. Mapping the Future (1998) and editor of Forma partito e sistemi di partito tra due secoli (2004).
Lars Bille is Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Copenhagen. He is the author of Partier i Forandring (1997) and Fra Valgkamp til Valgkamp (1998) and co-editor of Partiernes Medlemmer (2003). His English language publications include articles in West European Politics and Party Politics.
Kris Deschouwer is Professor of Political Science at the Free University of Brussels. He is author of Organiseren of Bewegen. De evolutie van de Belgische partijstructuren sinds 1960 (1993), De wortels van de democratie (1996) and co-author of Culture, Institutions and Economic Development. A Study of Eight European Regions (2003), and co-editor of Party Elites in Divided Societies (2001). His articles have appeared in European Journal of Political Research, West European Politics, Regional and Federal Studies, Environmental Politics and in many edited volumes, including Party Organizations (1992), How Parties Organize (1994) and Political Parties in Democratic Societies (2002).
Andrew Knapp is Senior Lecturer in French Studies at the University of Reading. He is author of Le Gaullisme après de Gaulle (1996) and of Parties and the Party System in France: a Disconnected Democracy? (2004), and co-author, with Yves Mény, of Government and Politics in Western Europe (3rd edition, 1998) and, with Vincent Wright, of The Government and Politics of France (4th edition, 2001).
Peter Mair is Professor of Comparative Politics at Leiden University in the Netherlands, and is co-editor of West European Politics. He is co-author of Representative Government in Modern Europe (3rd edition, 2000) and author of Party System Change (1997). He is co-editor of The Enlarged European Union (2002).
[Page viii]Michael Marsh is an Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science, Trinity College, University of Dublin. He has written extensively on parties and elections, both in Ireland and elsewhere. He is the co-author of Days of Blue Loyalty: the Politics of Membership of Fine Gael (2002), co-editor of How Ireland Voted 2002 (2003), and co-director of the 2002 Irish election study. His articles have appeared in journals such as European Journal of Political Research, Party Politics, and Electoral Studies.
Wolfgang C. Müller is Professor of Political Science at the University of Mannheim and previously taught at the University of Vienna. He is senior author of Die österreichischen Abgeordneten, Individuelle Präferenzen und politsiches Verhalten (2001) and co-editor of Policy, Office, or Votes? How Political Parties in Western Europe Make Hard Decisions (1999), Coalition Governments in Western Europe (2000) (both with Kaare Strøm), and Delegation and Accountability in Parliamentary Democracies (2003) (with Kaare Strøm and Torbjörn Bergman).
Karina Pedersen is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Copenhagen. She is the author of Party Membership Linkage. The Danish Case (2003).
Fritz Plasser is Professor of Political Science at the University of Innsbruck. He is author of Parteien unter Stress (1987), co-editor of The Austrian Party System (1989), Wählerverhalten und Parteienwettbewerb (1995), Wahlkampf und Wählerentscheidung (1996), Das österreichische Wahlverhalten (2000), Wahlverhalten in Bewegung (2003) and several other books. His English language publications include Global Political Campaigning (2002) as well as articles in West European Politics, Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics and edited volumes.
Susan E. Scarrow is Professor of Political Science at the University of Houston. She is author of Parties and Their Members (1996), editor of Perspectives on Political Parties (2002), and co-editor of Democracy Transformed? (2003). Her articles have appeared in such journals as the European Journal of Political Research, Comparative Political Studies, Party Politics, and German Politics.
Peter A. Ulram is Director of the Department for Political Research at the Fessel + GfK Institut and Associate Professor at the University of Vienna. He is author of Hegemonie und Erosion (1990), co-author of Das österreichische Politikverständnis (2002), and co-editor of Wahlverhalten in Bewegung (2003). His English language publications have appeared in West European Politics, Party Politics, and in edited volumes.
[Page ix]Paul Webb is Professor of Politics at the University of Sussex. His research interests focus on representative democracy, particularly party and electoral politics. The author or editor of several volumes, including The Modern British Party System (2000) and Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Societies (2002), he is a co-editor of both Party Politics and Representation.
List of Figures
List of Tables[Page xi]
- Table 2.1 British general election results since 1945 22
- Table 2.2 Voter loyalties in Britain, 1964–2001 24
- Table 3.1 French electoral results, 1958–2002 53
- Table 4.1 German electoral results, 1949–2002 88
- Table 4.2 Government composition in Germany, 1949–2003 89
- Table 4.3 Voter loyalties in Germany, 1972–2002 90
- Table 5.1 National level election results and seat distribution (Camera dei Deputati) in Italy, 1948–2001 113
- Table 5.2 Dealignment and party system change in Italy, 1948–2001 (indices based on Chamber of Deputies results) 116
- Table 5.3 Voter loyalties in Italy, 1978–96 118
- Table 5.4 Voters, turnout, valid votes, spoiled, and blank ballots in elections to the Chamber of Deputies, 1968–2001 118
- Table 6.1 Austrian election results, 1950s-2002 146
- Table 6.2 Indicators of party loyalty in Austria, 1954–2002 148
- Table 6.3 Disenchantment with parties and politicians in Austria, 1974–2001 151
- Table 7.1 Electoral results in Belgium, 1961–2003 181
- Table 7.2 Electoral results (federal elections) in the Region of Flanders since 1961 183
- Table 7.3 Electoral results (federal elections) in the Region of Wallonia since 1961 184
- Table 7.4 Characteristics of the Walloon and Flemish party systems since 1961 185
- Table 7.5 The changes in the Belgian party landscape 201
- Table 8.1 Danish electoral results, 1971–2001 209
- Table 8.2 Government composition in Denmark, 1968–2003 211
- Table 8.3 Indicators of party loyalty in Denmark, 1971–98 218
- Table 9.1 Irish election results, 1950s-2002 237
- Table 9.2 Party attachment in Ireland, 1978–94 241