Peer to Peer and the Music Industry: The Criminalization of Sharing
Publication Year: 2010
This penetrating and informative book provides readers with the perfect systematic critical guide to the file-sharing phenomenon. Combining inter-disciplinary resources from sociology, history, media and communication studies and cultural studies, Matthew David unpacks the economics, psychology, and philosophy of file-sharing. It fuses a deep knowledge of the music industry and the new technologies of mass communication with a powerful perspective on how multinational corporations operate to monopolize markets, how international and state agencies defend property, while a global multitude undermine and/or reinvent both.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Much too Much?
- The File-Sharing Phenomenon
- The Structure of this Book
- The Claim Being Made
- Chapter 2: The Global Network Society: Territorialization and Deterritorialization
- The Relative Autonomy of the Informational Mode of Development?
- Critical Theoretical Challenges
- Feminist Critiques
- Informationalism and ‘Capitalist Perestroika’?
- Critical Theoretical Challenges
- The Network as Morphogenetic Structure?
- Ethnographic Alternatives
- From Ethnography to Discourse
- Challenging Discourse Analysis from within
- Post-Structuralist Approaches
- Contingency, Contradiction and Contestation
- Chapter 3: File-Sharing: A Brief History
- The Hacker Ethic — and U2's Manager
- Media — Compression and Transmission
- Early Napster
- The Closure
- The Rise of Peer-to-Peer
- The Development of a Common Media and Platform
- From Peer-to-Peer to Peers-to-Peer (Torrents)
- Commercial Development — MP3 Players, iPods and iTunes
- File-Sharing and Social Networking (Decommodification and Democratization)
- Mass/New Media History
- Web 2.0 and 3.0 — Recommercialization or Not?
- From Consumer Revolts to Revolts among Artists
- Chapter 4: Markets and Monopolies in Informational Goods: Intellectual Property Rights and Protectionism
- Intellectual Property: An Essential Contradiction
- The Pre-History of Patents and Copyrights
- Natural Rights Discourses versus Utilitarian Balance of Interest Constructions
- American, British and French Traditions: Freedom, Control and Enlightenment
- Towards an International System, but Slowly
- Hollywood Pirates, Mark Twain and Mickey Mouse
- The Fall and Resurgence of International IP Regulation
- Fee Culture or Free Culture?
- The Young versus the Old
- Conclusions: Competition versus Closure
- Chapter 5: Legal Genealogies
- Technology and Legality
- The US Legal Genealogy
- A Curious Case of International and Inter-Media Comparison
- Comparative Legal Frameworks and Interpretations
- National Specifics from Three Cases: Canada, UK and Hong Kong
- The Emperor's New Sword
- More on the Sony Ruling
- Chapter 6: Technical Mythologies and Security Risks
- The Surveillance Society?
- From Foucault to Deleuze: From Discipline towards Control
- The Panoptic Sort?
- Surveillance — a Limited Hope for the Recording Industry
- Attempts at Anonymity
- Counter Surveillance
- The Birth of Digital Rights Management
- Hard and Soft DRM Today
- The Problem with Format Capture: Closure versus Exposure
- Managing the Horror
- The Dialectic of Technology
- Chapter 7: Media Management
- ‘Piracy Funds Terrorism and will Destroy our Society and Your Future Enjoyment’ (FACT?)
- Intellectual Property Theft is the New Street Drug
- Intellectual Property Theft and Illegal Immigrants
- Intellectual Property, Identity Theft and Student Plagiarism
- Intellectual Property Theft and Airport Security Myths
- Media Scopes: The Next Big ‘Clampdown’ — July 2008: via ISPs
- The Mass-Media and New-Media
- Spreading Conspiracies
- Chapter 8: Creativity as Performance: The Myth of Creative Capital
- Artists should Get Paid Like Everybody Else, Right?
- Creative Industries?
- The Problem with Music Today
- The ‘Love Manifesto’
- The Emperor's New Sword Revisited
- The Shift ‘Back’ from Recording to Performance
- The Declining Value of Investment
- The Production Function
- The Manufacture of Physical Product
- Distribution and Sales
- The Promoter Function
- Publishing Rights and the Management of Wider Rights
- Creativity as Embodiment and Performance?
- Chapter 9: Alternative Cultural Models of Participation, Communication and Reward?
- Five Interpretations of File-Sharing
- Music Today: Myth and Reality
- Six Case Studies
- Arctic Monkeys
- Enter Shikari
- Simply Red
- The Charlatans
- General Discussion
- Possible Futures
- Field Colonisation (Low Truth/Low Proximity)
- Delegitimation/Reterritorialization (Low Trust/High Proximity)
- Relegitimation/Deterritorialization (High Trust/Low Proximity)
- Reterritorialization and Relegitimation (High Trust/High Proximity)
- Chapter 10: Conclusions
- Music and the Network Society
- Reflexive Epistemological Diversity
- Theories of the Network Society
- An Essential Outline of This Book
- Versus ‘the Winner Loses’ Theories of Closure
- Attention to the Open Character of Ongoing Conflicts
- Capitalist Glasnost and Perestroika?
- The Future is not what it Used to be!
Theory, Culture & Society
Theory, Culture & Society caters for the resurgence of interest in culture within contemporary social science and the humanities. Building on the heritage of classical social theory, the book series examines ways in which this tradition has been reshaped by a new generation of theorists. It also publishes theoretically informed analyses of everyday life, popular culture, and new intellectual movements.
EDITOR: Mike Featherstone, Nottingham Trent University
SERIES EDITORIAL BOARD
Roy Boyne, University of Durham
Nicholas Gane, University of York
Scott Lash, Goldsmiths College, University of London
Roland Robertson, University of Aberdeen
Couze Venn, Nottingham Trent University
THE TCS CENTRE
The Theory, Culture & Society book series, the journals Theory, Culture & Society and Body & Society, and related conference, seminar and postgraduate programmes operate from the TCS Centre at Nottingham Trent University. For further details of the TCS Centre's activities please contact:
The TCS Centre, Room 175
Faculty of Humanities
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Clifton Lane, Nottingham, NG11 8NS, UK
Recent volumes include:
Ordinary People and the Media
The Demotic Turn
The Sociology of Intellectual Life
The Career of the Mind in and around the Academy
Globalization & Football
Richard Guilianotti and Roland Robertson
The Saturated Society
Governing Risk and Lifestyles in Consumer Culture
© Matthew David 2010
First published 2010 Reprinted 2010
Published in association with Theory, Culture & Society, Nottingham Trent University
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
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For Mike Presdee (1944–2009).
A great teacher, friend and sharer.
Matthew David has done a rare and valuable thing with this work. He has comprehensively exposed the inherent radicalism of peer-to-peer communication and exposed the absurdities of the various efforts to quash the practice and technologies. This book is certain to outlast the recording industry. Siva Vaidhyanathan, Professor of Media Studies, University of Virginia
This book is far-reaching in its implications for our understanding of modern society and culture and should be read by anyone with an interest in the future of music. David's discussion of the music industry's response to digitisation and the culture of downloading and file-sharing dispels the myths about pirates stealing our musical heritage. It puts the spotlight firmly on an industry that has exploited artists and audiences alike for years but which now finds itself imperilled by a mixture of technological change and the creative practices of (mainly) young people. The analysis is scholarly and rigorous yet the book is accessibly written and contains moments of real humour.
Graeme Kirkpatrick, Senior Lecturer, Sociology, University of Manchester
Too often the music industry is seen as merely being about entertainment. In this closely and clearly argued book Matthew David explains in detail why anyone interested in the future of our global information society must understand the questions raised by this industry's relationship with its customer base. Clearly establishing the importance of understanding the production and distribution of music for the wider realms of the globalising information economy, Matthew David develops an analysis of much wider relevance. The challenge of openness that confronts the major record companies is repeated across the information economy, and the struggle for control of the distribution of content will be the economic issue of the new millennium; Matthew David offers a clear and informative analysis of these developments that will be of interest to social scientists, lawyers and music lovers alike.
Christopher May, Professor of Political Economy, Lancaster University
List of Figures and Tables
Key Acronyms and Abbreviations[Page xii]
A&R Artists and Repertoire ACTA Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement AOL America On-line BBC British Broadcasting Corporation BMG Bertelsmann Music Group BPI The British Phonographic Industry BT British Telecommunications CCTV Closed Circuit Television CD Compact Disc CDPA United Kingdom Copyright, Designs and Patent Act 1988 CNN Cable Network News DAT Digital Audio Tape DCMA United States Digital Millennium Copyright Act 1998 DCMS United Kingdom Department of Culture, Media and Sport DRM Digital Rights Management DVD Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc ECHR European Convention on Human Rights EFF Electronic Freedom Foundation EMI Electric and Musical Industries Ltd EU European Union F2F Friend to Friend Distributed Networks FACT Federation Against Copyright Theft GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade HRA United Kingdom Human Rights Act HBO Home Box Office ICT Information and Communication Technology ID Identification Documents or abbreviation for Identification IP Intellectual Property IPR Intellectual Property Rights IT Information Technology ISP Internet Service Providers ISPA Internet Service Providers Association MAFIAA Music and Film Industry Association of America [Page xiii] MoU 2008 Memorandum of Understanding between BPI and UK ISPs MP1,2,3 and 4 MP in each case is an abbreviation for MPEG, while the numbers refer to MPEG protocols for digital compression for different media MPAA Motion Picture Association of America MPEG Moving Picture Expert Group MPPC Motion Picture Patent Company NBC National Broadcasting Company OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OPAC Online Public Access Catalogue P2P Peer-to-Peer Distributed Networks RIAA Record Industry Association of America TPB The Pirate Bay TRIPS Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization WCT World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty WTO World Trade Organization UK United Kingdom US United States of America
This work would not have been possible without the help of many people. I would particularly like to thank Jodie Allen, Jack Birmingham, Peter Campbell, Tori Durrer, Sergey Erofeev, Betsy Ettorre, Victoria Foster, Gill Gower, Tim Hall, Dan (onions) Hartley, Dave Inker, Paul Jones, Gesa Kather, Devorah Kalekin-Fishman, Jamie Kirkhope, Graeme Kirkpatrick, Andrew Kirton, Lauren Langman, Chris May, Kevin Meethan, Ruth Melville, Steve Miles (the original professor of ‘symbology’), Pete (‘Mr Incredible’) Millward, Dave O'Brian, Sarah Louisa Phythian-Adams (the real undercover economist), Jason Powell, Mike Presdee, Michaela Pysńáková (queen of the mainstream), Chris Rojek, Imogen Roome, Rebecca Saxton, Jai Seaman and Iain Wilkinson. I would also like to thank Chris, Val, Rachel, Sian, Brennan and Jasmine.
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