Personality in Work Organizations

Books

Lawrence R. James & Michelle D. Mazerolle

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  • Foundations for Organizational Science

    A Sage Publications Series

    Series Editor

    David Whetten, Brigham Young University

    Editors

    Peter J. Frost, University of British Columbia

    Anne S. Huff, University of Colorado and Cranfield University (UK)

    Benjamin Schneider, University of Maryland

    M. Susan Taylor, University of Maryland

    Andrew Van de Ven, University of Minnesota

    The FOUNDATIONS FOR ORGANIZATIONAL SCIENCE series supports the development of students, faculty, and prospective organizational science professionals through the publication of texts authored by leading organizational scientists. Each volume provides a highly personal, hands-on introduction to a core topic or theory and challenges the reader to explore promising avenues for future theory development and empirical application.

    Books in This Series

    PUBLISHING IN THE ORGANIZATIONAL SCIENCES, 2nd Edition

    Edited by L. L. Cummings and Peter J. Frost

    SENSEMAKING IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Karl E. Weick

    INSTITUTIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS

    W. Richard Scott

    RHYTHMS OF ACADEMIC LIFE

    Peter J. Frost and M. Susan Taylor

    RESEARCHERS HOOKED ON TEACHING:

    Noted Scholars Discuss the Synergies of Teaching and Research

    Rae André and Peter J. Frost

    THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DECISION MAKING: People in Organizations

    Lee Roy Beach

    ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    Robert Folger and Russell Cropanzano

    RECRUITING EMPLOYEES: Individual and Organizational Perspectives

    Alison E. Barber

    ATTITUDES IN AND AROUND ORGANIZATIONS

    Arthur P. Brief

    IDENTITY IN ORGANIZATIONS: Building Theory Through Conversations

    Edited by David Whetten and Paul Godfrey

    PERSONNEL SELECTION: A Theoretical Approach

    Neal Schmitt and David Chan

    BUILDING STRATEGY FROM THE MIDDLE: Reconceptualizing Strategy Process

    Steven W. Floyd and Bill Wooldridge

    MISSING ORGANIZATIONAL LINKAGES: Tools for Cross-Level Research

    Paul S. Goodman

    THE CONTINGENCY THEORY OF ORGANIZATIONS

    Lex Donaldson

    ORGANIZATIONAL STRESS: A Review and Critique of Theory, Research, and Applications

    Cary L. Cooper, Philip J. Dewe, and Michael P. O'Driscoll

    INSTITUTIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS, Second Edition

    W. Richard Scott

    ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE: Mapping the Terrain

    Joanne Martin

    PERSONALITY IN WORK ORGANIZATIONS

    Lawrence R. James and Michelle D. Mazerolle

    CAREERS IN AND OUT OF ORGANIZATIONS

    Douglas T. Hall

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Introduction to the Series

    The title of this series, Foundations for Organizational Science (FOS), denotes a distinctive focus. FOS books are educational aid for mastering the core theories, essential tools, and emerging perspectives that constitute the field of organizational science (broadly conceived to include organizational behavior, organizational theory, human resource management, and business strategy). Our ambitious goal is to assemble the “essential library” for members of our professional community.

    The vision for the series emerged from conversations with several colleagues, including Peter Frost, Anne Huff, Rick Mowday, Ben Schneider, Susan Taylor, and Andy Van de Ven. A number of common interests emerged from these sympathetic encounters, including: enhancing the quality of doctoral education by providing broader access to the master teachers in our field, “bottling” the experience and insights of some of the founding scholars in our field before they retire, and providing professional development opportunities for colleagues seeking to broaden their understanding of the rapidly expanding subfields within organizational science.

    Our unique learning objectives are reflected in an unusual set of instructions to FOS authors. They are encouraged to: (1) “write the way they teach”—framing their book as an extension of their teaching notes, rather than as the expansion of a handbook chapter; (2) pass on their “craft knowledge” to the next generation of scholars—making them wiser, not just smarter; (3) share with their “virtual students and colleagues” the insider tips and best-bets for research that are normally reserved for one-on-one mentoring sessions; and (4) make the complexity of their subject matter comprehensible to non-experts so that readers can share their puzzlement, fascination, and intrigue.

    We are proud of the group of highly qualified authors who have embraced the unique educational perspective of our “Foundations” series. We encourage your suggestions for how these books can better satisfy your learning needs—as a newcomer to the field preparing for prelims or developing a dissertation proposal, or as an established scholar seeking to broaden your knowledge and proficiency.

    David A.Whetten Series Editor

    Preface

    This is a book about the past, present, and future of personality in work organizations. It introduces principal concepts of current personality theory. The “two disciplines” of personality, namely the trait approach and the social cognitive approach, receive equal emphasis. Moreover, we make a concerted effort to integrate these two approaches and to communicate the sense of coherence that exists among them. Strategies for measuring personality in organizational settings receive considerable attention. Included here are new approaches for assessing implicit or unconscious motives, such as motives to aggress or to avoid failing. We devote the final chapter in the book to those who wish to conduct research in personality. We make suggestions about how promising new themes in personality could be integrated into organizational research. We wish to thank Ben Schneider and Sage Publications for the encouragement to write this book and for their perseverance. Sage also provided superb editing. This book took a long time to write because a number of new concepts (e.g., channeling models, conditional reasoning, differential framing) were just on the cusp of being validated and introduced to psychology, and we wanted to include them in the book. We also wish to thank those who provided support and informal reviews, including Michael McIntyre, Terry Mitchell, Charles Glisson, Larry Williams, Jack Feldman, and the University of Tennessee Conditional Reasoning Research Group. June Trbovitch, our administrative assistant for I-O psychology, shepherded the final manuscript to the publisher. Writing this book was not an ordeal; in fact, it was stimulating, challenging, interesting, and, at times, even exciting. We thank our families for supporting us during a period that they most likely frame in slightly less cheerful terms.

    Lawrence R.James
    Michelle D.Mazerolle
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    About the Authors

    Lawrence R. James holds the Pilot Oil Chair of Excellence in Management and Industrial/Organizational Psychology at the University of Tennessee. He is the author of numerous articles and papers and coauthor of a book on causal analysis. He is or has been a member of the editorial boards of the Journal of Applied Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Human Performance, Human Resources Management, Journal of Management, and Research Methods and Analysis. He also serves as a consultant to a number of businesses and government agencies. He has been Chair of Division 19 of the Academy of Management and is currently a fellow of Divisions 5 and 14 of the American Psychological Association and a Fellow of the American Psychological Society. He earned his Ph.D. at the University of Utah in 1970, soon after which he was awarded a National Research Council postdoctorate. Following the postdoctorate, he joined the faculty at the Institute of Behavior Research, Texas Christian University, where he attained the rank of Professor and headed the Organizational-Industrial Research Group. In 1980, he moved to the Georgia Institute of Technology, where he was Professor of Psychology and Coordinator of the Industrial/Organizational Psychology Program. He moved to the University of Tennessee in 1988. As a leading researcher in industrial-organizational psychology, he has been active in building new measurement systems for personality and in studying the effects of organizational environments on individual adaptation, motivation, and productivity. His statistical contributions have been designed to make possible tests of newmodels in areas such as organizational climate, leadership, and personnel selection.

    Michelle D. Mazerolle is the Director of Management and Organization Development at Philips Consumer Electronics North America. She received her B.A. in psychology from the College of the Holy Cross and an M.A. in industrial and organizational psychology from the University of New Haven. She is currently a doctoral student in industrial and organizational psychology at the University of Tennessee. She is a member of a number of professional organizations, including the American Psychological Association, the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, the American Psychological Society, and the Society for Human Resource Management. Her current research interests include personality measurement, assessment centers, work attitudes and behavior, leadership effectiveness, and organizational climate.


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