Physical Activity & Behavioral Medicine

Books

James F. Sallis & Neville Owen

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Introduction

    Part II: Physical Activity and Health

    Part III: Defining and Measuring Physical Activity

    Part IV: Understanding and Influencing Physical Activit

    Part V: Conclusions and Future Directions

  • Behavioral Medicine and Health Psychology Series

    Series Editor
    J. RickTurnerHealthComm Consulting

    Behavioral Medicine and Health Psychology brings the latest advances in these fields directly into undergraduate, graduate, and professional classrooms via individual texts that each present one topic in a self-contained manner. The texts also allow health professionals specializing in one field to become familiar with another by reading the appropriate volume, a task facilitated by their short length and their scholarly yet accessible format.

    The development of the series is guided by its Editorial Board, which comprises experts from the disciplines of experimental and clinical psychology, medicine and preventive medicine, psychiatry and behavioral sciences, nursing, public health, biobehavioral health, behavioral health sciences, and behavioral genetics. Board members are based in North America, Europe, and Australia, thereby providing a truly international perspective on current research and clinical practice in behavioral medicine and health psychology.

    Editorial Board

    William B. Applegate, M.D., University of Tennessee, Memphis

    Jacqueline Dunbar-Jacob, Ph.D., R.N., F.A.A.N., University of Pittsburgh

    Marc D. Gellman, Ph.D., University of Miami, Florida

    Laura L. Hayman, Ph.D., R.N., F.A.A.N., University of Pennsylvania

    Jack E. James, Ph.D., La Trobe University, Australia

    Marie Johnston, Ph.D., University of St. Andrews, United Kingdom

    Lynn T. Kozlowski, Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University

    Laura C. Leviton, Ph.D., University of Alabama at Birmingham

    Andrew Sherwood, Ph.D., Duke University

    Shari R. Waldstein, Ph.D., University of Maryland-Baltimore County

    Books in This Series

    Stress & Health: Biological and Psychological Interactions by William R. Lovallo

    Understanding Caffeine: A Biobehavioral Analysis by Jack E. James

    Physical Activity and Behavioral Medicine by James F. Sallis and Neville Owen

    Behavior Change and Public Health in the Developing World by John P. Elder

    Cigarettes, Nicotine, and Health: A Biobehavioral Approach by Lynn T. Kozlowski, Jack E. Henningfield, and Janet Brigham

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Dedication

    J.F.S.: To Shemi (asante sana, again) and the Saturday morning jogging group: Bob Kaplan, John Martin, John Elder, Al Litrownik

    N.O.: To Sue, Alice, Cate, and Eric; to Alan, Linda, and Ruby

    Series Editor's Introduction

    Physical Activity and Behavioral Medicine is the third volume in this series, following Stress and Health and Understanding Caffeine. It is appropriate and timely to include a volume on the health benefits of physical activity since it is now clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. The timeliness is underscored by the recent publication of the first Surgeon General's report on Physical Activity and Health. The Senior Scientific Editor of that report, Dr. Steven Blair, has kindly written a foreword for this volume.

    Dr. Jim Sallis is Professor of Psychology at San Diego State University. A couple of years ago I heard him give a fascinating talk at his alma mater, Memphis State University (now The University of Memphis). He not only provided compelling evidence of the benefits of physical activity, but also described research exploring the most effective ways to increase people's participation in sports and other physical activities. Following this talk, I invited Dr. Sallis to contribute a volume for this series. He subsequently joined forces with his colleague Dr. Neville Owen, head of the School of Human Movement at Deakin University, Australia, to write this outstanding book.

    My thanks are expressed to both authors. Their international collaboration and perspectives have clearly enhanced the presentation of this topic, and I have no doubt that you will find their writing highly accessible and most informative.

    J. RickTurnerChapel Hill, North Carolina

    Foreword

    When I started my academic career more than 30 years ago, the term exercise science was not used. Indeed, if you had used it, academic colleagues would have thought you pretentious. Individuals investigating the effects of exercise generally were not taken seriously, and few exercise studies were published in highly ranked biomedical journals. The status of exercise science clearly is different today, and there are numerous highly productive and respected scientists who study exercise, such as the authors of this book.

    Exercise science is now accepted as a legitimate, even important, area of investigation. There are few things that perturb as many body systems as exercise; and use of exercise as a stressor is common in many types of physiological investigations, ranging from studies of the immune system to bone. Physical inactivity is recognized as a major health issue in most industrialized countries. In the United States, several major scientific and medical organizations, along with public health agencies, recently issued statements on physical inactivity as a public health problem. One of the first key statements was published in 1992 by the American Heart Association, and with this statement, physical inactivity was recognized as the fourth risk factor for coronary artery disease, along with cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. In 1995 the American College of Sports Medicine and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued public health recommendations for physical activity. Two major reports were issued in the United States in 1996, one by the National Institutes of Health from a consensus development conference on physical activity and cardiovascular health, and a second by the office of the U.S. Surgeon General. All of these reports conclude that physical inactivity contributes to the development of several chronic diseases and other health problems, that too many individuals are sedentary, and that efforts to promote increased physical activity must be increased.

    Early research on physiological responses to exercise date to the first part of the 20th century, and systematic evaluations of the relation of inactivity to disease began in the 1950s. Accumulated findings from these areas of research greatly accelerated over the past 25 years, and the body of evidence relating inactivity to increased health problems led to the recent consensus documents mentioned above. My own scientific career parallels the development of exercise science over the past several decades. My early interest was in physiological responses to exercise, and later I focused on the relation of inactivity to morbidity and mortality. Most recently, my research efforts expanded to develop and evaluate different models and programs for promotion of physical activity, and I consider this latter area the most challenging, and perhaps most important.

    We can now be certain that inactivity contributes to health problems and that modern life is becoming increasingly sedentary. What to do about this problem is less clear. Controlled research on physical activity interventions is a relatively new area of investigation for exercise scientists. Drs. Sallis and Owen are leaders in these efforts, I have learned a great deal from them, and I am privileged to collaborate with Jim on a randomized clinical trial of physical activity interventions in primary health care settings. Both Jim and Neville have been involved over the past 20 years in various interventions for individuals across the age range and in clinical settings, schools, and in entire communities. They bring a fresh and creative perspective to the field, and we can all learn from them.

    This book will be useful to scientists and clinicians in many disciplines who are interested in physical inactivity as a public health problem. I am impressed with the broad range of topics included in the book. It is clear that the public health issue of sedentary living requires a multidisciplinary approach, and the authors are masters at using information from many areas of research and practice to present a comprehensive behavioral medicine strategy. There has been much recent progress in understanding physical activity behavior, and what types of interventions are useful in promoting physical activity. Much remains to be done, but a crucial step is for many more in science and medicine to become involved in developing, implementing, and evaluating physical activity interventions. This book will be helpful to them in enhancing their knowledge and skills about how to promote physical activity more effectively. I recommend it highly.

    Steven N.BlairCooper Institute for Aerobics Research President, American College of Sports Medicine, 1996–97 Senior Scientific Editor, Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General

    Preface

    We wrote Physical Activity and Behavioral Medicine because it became clear to us that there was a need to consolidate and integrate the now extensive body of knowledge on health-related physical activity with an emphasis on a behavioral science perspective. Although both of us are trained in psychology, we believe this book is true to the spirit of behavioral medicine. We have attempted to integrate theory and research from several disciplines to provide a broad coverage of the issues related to physical activity and health. We have both worked closely with professionals from multiple disciplines, and we hope we have learned enough from our colleagues to adequately synthesize multiple viewpoints and approaches in this book.

    This book can be used in training students in a variety of disciplines, including psychology, exercise sciences, nutrition, medicine, nursing, and public health. However, our emphasis is clearly on behavioral aspects of physical activity. We adopted this emphasis deliberately, not only because of our backgrounds but also because we strongly believe the most important challenges in the field deal with intervening on physical activity. Many of the health benefits are widely known, but we are much less advanced in our knowledge of how to help people become active enough to enjoy these benefits. We see promoting physical activity as one of the major public health tasks of our time, and we hope this book makes a positive contribution to this effort.

    Many of our colleagues in the disciplines of epidemiology, psychology, exercise physiology, the other human movement sciences, preventive medicine, and public health have relatively recently become involved with promoting higher levels of physical activity in specific groups and whole populations. Because of our long-term involvement in applied physical activity research, we find ourselves providing advice to practitioners and policymakers in the government and private sectors on ways to promote higher levels of physical activity. It has become increasingly clear to us that the field of physical activity and health would benefit from a book that draws together the major strands of knowledge from the relevant disciplines to develop a systematic approach for applying high-quality research and theory to physical activity promotion. We hope this book clearly explains our empirically based approach to physical activity and public health.

    Because of its behavioral emphasis, this book will be worthwhile reading for exercise scientists and other interested professionals with training in the biological sciences. Both researchers and practitioners should find the material in this book useful for providing an overview of the field as well as for stimulating new questions for research and new directions for programs.

    We decided early in the planning of this book to make it international in scope. We have monitored and edited each other so the material has as wide a relevance as possible. Physical inactivity is a problem in all industrialized nations, and we hope readers in many countries will find this book useful.

    The writing of this book started on the first day of Jim Sallis's sabbatical with Neville Owen. Books inevitably take more time and effort than is anticipated at the start, but our task was made more enjoyable by working in pleasant environments as often as possible. We wrote part of this book on the coast of Victoria, Australia, as parrots and cockatoos fed outside the window. During breaks, we saw koalas as we walked and jogged through a nearby park. On another occasion we spent a couple of days writing in the Anza-Borrego desert in San Diego County. To get warmed up, we took a hike at dawn through stunning desert scenery.

    Health-related physical activity is a new and exciting frontier in behavioral medicine. The publication of the first U.S. Surgeon General's report on Physical Activity and Health in 1996 is an indication that the area of physical activity and health has achieved a status similar to that achieved by the smoking field on the occasion of the first U.S. Surgeon General's report on Smoking and Health, published three decades earlier. Interest in a scientific approach to physical activity and health has never been higher, and we hope this book inspires students, scientists, and practitioners from many disciplines to join in the effort to improve health through the promotion of physical activity.

    Now we have done our part. The book is written. Your part is to take this book, learn how you can be part of the solution to the epidemic of physical inactivity, and take action through research and practice.

    Acknowledgments

    We both express our gratitude to Rick Turner and C. Deborah Laughton for their patience and encouragement during the writing of this book.

    James Sallis

    Over the years I have had the pleasure of collaborating with many wonderful people on a variety of projects related to physical activity. These collaborations have not only provided me with the chance to enjoy the company of these people, but I have also learned much about physical activity, research, health, and life. I want to thank many of the key people, with apologies to others not named. I also acknowledge my students who keep my brain active and help me stay young at heart.

    I got my start in physical activity research during my postdoctoral fellowship at Stanford by tutoring from some of the best: Bill Haskell, Peter Wood, Nathan Maccoby, Barr Taylor, Steve Fortmann, Jack Farquhar, and Ralph Paffenbarger. During this time, Neville Owen and I began periodic discussions that eventually led to this book.

    My colleagues on the San Diego Family Health Project introduced me to research with pediatric populations: Phil Nader, Tom Patterson, Cathie Atkins, and Mike Buono.

    The group working on physical activity determinants in community samples has had a long and fruitful collaboration: Mel Hovell, Dick Hofstetter, John Elder, and several very competent staff and students. I also want to thank our CDC colleagues Carl Caspersen and Ken Powell.

    The continuing work on San Diego SCAN is still stimulating, due to the interdisciplinary team: Phil Nader, Thorn McKenzie, John Elder, Chuck Berry, Michelle Zive, Shelia Broyles, and Tricia Hoy.

    The SPARK team has worked together on a particularly close basis: Thorn McKenzie, Paul Rosengard, Bo Kolody, John Alcaraz, Nell Faucette, and Julia Roby Cuban.

    The PACE group has provided me with a very supportive environment for working on difficult problems: Kevin Patrick, Karen Calfas, Barbara Long, Wilma Wooten, Denise Wilfley, Jodi Prochaska, Marion Zabinski, Mike Pratt, and Greg Heath.

    The GRAD study has benefited from a cohesive and talented group of investigators: Karen Calfas, Jeanne Nichols, Julie Sarkin, Susan Caparosa, John Alcaraz, and Sheri Thompson.

    The multicenter ACT study allows me to work with some of the best people around the country: Steve Blair, Abby King, Andrea Dunn, Bess Marcus, Denise Simons-Morton, Jack Rejeski, Bob Klesges, Cheryl Albright, and Stuart Cohen.

    Although separated by great distances, the Cowles Media Foundation project team has worked well together: Russ Pate, Patty Freedson, Wendell Taylor, and Diane Hermann.

    The energetic M-SPAN group is stimulating some new approaches to measurement and intervention: Thorn McKenzie, John Elder, Marianne Wildey, Terry Conway, Paul Rosengard, Michelle Zive, and Simon Marshall.

    Extra thanks to the Aussies who made my sabbatical a very special time, especially my gracious hosts Neville Owen and Brian Oldenburg. I also benefited greatly from my contacts with Adrian Bauman, Christina Lee, Mike Booth, Ron Borland, Jack James, the whole group of Italians at Deakin University, the staff at QUT, the National Workplace and Health Project staff at Sydney University, and wonderful people in several offices of the Australian Heart Foundation.

    I want to thank Nick Cavill and Stuart Biddle for involving me in the “Young and Active?” symposium in London.

    My international collaborations have been very meaningful, and I hope they continue. In the Czech Republic Josef Hrebicek was my closest collaborator and friend, and I am saddened by his death in 1997. Other valued colleagues in the Czech Republic are Jiri Novosad, Hana Valkova, Karel Fromel, and Milan Horvath. In Brazil, I have enjoyed getting involved with Agita Sao Paulo and working with the very impressive CELAFISCS team, headed by Victor and Sandra Matsudo. In Portugal: Luis Sardihna, Margarida Gaspar de Matos, and Jorge Mota.

    It is clear that many people have contributed to my work, and I hope this book does not embarrass any of them. However, I want to single out a few people who have played very key roles in my development over the years and have been supportive beyond reasonable expectations: Ken Lichstein, Bill Haskell, Elaine Stone, Bob Kaplan, Steve Blair, and Thorn McKenzie.

    Special thanks to Kecia Carrasco for managing the office and keeping so much information in her head. Thanks to Susie Newmiller and Helen Hayden for their futile attempts to organize my office.

    Finally, I want to thank Walter and Joan, a retired couple who really enjoy taking brisk walks on the beach every morning. They remind me that physical activity can always be a fun part of your day, and it leads you to meet very nice people.

    Neville Owen

    Since I first started to do research on physical activity, I have worked with many excellent colleagues and students. I owe a great deal to them all for the knowledge, skill, enthusiasm, patience, and commitment that they brought to the research we did together.

    Some particular colleagues have helped me to map and build the conceptual and scientific pathways that have led to the writing of this book. Adrian Bauman has been an inspiring, prolific, and cordial collaborator, as have Michael Booth and Christopher J. Gore. Ron Borland and Brian Oldenburg have also been inspiring and energetic collaborators on my research in tobacco control, workplace health promotion and behavioral epidemiology, as have Melanie Wakefield and Lyn Roberts.

    Particular thanks also to those who inspired and supported my early efforts at physical activity research: Christina Lee, Tony Sedgwick, Kevin Haag, Wayne Coonan, and Terry Dwyer. For their support and productive involvement in my overall portfolio of behavioral and public health research, I am indebted to many colleagues and former and current students: David Hill, John Pierce, Wayne Velicer, Stephen L. Brown, Alison Smith, Penny Kent, Philip Vita, Herbert Severson, Mario Virgili, Rob Donovan, Judy Simpson, Anne-Louise Ewins, David Edwards, David Wilson, Colin MacDougall, Arul Mylvaganam, Kristyn Willson, David Weller—and particularly Andrew Gilbert. I learned some very useful nuances of epidemiological and occupational health logic from my associations at the University of Adelaide with Tony McMichael, Alistair Woodward, Janet Hiller, Dino Pisaniello, and Richie Gun.

    My approach to physical activity research has been influenced significantly by the exceptional scholars whom I met during my time as a Kellogg Foundation fellow in behavioral epidemiology with the Stanford Heart Disease Prevention Program—particularly Nathan Maccoby, John W. Farquhar, C. Barr Taylor, William Haskell, Todd Rogers, June Flora, and David Abrams. I first met Jim Sallis at Stanford, and the Stanford connections led me to a most productive collaboration with Bess Marcus.

    The staff of the National Workplace Health Project at Sydney University deserve special thanks. Under the skillful management of David Harris, they have all helped me to be part of an excellent workplace health study.

    The inspiration and personal generosity of international colleagues have been very important to me over the years, particularly Alan Marlatt and Judith Gordon, Stan Maes, David Russell, Gerjo Kok, Amanda Killoran, and Nick Cavill.

    When I moved from the University of Adelaide to Deakin University in 1995, 1 took up the unique and challenging opportunity of setting up a new human movement department. The support of my senior academic colleagues at Deakin, particularly Kerin O'Dea and Lawry St Leger, has been invaluable, as has been the excellent support of Robert Price, Judy Ann Jones, Peter Le Rossignol, Tony Sparrow, and Mark Hargreaves. I must thank all the staff of the School of Human Movement at Deakin University for their loyalty and support.

    Thanking some people generally and some specifically never seems quite right. Very special thanks to Sharon Melder, who has protected my time, given me very good advice, and had an invaluable role in the production of this book. Special thanks also to Lyn Golder, Judy Crowe, and Jenny Rosengrave, and to Shayne Cox and David Owies. The Physical Activity, Fitness and Health research group at Deakin University and our associates have been very good colleagues—thanks to Jenny Veitch, Eva Leslie, Jo Salmon, Sue Mounsey, Jane Burns, Sing Kai Lo, Bill Bellew, Phillip Vita, and Ian Kett. David Crawford's breadth of knowledge, scientific judgment, research skills, patience, and energy are greatly appreciated. James Sallis's presence at Deakin University in 1995 was a most enjoyable, inspiring, and productive episode for all of us. Jim and I started this book at that time. He has written more than his envisaged half share and has been a great coauthor and companion, especially during our bursts of writing and outdoor activity on the wet southern coast of Australia and in the dry Californian desert. I look forward to more of the same and some equally enjoyable future variations.

  • References

    Aaron, D. J., Kriska, A. M., Dearwater, S. R., Cauley, J. A., Metz, K. F., & LaPorte, R. E. (1995). Reproducibility and validity of an epidemiologic questionnaire to assess past year physical activity in adolescents. American Journal of Epidemiology, 142, 191–201.
    Abraham, B., d'Espaignet, E. T., & Stevenson, C. (1995). Australian health trends 1995. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, AGPS.
    Ainsworth, B. E., Berry, C. B., Schnyder, V. N., & Vickers, S. R. (1992). Leisure-time physical activity and aerobic fitness in African-American young adults. Journal of Adolescent Health, 13, 606–611. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1054-139X%2892%2990375-L
    Ainsworth, B. E., Haskell, W. L., Leon, A. S., Jacobs, D. R., Montoye, H., Sallis, J. F., & Paffenbarger, R. S. (1993). Compendium of physical activities: Classification of energy costs of human physical activities. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 25, 71–80.
    Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J.Kuhl & J.Beckman (Eds.), Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp. 11–39). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.
    Allegrante, J. P., Kovar, P. A., MacKenzie, C. R., Peterson, M. G. E., & Gutin, B. (1993). A walking education program for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: Theory and intervention strategies. Health Education Quarterly, 20, 63–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819302000107
    Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey. (1992). London: Sports Council and Health Education Authority.
    Alpert, B. S., & Wilmore, J. H. (1994). Physical activity and blood pressure in adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science, 6, 361–380.
    American College of Sports Medicine. (1978). Position statement on the recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining fitness in healthy adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 10, vii–x.
    American College of Sports Medicine. (1990). Position stand: The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in healthy adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 22, 265–274.
    Andersen, R. E., Crespo, C. J., Bartlett, S. J., Cheskin, L. J., & Pratt, M. (1998). Relationship of physical activity and television watching with body weight and level of fatness among children: Results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279, 938–942. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.279.12.938
    Armstrong, C. A., Sallis, J. F., Hovell, M. F., & Hofstetter, C. R. (1993). Stages of change, self-efficacy, and the adoption of vigorous exercise: A prospective analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 15, 390–402.
    Armstrong, N., & Simons-Morton, B. (1994). Physical activity and blood lipids in adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science, 6, 381–405.
    Bailey, D. A., Faulkner, R.A., & McKay, H. A. (1996). Growth, physical activity, and bone mineral acquisition. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 24, 233–266.
    Bailey, D. A., & Martin, A. D. (1994). Physical activity and skeletal health in adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science, 6, 330–347.
    Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221129.n6
    Baranowski, T. (1988). Validity and reliability of self-report measures of physical activity: An information-processing perspective. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 59, 314–327.
    Baranowski, T., Simons-Morton, B., Hooks, P., Henske, J., Tiernan, K., Dunn, J. K., Burkhalter, H., Harper, J., & Palmer, J. (1990). A center-based program for exercise change among Black-American families. Health Education Quarterly, 17, 179–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819001700205
    Baranowski, T., Thompson, W. O., DuRant, R. H., Baranowski, J., & Puhl, J. (1993). Observations on physical activity in physical locations: Age, gender, ethnicity, and month effects. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64, 127–133.
    Barlow, C. E., Kohl, H. W., Gibbons, L. W., & Blair, S. N. (1995). Physical fitness, mortality, and obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 19(Suppl. 4), S41–S44.
    Bar-Or, O., & Baranowski, T. (1994). Physical activity, adiposity, and obesity among adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science, 6, 348–360.
    Bassert, D. R., Ainsworth, B. E., Leggett, S. R., Mathien, C. A., Main, J. A., Hunter, D. C., & Duncan, G. E. (1996). Accuracy of five electronic pedometers for measuring distance walked. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28, 1071–1077.
    Bauman, A., & Owen, N. (1991). Habitual physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors. Medical Journal of Australia, 154, 22–28.
    Bauman, A., Owen, N., & Rushworth, R. L. (1990). Recent trends and socio-demographic determinants of exercise participation in Australia. Community Health Studies (now Australian Journal of Public Health, 14, 19–26.
    Becker, M. H., & Maiman, L. A. (1975). Sociobehavioral determinants of compliance with health care and medical care recommendations. Medical Care, 13, 10–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005650-197501000-00002
    Berlin, J. A., & Colditz, G. A. (1990). A meta-analysis of physical activity in the prevention of coronary heart disease. American Journal of Epidemiology, 132, 612–628.
    Biddle, S., Sallis, J. F., & Cavill, N. A. (Eds). (1998). Young and Active? Young people and health enhancing physical activity: Evidence and implications. London: Health Education Authority.
    Blair, S. N., Booth, M., Gyarfas, I., Iwane, H., Marti, B., Matsudo, V., Morrow, M. S., Noakes, T., & Shephard, R. (1995). Development of public policy and physical activity initiatives internationally. Sports Medicine, 21, 157–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199621030-00001
    Blair, S. N., & Connelly, J. C. (1996). How much physical activity should we do? The case for moderate amounts and intensities of physical activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 67, 193–205.
    Blair, S. N., Haskell, W. L., Ho, P., Paffenbarger, R. S., Vranizan, K. M., Farquhar, J. W., & Wood, P. D. (1985). Assessment of habitual physical activity by a seven-day recall in a community survey and controlled experiments. American Journal of Epidemiology, 122, 794–804.
    Blair, S. N., Kampert, J. B., Kohl, H. W., Barlow, C. E., Macera, C. A., Paffenbarger, R. S., & Gibbons, L. W. (1996). Influences on cardiorespiratory fitness and other precursors on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in men and women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 276, 205–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1996.03540030039029
    Blair, S. N., Kohl, H. W., Barlow, C. E., Paffenbarger, R. S., Gibbons, L. W., & Macera, C. A. (1995). Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality: A prospective study of healthy and unhealthy men. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 1093–1098. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1995.03520380029031
    Blair, S. N., Kohl, H. W., Gordon, N. F., & Paffenbarger, R. S. (1992). How much physical activity is good for health?Annual Review of Public Health, 13, 99–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pu.13.050192.000531
    Blair, S. N., Kohl, H. W., Paffenbarger, R. S., Clark, D. G., Cooper, K. H., & Gibbons, L. W. (1989). Physical fitness and all-cause mortality: A prospective study of healthy men and women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 262, 2395–2401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1989.03430170057028
    Blair, S. N., Piserchia, P. V., Wilbur, C. S., & Crowder, J. H. (1986). A public health intervention model for worksite health promotion. Journal of the American Medical Association255, 921–926. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1986.03370070075029
    Blake, S. M., Caspersen, C. J., Crow, R., Mittlemark, M. B., & Ringhofer, K. R. (1996). The Shape Up Challenge: A community-based worksite exercise competition. American Journal of Health Promotion, 11, 23–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-11.1.23
    Blumenthal, J. A., Emery, C. F., Madden, D. J., Schniebolk, S., Walsh-Riddle, M., George, L. K., McKee, D. C., Higginbotham, M. B., Cobb, F. R., & Coleman, R. E. (1991). Long-term effects of exercise on psychological functioning in older men and women. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 46, 352–361.
    Bock, B. C., Albrecht, A. E., Traficante, R. M., Clark, M. M., Pinto, B. M., Tilkemeier, P., & Marcus, B. H. (1997). Predictors of exercise adherence following participation in a cardiac rehabilitation program. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4, 60–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327558ijbm0401_4
    Booth, M., Bauman, A., Oldenburg, B., Owen, N., & Magnus, P. (1992). Effects of a national mass-media campaign on physical activity participation. Health Promotion International, 7, 241–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/7.4.241
    Booth, M., Bauman, A., Owen, N., & Gore, C. J. (1997). Physical activity preferences, preferred sources of assistance, and percieved barriers to increased activity among physically-inactive Australians. Preventive Medicine, 26, 131–137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1996.9982
    Booth, M., Owen, N., Bauman, A., & Gore, C. J. (1996a). Relationship between a fourteen-day recall measure of leisure-time physical activity and a sub-maximal test of physical work capacity in a population sample of Australian adults. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 67, 221–227.
    Booth, M., Owen, K., Bauman, A., & Gore, C. J. (1996b). Repeatability of self-reported leisure-time physical activity measures for population surveys. International Journal of Epidemiology, 25, 153–159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/25.1.153
    Borland, R., Owen, N., Hill, D. J., & Chapman, S. (1994). Regulatory innovations, behavior and health: Implications of research on workplace smoking bans. International Review of Health Psychology, 3, 167–185.
    Bracht, N. (Ed.). (1990). Health promotion at the community level. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452204789
    Brownell, K. D., Stunkard, A. J., & Albaum, J. M. (1980). Evaluation and modification of exercise patterns in the natural environment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 1540–1545.
    Brownson, R. C., Smith, C. A., Pratt, M., Mack, N. E., Jackson-Thompson, J., Dean, C. G., Dabney, S., & Wilkerson, J. C. (1996). Preventing cardiovascular disease through community-based risk reduction: The Bootheel heart health project. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 206–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.86.2.206
    Brynteson, P., & Adams, T. M. (1993). The effects of conceptually based physical education programs on attitudes and exercise habits of college alumni after 2 to 11 years of follow-up. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64, 208–212.
    Calfas, K. J., Long, B. J., Sallis, J. F., Wooten, W. J., Pratt, M., & Patrick, K. (1996). A controlled trial of physician counseling to promote the adoption of physical activity. Preventive Medicine, 25, 225–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1996.0050
    Calfas, K. J., Sallis, J. F., Lovato, C. Y., & Campbell, J. (1994). Physical activity and its determinants before and after college graduation. Medicine, Exercise, Nutrition, and Health, 3, 323–334.
    Calfas, K. J., Sallis, J. F., Oldenburg, B., & Ffrench, M. (1997). Mediators of change in physical activity following an intervention in primary care: PACE. Preventive Medicine, 26, 297–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1997.0141
    Calfas, K. J., & Taylor, W. C. (1994). Effects of physical activity on psychological variables in adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science, 6, 406–423.
    Carleton, R. A., Lasater, T. M., Assaf, A. R., Feldman, H. A., & McKinlay, S., & the Pawtucket Heart Health Program Writing Group. (1995). The Pawtucket Heart Health Program: Community changes in cardiovascular risk factors and projected disease risk. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 777–785. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.85.6.777
    Caspersen, C. J., & Merritt, R. K. (1995). Physical activity trends among 26 states, 1986–1990. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27, 713–720.
    Caspersen, C. J., Merritt, R. K., & Stephens, T. (1994). International activity patterns: A methodological perspective. In R. K.Dishman (Ed.), Advances in exercise adherence (pp. 73–110). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Caspersen, C. J., Powell, K. E., & Christenson, G. M. (1985). Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: Definition and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports, 100, 126–131.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1997). Guidelines for school and community programs to promote lifelong physical activity among young people. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 46(RR-6), 1–36.
    Coen, S. P., & Ogles, B. M. (1993). Psychological characteristics of the obligatory runner: A critical examination of the anorexia analogue hypothesis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 15, 338–354.
    Coleman, K. J., Saelens, B. E., Wiedrich-Smith, M. D., Finn, J. D., & Epstein, L. H. (1997). Relationships between TriTrac-R3D vectors, heart rate, and self-report in obese children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, 1535–1542.
    Commonwealth Department of Human Services and Health. (1994). Better health outcomes for Australians. Canberra, Australia: Government Publishing Service.
    Corbin, C. B. (1994). The fitness curriculum: Climbing the stairway to lifetime fitness. In R. R.Pate & R. C.Hohn (Eds.), Health and fitness through physical education (pp. 59–66). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Corti, B., Donovan, R. J., & Holman, C. D. (1997). Factors influencing the use of physical activity facilities: Results from qualitative research. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 7, 16–21.
    Courneya, K. S. (1995). Understanding readiness for regular physical activity in older individuals: An application of the theory of planned behavior. Health Psychology, 14, 80–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.14.1.80
    Courneya, K. S., & McAuley, E. (1994). Are there different determinants of the frequency, intensity, and duration of physical activity?Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 20, 84–90.
    Daltroy, L. H. (1985). Improving cardiac patient adherence to exercise regimens: A clinical trial of health education. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, 9, 846–853.
    Davis, G., Brewer, H., & Ratusny, D. (1993). Behavioral frequency and psychological commitment: Necessary concepts in the study of excessive exercising. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 26, 611–628.
    Davis, C., & Fox, J. (1993). Excessive exercise and weight preoccupation in women. Addictive Behaviors, 18, 201–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603%2893%2990050-J
    DeBusk, R. F., Miller, N. H., Superko, H. R., Dennis, C. A., Thomas, R. J., Lew, H. T., Berger, W. E., III, Heller, R. S., Rompf, J., Gee, D., Kraemer, H. C., Bandura, A., Ghandour, G., Clark, M., Fisher, L., & Taylor, C. B. (1994). A case management system for coronary risk factor modification following acute myocardial infarction. Annals of Internal Medicine, 120, 721–729.
    DeBusk, R. F., Stenestrand, U., Sheehan, M., & Haskell, W. L. (1990). Training effects of long versus short bouts of exercise in healthy subjects. American Journal of Cardiology, 65, 1010–1013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0002-9149%2890%2991005-Q
    De Weerdt, I., Visser, A. P., Kok, G., & Van Der Veen, E. (1990). Determinants of active self-care behaviour of insulin treated patients with diabetes: Implications for diabetes education. Social Science and Medicine, 30, 605–615.
    Dietz, W. H., & Gortmaker, S. L. (1985). Do we fatten our children at the television set? Obesity and television viewing in children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 75, 807–812.
    DiMatteo, M. R., Sherbourne, C. D., Hays, R. D., Ordway, L., Kravitz, R. L., McGlynn, E. A., Kaplan, S., & Rogers, W. H. (1993). Physicians' characteristics influence patients' adherence to medical treatment: Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Health Psychology, 12, 93–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.12.2.93
    DiPietro, L. (1995). Physical activity, body weight, and adiposity: An epidemiologic perspective. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 23, 275–303.
    DiPietro, L. (1996). The epidemiology of physical activity and physical function in older people. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28, 596–600.
    Dishman, R. K. (Ed.). (1988). Exercise adherence: Its impact on public health. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1981.10483752
    Dishman, R. K. (1990). Determinants of participation in physical activity. In C.Bouchard, R. J.Shephard, T.Stephens, J. R.Sutton, & B. D.McPherson (Eds.), Exercise, fitness, and health: A consensus of current knowledge (pp. 75–102). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Dishman, R. K., & Buckworth, J. (1996). Increasing physical activity: A quantitative synthesis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28, 706–719.
    Dishman, R. K., & Sallis, J. F. (1994). Determinants and interventions for physical activity and exercise. In C.Bouchard, R. J.Shephard, & T.Stephens (Eds.), Physical activity, fitness, and health: International proceedings and consensus statement (pp. 214–238). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Dishman, R. K., Sallis, J. F., & Orenstein, D. R. (1985). The determinants of physical activity and exercise. Public Health Reports, 100, 158–171.
    Donovan, R. J., & Owen, N. (1994). Social marketing and population interventions. In R. K.Dishman (Ed.), Advances in exercise adherence (pp. 249–290). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Drinkwater, B. L. (1994). Does physical activity play a role in preventing osteoporosis?Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 65, 197–206.
    Drury, T. F. (Ed.). (1989). Assessing physical fitness and physical activity in population-based surveys (DHHS Publication No. PHS 89-1253). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Duncan, T. E., Duncan, S. C., & McAuley, E. (1993). The role of domain and gender-specific provisions of social relations in adherence to a prescribed exercise regimen. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 15, 220–231.
    Dunn, A. L., Marcus, B. H., Kampert, J. B., Garcia, M. E., Kohl, H. W., & Blair, S. N. (1997). Reduction in cardiovascular disease risk factors: 6-month results from Project Active. Preventive Medicine, 26, 883–892. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1997.0218
    DuRant, R. H., Baranowski, T., Davis, H., Rhodes, X., Thompson, W. O., Greaves, K. A., & Puhl, J. (1993). Reliability and variability of indicators of heart-rate monitoring in children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 15, 389–395.
    Durstine, J. L., & Haskell, W. L. (1994). Effects of exercise training on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 22, 477–521.
    Dwyer, T., Coonan, W. E., Leitch, D. R., Hetzel, B. S., & Baghurst, R. A. (1983). An investigation of the effects of daily physical activity on the health of primary school students in South Australia. International Journal of Epidemiology, 12, 308–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/12.3.308
    Dwyer, T., & Grey, J. (1994). The epidemiology of exercise and obesity: An Australian perspective. In A. P.Hills & M. L.Wahlqvist (Eds.), Exercise and obesity (pp. 23–31). London: Smith-Gordon.
    Ebrahim, S., & Smith, G. D. (1997). Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of multiple risk factor interventions for preventing coronary heart disease. British Medical Journal, 314, 1666–1674. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.314.7095.1666
    Emery, C. F., Hauck, E. R., & Blumenthal, J. A. (1992). Exercise adherence or maintenance among older adults: 1-year follow-up study. Psychology and Aging, 7, 466–470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.7.3.466
    Emmons, K. M., Marcus, B. H., Linnan, L., Rossi, J. S., & Abrams, D. B. (1994). Mechanisms in multiple risk factor interventions: Smoking, physical activity, and dietary fat among manufacturing workers. Preventive Medicine, 23, 481–489. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1994.1066
    Epstein, L. H., Myers, M. D., Raynor, H. A., & Saelens, B. E. (1998). Treatment of pediatric obesity. Pediatrics, 101(Suppl.), 554–570.
    Epstein, L. H., Saelens, B. E., & O'Brien, J. G. (1995). Effects of reinforcing increases in active behavior versus decreases in sedentary behavior for obese children. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2, 41–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327558ijbm0201_4
    Epstein, L. H., Valoski, A. M., Vara, L. S., McCurley, J., Wisniewski, L., Kalarchian, M. A., Klein, K. R., & Shrager, L. R. (1995). Effects of decreasing sedentary behavior and increasing activity on weight change in obese children. Health Psychology, 14, 109–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.14.2.109
    Epstein, L. H., Valoski, A., Wing, R. R., & McCurley, J. (1994). Ten-year outcomes of behavioral family-based treatment for childhood obesity. Health Psychology, 13, 373–383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.13.5.373
    Epstein, L. H., Wing, R. R., Koeske, R., & Valoski, A. (1985). A comparison of lifestyle exercise, aerobic exercise, and calisthenics on weight loss in obese children. Behavior Therapy, 16, 345–356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894%2885%2980002-2
    Fagard, R. H., & Tipton, C. M. (1994). Physical activity, fitness, and hypertension. In C.Bouchard, R. J.Shephard, & T.Stephens (Eds.), Physical activity, fitness, and health: International proceedings and consensus statement (pp. 633–655). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Fentem, P., & Walker, A. (1994). Setting targets for England: Challenging, measurable and achievable. In A.Killoran, P.Fentem, & C. J.Caspersen (Eds.), Moving on: International perspectives on promoting physical activity (pp. 58–76). London: Health Education Authority.
    Fiatarone, M. A., O'Neill, E. F., Ryan, N. D., Clements, K. M., Solares, G. R., Nelson, M. E., Roberts, S. B., Kehayias, J. J., Lipsitz, L. A., & Evans, W. J. (1994). Exercise training and nutritional supplementation for physical frailty in very elderly people. New England Journal of Medicine, 330, 1769–1775. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199406233302501
    Fielding, J. E. (1984). Health promotion and disease prevention at the worksite. Annual Review of Public Health, 5, 237–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pu.05.050184.001321
    Fisher, E. B. (1995). The results of the COMMIT Trial. American Journal of Public Health, 2, 159–160.
    Flora, J. A., Maibach, E. W., & Maccoby, N. (1989). The role of media across four levels of health promotion intervention. Annual Review of Public Health, 10, 181–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pu.10.050189.001145
    Flores, R. (1995). Dance for health: Improving fitness in African American and Hispanic adolescents. Public Health Reports, 110, 189–192.
    Folsom, A. R., Jacobs, D. R., Caspersen, C. J., Gomez-Marin, O., & Knudsen, J. (1986). Test-retest reliabilities of the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Journal of Chronic Disease, 39, 505–511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9681%2886%2990195-5
    Folsom, A. R., Prineas, R. J., Kaye, S. A., & Munger, R. G. (1990). Incidence of hypertension and stroke in relation to body fat distribution and other risk factors in older women. Stroke, 21, 701–706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.21.5.701
    Friedenreich, C. M., & Rohan, T. E. (1995). A review of physical activity and breast cancer. Epidemiology, 6, 311–317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001648-199505000-00021
    Glasgow, R. E., & Terborg, J. R. (1988). Occupational health promotion programs to reduce cardiovascular risk. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 365–373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.56.3.365
    Godin, G. (1994). Theories of reasoned action and planned behavior: Usefulness for exercise promotion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, 1391–1394.
    Godin, G., Desharnais, R., Jobin, J., & Cook, J. (1987). The impact of physical fitness and health-age appraisal upon exercise intentions and behavior. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 10, 241–250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00846538
    Godin, G., & Shephard, R. J. (1985). A simple method to assess exercise behavior in the community. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science, 10, 141–146.
    Godin, G., Valois, P., Jobin, J., & Ross, A. (1991). Prediction of intention to exercise of individuals who have suffered from coronary heart disease. oHrW of Clinical Psychology, 47, 762–772. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28199111%2947:6%3C762::AID-JCLP2270470606%3E3.0.CO;2-T
    Godin, G., Valois, P., & Lepage, L. (1993). The pattern of influence of perceived behavioral control upon exercising behavior: An application of Ajzen's theory of planned behavior. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 81–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00844756
    Gomel, M., Oldenburg, B., Simpson, J., & Owen, N. (1993). Worksite cardiovascular risk reduction: Randomized trial of health risk assessment, risk factor education, behavioral counseling and incentive strategies. American Journal of Public Health, 83, 1231–1238. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.83.9.1231
    Gorely, T., & Gordon, S. (1995). An examination of the transtheoretical model and exercise behavior in older adults. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17, 3, 12–324.
    Graham-Clarke, P., & Oldenburg, B. (1994). The effectiveness of a general-practice-based physical activity intervention on patient physical activity status. Behavior Change, 11, 132–144.
    Green, J. S., & Crouse, S. F. (1995). The effects of endurance training on functional capacity in the elderly: A meta-analysis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27, 920–926.
    Greendale, G. A., Barrett-Connor, E., Edelstein, S., Ingles, S., & Haile, R. (1995). Lifetime leisure exercise and osteoporosis: The Rancho Bernardo Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 141, 951–959.
    Greist, J. H., Klein, M. H., Eischens, R. R., Gurman, A. S., & Morgan, W. P. (1979). Running as treatment for depression. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 20, 41–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-440X%2879%2990058-0
    Grilo, C. M. (1995). The role of physical activity in weight loss and weight loss management. Medicine, Exercise, Nutrition, and Health, 4, 60–76.
    Gross, L. D., Sallis, J. F., Buono, M. J., Roby, J. J., & Nelson, J. A. (1990). Reliability of interviewers using the seven-day physical activity recall. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 61, 321–325.
    Gruber, J. J. (1986). Physical activity and self-esteem development in children: A meta-analysis. In G. A.Stull & H. M.Eckert (Eds.), Effects of physical activity on children (pp. 30–48). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Gudat, W., Berger, M., & Lefebvre, P. J. (1994). Physical activity, fitness, and non-insulin-dependent (Type II) diabetes mellitus. In C.Bouchard, R. J.Shephard, & T.Stephens (Eds.), Physical activity, fitness, and health: International proceedings and consensus statement (pp. 669–683). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Hahn, R. A., Teutsch, S. M., Rothenberg, R. B., & Marks, J. S. (1990). Excess deaths from nine chronic diseases in the United States, 1986. Journal of the American Medical Association, 264, 2654–2659. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1990.03450200062032
    Haraldsdottir, J., & Andersen, L. B. (1994). Dietary factors related to fitness in young men and women. Preventive Medicine, 23, 490–497. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1994.1067
    Haskell, W. L. (1994a). Dose-response issues from a biological perspective. In C.Bouchard, R. J.Shephard, & T.Stephens (Eds.), Physical activity, fitness, and health: International proceedings and consensus statement (pp. 1030–1039). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Haskell, W. L. (1994b). Health consequences of physical activity: Understanding and challenges regarding dose-response. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, 649–660.
    Haskell, W. L., Montoye, H. J., & Orenstein, D. (1985). Physical activity and exercise to achieve health-related physical fitness components. Public Health Reports, 100, 202–212.
    Haskell, W. L., Yee, M. C., Evans, A., & Irby, P. J. (1993). Simultaneous measurement of heart rate and body motion to quantitate physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 25, 109–115.
    Hausenblas, H. A., Carron, A. V., & Mack, D. E. (1997). Application of theories of reasoned action and planned behavior to exercise behavior: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 39, 36–51.
    Hawkes, J. M., & Holm, K. (1993). Gender differences in exercise determinants. Nursing Research, 42, 166–172.
    Hill, J. O., Drougas, H. J., & Peters, J. C. (1994). Physical activity, fitness, and moderate obesity. In C.Bouchard, R. J.Shephard, & T.Stephens (Eds.), Physical activity, fitness, and health (pp. 684–695). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Hofstetter, C. R., Hovell, M. F., Macera, C., Sallis, J. F., Spry, V., Barrington, E., & Callender, C. (1991). Illness, injury, and correlates of aerobic exercise and walking: A community study. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 62, 1–9.
    Hopkins, D. R., Murrah, B., Hoeger, W. W. K., & Rhodes, R. C. (1990). Effect of low-impact aerobic dance on the functional fitness of elderly women. The Gerontologist, 30, 189–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/30.2.189
    Home, T. E. (1994). Predictors of physical activity intentions and behaviour for rural homemakers. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 85, 132–135.
    Hovell, M. F., Barrington, E., Hofstetter, R., Sallis, J. F., Black, D., & Rauh, M. (1990). Correlates of physical activity in overweight and not overweight persons: An assessment. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 90, 1260.
    Hovell, M. F., Hofstetter, C. R., Sallis, J. F., Rauh, M. J. D., & Barrington, E. (1992). Correlates of change in walking for exercise: An exploratory analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 63, 425–434.
    Hovell, M., Sallis, J., Hofstetter, R., Barrington, E., Hackley, M., Elder, J., Castro, F., & Kilbourne, K. (1991). Identification of correlates of physical activity among Latino adults: An exploratory analysis. Journal of Community Health, 62, 23–36.
    Hovell, M. F., Sallis, J. F., Hofstetter, C. R., Spry, V. M., Elder, J. F., Faucher, P., & Caspersen, C. J. (1989). Identifying correlates of walking for exercise: An epidemiologic prerequisite for physical activity promotion. Preventive Medicine, 18, 856–866. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-7435%2889%2990021-2
    Huijbrechts, I. P., Erdman, R. A. M., Duivenvoorden, H. J., Deckers, J. W., Leenders, I. C. M., Pop, G. A. M., & Passchier, J. (1997). Modification of physical activity 5 months after myocardial infarction: Relevance of biographic and personality characteristics. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4, 76–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327558ijbm0401_5
    Jaglal, S. B., Kreiger, N., & Darlington, G. A. (1995). Lifetime occupational physical activity and risk of hip fracture in women. Annals of Epidemiology, 5, 321–324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1047-2797%2894%2900100-8
    Jakicic, J. M., Wing, R. R., Butler, B. A., & Jeffery, K. W. (1997). The relationship between presence of exercise equipment in the home and physical activity level. American Journal of Health Promotion, 11, 363–365. http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-11.5.363
    Janz, K. F. (1994). Validation of the CSA accelerometer for assessing children's physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, 369–375.
    Jeffery, R. W. (1989). Risk behaviors and health: Contrasting individual and population perspectives. American Psychologist, 44, 1194–1202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.9.1194
    Jeffery, R. W., French, S. A., Forster, J. L., & Spry, V. M. (1991). Socioeconomic status differences in health behaviors related to obesity: The Healthy Worker Project. International Journal of Obesity, 15, 689–696.
    Johnson, C. A., Corrigan, S. A., Dubbert, P. M., & Gramling, S. E. (1990). Perceived barriers to exercise and weight control practices in community women. Women & Health, 16, 177–191.
    Kahn, H. S., Tatham, L. M., Rodriguez, C., Calle, E. E., Thun, M. J., & Heath, G. W. (1997). Stable behaviors associated with adults' 10-year change in body mass index and likelihood of gain at the waist. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 747–754. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.87.5.747
    Kaplan, R. M., & Bush, J. W. (1982). Health-related quality of life measurement for evaluation research and policy analysis. Health Psychology, 1, 61–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.1.1.61
    Kayman, S., Bruvold, W., & Stern, J. S. (1990). Maintenance and relapse after weight loss in women: Behavioral aspects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, S2, 800–807.
    Kelder, S. H., Perry, C. L., & Klepp, K. I. (1993). Community-wide youth exercise promotion: Long term outcomes of the Minnesota Heart Health Program and the Class of 1989 study. Journal of School Health, 63, 218–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.1993.tb06125.x
    Kelley, G. A., & Kelley, K. S. (1994). Physical activity habits of African-American college students. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 65, 207–212.
    Kelley, G. A., & McClellan, E. (1994). Antihypertensive effects of aerobic exercise: A brief meta-analytic review of randomized controlled trials. American Journal of Hypertension, 7, 115–119.
    Kendzierski, D., & DeCarlo, K. J. (1991). Physical activity enjoyment scale: Two validation studies. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 13, 50–64.
    Kendzierski, D., & Johnson, W. (1993). Excuses, excuses, excuses: A cognitive behavioral approach to exercise implementation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 15, 207–219.
    Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., et al. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III psychiatric disorders in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 3–19.
    Killen, J. D., Telch, M. J., Robinson, T. N., Maccoby, N., Taylor, C. B., & Farquhar, J. W. (1988). Cardiovascular disease risk reduction for tenth graders: A multiple-factor school-based approach. Journal of the American Medical Association, 260, 1728–1733. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1988.03410120074030
    Killoran, A., Fentem, P., & Caspersen, C. J. (Eds.). (1994). Moving on: International perspectives on promoting physical activity. London: Health Education Authority. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J105v18n01_10
    King, A. C. (1994). Community and public health approaches to the promotion of physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, 1405–1412.
    King, A. C., Frey-Hewitt, B., Dreon, D. M., & Wood, P. D. (1989). Diet vs. exercise in weight maintenance: The effects of minimal intervention strategies on long-term outcomes in men. Archives of Internal Medicine, 149, 2741–2746. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1989.00390120085017
    King, A. C., Haskell, W. L., Taylor, C. B., Kraemer, H. C., & DeBusk, R. F. (1991). Group- vs. home-based exercise training in healthy older men and women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 266, 1535–1542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1991.03470110081037
    King, A. C., Haskell, W. L., Young, D. R., Oka, R. K., & Stefanick, M. L. (1995). Long-term effects of varying intensities and formats of physical activity on participation rates, fitness, and lipoproteins in men and women aged 50 to 65 years. Circulation, 91, 2596–2604. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.91.10.2596
    King, A. C., Jeffery, R. W., Fridinger, F., Dusenbury, L., Provence, S., Hedlund, S. A., & Spangler, K. (1995). Community and policy approaches to cardiovascular disease prevention through physical activity: Issues and opportunities. Health Education Quarterly, 22, 499–511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819502200407
    King, A. C., Kiernan, M., Oman, R. F., Kraemer, H. C., & Ahn, D. (1997). Can we identify who will adhere to long-term physical activity? Signal detection methodology as a potential aid to clinical decision making. Health Psychology, 16, 380–389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.16.4.380
    King, A. C., Oman, R. F., Brassington, G. S., Bliwise, D. L., & Haskell, W. L. (1997). Moderate-intensity exercise and self-rated quality of sleep in older adults: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277, 32–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1997.03540250040029
    King, A. C., Taylor, C. B., Haskell, W. L., & DeBusk, R. F. (1989). Influence of regular aerobic exercise on psychological health: A randomized, controlled trial of healthy middle-aged adults. Health Psychology, 8, 305–342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.8.3.305
    King, A. J. C., & Coles, B. (1992). The health of Canada's youth: Views and behaviours of 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from 11 countries. Ottawa, Canada: Minister of National Health and Welfare.
    Klesges, R. C., Eck, L. H., Hanson, C. L., Haddock, C. K., & Klesges, L. M. (1990). Effects of obesity, social interactions, and physical environment on physical activity in preschoolers. Health Psychology, 9, 435–449. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.9.4.435
    Klonoff, E. A., Annechild, A., & Landrine, H. (1994). Predicting exercise adherence in women: The role of psychological and physiological factors. Preventive Medicine, 23, 257–262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1994.1036
    Kohl, H. W., Powell, K. E., Gordon, N. F., Blair, S. N., & Paffenbarger, R. S. (1992). Physical activity, physical fitness, and sudden cardiac death. Epidemiologic Reviews, 14, 37–58.
    Koplan, J. P., Rothenberg, R. B., & Jones, E. L. (1995). The natural history of exercise: A 10-yr follow-up of a cohort of runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27, 1180–1184.
    Kriska, A. M., Blair, S. N., & Pereira, M. A. (1994). The potential role of physical activity in the prevention of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: The epidemiological evidence. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 22, 121–143.
    Kuczmarski, R. J., Flegal, K. M., Campbell, S. M., & Johnson, C. L. (1994). The increasing prevalence of overweight among US adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1960 to 1991. Journal of the American MedicalAssociation, 272, 205–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1994.03520030047027
    Kumanyika, S., Wilson, J. F., & Guilford-Davenport, M. (1993). Weight-related attitudes and behaviors of black women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 93, 416–422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0002-8223%2893%2992287-8
    Kumpusalo, E., Neittaanmaki, L., Halonen, P., Pekkarinen, H., Penttila, I., & Parviainen, M. (1996). Finnish healthy village study: Impact and outcomes of a low-cost health promotion programme. Health Promotion International, 11, 105–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/11.2.105
    Landers, D. M., & Petruzzello, S. J. (1994). Physical activity, fitness, and anxiety. In C.Bouchard, R. J.Shephard, & T.Stephens (Eds.), Physical activity, fitness, and health: International proceedings and consensus statement (pp. 878–882). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    LaPerriere, A., Ironson, G., Antoni, M. H., Schneiderman, N., Klimas, N., & Fletcher, M. A. (1994). Exercise and psychoneuroimmunology. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, 182–190.
    LaPorte, R. E., Montoye, H. J., & Caspersen, C. J. (1985). Assessment of physical activity in epidemiological research: Problems and prospects. Public Health Reports, 100, 131–146.
    Leatt, P., Hattin, H., WestC., & Shepard, R. J. (1988). Seven year follow up of employee fitness programme. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 79, 20–25.
    Lee, C. (1993). Attitudes, knowledge, and stages of change: A survey of exercise patterns in older Australian women. Health Psychology, 12, 476–480. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.12.6.476
    LeeI-M. (1994). Physical activity, fitness, and cancer. In C.Bouchard, R. J.Shephard, & T.Stephens (Eds.), Physical activity, fitness, and health (pp. 814–831). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Leon, A. S., Connett, J., Jacobs, D. R., & Rauramaa, R. (1987). Leisure-time physical activity levels and risk of coronary heart disease and death: The Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 258, 2388–2395. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1987.03400170074026
    Lewis, C. E., Raczynski, J. M., Heath, G. W., Levinson, R., Hilyer, J. C., & Cutter, G. R. (1993). Promoting physical activity in low-income African-American communities: The PARR project. Ethnicity and Disease, 3, 106–118.
    Linenger, J. M., Chesson, C. V., & Nice, D. S. (1991). Physical fitness gains following simple environmental change. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 7, 298–310.
    Lissner, L., Bengtsson, C., Bjorkelund, C., & Wedel, H. (1996). Physical activity levels and changes in relation to longevity: A prospective study of Swedish women. American Journal of Epidemiology, 143, 54–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a008657
    Logsdon, D. N., Lazaro, M. A., & Meir, R. V. (1989). The feasibility of behavioral risk reduction in primary medical care. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5, 249–256.
    Lombard, D. N., Lombard, T. N., & Winert, R. A. (1995). Walking to meet health guidelines: The effect of prompting frequency and prompt structure. Health Psychology, 14, 164–170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.14.2.164
    Long, B. J., Calfas, K. J., Wooten, W. J., Sallis, J. F., Patrick, K. M., Goldstein, M., Marcus, B. H., Schwenk, T. L., Chenoweth, J., Carter, R., Torres, T., Palinkas, L. A., & Heath, G. (1996). A multisite field test of the acceptability of physical activity counseling in primary care: Project PACE. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 12, 73–81.
    Lord, S. R., Caplan, G. A., & Ward, J. A. (1993). Balance, reaction time and muscle strength in exercising and non exercising older women. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 74, 837–839. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-9993%2893%2990010-8
    Lovato, C. Y., & Green, L. W. (1990). Maintaining employee participation in workplace health promotion programs. Health Education Quarterly, 17, 73–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819001700108
    Luepker, R. V., Murray, D. M., Jacobs, D. R., Mittelmark, M. B., Bracht, N., Carlaw, R., Crow, R., Elmer, P., Finnegan, J., Folsom, A. R., Grimm, R., Hannan, P. J., Jeffery, R., Lando, H., McGovern, P., Mullis, R., Perry, C. L., Pechacek, T., Pirie, P., Sprafka, J. M., Weisbrod, R., & Blackburn, H. (1994). Community education for cardiovascular disease prevention: Risk factor changes in the Minnesota Heart Health Program. American Journal of Public Health, 84, 1383–1393. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.84.9.1383
    Luepker, R. V., Perry, C. L., McKinlay, S. M., Nader, P. R., Parcel, G. S., Stone, E. J., Webber, L. S., Elder, J. F., Feldman, H. A., Johnson, C. C., Kelder, S. H., & Wu, M. (1996). Outcomes of a field trial to improve children's dietary patterns and physical activity: The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH). Journal of the American Medical Association, 275, 768–776. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1996.03530340032026
    Macera, C. A., Croft, J. B., Brown, D. R., Ferguson, J. E., & Lane, M. J. (1995). Predictors of adopting leisure-time physical activity among a biracial community cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology, 142, 629–635.
    Macera, C. A., & Wooten, W. (1994). Epidemiology of sports and recreation injuries among adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science, 6, 424–433.
    Manson, J. E., Nathan, D. M., Krolewski, A. S., Stampfer, M. J., Willett, W. C., & Hennekens, C. H. (1992). A prospective study of exercise and incidence of diabetes among US male physicians. Journal of the American Medical Association, 268, 63–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1992.03490010065031
    Manson, J. E., Rimm, E. B., Stampfer, M. J., Colditz, G. A., Willett, W. C., Krolewski, A. S., Rosner, B., Hennekens, C. H., & Speizer, F. E. (1991). Physical activity and incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. Lancet, 338, 774–778. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736%2891%2990664-B
    Marcus, B. H., Pinto, B. M., Simkin, L. R., Audrain, J. E., & Taylor, E. R. (1994). Application of theoretical models to exercise behavior among employed women. American Journal of Health Promotion, 9, 49–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-9.1.49
    Marcus, B. H., Rakowski, W., & Rossi, J. S. (1992). Assessing motivational readiness and decision making for exercise. Health Psychology, 11, 257–261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.11.4.257
    Marcus, B. H., Rossi, J. S., Selby, V. C., Niaura, R. S., & Abrams, D. B. (1992). The stages and processes of exercise adoption and maintenance in a worksite sample. Health Psychology, 11, 386–395. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.11.6.386
    Marcus, B. H., & Simkin, L. R. (1994). The transtheoretical model: Applications to exercise behavior. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 11, 1400–1404.
    Marcus, B. H., Simkin, L. R., Rossi, J. S., & Pinto, B. M. (1996). Longitudinal shifts in employees' stages and processes of exercise behavior change. American Journal of Health Promotion, 10, 195–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-10.3.195
    Marcus, B. H., & Stanton, A. L. (1993). Evaluation of relapse prevention and reinforcement interventions to promote exercise adherence in sedentary females. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64, 447–452.
    Marlatt, G. A., & Gordon, J. R. (1985). Relapse prevention: Maintenance strategies in the treatment of addictive behaviors. New York: Guilford. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-374348-0.00011-2
    Martin, J. E., Dubbert, P. M., Kartell, A. D., Thompson, J. K., Raczynski, J. R., Lake, M., Smith, P. O., Webster, J. S., Sikora, T., & Cohen, R. E. (1984). Behavioral control of exercise in sedentary adults: Studies 1 through 6. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 795–811. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.52.5.795
    Martinsen, E. W., & Stephens, T. (1994). Exercise and mental health in clinical and free-living populations. In R. K.Dishman (Ed.), Advances in exercise adherence (pp. 55–72). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Mayer, J. A., Hermanovich, A., Wright, B. L., Elder, J. P., Drew, J. A., & Williams, S. J. (1994). Changes in health behaviors of older adults: The San Diego Medicare Preventive Health Project. Preventive Medicine, 23, 127–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1994.1018
    McAuley, E. (1992). The role of efficacy cognitions in the prediction of exercise behavior in middle-aged adults. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15, 65–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00848378
    McAuley, E. (1993). Self-efficacy and the maintenance of exercise participation in older adults. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 103–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00844757
    McAuley, E. (1994). Physical activity and psychosocial outcomes. In C.Bouchard, R. J.Shephard, & T.Stephens (Eds.), Physical activity, fitness, and health: International proceedings and consensus statement (pp. 551–568). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    McAuley, E., Courneya, K. S., Rudolph, D. L., & Lox, C. L. (1994). Enhancing exercise adherence in middle-aged males and females. Preventive Medicine, 23, 498–506. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1994.1068
    McAuley, E., Lox, C., & Duncan, T. E. (1993). Long-term maintenance of exercise, self-efficacy, and physiological change in older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 48, 218–224.
    McAuley, E., & Rudolph, D. (1995). Physical activity, aging, and psychological well-being. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 3, 67–96.
    McKenzie, T. L. (1991). Observational measures of children's physical activity. Journal of School Health, 61, 224–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.1991.tb06019.x
    McKenzie, T. L., Faucette, F. N., Sallis, J. F., Roby, J. J., & Kolody, B. (1993). Effects of a curriculum and inservice program on the quantity and quality of elementary physical education classes. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64, 178–187.
    McKenzie, T. L., Nader, P. R., Strikmiller, P. K., Yang, M., Stone, E. J., Perry, C. L., Taylor, W. C., Epping, J. N., Feldman, H. A., Luepker, R. V., & Kelder, S. H. (1996). School physical education: Effect of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. Preventive Medicine, 25, 423–431. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1996.0074
    McKenzie, T. L., Sallis, J. F., Kolody, B., & Faucette, F. N. (1997). Long-term effects of a physical education curriculum and staff development program: SPARK. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 68, 280–291.
    McKenzie, T. L., Sallis, J. F., Nader, P. R., Broyles, S. L., & Nelson, J. A. (1992). Anglo- and Mexican-American preschoolers at home and at recess: Activity patterns and environmental influences. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 13, 173–180.
    McKenzie, T. L., Sallis, J. F., Nader, P. R., Patterson, T. L., Elder, J. P., Berry, C. C., Rupp, J. W., Atkins, C. J., Buono, M. J., & Nelson, J. A. (1991). BEACHES: An observational system for assessing children's eating and physical activity behaviors and associated events. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 141–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1991.24-141
    McLeroy, K. R., Bibeau, D., Steckler, A., & Glanz, K. (1988). An ecological perspective on health promotion programs. Health Education Quarterly, 15, 351–377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019818801500401
    Melanson, E. L., & Freedson, P. S. (1995). Validity of the Computer Science and Applications, Inc. (CSA) monitor. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27, 934–940.
    Minor, M. A., & Brown, J. D. (1993). Exercise maintenance of persons with anhritis after participation in a class experience. Health Education Quarterly, 20, 83–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819302000108
    Mondin, G. W., Morgan, W. P., Piering, P. N., Stegner, A. J., Stotesbery, C. L., Trine, M. R., & Wu, M. Y. (1996). Psychological consequences of exercise deprivation in habitual exercisers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28, 1199–1203.
    Montoye, H. J., Kemper, H. C. G., Saris, W. H. M., & Washburn, R. A. (1996). Measuring physical activity and energy expenditure. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200009001-00001
    Morgan, W. R. (1994). Physical activity, fitness, and depression. In C.Bouchard, R. J.Shephard, & T.Stephens (Eds.), Physical activity, fitness, and health: International proceedings and consensus statement (pp. 851–867). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Morris, J. N., Heady, J. A., Raffle, P. A. B., Roberts, C. G., & Parks, J. A. (1953). Coronary heart disease and physical activity of work. Lancer, 2, 1053–1057, 1111–1120.
    Morris, M., Steinberg, H., Sykes, E. A., & Salmon, P. (1990). Effects of temporary withdrawal from regular running. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 34, 493–500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999%2890%2990023-W
    Morrow, J. R., & Freedson, P. S. (1994). Relationship between habitual physical activity and aerobic fitness in adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science, 6, 315–329.
    Moses, J., Steptoe, A., Mathews, A., & Edwards, S. (1989). The effects of exercise training on mental well-being in the normal population: A controlled trial. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 33, 47–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999%2889%2990105-0
    Myers, R. S., & Roth, D. L. (1997). Perceived benefits of and barriers to exercise and stage of exercise adoption in young adults. Health Psychology, 16, 277–283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.16.3.277
    Nader, P. R., Sallis, J. F., Patterson, T. L., Abramson, I. S., Rupp, J. W., Senn, K. L., Atkins, C. J., Roppe, B. E., Morris, J. A., Wallace, J. P., & Vega, W. A. (1989). A family approach to cardiovascular risk reduction: Results from the San Diego Family Health Project. Health Education Quarterly, 16, 229–244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019818901600207
    National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Panel on Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health. (1996). Physical activity and cardiovascular health. Journal of the American Medical Association, 276, 241–246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1996.03540030075036
    Neuberger, G. B., Kasal, S., Smith, K. V., Hassanein, R., & DeViney, S. (1994). Determinants of exercise and aerobic fitness in outpatients with arthritis. Nursing Research, 43, 11–17.
    Newman, W. P., Freedman, D. S., Voors, A. W., Good, P. D., Srinivasan, S. R., Cresanta, S. L., Williamson, G. D., Webber, L. S., & Berenson, G. S. (1986). Relation of serum lipoprotein levels and systolic blood pressure to early atherosclerosis: The Bogalusa heart study. New England Journal of Medicine, 314, 138–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198601163140302
    Noland, M. P. (1989). The effects of self-monitoring and reinforcement on exercise adherence. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 60, 216–224.
    Ockene, J. K., McBride, P. E., Sallis, J. F., Bonollo, D. P., & Ockene, I. S. (1997). Synthesis of lessons learned from cardiopulmonary preventive interventions in healthcare practice settings. Annals of Epidemiology, 7(Suppl.), S32–S45.
    O'Connor, P. J., Bryant, C. X., Veltri, J. P., & Gebhardt, S. M. (1993). State anxiety and ambulatory blood pressure following resistance exercise in females. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 25, 516–521.
    O'Connor, P. J., & Youngstedt, S. D. (1995). Influence of exercise on human sleep. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 23, 105–134.
    O'Dea, K. (1991). Westernization and non-insulin-dependent diabetes in Australian Aborigines. Ethnicity and Disease, 1, 171–187.
    Oettle, G. J. (1991). Effect of moderate exercise on bowel habit. Gut, 32, 941–944. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.32.8.941
    Oldenburg, B., Hardcastle, D. M., & Kok, G. (1997). Diffusion of innovations. In K.Glanz, F. M.Lewis, & B. K.Rimer (Eds.), Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 270–286). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Oldridge, N. B., Guyatt, G. H., Fischer, M. E., & Rimm, A. (1988). Cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction: Combined experience of randomized trials. Journal of the American Medical Association, 260, 945–950. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1988.03410070073031
    Oldridge, N. B., & Jones, N. L. (1983). Improving patient compliance in cardiac exercise rehabilitation: Effects of written agreement and self-monitoring. Journal of Cardiac Rehabilitation, 3, 257–262.
    Owen, N. (1994). Shaping public policies and programs to promote physical activity. In A.Killoran, P.Fentem, & C. J.Caspersen (Eds.), Moving on: International perspectives on promoting physical activity (pp. 194–212). London: Health Education Authority.
    Owen, N. (1996). Strategic initiatives to promote participation in physical activity. Health Promotion International, 11, 213–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/11.3.213
    Owen, N., & Bauman, A. (1992). The descriptive epidemiology of physical inactivity in adult Australians. International Journal of Epidemiology, 21, 305–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/21.2.305
    Owen, N., Bauman, A., Booth, M., Oldenburg, B., & Magnus, P. (1995). Serial mass-media campaigns to promote physical activity: Reinforcing or redundant?American journal of Public Health, 85, 244–248. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.85.2.244
    Owen, N., & Lee, C. (1989). Development of behaviorally-based policy guidelines for the promotion of exercise. Journal of Public Health Policy, 10, 43–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3342943
    Owen, N., Lee, C., Naccarella, L., & Haag, K. (1987). Exercise by mail: A mediated behavior-change program for aerobic exercise. Journal of Sport Psychology, 9, 346–357.
    Paffenbarger, R. S., Blair, S. N., Lee, I-M., & Hyde, R. T. (1993). Measurement of physical activity to assess health effects in free-living populations. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 25, 60–70.
    Paffenbarger, R. S., Hyde, R. T., Wing, A. L., & Hsieh, C-C. (1986). Physical activity, all-cause mortality, and longevity of college alumni. New England Journal of Medicine, 314, 605–613. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198603063141003
    Paffenbarger, R. S., Hyde, R. T., Wing, A. L., Lee, I., Jung, D. L., & Kampert, J. B. (1993). Xhe association of changes in physical-activity level and other lifestyle characteristics with mortality among men. New England Journal of Medicine, 328, 538–545. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199302253280804
    Paffenbarger, R. S., Wing, A. L., & Hyde, R. T. (1978). Physical activity as an index of heart attack risk in college alumni. American Journal of Epidemiology, 108, 161–175.
    Paffenbarger, R. S., Wing, A. L., Hyde, R. T., & Jung, D. L. (1983). Physical activity and incidence of hypertension in college alumni. American Journal of Epidemiology, 117, 245–257.
    Painter, P., & Moore, G. E. (1994). Xhe impact of recombinant human erythropoietin on exercise capacity in hemodialysis patients. Advances in Renal Replacement Therapy, 1 (1), 55–65.
    Pate, R. R., & Hohn, R. C. (1994). A contemporary mission for physical education. In R. R.Pate & R. C.Hohn (Eds.), Health and fitness through physical education (pp. 1–8). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Pate, R. R., Long, B. J., & Heath, G. (1994). Descriptive epidemiology of physical activity in adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science, 6, 434–447.
    Pate, R. R., & Macera, C. A. (1994). Risks of exercising: Musculoskeletal injuries. In C.Bouchard, R. J.Shephard, & T.Stephens (Eds.), Physical activity, fitness, and health: International proceedings and consensus statement (pp. 1008–1018). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Pate, R. R., Pratt, M., Blair, S. N., Haskell, W. L., Macera, C. A., Bouchard, C., Buchner, D., Ertinger, W., Heath, G. W., King, A. C., Kriska, A., Leon, A. S., Marcus, B. H., Morris, J., Paffenbarger, R. S., Patrick, K., Pollock, M. L., Rippe, J. M., Sallis, J., & Wilmore, J. H. (1995). Physical activity and public health: A recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 402–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1995.03520290054029
    Pate, R. R., Small, M. L., Ross, J. G., Young, J. C., Flint, K. H., & Warren, C. W. (1995). School physical education. Journal of School Health, 65, 213–318.
    Patrick, K., Sallis, J. F., Long, B., Calfas, K. J., Wooten, W., Heath, G., & Pratt, M. (1994). A new tool for encouraging activity: Project PACE. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 22, 45–55.
    Pender, N. J., Sallis, J. F., Long, B. J., & Calfas, K. J. (1994). Health-care provider counseling to promote physical activity. In R. K.Dishman (Ed.), Advances in exercise adherence (pp. 213–235). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Perri, M. G., McAllister, D. A., Gange, J. J., Jordan, R. C., McAdoo, W. G., & Nezu, A. M. (1988). Effects of four maintenance programs on the long-term management of obesity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 529–534. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.56.4.529
    Perusse, L., Tremblay, A., LeBlanc, C., & Bouchard, C. (1989). Genetic and environmental influences on level of habitual physical activity and exercise participation. American Journal of Epidemiology, 129, 1012–1022.
    Pierce, J. P., Macaskill, P., & Hill, D. (1990). Long-term effectiveness of mass-media led anti-smoking campaigns in Australia. American Journal of Public Health, 80, 565–569. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.80.5.565
    Plowman, S. A. (1992). Physical activity, physical fitness, and low back pain. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 20, 221–242.
    Pollock, M. L., & Vincent, K. R. (1996). Resistance training for health. The President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Research Digest, 2(8), 1–6.
    Powell, K. E., & Blair, S. N. (1994). The public health burdens of sedentary living habits: Theoretical but realistic estimates. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, 851–856.
    Prochaska, J. O., & Marcus, B. H. (1994). The transtheoretical model: Applications to exercise. In R. K.Dishman (Ed.), Advances in exercise adherence (pp. 161–180). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Puhl, J., Greaves, K., Hoyt, M., & Baranowski, T. (1990). Children's activity rating scale (CARS): Description and evaluation. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 61, 26–36.
    Raglin, J. S. (1990). Exercise and mental health: Beneficial and detrimental effects. Sports Medicine, 9, 323–329. http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199009060-00001
    Redman, S., Spencer, E. A., & Sanson-Fisher, R. W. (1990). The role of mass media in changing health-related behaviour: A critical appraisal of two models. Health Promotion International, 5, 85–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/5.1.85
    Reid, E. L., & Morgan, R. W. (1979). Exercise prescription: A clinical trial. American Journal of Public Health, 69, 591–595. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.69.6.591
    Rejeski, W. J., Thompson, A., Brubaker, P. H., & Miller, H. S. (1992). Acute exercise: Buffering psychosocial stress responses in women. Health Psychology, 11, 355–362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.11.6.355
    Resnicow, K., & Robinson, T. N. (1997). School-based cardiovascular disease prevention studies: Review and synthesis. Annals of Epidemiology, 7(Suppl.), S14–S31.
    Reynolds, K. D., Killen, J. D., Bryson, S. W., Maron, D. J., Taylor, C. B., Maccoby, N., & Farquhar, J. W. (1990). Psychosocial predictors of physical activity in adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 19, 541–551. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-7435%2890%2990052-L
    Richter, E. A., & Sutton, J. R. (1994). Hormonal adaptation to physical activity. In C.Bouchard, R. J.Shephard, & T.Stephens (Eds.), Physical activity, fitness, and health: International proceedings and consensus statement (pp. 331–342). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Rissanen, A., Heliovaara, M., Knekt, P., Reunanen, A., & Aromaa, A. (1991). Determinants of weight gain and overweight in adult Finns. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 45, 419–430.
    Roberts, K., Dench, S., Minten, J., & York, C. (1989). Community response to leisure centre provision in Belfast. London: Sports Council.
    Robinson, T. N., Hammer, L. D., Killen, J. D., Kraemer, H. C., Wilson, D. M., Hayward, C., & Taylor, C. B. (1993). Does television viewing increase obesity and reduce physical activity? Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses among adolescent girls. Pediatrics, 91, 273–280.
    Ross, J. G., Dotson, C. O., Gilbert, G. G., & Katz, S. J. (1985a). After physical education: Physical activity outside of school physical education programs. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 56(1), 35–39.
    Ross, J. G., Dotson, C. O., Gilbert, G. G., & Katz, S. J. (1985b). The National Children and Youth Fitness Study: What are kids doing in school physical education?Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 56(1), 73–76.
    Ross, J. G., & Gilbert, G. G. (1985). The National Children and Youth Fitness Study: A summary of findings. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 56(1), 45–50.
    Rowland, T. W. (1991). Exercise and children's health. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199107000-00026
    Rudolph, D. L., & McAuley, E. (1996). Self-efficacy and perceptions of effort: A reciprocal relationship. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 18, 216–223.
    Sallis, J. F. (1991). Self-report measures of children's physical activity. Journal of School Health, 61, 215–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.1991.tb06017.x
    Sallis, J. F. (1993). Epidemiology of physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 33, 405–408.
    Sallis, J. F. (Ed.). (1994). Physical activity guidelines for adolescents [Special issue]. Pediatric Exercise Science, 6, 299–463.
    Sallis, J. F., Alcaraz, J. E., McKenzie, T. L., Hovell, M. F., Kolody, B., & Nader, E. R. (1992). Parent behavior in relation to physical activity and fitness in 9-year-olds. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 146, 1383–1388.
    Sallis, J. F., Buono, M. J., Roby, J. J., Micale, F. G., & Nelson, J. A. (1993). Seven-day recall and other physical activity self-reports in children and adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 25, 99–108.
    Sallis, J. F., Grossman, R. M., Pinski, R. B., Patterson, T. L., & Nader, P. R. (1987). The development of scales to measure social support for diet and exercise behaviors. Preventive Medicine, 16, 825–836. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-7435%2887%2990022-3
    Sallis, J. F., Haskell, W. L., Fortmann, S. P., Vranizan, K. M., Taylor, C. B., & Solomon, D. S. (1986). Predictors of adoption and maintenance of physical activity in a community sample. Preventive Medicine, 15, 331–341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-7435%2886%2990001-0
    Sallis, J. F., Haskell, W. L., Wood, P. D., Fortmann, S. P., Rogers, T., Blair, S. N., & Paffenbarger, R. S. (1985). Physical activity assessment methodology in the Five-City Project. American Journal of Epidemiology, 121, 91–106.
    Sallis, J. F., Hill, R. D., Fortmann, S. P., & Flora, J. A. (1986). Health behavior change at the worksite: Cardiovascular risk reduction. In M.Hersen, R. M.Eisler, & P. M.Miller (Eds.), Progress in behavior modification (Vol. 20, pp. 161–197). New York: Academic Press.
    Sallis, J. F., Hovell, M. F., & Hofstetter, C. R. (1992). Predictors of adoption and maintenance of vigorous physical activity in men and women. Preventive Medicine, 21, 237–251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-7435%2892%2990022-A
    Sallis, J. F., Hovell, M. F., Hofstetter, C. R., & Barrington, E. (1992). Explanation of vigorous physical activity during two years using social learning variables. Social Science and Medicine, 34, 25–32.
    Sallis, J. F., Hovell, M. F., Hofstetter, C. R., Elder, J. P., Faucher, P., Spry, V. M., Barrington, E., & Hackley, M. (1990). Lifetime history of relapse from exercise. Addictive Behaviors, 15, 573–579. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603%2890%2990059-7
    Sallis, J. F., Hovell, M. F., Hofstetter, C. R., Faucher, P., Elder, J. P., Blanchard, J., Caspersen, C. J., Powell, K. E., & Christenson, G. M. (1989). A multivariate study of determinants of vigorous exercise in a community sample. Preventive Medicine, 18, 20–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-7435%2889%2990051-0
    Sallis, J. F., Johnson, M. F., Calfas, K. J., Caparosa, S., & Nichols, J. F. (1997). Assessing perceived physical environmental variables that may influence physical activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 68, 345–351.
    Sallis, J. F., & McKenzie, T. L. (1991). Physical education's role in public health. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 62, 124–137.
    Sallis, J. F., McKenzie, T. L., Alcaraz, J. E., Kolody, B., Faucette, N., & Hovell, M. F. (1997). Effects of a two-year health-related physical education program on physical activity and fitness in elementary school students: SPARK. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 1328–1334. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.87.8.1328
    Sallis, J. F., McKenzie, T. L., Elder, J. P., Broyles, S. L., & Nader, P. R. (1997). Factors parents use in selecting play spaces for young children. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 151, 414–417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.1997.02170410088012
    Sallis, J. F., Nader, P. R., Broyles, S. L., Berry, C. C., Elder, J. P., McKenzie, T. L., & Nelson, J. A. (1993). Correlates of physical activity at home in Mexican-American and Anglo-American preschool children. Health Psychology, 12, 390–398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.12.5.390
    Sallis, J. F., & Owen, N. (1997). Ecological models. In K.Glanz, F. M.Lewis, & B. K.Rimer (Eds.), Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 403–424). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Sallis, J. F., & Patrick, K. (1994). Physical activity guidelines for adolescents: Consensus statement. Pediatric Exercise Science, 6, 302–314.
    Sallis, J. F., Simons-Morton, B. G., Stone, E. J., Corbin, C. B., Epstein, L. H., Faucette, N., Iannotri, R. J., Killen, J. D., Klesges, R. C., Petray, C. K., Rowland, T. W., & Taylor, W. (1992). Determinants of physical activity and interventions in youth. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24, S248–S257.
    Sallis, J. F., Strikmiller, P. K., Harsha, D. W., Feldman, H. A., Ehlinger, S., Stone, E. J., Williston, B. J., & Woods, S. (1996). Validation of interviewer- and self-administered physical activity checklists for fifth grade students. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28, 840–851.
    Sallis, J. F., Zakarian, J. M., Hovell, M. F., & Hofstetter, C. R. (1996). Ethnic, socioeconomic, and sex differences in physical activity among adolescents. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 49, 125–134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0895-4356%2895%2900514-5
    Schneider, S. H., Khachadurian, A. K., Amorosa, L. F., Clemow, L., & Ruderman, N. B. (1992). Ten-year experience with an exercise-based outpatient life-style modification program in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 15, 1800–1808. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.15.11.1800
    Schnurr, P. P., Vaillant, C. O., & Vaillant, G. E. (1990). Predicting exercise in late midlife from young adult personality characteristics. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 30, 153–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/51BP-NMYV-M3JE-UGYH
    Shephard, R. J. (1996). Worksite fitness and exercise programs: A review of methodology and health impact. American Journal of Health Promotion, 10, 436–452http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-10.6.436
    Siegel, P. Z., Brackbill, R. M., & Heath, G. W. (1995). The epidemiology of walking for exercise: Implications for promoting activity among sedentary groups. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 706–710. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.85.5.706
    Simkin, L. R., & Gross, A. M. (1994). Assessment of coping with high-risk situations for exercise relapse among healthy women. Health Psychology, 13, 274–277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.13.3.274
    Simoes, E. J., Byers, X., Coates, R. J., Serdula, M. K., Mokdad, A. H., & Heath, G. W. (1995). The association between leisure-time physical activity and dietary fat in American adults. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 240–244. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.85.2.240
    Simons-Morton, B. G., Parcel, G. S., Baranowski, X., Forthofer, R., & O'Hara, N. M. (1991). Promoting physical activity and a healthful diet among children: Results of a school-based intervention study. American Journal of Public Health, 81, 986–991. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.81.8.986
    Simons-Morton, B. G., Taylor, W. C., Snider, S. A., Huang, I. W., & Fulton, J. E. (1994). Observed levels of elementary and middle school children's physical activity during physical education classes. Preventive Medicine, 23, 437–441. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1994.1059
    Singer, D. G. (1983). A time to reexamine the role of television in our lives. American Psychologist, 38, 815–816. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.38.7.815
    Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan.
    Stefanick, M. L. (1993). Exercise and weight control. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 21, 363–396.
    Stefanick, M. L., & Wood, P. D. (1994). Physical activity, lipid, and lipoprotein metabolism, and lipid transport. In C.Bouchard, R. J.Shephard, & T.Stephens (Eds.), Physical activity, fitness, and health: International proceedings and consensus statement (pp. 417–431). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Stephens, T. (1988). Physical activity and mental health in the United States and Canada: Evidence from four population surveys. Preventive Medicine, 17, 35–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-7435%2888%2990070-9
    Steptoe, A., & Bolton, J. (1988). The short-term influence of high and low intensity physical exercise on mood. Psychology and Health, 2, 91–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870448808400346
    Steptoe, A., & Wardle, J. (1992). Cognitive predictors of health behaviour in contrasting regions in Europe. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31, 485–502. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1992.tb01021.x
    Stetson, B. A., Rahn, J. M., Dubbert, P. M., Wilner, B. I., & Mercury, M. G. (1997). Prospective evaluation of the effects of stress on exercise adherence in community-residing women. Health Psychology, 16, 515–520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.16.6.515
    Stewart, A. L., Hays, R. D., Wells, K. B., Rogers, W. H., Spritzer, K. L., & Greenfield, S. (1994). Long-term functioning and well-being outcomes associated with physical activity and exercise in patients with chronic conditions in the Medical Outcomes Study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 47, 719–730. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0895-4356%2894%2990169-4
    Stokols, D. (1992). Establishing and maintaining healthy environments: Toward a social ecology of health promotion. American Psychologist, 47, 6–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.47.1.6
    Stucky-Ropp, R. C., & DiLorenzo, T. M. (1993). Determinants of exercise in children. Preventive Medicine, 22, 880–889. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1993.1079
    Tappe, M. K., Duda, J. L., & Ehrnwald, P. M. (1989). Perceived barriers to exercise among adolescents. Journal of School Health, 59, 153–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.1989.tb04689.x
    Taylor, W. C., Baranowski, T., & Sallis, J. F. (1994). Family determinants of childhood physical activity: A social-cognitive model. In R. K.Dishman (Ed.), Advances in exercise adherence (pp. 319–342). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Teegarden, D., Proux, W. R., Kern, M., Sedlock, D., Weaver, C. M., Johnston, C. C., & Lyle, R. M. (1996). Previous physical activity relates to bone mineral measures in young women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28, 105–113.
    Troiano, R. P., Flegal, K. M., Kuczmarski, R. J., Campbell, S. M., & Johnson, C. L. (1995). Overweight prevalence and trends for children and adolescents: The National Health Examination Surveys, 1963–1991. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 149, 1085–1091. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.1995.02170230039005
    Trost, S. G., Pate, R. R., Saunders, R., Ward, D. S., Dowda, M., & Felton, G. (1997). A prospective study of the determinants of physical activity in rural fifth-grade children. Preventive Medicine, 26, 257–263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1996.0137
    Tucker, L. A., & Silvester, L. J. (1996). Strength training and hypercholesterolemia: An epidemiologic study of 8499 employed men. American Journal of Health Promotion, 11, 35–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-11.1.35
    Uitenbroek, D. G. (1993). Seasonal variation in leisure time physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 25, 755–760.
    Unger, J. B., & Johnson, C. A. (1995). Social relationships and physical activity in health club members. American Journal of Health Promotion, 9, 340–343. http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-9.5.340
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1991). Healthy People 2000: National health promotion and disease prevention objectives (DHHS Publication No. PHS 91-50212). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1996). Physical activity and health: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control.
    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (1996). Guide to clinical preventive services (
    2nd ed.
    ). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
    U.S. Public Health Service. (1980). Promoting health/preventing disease: Objectives for the nation. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
    Vandongen, R., Jenner, D. A., Thompson, C., Taggart, A. C., Spickett, E. E., Burke, V., Beilin, L. J., Milligan, R. A., & Dunbar, D. L. (1995). A controlled evaluation of a fitness and nutrition intervention program on cardiovascular health in 10- to 12-year-old children. Preventive Medicine, 24, 9–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1995.1003
    Van Mechelen, W., & Kemper, H. C. G. (1995). Habitual physical activity in longitudinal perspective. In H. C. G.Kemper (Ed.), The Amsterdam Growth Study: A longitudinal analysis of health, fitness, and lifestyle (pp. 135–158). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Vuori, I. M., Oja, P., & Paronen, O. (1994). Physically active commuting to work: Testing its potential for exercise promotion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, 844–850.
    Wadden, T. A., Vogt, R. A., Kuehnel, R. H., Andersen, R. E., Bartlett, S. J., Foster, G. D., Wilk, J., Weinstock, R., Buckenmeyer, P., Berkowitz, R. I., & Steen, S. N. (1997). Exercise in the treatment of obesity: Effects of four interventions on body composition, resting energy expenditure, appetite, and mood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 269–277.
    Wankel, L. M. (1984). Decision-making and social-support strategies for increasing exercise involvement. Journal of Cardiac Rehabilitation, 4, 124–135.
    Welk, G. J., & Corbin, C. B. (1995). The validity of the Tritrac-R3D activity monitor for the assessment of physical activity in children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 66, 202–209.
    Wicker, A. W. (1979). An introduction to ecological psychology. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Williams, P. T. (1996). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other risk factors for coronary heart disease in female runners. New England Journal of Medicine, 334, 1298–1303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199605163342004
    Williamson, D. F., Madans, J., Anda, R. F., Kleinman, J. C., Kahn, H. S., & Byers, T. (1993). Recreational physical activity and 10-year weight gain in a US national cohort. International Journal of Obesity, 17, 279–286.
    Wolf, A. M., Gortmaker, S. L., Cheung, L., Gray, H. M., Herzog, D. B., & Colditz, G. A. (1993). Activity, inactivity, and obesity: Racial, ethnic, and age differences among school girls. American Journal of Public Health, 83, 1625–1627. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.83.11.1625
    Woods, J. A., & Davis, J. M. (1994). Exercise, monocyte/macrophage function, and cancer. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, 147–156.
    Wysocki, T., Hall, G., Iwata, B., & Riordan, M. (1979). Behavioral management of exercise: Contracting for aerobic points. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 55–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1979.12-55
    Yates, A. (1991). Compulsive exercise and the eating disorders. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Young, D. R., Haskell, W. L., Taylor, C. B., & Fortmann, S. P. (1996). Effect of community health education on physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and behavior: The Stanford five-city project. American Journal of Epidemiology, 144, 264–274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a008921
    Zakarian, J. M., Hovell, M. F., Hofstetter, C. R., Sallis, J. F., & Keating, K. J. (1994). Correlates of vigorous exercise in a predominantly low SES and minority high school population. Preventive Medicine, 23, 314–321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1994.1044

    About the Authors

    James F. Sallis has conducted research on the health effects of physical activity, determinants of active lifestyles, and interventions for young people and adults. A current special interest is encouraging wide use of programs found to be effective in research, including SPARK physical education (World Wide Web: http://www.foundation.sdsu.edu/projects/spark/index.html) and the PACE program for primary care (World Wide Web: http://www.shs.sdsu.edu/pace/). He received his doctorate in clinical psychology from the University of Memphis, completed an internship at Brown University, and began his research on behavioral aspects of physical activity while at the Stanford Center for Research on Disease Prevention. He is currently Professor of Psychology at San Diego State University and on the faculty of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Sallis was on the editorial board of the 1996 U.S. Surgeon General's report, Physical Activity and Health, and has received an award from the Health Psychology Division of the American Psychological Association. He lectures and consults internationally, has published over 200 scientific articles and chapters, and is coauthor of Health and Human Behavior (1993). He enjoys jogging, walking, bicycling, and modest resistance training. He gets a little more physical activity by playing drums in a rock and roll band.

    Neville Owen's research has focused on understanding and influencing health-related behaviors, particularly physical activity and cigarette smoking. Recently, he has been interested in workplace influences—through studies of smoking bans and the uses of the workplace setting in promoting behavioral changes to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. He has also been studying the distribution of health-related behaviors in populations and the implementation and impact of large-scale health campaigns. He received his doctorate in experimental psychology from the University of Western Australia in 1972 and then worked as a community clinical psychologist in Vancouver, Canada. Much of his working life was spent at the University of Adelaide in South Australia, where he taught medical students and worked closely with epidemiologists, physical educators, and tobacco control and heart disease prevention groups. He spent 1982 as a Kellogg Foundation Fellow and Visiting Scholar with the Stanford Heart Disease Prevention Program, where he first met Jim Sallis. In 1995, he was appointed Foundation Professor of Human Movement Science at Deakin University in Melbourne, Head of the School of Human Movement, and Director of Research for Deakin University's Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences. He has published some 120 scientific articles and chapters, has been actively involved in the research and health promotion initiatives of the National Heart Foundation of Australia and was involved in many aspects of the QUIT campaign and tobacco control generally in South Australia. He is an Academic Associate of the Centre for Behavioural Research in Cancer in Melbourne. His recent involvements have included work on Australia's strategies for the prevention of overweight and obesity, population monitoring of physical activity, and the “Active Australia” strategy. He has a spouse with her own busy career and three young adult children. At the time of writing this book, he was president of the Eastern Suns Basketball Club. What time he can find to be physically active usually involves either walking his two dogs, riding one of his four bicycles, or bouncing and shooting with one of his son's numerous basketballs. All of the above supports his scientific hypothesis that the fundamental determinants of physical activity are competing time demands, proximal environmental cues, and structural elements of the work and family context.


    • Loading...
Back to Top