Planning and Urban Change

Books

Stephen V. Ward

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    Dedication

    To the memory of my mother and father

    The Author

    Stephen V. Ward is Professor of Planning History at Oxford Brookes University and edits the international planning history journal Planning Perspectives. He has lectured and published widely on historical subjects related to planning. His other books include The Geography of Interwar Britain: The State and Uneven Development (1988), The Garden City: Past, Present and Future (edited, 1992), Selling Places: The Marketing and Promotion of Towns and Cities 1850–2000 (1998) and Planning the Twentieth-Century City: The Advanced Capitalist World (2002). From 1996 to 2002 he was President of the International Planning History Society.

    Preface

    This book is a product of many years studying planning in Britain and its role in changing cities. It began as a student interest when I was fortunate enough to study under Tony Sutcliffe and the late Gordon Cherry. Gordon played a particularly important role by employing me as his research assistant on the Royal Town Planning Institute History Project in 1971–73. Thereafter it became my main teaching interest at South Bank Polytechnic (to 1979) and Oxford Brookes University. The International Planning History Society and, more recently, my editorship of Planning Perspectives have brought me into contact with many others interested in the development of planning. All this forms an essential underpinning for this book which brings together the labours of many scholars, commentators and practitioners. It was a genuine pleasure to write the first edition some ten years ago and I have been delighted that it has proved its worth with students, teachers and researchers. I hope that this second edition will be as useful.

    Inevitably many debts are incurred in such a project. First I must record my thanks to my colleagues at Oxford, especially Sue Brownill, Tim Marshall and Martin Elson, who contributed by lending or giving me material, by advising on sources, by giving insights from their own research, practice or teaching and, not least, by their informative conversation. Dennis Hardy and John and Margaret Gold kindly lent me pictures used in their own publications. Rob Woodward has prepared most of the illustrations for this book. The staff at Paul Chapman (for the first edition) and Sage, particularly Marianne Lagrange, Robert Rojek and David Mainwaring, have been helpful, efficient and encouraging.

    Yet, as always, the main debts are personal ones. My own much–loved family, Maggie, Tom, Rosamund and Alice, bore a disproportionate part of the burden of the original writing. I thank them again for their tolerance of all the distracted holidays, weekends and evenings. The updating for this second edition has been, I hope, a little better for them. In various combinations, they have shared in the new research through enjoyable short stays in several British cities (or, by their locational decisions in higher education, allowing me to combine fatherly transport duties with field research). My dear wife Maggie has been involved in almost all of these trips, including those to some of the least uplifting of Britain's late twentieth-century creations.

    In the longer term I also owe a huge debt to my parents, who did so much to encourage my early interests. My father died while the first edition was being written, my still grieving mother the year after it was published. In a way that few readers can possibly appreciate, the brief words of dedication that authors write at the beginning of works such as this are more emotionally charged than all the many thousands that follow. I understand this from my mother's reaction to the original dedication of the first edition to her and the memory of my father. Now neither of them will see the words with which I dedicate this second edition but again, by this simple means, I remember their love.

    Stephen, V. Ward, Oxford

    Picture Credits

    Bournville Village Trust: 2.2, 3.1.

    Consortium Developments Ltd: 6.9.

    Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office: 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 6.2, 6.3, 6.11, 7.1, 7.2, 7.7, 8.10.

    Corby Borough Council: 7.6.

    Crown Copyright: 9.1.

    First Garden City Heritage Museum, Letchworth: 2.6.

    Hulton Deutsch Limited: 6.9.

    Laing Development Company: 6.4.

    Liverpool City Housing Department: 2.3, 3.7, 3.8.

    Merseyside Development Corporation: 8.2.

    Newcastle Chronicle and Journal: 6.7.

    Osborn Collection, Welwyn Garden City Library: 3.3, 3.4.

    Punch Library: 3.5.

    Sheffield City Housing Department: 6.5, 6.6, 6.8, 6.10.

    Solo Syndications: 4.2, 4.3.

    Thamesdown Borough Council: 6.14.

    Town and Country Planning Association: 4.8.

    Willan Group Limited: 8.3.

    7.5, 7.8, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7 and 9.8 were photographed by the author.

    Despite all efforts, the copyright on several illustrations remains uncertain. The author and publishers are grateful to all who gave their permission for the use of copyright material. They apologize if they have inadvertently failed to acknowledge any copyright holder and will be glad to correct any omissions that are drawn to their attention in future reprints or editions.

  • Bibliography

    This bibliography contains only works cited in the text which are included to advise on further reading. Many other more original (and more inaccessible) sources have also been consulted. In the interests of brevity (and reflecting this book's role as a textbook rather than a scholarly monograph) I have not included these except where they are directly quoted or necessary to develop the argument. They include the RTPI archives, various government records and numerous local sources. Other exclusions are local statutory plans and, with a few exceptions, other documents produced by non-central planning agencies. National and local press articles, television and radio programmes and informal personal interviews with many planning practitioners have also played their part, especially on more contemporary topics, but are not specifically acknowledged here. Nor is explicit reference made to standard statistical sources.
    If readers require further details about sources used in this book, please contact the author at the Department of Planning, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 0BP <svward@brookes.ac.uk>.
    Aalen, F. H. A. (1992) ‘English origins’, in S.V.Ward (ed.), The Garden City: Past, Present and Future. Spon, London
    Abercrombie, P. (1945) The Greater London Plan 1944. HMSO, London
    Abercrombie, P. and Kelly, S. A. (1932) Cumbrian Regional Planning Scheme. Hodder and Stoughton/Liverpool University Press, London/Liverpool
    Abercrombie, P. and Matthew, R. H. (1949) The Clyde Valley Regional Plan 1946. HMSO, Edinburgh.
    Adams, T. (1929) ‘The origin of the term “town planning” in England’, Journal of the Town Planning Institute, vol. XV, no. 11310–11.
    Addison, P. (1975) The Road to 1945: British Politics and the Second World War. Cape, London.
    Alden, J. (2002) ‘Scenarios for the future of regional planning within UK/EU spatial planning’, in T.Marshall, J.Glasson and P.Headicar (eds), Contemporary Issues in Regional Planning. Ashgate, Aldershot.
    Aldous, T. (1972) Battle for the Environment. Fontana/Collins, Glasgow.
    Aldridge, H. R. (1915) The Case for Town Planning: A Practical Manual for the Use of Councillors, Officers and Others Engaged in the Preparation of Town Planning Schemes. National Housing and Town Planning Council, London.
    Aldridge, M. (1979) British New Towns: A Programme without a Policy. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.
    Ambrose, P. (1986) Whatever Happened to Planning?Methuen, London.
    Ambrose, P. and Colenutt, B. (1975) The Property Machine. Penguin, Harmondsworth.
    Amin, A. and Thrift, N. (eds) (1994) Globalization, Institutions and Regional Development in Europe. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    Amos, C. (1991) ‘Flexibility and variety: the key to new settlement policy’, Town and Country Planning, vol. 60, no. 2:52–6.
    Anstis, G. (1985) Redditch: Success in the Heart of England – The History of Redditch New Town 1964–1985. Publications for Companies, Stevenage.
    APT (Arndale Property Trust) (c. 1965) Arndale in Partnership. APT, Bradford.
    Ardill, J. (1974) The New Citizen's Guide to Town and Country Planning. TCPA/Charles Knight, London.
    Ashworth, W. (1954) The Genesis of Modern British Town Planning: A Study in Economic and Social History of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.
    Atkinson, R. and Moon, G. (1994) Urban Policy in Britain: The City, the State and the Market. Macmillan: Basingstoke.
    Attfield, J. (1989) ‘Inside pram town: a case study of Harlow house interiors, 1951–61’, in J.Attfield and P.Kirkham (eds), A View from the Interior: Feminism, Women and Design. Women's Press, London.
    Audit Commission (1989) Urban Regeneration and Economic Development: The Local Government Dimension. HMSO, London.
    Backwell, J. and Dickens, P. (1978) Town Planning, Mass Loyalty and the Restructuring of Capital: The Origins of the 1947 Planning Legislation Revisited. Urban and Regional Studies Working Paper No. 11, University of Sussex, Brighton.
    Bains Report (1972) The New Local Authorities – Management and Structure. HMSO, London.
    Baker, M. (2002) ‘Government Offices for the Regions and regional planning’, in T.Marshall, J.Glasson and P.Headicar (eds), Contemporary Issues in Regional Planning. Ashgate, Aldershot.
    Balchin, J. (1980) First New Town: An Autobiography of the Stevenage Development Corporation 1946–1980. Stevenage Development Corporation, Stevenage.
    Balchin, P. N. (1990) Regional Policy in Britain: The North-South Divide. Paul Chapman, London.
    Ball, M., Gray, F. and McDowell, L. (1989) The Transformation of Britain: Contemporary Social and Economic Change. Fontana. London.
    Banfield, E. C. (1970) The Unheavenly City: The Nature and Future of Our Urban Crisis. Little, Brown, Boston, MA.
    Barlow Commission (Royal Commission on the Distribution of the Industrial Population) (1940) Report (Cmd 6153). HMSO, London.
    Barton, H. (ed.) (2000) Sustainable Communities: The Potential for Eco-Neighbourhoods. Earthscan, London.
    Barty-King, H. (1985) Expanding Northampton. Secker & Warburg, London.
    Beattie, S. (1980) A Revolution in London Housing: LCC Architects and their Work 1893–1914. Greater London Council/Architectural Press, London.
    Beaufoy, S. (1952) ‘Presidential address’, Journal of the Town Planning Institute, vol. XXXIX, no. 1: 2–7.
    Beevers, R. (1988) The Garden City Utopia: A Critical Biography of Ebenezer Howard. Macmillan, Basingstoke.
    Begg, I., Moore, B. and Rhodes, J. (1986) ‘Economic and social change in urban Britain and the inner cities’, in V.Hausner (ed.), Critical Issues in Urban Economic Development(2 vols), vol. I, pp. 10–49.
    Bellamy, E. (1888) Looking Backward. Ticknor, Boston, MA.
    Bendixson, T. (1988) The Peterborough Effect: Reshaping a City. Peterborough Development Corporation, Peterborough.
    Bendixson, T. and Platt, J. (1992) Milton Keynes: Image and Reality. Granta, Cambridge.
    Bennett, T. (1990) ‘Planning and people with disabilities’, in J.Montgomery and A.Thornley (eds), Radical Planning Initiatives: New Directions for Urban Planning in the 1990s. Gower, Aldershot.
    Benton, S. (1987) ‘Death of the citizen’, New Statesman, vol. 114, no. 2956:21–2.
    Best, R. (1981) Land Use and Living Space. Methuen, London.
    Beveridge Report (1942) Report of the Interdepartmental Committee on Social Insurance and Allied Services (Cmd 6404). HMSO, London.
    Bianchini, F., Fisher, M., Montgomery, J. and Worpole, K. (1988) City Centres, City Cultures. Centre for Local Economic Strategies, Manchester.
    Blackaby, F. T. (ed.) (1978) British Economic Policy 1960–74, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    BlockG. (1954) The Spread of Towns. Conservative Political Centre, London.
    Boddy, M. (1980) The Building Societies. Macmillan, London.
    Boddy, M. and Fudge, C. (eds) (1985) Local Socialism. Macmillan, Basingstoke.
    Bogdanor, V. (1970) ‘The Labour Party in opposition, 1951–1964’, in V.Bogdanor and R.Skidelsky (eds), The Age of Affluence 1951–1964. Macmillan, London.
    Bogdanor, V. (1999) Devolution in the United Kingdom. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    Bogdanor, V. and Skidelsky, R. (eds) (1970) The Age of Affluence 1951–1964. Macmillan, London.
    Booth, A. (1978) ‘An administrative experiment in unemployment policy in the thirties’, Public Administration, vol. 56:139–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9299.1978.tb00316.x
    Booth, A. (1982) ‘The second world war and the origins of modern regional policy’, Economy and Society, vol. 11, no. 1:1–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085148200000001
    Bor, W. (1974) ‘The Town and Country Planning Act, 1968’, The Planner, vol. 60, no. 5:696–702.
    Bowden, P. (1978) ‘The origins of Newton Aycliffe’, in M.Bulmer (ed.), Mining and Social Change: Durham County in the Twentieth Century. Croom Helm, London.
    Bowlby, S. (1984) ‘Planning for women to shop in post-war Britain’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, vol. 2: 179–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d020179
    Bowlby, S. (1988) ‘From corner shop to hypermarket: women and food retailing’, in J.Little, L.Peake and P.Richardson (eds), Women in Cities: Gender and the Urban Environment. Macmillan, Basingstoke.
    Bowley, M. (1945) Housing and the State, 1919–44. Allen & Unwin, London.
    Boyle, R. (1988) ‘Private sector urban regeneration: the Scottish experience’, in M.Parkinson, B.Foley and D.Judd (eds), Regenerating the Inner Cities: The UKCrisis and the US Experience. Manchester University Press, Manchester.
    BPF (British Property Federation) (1986) The Planning System: A Fresh Approach. BPF, London.
    Bramley, G. (1993) ‘The impact of land use planning and tax subsidies on the supply and price of housing in Britain’, Urban Studies, vol. 30, no. 1: 5–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420989320080011
    Breheny, M.J. (ed.) (1992a) Sustainable Development and Urban Form. Pion, London.
    Breheny, M.J. (1992b) ‘Contradictions of the compact city’, in M.J.Breheny (ed.), Sustainable Development and the Urban Form. Pion, London.
    Breheny, M. J. and Batey, P. W. J. (1982) ‘The history of planning methodology: a preliminary sketch’, Built Environment, vol. 7, no. 2: 109–20.
    Breheny, M. J. and Rookwood, R. (1993) ‘Planning the sustainable city region’, in A.Blowers (ed.), Planning for a Sustainable Environment: A Report by the Town and Country Planning Association. Earthscan, London.
    Breheny, M., Gent, T. and Lock, D. (1993) Alternative Development Patterns: New Settlements. Department of the Environment Planning Research Programme, HMSO, London.
    Briggs, A. (ed.) (1962) William Morris: Selected Writings and Designs. Penguin, Harmondsworth.
    Briggs, A. (1968) Victorian Cities. Penguin, Harmondsworth.
    Brindley, T., Rydin, Y. and Stoker, G. (1989) Remaking Planning: The Politics of Urban Change in the Thatcher Years. Unwin Hyman, London.
    Brittan, S. (1971) Steering the Economy: The Role of the Treasury, Penguin, Harmondsworth.
    Brown, G. (1972) In My Way: The Political Memoirs of Lord George-Brown. Penguin, Harmondsworth.
    Brownill, S. (1990a) ‘The people's plan for the Royal Docks: some contradictions in popular planning’, in J.Montgomery and A.Thornley (eds), Radical Planning Initiatives: New Directions for Urban Planning in the 1990s. Gower, Aldershot.
    Brownill, S. (1990b) Developing London's Docklands: Another Great Planning Disaster. Paul Chapman, London.
    Brownill, S. (1999) ‘Turning the East End into the West End: the lessons and legacies of the London Docklands Development Corporation’, in R.Imrie and H.Thomas (eds), British Urban Policy and the Urban Development Corporations. Paul Chapman, London.
    Brundtland, G. H. (1987) Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    Bruton, M. (1981) ‘Colin Buchanan 1907–’, in G. E.Cherry (ed.), Pioneers of British Planning. Architectural Press, London.
    Bruton, M. and Nicholson, D. (1987) Local Planning in Practice. Hutchinson, London.
    Buchanan, C. D. (1957) Mixed Blessing: The Motor in Britain. Leonard Hill, London.
    Buck, N. and Gordon, I. (1986) ‘The beneficiaries of employment growth: an analysis of the experience of disadvantaged groups in expanding labour markets’, in V.Hausner (ed.), Critical Issues in Urban Economic Development(2 vols), vol II. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
    Buck, N., Gordon, I. and Young, K. with Ermisch, J. and Mills, L. (1986) The London Employment Problem. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    Buder, S. (1990) Visionaries and Planners: The Garden City Movement and the Modern Community. Oxford University Press, New York.
    Building (1991) ‘Supplement: Canary Wharf – A Landmark in Construction’, Building, October.
    Built Environment (1984) ‘Women and the Built Environment’, Built Environment, vol. 10, no. 1 (Special Issue).
    Built Environment (1990) ‘Women and the Designed Environment’, Built Environment, vol. 16, no. 4 (Special Issue).
    Built Environment (1996) ‘Women and the Built Environment’, Built Environment, vol. 22, no. 1 (Special Issue).
    Bullock, N. (1987) ‘Plans for post-war housing in the UK: the case for mixed development and the flat’, Planning Perspectives, vol. 2, no. 1: 71–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02665438708725632
    Bullock, N. (2002) Building the Post-war World: Modern Architecture and Reconstruction in Britain. Spon, London.
    Bulmer, M. (ed.) (1978a) Mining and Social Change: Durham County in the Twentieth Century, Croom Helm, London.
    Bulmer, M. (1978b) ‘Change, policy and planning since 1918’, in M.Bulmer (ed.), Mining and Social Change: Durham County in the Twentieth Century. Croom Helm, London.
    Burnett, J. (1978) A Social History of Housing. David & Charles, Newton Abbot.
    Burns, D. (1990) ‘The decentralization of local authority planning’, in J.Montgomery and A.Thornley (eds), Radical Planning Initiatives: New Directions for Urban Planning in the 1990s. Gower, Aldershot.
    Burns, W. (1963) New Towns for Old: The Technique of Urban Renewal. Leonard Hill, London.
    Burns, W. (1967) Newcastle: A Study in Replanning at Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Leonard Hill, London.
    Burton, P. and O'Toole, M. (1993) ‘Urban development corporations: post-Fordism in action or Fordism in retrenchment’, in R.Imrie and H.Thomas (eds) British Urban Policy and the Urban Development Corporations. Paul Chapman Publishing, London.
    Butler, S. M. (1981) Enterprise Zones: Greenlining the Inner Cities. Heinemann, London.
    BVT (Bournville Village Trust) (1941) When We Build Again: A Study Based into Conditions of Living and Working in Birmingham. Allen & Unwin, London.
    BVT (1955) The Bournville Village Trust 1900–1955, Bournville Village Trust, Birmingham.
    Byrne, D. (1989) Beyond the Inner City. Open University Press, Milton Keynes.
    Byrne, D. (1999) ‘Tyne and Wear UDC – turning the uses inside out: active deindustrialisation and its consequences’, in R.Imrie and H.Thomas (eds), British Urban Policy: An Evaluation of the Urban Development Corporations (
    2nd edition
    ). Sage, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218907
    Cabinet Office (1988) Action for Cities. Cabinet Office, London.
    Cadbury, G. Jnr (1915) Town Planning with Special Reference to the Birmingham Schemes. Longmans Green, London.
    Calder, A. (1971) The People's War: Britain 1939–45. Panther, London.
    Carr, M. C. (1982) ‘The development and character of a metropolitan suburb: Bexley, Kent’, in F. M. L.Thompson (ed.), The Rise of Suburbia. Leicester University Press, Leicester.
    Carter, H. and Lewis, C. R. (1990) An Urban Geography of England and Wales in the Nineteenth Century. Arnold, London.
    Carter, N. and Watts, C. (1984) The Cambridge Science Park. Planning and Development Case Study 4. Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, London.
    Cassell, M. (1991) Long Lease! The Story of Slough Estates 1920–1991. Pencorp, London.
    Castells, M. (1977) The Urban Question. Arnold, London.
    CEC (Commission of the European Communities) (1990a) Green Paper on the Urban Environment (EUR 12902 EN), Commission of the European Communities, Brussels.
    CEC (1990b) Green Paper on the Urban Environment: Expert Contributions (EUR 13145 EN), Commission of the European Communities, Brussels.
    Chadwick, G. (1971) A Systems View of Planning. Pergamon, Oxford.
    Chamberlain Committee (Committee to Consider and Advise on the Principles to be Followed in Dealing with Unhealthy Areas) (1920) Interim Report. HMSO, London.
    Chamberlain Committee (1921) Final Report. HMSO, London.
    Charlesworth, G. (1984) A History of British Motorways. Thomas Telford, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/ahobm.01596
    Chelmsford Committee (1931) Interim Report of the Departmental Committee on Regional Development (Cmd 3915). HMSO, London.
    Cherry, G. E. (1972) Urban Change and Planning: A History of Urban Development in Britain since 1750. Foulis, Henley.
    Cherry, G. E. (1974a) ‘The Housing, Town Planning Etc Act 1919’, The Planner, vol. 60, no. 5:681–4.
    Cherry, G. E. (1974b) The Evolution of British Town Planning. Leonard Hill, Leighton Buzzard.
    Cherry, G. E. (1975a) Factors in the Origins of Town Planning in Britain: The Example of Birmingham, 1905–1914. Centre for Urban and Regional Studies Working Paper No. 36, University of Birmingham, Birmingham.
    Cherry, G. E. (1975b) Environmental Planning 1939–1969. vol. II: National Parks and Recreation in the Countryside. HMSO, London.
    Cherry, G. E. (1980) ‘The place of Neville Chamberlain in British town planning’, in G. E.Cherry (ed.), Shaping an Urban World. Mansell, London.
    Cherry, G. E. (ed.) (1981) Pioneers in British Planning. Architectural Press, London.
    Cherry, G. E. (1988) Cities and Plans: The Shaping of Urban Britain in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Arnold, London.
    Cherry, G. E. (1994) Birmingham: A Study in Geography, History and Planning. Wiley, Chichester.
    Cherry, G. E. (1996) Town Planning in Britain since 1900: The Rise and Fall of the Planning Ideal. Blackwell, Oxford.
    Cherry, G. E. and Penny, L. (1986) Holford: A Study in Architecture, Planning and Civic Design. Mansell, London.
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    3rd edition
    ). Routledge, London.
    Churchill, W. S. (1951) The Second World War. Vol. IV: The Hinge of Fate. Cassell, London.
    Clapson, M. (1998) Invincible Green Suburbs, Brave New Towns: Social Change and Urban Dispersal in Post-war England. Manchester University Press, Manchester.
    Clapson, M. (1999) ‘Technology, social change and the planning of a post-industrial city: a case study of Milton Keynes’, in D.Goodman and C.Chant (eds), European Cities and Technology: Industrial to Post-industrial City. Routledge, London.
    Clapson, M., Dobbin, M. and Waterman, P (eds) (1998) The Best Laid Plans: Milton Keynes since 1967. University of Luton Press, Luton.
    Coates, D. (1980) Labour in Power? A Study of the Labour Government 1974–1979. Longman, London.
    Coates, K. and Silburn, R. (1970) Poverty: The Forgotten Englishmen. Penguin, Harmondsworth.
    Coates, K. and Silburn, R. (1980) Beyond the Bulldozer. Department of Adult Education, University of Nottingham, Nottingham.
    Cochrane, A. (1983) ‘Local economic policies: like trying to drain the ocean with a teaspoon’, in J.Anderson, A.Cochrane and R.Hudson (eds), Redundant Spaces in Cities and Regions? Studies in Industrial Decline and Social Change. Academic Press, London.
    Cochrane, A. (1986) ‘Local employment initiatives: towards a new municipal socialism?’, in P.Lawless and C.Raban (eds), The Contemporary British City. Harper & Row, London.
    Cochrane, A. (2002) ‘Thinking about the English regions’, in T.Marshall, J.Glasson and P.Headicar (eds), Contemporary Issues in Regional Planning. Ashgate, Aldershot.
    Cockburn, C. (1977) The Local State: Management of People and Cities. Pluto, London.
    Coleman, A. (1985) Utopia on Trial: Vision and Reality in Planned Housing. Hilary Shipman, London.
    Colenutt, B. (1993) ‘After the urban development corporations: development elites or people-based regeneration?’, in R.Imrie and H.Thomas (eds), British Urban Policy and the Urban Development Corporations. Paul Chapman, London.
    Collison, P. (1963) The Cutteslowe Walls: A Study in Social Class. Faber, London.
    Cooke, P. N. (1983) Theories of Planning and Spatial Development. Hutchinson, London.
    Cooke, P. N. (ed.) (1989) Localities: The Changing Face of Urban Britain. Unwin Hyman, London.
    Cooke, P. N. and Morgan, K. (1998) The Associational Economy. Oxford University Press: Oxford. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198290186.001.0001
    Cooney, E. W. (1974) ‘High flats in local authority housing in England and Wales since 1945’, in A.Sutcliffe (ed.), Multi-storey Living: The British Working-class Experience. Croom Helm, London.
    Cowan, P., Fine, D., Ireland, J., Jordan, C., Mercer, D. and Sears, A. (1969) The Office: A Facet of Urban Growth. Heinemann, London.
    Creese, W. L. (1966) The Search for Environment: The Garden City Before and After. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge, MA.
    Crewe, I. (1988) ‘Has the electorate become Thatcherite?’, in R.Skidelsky (ed.), Thatcherism. Chatto & Windus, London.
    Critchley, J. (1987) Heseltine: The Unauthorised Biography. Andre Deutsch, London.
    Cross, D. T. and Bristow, M. R. (eds) (1983) English Structure Planning: A Commentary on Procedure and Practice in the Seventies. Pion, London.
    Cross, J. (1970) ‘The regional decentralisation of British government departments’, Public Administration, vol. 48: 423–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9299.1970.tb00036.x
    Crossman, R. (1975) The Diaries of a Cabinet Minister. Vol. 1: Minister of Housing 1964–66. Hamish Hamilton, London.
    Crossman, R. (1976) The Diaries of a Cabinet Minister. Vol. 2: Lord President of the Council and Leader of the House of Commons 1966–1968. Hamish Hamilton, London.
    Cullingworth, J. B. (1960) Housing Needs and Planning Policy. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203001257
    Cullingworth, J. B. (1970) Town and Country Planning in England and Wales (
    3rd edition
    ). Allen & Unwin, London.
    Cullingworth, J. B. (1975) Environmental Planning 1939–1969. Vol. I: Reconstruction and Land Use Planning 1939–1947. HMSO, London.
    Cullingworth, J. B. (1976) Town and Country Planning in Britain (
    6th edition
    ). Allen & Unwin, London.
    Cullingworth, J. B. (1979) Environmental Planning 1939–1969. Vol. III: New Towns Policy. HMSO, London.
    Cullingworth, J. B. (1980) Environmental Planning 1939–1969. Vol. IV: Land Values, Compensation and Betterment. HMSO, London.
    Cullingworth, J. B. (1988) Town and Country Planning in Britain (
    10th edition
    ). Unwin Hyman, London.
    Cullingworth, J. B. (ed.) (1999) British Planning: 50 Years of Urban and Regional Policy. Athlone Press, London.
    Cullingworth, J. B. and Nadin, V. (1994) Town and Country Planning in Britain (
    11th edition
    ). Routledge, London.
    Cullingworth, [J]. B. and Nadin, V. (1997) Town and Country Planning in the UK (
    12th edition
    ). Routledge, London.
    Cullingworth, [J]. B. and Nadin, V. (2002) Town and Country Planning in the UK (
    13th edition
    ). Routledge, London.
    Culpin, E. G. (1913) The Garden City Movement up to Date. Garden City and Town Planning Association, London.
    Dalton, H. (1957) The Fateful Years: Memoirs 1931–1945. Muller, London.
    Dalton, H. (1962) High Tide and After: Memoirs 1945–1960. Muller, London.
    Daniel, W.W. (1968) Racial Discrimination in England. Penguin, Harmondsworth.
    Dantzig, G. and Saaty, T. L. (1973) Compact City: A Plan for a Liveable Urban Environment. Freeman, San Francisco, CA.
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    Websites

    This list comprises only the addresses of all websites directly cited in this book, together with that of the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, which contains current government policy documents and many commissioned research reports. Some slightly older government documents may also be found at <http://www.archive.official-documents.co.uk>. Readers should note that websites can and frequently do change. All those listed here were, however, current in early March 2003.

    <http://www.bluewater.co.uk> Bluewater Shopping Centre, Kent

    <http://www.brindleyplace.com> Brindley Place, Birmingham

    <http://www.cabe.org.uk> Council for Architecture and the Built Environment

    <http://www.cambourne-uk.com> Cambourne, Cambridgeshire

    <http://www.culture.gov.uk> Department for Culture, Media and Sport

    <http://www.defra.gov.uk> Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

    <http://www.dti.gov.uk> Department of Trade and Industry

    <http://www.dtlr.gov.uk> Department for Transport, Local Government and the Regions

    <http://www.easternquarry.co.uk> Eastern Quarry Land Securities

    <http://www.economist.co.uk> The Economist

    <http://www.englishpartnerships.co.uk> English Partnerships

    <http://www.gateshead-quays.co.uk> Gateshead Quays

    <http://www.go-se.gov.uk> Government Office for the South East Region

    <http://www.greenwichpeninsula.co.uk> Greenwich Peninsula

    <http://www.greenwich-village.co.uk> Millennium Village, Greenwich

    <http://www.kent-thameside.org.uk> Kent-Thameside Partnership

    <http://www.leeds.gov.uk/millenniumsquare/> Millennium Square, Leeds

    <http://www.liverpoolvision.co.uk> Liverpool Vision Ltd

    <http://www.neighbourhood.gov.uk> Neighbourhood Renewal Unit

    <http://www.newcastle.gov.uk/ccap.nsf/> Newcastle City Centre Action Plan

    <http://www.neweastmanchester.com> New East Manchester Ltd

    <http://www.odpm.gov.uk> Office of the Deputy Prime Minister

    <http://www.princeofwales.gov.uk> Prince of Wales

    <http://www.rtpi.org.uk> Royal Town Planning Institute

    <http://www.scotland.gov.uk> Scottish Executive and Parliament

    <http://www.socialexclusionunit.gov.uk> Social Exclusion Unit

    <http://www.thenewbullring.com> The new Bull Ring Centre, Birmingham

    <http://www.traffordcentre.co.uk> Trafford Shopping Centre, Manchester

    <http://www.urbansplash.co.uk> Urban Splash

    <http://www.urcs-online.co.uk> The Urban Regeneration Companies

    <http://www.wales.gov.uk> National Assembly of Wales

    <http://www.weststevenage.co.uk> West Stevenage proposed expansion


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