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The Symposium Approach: Use, Prevention, Education, and Treatment
The Symposium Approach: Use, Prevention, Education, and Treatment
Introduction

For over 80 years now, the addiction field has been steadily developing single-focused and multifocused models of treatment that identify a range of etiological assumptions and a range of spiritual, dynamic, and cognitive-behavioral interventions. These have included moral, learning, disease, self-medication, dual diagnosis, and biopsychosocial models, to name a few. In the United States, the disease model has been heralded as the primary lens to view excess use, and the medical and treatment communities have developed inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacological treatments based on abstinence. Support groups such as AA and Self-Management and Recovery Training (SMART), as well as interventions such as motivational interviewing, cognitive-behavioral strategies, and evidence-based protocols, have turned ...

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