Person-Centered Approaches for Counselors
Publication Year: 2016
Subject: Person Centered Counseling
A concise, conversational approach speaks directly to graduate students' concerns and makes key information easy to understand and apply. Transcripts of actual counseling sessions and scenarios of different client responses bring theories to life. A common factors approach to therapy is integrated into every section, providing compelling evidence and practical suggestions for improving training and practice. The final chapter discusses future developments in the field.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Copyright © 2016 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
1 Oliver’s Yard
55 City Road
London, EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd.
3 Church Street
#10–04 Samsung Hub
Acquisitions Editor: Kassie Graves
Editorial Assistant: Carrie Montoya
Production Editor: Tracy Buyan
Copy Editor: Deanna Noga
Typesetter: Hurix Systems Pvt. Ltd.
Proofreader: Theresa Kay
Indexer: Maria Sosnowski
Cover Designer: Anupama Krishnan
Marketing Manager: Shari Countryman
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Cornelius-White, Jeffrey H. D.
Person-centered approaches for counselors / Jeffrey H.D. Cornelius-White, Missouri State University.
pages cm. — (Theories for counselors series)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4522-7772-1 (pbk. : alk. paper)
1. Counseling—Study and teaching. 2. Client-centered psychotherapy. I. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
15 16 17 18 19 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Series Preface[Page ix]
“Theories for Counselors” provides practical applications of major theories from a common factors, multicultural perspective. What does that mean? Let’s break it down.
The authors in the “Theories for Counselors” series are highly experienced counselors with extensive knowledge and expertise concerning the theory that they present. They present each theory from an applied perspective, asking themselves, “How is this concept useful in actual clinical practice?” It may surprise you to know this, but Freud’s work can be (and is) applied day in and day out in modern counseling. (If this surprises you, it could indicate that you have not been taught Freud well.) He believed that the relationship between the client and clinician was of utmost importance; he believed that his patients needed to feel comfortable speaking their mind; he believed that clinicians needed to listen with attentiveness and tact. Freud’s legacy, as is shown in the first book of this series, Psychoanalytic Approaches for Counselors, has been revised and revisited, but its therapeutic usefulness remains, and for each theory that is presented, therapeutic utility is utmost on the minds of the authors as they present material to their readers.
Each book begins by addressing the two most vital themes common to any counseling theory: the client and the therapeutic relationship. Why have we picked the client and the therapeutic relationship as the two most important themes? The reason is called the common factors hypothesis, and this is where research comes in. The common factor hypothesis is the result of decades of research that has compared various schools of counseling and psychotherapy. Contrary to prior belief, it has been convincingly demonstrated that research in general finds no significant difference in how effective the various therapies are. These findings, predicted by Rosenzweig (1936) nearly 80 years ago, began to be empirically demonstrated in the mid-1970s (Luborsky, Singer, & Luborsky, 1975; Smith & Glass, 1977). Research confirming the relative equivalence of bona fide therapies has accumulated since that time (e.g., Ahn & Wampold, 2001; Lambert, 1992; Lambert & Barley, 2001; Lambert & Ogles, 2004; Wampold et al., 1997).
[Page x]What does this mean? It means that instead of therapeutic improvement being due to specific ingredients prescribed by different theoretical schools of counseling and psychotherapy, positive therapeutic change can be attributed to factors that are common to all bona fide therapies. Additionally, these factors can be broken down into four categories: client variables (40% of change), relationship variables (30%), hope and expectancy (15%), and theory or technique (15%) (Duncan, 2002; Lambert, 1992) (see Figure 1).Figure 1 Common Factors
Source: Lambert, M. J. (1992). Psychotherapy outcome research: Implications for integrative and eclectic therapists. In J. C. Norcross & M. R. Goldfried (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (4th ed., pp. 143–189). New York, NY: John Wiley.
As we see, the client and the relationship accounts for the vast majority of therapeutic change, and as such, should be centrally located in the presentation of any counseling theory.
Interestingly, the history of counseling begins right where research predicts: in an intense relationship between one person who wants help and another person wanting to help. Sigmund Freud, who inaugurated themes that continue to organize the counseling profession, described and redescribed the origins of psychoanalysis. Two major components in his descriptions were the famous first patient of psychoanalysis, Bertha Pappenheim (referred to in case studies as “Anna O.”), and the relationship she had with her doctor, Josef Breuer, Freud’s friend and colleague at the time. Though Freud revised his opinions on many things about that famous case (as he did about almost everything), what remained constant was the fact that he saw something of primary importance in that case—the “talking cure” that occurs between a patient/client and doctor/counselor.
Thus the origins of counseling display a deep consonance with the latest in empirical research, and it is this consonance that is the underlying theme [Page xi]behind the series “Theories for Counselors.” Starting with Freud and moving through past and contemporary counseling theories and theorists, the focus remains on the client and the therapeutic relationship, and how this relationship fosters and enhances the client’s natural resilience and hope for change. The theory’s techniques and the theory itself are important only inasmuch as they provide a common roadmap—a way for both client and counselor to think about where a client has been and where he or she wants to go.
Just as it is important to know that Freud remains useful for contemporary counselors, so it is important to know that Freud began his work against a backdrop of rising racial hatred in Austria and Western Europe, and that while he successfully fled to England in 1938, his sisters perished in the Nazi concentration camps during the Holocaust (Gay, 2006). Thus the counseling enterprise began at a time of extreme racial hatred, which is a sobering and important fact to reflect on; from the inception of counseling in Western Europe and throughout its development worldwide, multicultural awareness and respect for diversity are no mere add-ons but are integral components for the practice of counseling. In addition, another important group membership—gender—has assumed greater and greater importance in the counseling field; its central importance imbued the case of Bertha Pappenheim, which has been deemed the founding one for psychoanalysis and hence for all that followed.
Counselors must practice from a culturally aware place rather than one that would seek to downplay the impact of race, gender, and other important group affiliations on our clients’ lives. Sue, Arredondo, and McDavis (1992) provided a conceptual framework for organizing the types of competencies needed by a culturally skilled counselor, saying that he or she becomes aware of his or her own assumptions, actively attempts to understand differing worldviews, and actively develops culturally sensitive intervention strategies and skills. Sue (2001) expanded his conceptual framework into a multidimensional model of cultural competence; this model was primarily focused on racial and ethnic minority groups, though he did also recognize that it might be applicable for other groups including those of “gender, sexual orientation, and ability/disability” (p. 816). Such topics are now recognized as rightfully fitting within the context of multicultural counseling (Conyers, 2002; Pope, 2002; Richardson & Jacob, 2002). In addition, Smith and Richards (2002) point out the obligation that counselors have to address issues of religion and spirituality as multicultural issues.
D’Andrea and Daniels (2001) provided a multicultural framework for working with clients that is RESPECTFUL and inclusive of Religion and spirituality, Economic class, Sexual identity, Psychological development, Ethnic/racial identity, Chronology, Trauma, Family, Unique physical abilities and disabilities, and Language and location of residence. Similarly, Hays [Page xii](2008) outlined a model that emphasized nine cultural influences in relation to specific minority groups that counselors should be ADDRESSING: Age, Developmental and other Disabilities, Religion, Ethnicity/race, Social status, Sexual orientation, Indigenous heritage, and Gender. These models help counselors deliver diversity competent services and pay attention to all the potential resources that a client brings to the counseling encounter. Ultimately, respect for diversity and celebration of all aspects of culture and group membership should lead to a more nuanced understanding of the client and the sometimes-hidden strengths that he or she possesses. Better knowing a client enhances the richly relational counseling encounter that began with Freud’s work.
Once again, this is consonant with the common factors approach. The common factors approach can be applied to, and makes sense of, any counseling theory, beginning with Freud and psychoanalysis. According to this approach, all bona fide counseling theories do the same thing, though they describe it using differing terminology. One analogy is traveling to a particular destination, say New York City. There is no one right way to get there—it depends on where you are starting from, whether you want to fly, drive, or take the train, and whether you want to get there by a direct route or take a scenic one. Each unique route is analogous to a different counseling theory. The destination is the same—in a travel scenario, getting to New York City, and in a counseling scenario, achieving positive treatment outcome.
In their book, The Heroic Client, Duncan and Miller (2000) put it this way—they seek to “(1) enhance those factors across theories that account for successful outcome; (2) encourage the client’s unique integration of different theories; and (3) selectively apply diverse ideas and techniques as they are seen as relevant by the client” (p. 146). Miller has talked about the need for clinicians to know different theories because they serve as language resources to connect with the client. In this view, theory is a way to connect with clients; if one language that I’m using—for instance, solution focus therapy—doesn’t appear to be the language that the client is speaking, then I should use other theoretical languages that might allow me to communicate better with my client. The test of theory is in how well it accords with each individual client’s culturally influenced worldview and how useful it proves to be in the context of the therapeutic encounter.
“Theories for Counselors” will help you consider theories from the perspective of the client and what makes sense to her or him. It will show that theory and technique are good inasmuch as they aid clients in understanding their present situation and what they need to do to improve it. Finally, the series will help you situate the work of counseling within a sociocultural framework that takes into account client uniqueness, universality, and important group affiliations to enhance and activate client resources.
[Page xiii]Finally, I direct the reader to the companion website for this book and series, http://study.sagepub.com/theoriesforcounselors. There you will find extended discussions of topics that are mentioned briefly in the text, topics that are not addressed in the text but that might be useful to know when studying for comprehensive or licensing exams, definitions of terms, and supplemental exercises and activities. In general, if a topic is not covered or is covered in detail in the printed text, please search the website, as it will in all likelihood be discussed there.
I acknowledge the help of Michelle Ciesielski and Chris Carver who helped hold my voice, both in this book and in general during a difficult time. I also acknowledge the many clients, students, colleagues, mentors, family, and friends who together honed my ability to learn, research, integrate, and practice the person-centered approach. I am forever in your debt.[Page xv]
This work is dedicated to four generations of women who have inspired
me to be who I am by being who they are: Nana, Mom, and the two
AJs. I am grateful for the time I have had with them and the
permanent etch these relationships have had on my heart.
Avery Jane, you are awesome. I have never experienced
such a frequent sense of amazement in the
world as I have with you.
It is also dedicated to four
generations of men who have inspired
me to endure with surprising grace despite untold
suffering: Grandpa Chuck and Slim, Dad, Herbie and
Chebby, and Evan. Evan Riley, you will never know
how much I love you. Your humor and resilience shine brilliantly.[Page xvi]
References[Page 73]2001). Where oh where are the specific ingredients? A meta-analysis of component studies in counseling and psychotherapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48, 251–257. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//O022-OI22.214.171.124, & (American Counseling Association. (2003). Advocacy competencies. Retrieved from http://www.counseling.org/Resources/Competencies/Advocacy_Competencies.pdfAmpersand. (2006). A list of privilege lists. Retrieved from http://amptoons.com/blog/2006/09/26/a-list-of-privilege-listsAssociation for Multicultural Counseling and Development. (1992). Cross-cultural competencies and objectives. Journal of the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development. Retrieved from http://counseling.org/docs/competencies/cross-cultural_competencies_and_objectives.pdf2000). Interview with Carl Rogers on the use of self in therapy. In (Ed.), The use of self in therapy (pp. 29–38). New York, NY: Haworth.(2013). Relationship worlds and the plural self. In , , & (Eds.), Interdisciplinary handbook of the person-centered approach: Research and theory (pp. 277–288). New York, NY: Springer.(2009). Processes and outcomes of psychotherapists’ personal therapy: Replication and extension 20 years later. Psychotherapy, 46, 19–31., , & (2010). Transforming public behavioral health care: A case example of consumer-directed services, recovery, and the common factors. In , , , & (Eds.), The heart and soul of change: Delivering what works (, & (2nd ed., pp. 299–322). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.1999). How clients make therapy work: The process of active self-healing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association., & (2010). Clients: The neglected common factor. In , , , & (Eds.), The heart and soul of change: Delivering what works (, & (2nd ed., pp. 83–112). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.1993). Not necessarily necessary but always sufficient. In (Ed.), Beyond Carl Rogers: Towards a psychotherapy for the 21st century (pp. 92–105). London, United Kingdom: Constable.([Page 74] (1998). The person-centered approach: A revolutionary paradigm. Ross-on-Wye, United Kingdom: PCCS Books.2005). Introduction: About the non-directive attitude. In (Ed.), Embracing nondirectivity: Reassessing person-centered theory and practice in the 21st century (pp. 1–4). Ross-on-Wye, United Kingdom: PCCS Books.(2006). Rogers’ transcripts, Vol. 5. Retrieved from http://www.diretoriopsicologos.com/terapeutas, & (2013). Mindfulness-based interventions in counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, 91, 96–104., , & (2007). Racial microaggressions against African American clients in cross-racial counseling relationships. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54, 1–16.(2007). Perceptions of racial microaggressions among black supervisees in cross-racial dyads. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54, 142–153., & (2002). Disability: An emerging topic in multicultural counseling. In , , & (Eds.), Multicultural counseling: Context, theory and practice, and competence (pp. 173–202). Huntington, NY: Nova Science.(2009). Influential psychotherapy figures, authors, and books: An internet survey of over 2,000 psychotherapists. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 46, 42–51., , (2008). The facts are friendly. Therapy Today, 19 (7). Retrieved from http://www.therapytoday.net/article/show/212(2002). The phoenix of empirically supported therapy relationships: The overlooked person-centered basis. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 39, 219–222.(2003). Person-centered multicultural counseling: Rebutted critiques and revisited goals. Person-Centered Practice, 11 (1), 3–11.(2005). Teaching person-centered multicultural counseling: Experiential transcendence of resistance to increase awareness. Journal of Humanistic Counseling Education and Development, 44, 225–240.(2006, May). Cultural congruence: Subtle veils of whiteness and patriarchy. Person-Centered Quarterly, 4–6.(2007a). Congruence as extensionality. Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapies, 6, 196–204.(2007b). Congruence: An integrated five dimension model. Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapies, 6, 228–238.(2007c). Environmental responsibility: A social justice mandate for counseling. Journal of Border Educational Research, 6, 2, 5–16.(2007d). Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 77, 113–143.(2012). Carl Rogers: The China diary. Ross-on-Wye, United Kingdom: PCCS Books.(Ed.). (2013). Congruence. In , , , & (Eds.), The handbook of person-centered psychotherapy and counseling ((2nd ed., pp. 168–181). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.[Page 75], & (2004). Pedagogical crossroads: Integrating feminist critical pedagogies and the person-centered approach in education. Encountering feminism: Intersections of Feminism and the Person-Centered Approach. Ross-on-Wye, United Kingdom: PCCS Books.2010). Learner-centered instruction: Building relationships for student success. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & (2010). Effectiveness beyond psychotherapy: The person-centered, experiential paradigm in education, parenting and management. In , , & (Eds.), Effectiveness of the person-centered and experiential paradigm: Report of the World Association for Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapy and Counseling Taskforce. Ross-on-Wye, United Kingdom: PCCS Books., & (2013a). Interdisciplinary applications of the person-centered approach. New York, NY: Springer., , & (Eds.). (2013b). Interdisciplinary handbook of the person-centered approach: Research and theory. New York, NY: Springer., , & (Eds.). (2001). RESPECTFUL counseling: An integrative multidimensional model for counselors. In & (Eds.), The intersection of race, class, and gender in multicultural counseling (pp. 417–466). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & (2011). What are the benefits of mindfulness? A practice review of psychotherapy-related research. Psychotherapy, 48, 198–208., & (Detachment. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Detachment_(philosophy)2002). The legacy of Saul Rosenzweig: The profundity of the Dodo bird. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 12, 32–57. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//1053-04126.96.36.199(2013). The heart and soul of change: Getting better at what we do. Iowa Psychologist, Summer, 4–5. Retreived from https://heartandsoulofchange.com(2000). The heroic client. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass., & (1999). The heart and soul of change: What works in therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association., , & (2009). The heart and soul of change: Delivering what works in therapy (, , , & (Eds.). (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.2007). Common factors and the uncommon heroism of youth. Psychotherapy in Australia, 13 (2), 34–43., , & (2003). Professional characteristics of humanistic therapists: Analyses of the Collaborative Research Network sample. Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapies, 3, 188–203., , , , & ([Page 76] (2013). How can I trust you? Encounters with Carl Rogers and game theory. In , , & (Eds.), Interdisciplinary handbook of the person-centered approach: Research and theory (pp. 299–318). New York, NY: Springer.Focusing. (2014). An introduction to focusing: Six steps. Retrieved from http://www.focusing.org/gendlin/docs/gol_2234.html2009). A quiet revolution … or swimming against the tide? Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapies, 8, 224–232.(2006). Freud: A life for our time. New York, NY: Norton.(1982). Focusing ((2nd ed.). New York, NY: Bantam.2014). Short form. Retrieved from http://www.focusing.org/short_gendlin.html(2001). What counseling research has taught us about the concept of congruence: Main discoveries and unresolved issues. In (Ed.), Congruence (Rogers’ therapeutic conditions: Evolution, theory, and practice) (Vol. 1, pp. 18–35). Ross-on-Wye, United Kingdom: PCCS Books.(1985). The moral nature of psychotherapy. Counseling and Values, 29, 141–150.(1990). Principled and instrumental nondirectiveness in person-centered and client-centered therapy. Person-Centered Review, 5, 77–88.(2010a). Emotion-focused therapy (Theories of psychotherapy). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.(2010b). Emotion-focused therapy: A clinical synthesis. FOCUS, 8, 32–42. Retrieved from http://focus.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleID=53063(2008). Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and therapy ((2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.2013). Staying human: Experiences of a therapist and political activist. In , , & (Eds.), Interdisciplinary applications of the person-centered approach (pp. 229–234). New York, NY: Springer.(2010). Introduction. In , , , & (Eds.), The heart and soul of change: Delivering what works in therapy (pp. 23–46). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association., , , & (2006). Privilege, power, and difference ((2nd ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.2009). Saving God. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(2003). Idiosyncratic person-centered therapy: From the personal to the universal. Ross-on-Wye, United Kingdom: PCCS Books.(Ed.). (2013). Privilege Lists, AKA the Dirty 30 Lists. Retrieved from http://itspronouncedmetrosexual.com/category/privilege-lists(2008). Life and work of Carl Rogers. Washington, DC: American Counseling Association.([Page 77] (2009). The life and work of Carl Rogers. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.1989). The Carl Rogers reader. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin., & (Eds.). (2010). Loss: A personal journey of empowerment. La Jolla, CA: Person-Centered Press.(2013). Person-centered approach and systems theory. In , , & (Eds.), Interdisciplinary handbook of the person-centered approach: Research and theory (pp. 261–276). New York, NY: Springer.(2012). The person-centered approach and its capacity to enhance constructive international communication. In , , & (Eds.), Interdisciplinary applications of the person-centered approach (pp. 201–212). New York, NY: Springer.(1992). Psychotherapy outcome research: Implications for inte-grative and eclectic therapists. In & (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy integration (pp. 94–129). New York, NY: Basic Books.(2013). Enhancing psychotherapy through feedback to clinicians. Retrieved from http://www.e-psychologist.org/index.iml?mdl=exam/show_article.mdl&Material_ID=3(2001). Research summary on the therapeutic relationship and psychotherapy outcome. Psychotherapy, 38, 357–361. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-3188.8.131.527, & (2004). The efficacy and effectiveness of psychotherapy. In (Ed.), Bergin and Garfield’s handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (, & (5th ed., pp. 139–193). New York, NY: Wiley.2013). Hate crime victimization, 2003–2011. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=4614, , & (2005). The possessive investment in whiteness. In (Ed.), White privilege: Essential readings on the other side of racism ((2nd ed., pp. 67–90). New York, NY: Worth.1975). Comparative studies of psychotherapy: Is it true that “everyone has won and all must have prizes”? Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 995–1008., , & (2013). The circle of contact: A neuroscience view on the formation of relationships. In , , & (Eds.), Interdisciplinary handbook of the person-centered approach: Research and theory (pp. 79–94). New York, NY: Springer.(1996). Tao Te Ching, complete online text translation for the public domain. Retrieved from http://www.wright-house.com/religions/taoism/tao-te-ching.html(2010). Counseling and therapy skills ((3rd ed.). Long Grove, IL: Waveland.[Page 78] (2013). White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack. Retrieved from http://www.amptoons.com/blog/files/mcintosh.html1980). The person-centered approach to therapy. Presentation at the Scottish Association for Therapy, Glasgow, United Kingdom. Retrieved from http://www.elementsuk.com/libraryofarticles/thepcato.pdf(2005). Working at relational depth in counselling and psychotherapy. London, United Kingdom: Sage., & (2001). Congruence and the supervision of client centred therapists. In (Ed.), Congruence (Rogers’ therapeutic conditions: Evolution, theory and practice) (Vol. 1, pp. 174–183). Ross-on-Wye, United Kingdom: PCCS Books.(1997). Escape from Babel: Toward a unifying language for psychotherapy practice. New York, NY: Norton., , & (2011). Practicing client-centered therapy: Selected writings of Barbara Temaner Brodley. Ross-on-Wye, United Kingdom: PCCS Books., , , & (2013). The person- centered approach: An emergent paradigm. In , , & (Eds.), Interdisciplinary applications of the person-centered approach (pp. 235–251). New York, NY: Springer., , & (Multicultural Counseling and Social Justice Competencies. (2013). Social justice. Retrieved from http://toporek.org/social_justice.html2002). Psychotherapy relationships that work: Therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.(2005). The psychotherapist’s own psychotherapy: Educating and developing psychologists. American Psychologist, 60 (8), 840–850.(2003). Cultivating consciousness: Carl R. Rogers’s person-centered group process as transformative androgyny. Journal of Transformative Education, 1 (1), 64–79. Retrieved from http://insightu.net/content/library/journals/jtevol01no01january200364-79.pdf(1984). Empathy, warmth, and genuineness in psychotherapy: A review of reviews. Psychotherapy, 21, 431–438.(1996). Multicultural counseling: From diversity to universality. Journal of Counseling and Development, 74, 227–231. Also published in (2000) Understanding psychotherapy: Fifty years of client-centered theory and practice. Ross-on-Wye, United Kingdom: PCCS Books. Retrieved from https://www.tiaa-cref.org/public/support/forms/topics/qualified_dom_rel_order.html(PCAYorks. (2014). Carl Rogers’ transcripts. Retrieved from http://pcayorks.blogspot.com/2010/02/carl-rogers-transcripts.htmlPCE. (2010). Empowerment: The politics of the helping relationship. 9th World Conference for Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapy and Counseling. Retrieved from http://www.docstoc.com/docs/85250764/PCE-2010-Empowerment-The-politics-of-the-helping-relationship or www.pce-org2002). Counseling individuals from the lesbian and gay cultures. In , , & (Eds.), Multicultural counseling: Context, theory and practice, and competence (pp. 201–218). Huntington, NY: Nova Science.([Page 79] (2002). The dynamics of power in counseling and psychotherapy: Ethics, politics, and practice. Ross-on-Wye, United Kingdom: PCCS Books.2006). Politicizing the person-centered approach: An agenda for social change. Ross-on-Wye, United Kingdom: PCCS Books., , , & (Eds.). (1994). Theoretical evolutions in person-centered/experiential therapy: Applications to schizophrenic and retarded psychoses. New York, NY: Praeger.(2007). What the Buddha taught. New York, NY: Grove.(2013). Foundational oppression: Families and schools. In , , & (Eds.), Interdisciplinary applications of the person-centered approach (pp. 141–144). New York, NY: Springer.(1974). The evocative function of the therapist. In & (Eds.), Innovations in client-centered therapy (pp. 289–311). New York, NY: Wiley.(2002). Contemporary issues in multicultural counseling: Training competent counselors. In , , & (Eds.), Multicultural counseling: Context, theory and practice, and competence (pp. 31–45). Huntington, NY: Nova Science., & (1951). Client-centered therapy: Its current practice, implications, and theory. London, United Kingdom: Constable.(1957). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21 (2), 95–103.(1959). A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships as developed in the client-centered framework. In (Ed.), Psychology: A study of a science. Vol. 3: Formulations of the person and the social context. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.(1961). On becoming a person: A therapist’s view of psychotherapy. London, United Kingdom: Constable.(1977). On personal power: Inner strength and its revolutionary impact. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.(1980). A way of being. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.(1983). Freedom to learn for the 80s. Columbus, OH: Charles Merrill.(2013). Carl Rogers: The China diary. Charleston, SC: Create Space., & (2013). On becoming an effective teacher: Person-centered teaching, psychology, philosophy, and dialogues with Carl R. Rogers and Harold Lyon. New York, NY: Routledge., , & (1936). Some implicit common factors in diverse methods of psychotherapy. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 6, 412–415. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1936.tb05248.x(2004). The tribes of the person-centered nation: An introduction to the schools of therapy related to the person-centered approach. Ross-on-Wye, United Kingdom: PCCS Books.(2001). Authenticity: The person as his or her own author. Dialogical and ethical perspectives on therapy as an encounter relationship. In (Ed.), Congruence (Rogers’ therapeutic conditions: Evolution, theory and practice) (Vol. I, pp. 217–232). Ross-on-Wye, United Kingdom: PCCS Books.([Page 80] (2013). A practice of social ethics: Anthropological, epistemological, and ethical foundations of the person-centered approach. In , , & (Eds.), Interdisciplinary handbook of the person-centered approach: Research and theory (pp. 353–368). New York, NY: Springer.1977). Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcome studies. American Psychologist, 32, 752–760., & (2002). Multicultural counseling in spiritual and religious contexts. In , , & (Eds.), Multicultural counseling: Context, theory and practice, and competence (pp. 105–128). Huntington, NY: Nova Science., & (2006). Udenfor Terapeutisk Rækkevidde? Introduktion til Præ-Terapi [Beyond psychotherapeutic reach? An introduction to pre-therapy]. Psykolog Nyt, 60 (8), 12–20.(1994). The dodo bird revisited: A qualitative study of psychotherapy efficacy research. Journal of Applied and Preventive Psychology, 3 (2), 109–120., & (2001). Multidimensional facets of cultural competence. Counseling Psychologist, 29, 790–821. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011000001296002(1992). Multicultural counseling competencies and standards: A call to the profession. Journal of Counseling & Development, 70 (4), 477–486., , & (2007). Racial microaggressions in everyday life: Implications for clinical practice. American Psychologist, 62 (4), 271–286., , , , , , & (2012). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice. New York, NY: Wiley., & (2009). Promoting systemic change through the ACA Advocacy Competencies. Journal of Counseling & Development, 87, 260–268., , & (2001). The great psychotherapy debate: Models, methods, and findings. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.(1997). A meta-analysis of outcome studies comparing bona fide psycho-therapies: Empirically, “All must have prizes.” Psychological Bulletin, 122, 203–215., , , , , & (World Association for Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapy and Counseling. (2000). Statutes and bylaws. Retrieved from http://www.pce-world.org/about-us/statutes-and-bylaws.html
About the Author[Page 87][Page 88]