Participation and Empowerment in Organizations: Modeling, Effectiveness, and Applications

Books

Abraham Sagie & Meni Koslowsky

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Advanced Topics in Organizational Behavior

    The Advanced Topics in Organizational Behavior series examines current and emerging issues in the field of organizational behavior. Written by researchers who are widely acknowledged subject area experts, the books provide an authoritative, up-to-date review of the conceptual, research, and practical implications of the major issues in organizational behavior.

    Editors: Julian Barling, Queen's University

    Kevin Kelloway, University of Guelph

    Editorial Board: Victor M. Catano, Saint Mary's University

    Cary L. Cooper, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology

    Daniel G. Gallagher, James Madison University

    Jean Hartley, University of Warwick

    Denise Rousseau, Carnegie-Mellon University

    Paul Spector, University of South Florida

    Lois E. Tetrick, University of Houston

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Foreword

    A tidal shift in business management over the past decade has been the movement toward participation and empowerment, involving employees at all levels of the organization in decision making. The notion of employee participation and empowerment has moved from being a novel experiment in a few nontraditional organizations to mainstream management policy. We cannot read a business magazine, the Wall Street Journal, or any book on management without stumbling across prescriptions for employee participation and empowerment. The traditional scientific management perspective of Frederick W. Taylor dominated the 20th century. However, as this century ends, a new approach has taken root and spread around the world.

    Despite the growth of participation and empowerment ideals, this perspective has often proven to be difficult to implement successfully. Effective use of the participation/empowerment approach to management has not matched its popularity.

    In this book, Abraham Sagie and Meni Koslowsky attempt to determine to what extent participation and empowerment are effective. They do this by examining how empowerment is actually demonstrated in companies and identifying the underlying dynamics. This attempt is necessary. Why?

    Empowerment, employee participation, employee involvement, participation in decision making, and many other terms are tossed around very casually. Yet what one means by these terms differs from person to person, from organization to organization, and from country to country. What do the employee ownership of United Airlines, the self-directed work teams at Johnsonville Sausage, and joint goal setting between a manager and subordinate have in common? All are considered to be employee participation and empowerment. However, the first operates at the organizational level, the second at the group level, and the last at the individual level. Each will have different antecedents and consequences. Sagie and Koslowsky trace these different meanings of employee participation and empowerment to clarify what the terms mean.

    A second goal of the authors is to examine why employee participation and empowerment are effective. This is a major contribution to the field, because most authors (myself included) have focused on describing participation/ empowerment, or assessing the impact of these attempts in organizations. Do participation and empowerment improve organizations because the people with the appropriate knowledge or at the appropriate level are making the decisions? Or is it effective because participation and empowerment inspire employees to work harder? Or is it some combination of both? What factors facilitate the positive impact of participation and empowerment? What factors inhibit the success of participation and empowerment?

    These are important questions whose answers may shape the future of participation and empowerment in the workplace. We need to understand the processes involved to become more successful in applying participation and empowerment.

    A third objective of Sagie and Koslowsky is to determine to what extent participation and empowerment are effective in improving decision making and productivity. I don't agree with their conclusions on this; I think that they are too conservative. However, this is still a matter for debate, both on philosophical merits and the empirical evidence. I will concede that they make some cogent and persuasive arguments. The reader will have to see if he or she is convinced.

    In addition to the objectives I've outlined above, the book makes other contributions. One contribution is that Sagie and Koslowsky see and define participation and empowerment more broadly than most other authors. They investigate participation in leadership, strategic versus tactical decision making, goal setting, management by objectives, and total quality management. Others have recognized that participation and empowerment are related to these other topics, but typically these topics are not included. Their inclusion here makes for a broader perspective. For example, most participation and empowerment theorists ignore topics such as small business units (SBUs) because they are seen as issues of organizational structure. We need to be more integrative in our conceptualizing, not creating theoretical silos like some functional organization.

    There are other reasons why I would recommend this book. I enjoyed the discussions of how participation is described and how it actually exists in various countries. This is especially interesting when the authors cover countries that are not typically included, such as Poland and India. The descriptions of delegation, the sociotechnical approach, and strategic versus tactical decisions were interesting, especially being integrated with participation and empowerment. Sagie and Koslowsky debate several interesting issues. For example, they argue that participation and empowerment cannot be justified simply on their effectiveness at improving work. I disagree, but find their arguments engaging. I also learned about the theory of loose-tight leadership.

    I think you'll appreciate this book. I enjoyed it, and I learned from the authors' perspective.

    John L.Cotton

    Preface

    Executives often wonder how to survive in a business market that is becoming more and more global, more and more complicated, and more and more competitive. During hard times and frequent changes, innovative answers should be provided. Yet no single manager or even small group of management has all the answers. Coping with intense competition and economic difficulties reminds management that their human resources are their main important asset. If the entire capacity of the workforce is used to generate ideas and solve problems, and if they are really involved in the process of decision making, workers can be a vital aid to the organization during times of turmoil. No wonder, therefore, that an increasing number of companies are spending more money for implementing participatory programs such as management by objectives, total quality management, and self-managing work teams. Nevertheless, a careful examination shows that economic and organizational considerations are only part of the causes for implementing employee participation and empowerment. Legal, ideological, cultural, and political reasons are other reasons for the participatory efforts throughout the world.

    Consistent with the book's topic, it took a joint effort of two people with somewhat different orientations and emphases to produce this treatise. The first author's interests are more empirical, whereas the second author is more interested in modeling techniques; fortunately, both orientations are reflected in this book. As academicians who have taught, researched, and practiced participative techniques in organizational settings, both in America and Israel, we came to the conclusion that a comprehensive book in the field was lacking. Although several books in the field have appeared, much of the current knowledge exists in various sources scattered throughout the social science and business literature. In particular, the present work focuses on a relatively few number of basic issues including (a) how are participative decision making (PDM) and employee empowerment expressed in organizations around the globe? (b) what are the underlying dynamics of the process? and (c) to what extent are PDM and empowerment effective? Although the questions are basic ones, we found that after integrating and analyzing the relevant theories, facts, and applications, the answers are quite complex.

    The book has been organized so it deals with all the above-mentioned issues. It begins by describing the various phenomena related to PDM, continues by presenting an underlying model and relevant empirical research, and concludes with a general evaluation and by depicting possible future trends. Specifically, Chapter 1 traces the origins and diverse meanings of worker participation and empowerment throughout the world. It shows that except for the term participation, the modes of involving employees in decision making have very little in common.

    Chapter 2 aims at modeling the impact of PDM on diverse work outcomes, including job satisfaction, performance, and withdrawal behavior. It suggests two main paths, motivational and cognitive, each consisting of multiple mediators that transmit the PDM influence to work outcomes. Besides identifying which mediators help to facilitate this impact, other factors that are less productive, and interfere with the PDM effect, are also considered.

    Using empirical evidence, Chapter 3 assesses the effectiveness of PDM. As many studies have attempted to answer that very question for more than 60 years, quantitative reviews (especially meta-analytic studies) are particularly helpful in summarizing the research results. The chapter concentrates on group-oriented research with the following two chapters examining other streams of research.

    chapter 4 reviews the relevant theory and research in the leadership literature. An important issue addressed here is whether or not directive leader and employee participation are contradictory concepts.

    chapter 5 concentrates on goal setting and participation. Nevertheless, most of the findings are equally relevant to the wider area of participation in decision making. One of the key issues here is the differential PDM effects on performance and attitudes.

    Whereas most of the preceding chapters focused on participation, chapter 6 is devoted entirely to employee empowerment. It considers both theories and practices including delegation or self-managing work teams.

    chapter 7 examines the repertoire of participatory techniques commonly observed in organizations: job enrichment, job redesign, management by objectives, quality of working life, quality circles, and total quality management.

    Finally, based on the theoretical and empirical evidence suggested till now, chapter 8 attempts to integrate our approach and suggest intermediate answers to the book's main questions. Because the course of advancement in research is not always linear, and new evidence often belies the previous one, these answers could be referred to as “intermediate.” Yet they are the most comprehensive that we can provide at the moment.

    AbrahamSagie
    MeniKoslkowskyRamat-Gan, Israel
  • References

    Abdel-Halim, A. A. (1983a). Effects of task and personality characteristics on subordinate responses to participative decision making. Academy of Management Journal, 26, 477–484. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256258
    Abdel-Halim, A. A. (1983b). Power equalization, participative decision making and individual differences. Human Relations, 36, 683–704. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872678303600801
    Abdel-Halim, A. A., & Rowland, K. M. (1976). Some personality determinants in the effects of participation: A further investigation. Personnel Psychology, 29, 41–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1976.tb00400.x
    Adams, R. J., & Rummel, C. H. (1977). Worker's participation in management in West Germany: Impact on the worker, the enterprise, and the trade union. Industrial Relations Journal, 8(1), 4–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2338.1977.tb00203.x
    Adler, P. S. (1993). The “learning bureaucracy”: New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc. In B. M.Staw & L. L.Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 15, pp. 111–194). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Alutto, J., & Belasco, J. (1972). A typology for participation in organizational decision making. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17, 117–125. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392100
    Avolio, B. J., & Bass, B. M. (1995). Individual consideration viewed at multiple levels of analysis: A multi-level framework for examining the diffusion of transformational leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), 199–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1048-9843%2895%2990035-7
    Bak, C. (1992, Winter). Lessons from the veterans of TQM. Canadian Business Review, pp. 17–19.
    Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.37.2.122
    Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Engle-wood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Barker, J. R. (1993). Tightening the iron cage: Concertive control in self-management teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 38, 408–437. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393374
    Bartlem, C. S., & Locke, E. A. (1981). The Coch and French study: A critique and reinterpretation. Human Relations, 34, 555–566. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872678103400703
    Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Academic Press.
    Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1994). Introduction. In B. M.Bass & B. J.Avolio (Eds.), Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership (pp. 1–9). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Bass, B. M., Waldman, D. A., Avolio, B. J., & Bebb, M. (1989). Transformational leadership and the falling dominoes effect. In J. W.Newstorm & K.Davis (Eds.), Organizational behavior (pp. 322–333). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Beck, D. (1992, January/February). Implementing a gainsharing plan: What companies need to know. Compensation and Benefits Review, 24, 21–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088636879202400111
    Beekun, R. I. (1989). Assessing the effectiveness of sociotechnical interventions: Antidote or fad?Human Relations, 42, 877–897. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872678904201002
    Bhappu, A. D., Griffith, T. L., & Northcraft, G. B. (1997). Media effects and communication bias in diverse groups. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 70, 199–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1997.2704
    Blake, R. B., & McCanse, A. A. (1991). Leadership dilemmas—Grid solutions. Houston, TX: Gulf.
    Blake, R. B., & Mouton, J. S. (1982). Theory and research for developing a science of leadership. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 18, 275–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002188638201800304
    Blumberg, R. (1968). Industrial democracy: The sociology of participation. New York: Schocken.
    Brockner, J., & Hess, T. (1986). Self-esteem and task performance in qualify circles. Academy of Management Journal, 29, 617–623. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256228
    Burke, W. W. (1986). Leadership as empowering others. In S.Srivastva (Ed.), Executive power (pp. 51–77). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Burke, W. W. (1997). The new agenda for organization development. Organizational Dynamics, 26(1), 7–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0090-2616%2897%2990024-3
    Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
    Cameron, K. S., Freeman, S. J., & Mishra, A. K. (1991). Best practices in white-collar downsizing: Managing contradictions. Academy of Management Executive, 5(3), 57–73.
    Campbell, D., & Gingrich, K. E. (1986). The interactive effects of task complexity and participation on task performance: A field experiment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 38, 162–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978%2886%2990014-2
    Carnall, C. A. (1982). Semi-autonomous work groups and the social structure of the organization. Journal of Management Studies, 19, 277–294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1982.tb00109.x
    Carroll, S. J., Jr., & Tosi, H. L., Jr. (1973). Management by objectives: Applications and research. New York: Macmillan.
    Coch, L., & French, J. R. P. (1948). Overcoming resistance to change. Human Relations, 1, 512–532. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872674800100408
    Cohen, S. G., Ledford, G. E., Jr., & Spreitzer, G. M. (1996). A predictive model of self-managing work teams effectiveness. Human Relations, 49, 643–676. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679604900506
    Collins, E. G., & Guetzkow, H. (1964). A social psychology of group processes for decision making. New York: John Wiley.
    Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1988). The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice. Academy of Management Review, 13, 471–482.
    Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1994). Charismatic leadership in organizations: Perceived behavioral attributes and their measurement. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 439–452. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030150508
    Cotton, J. L. (1993). Employee involvement: Methods for improving performance and work attitudes. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Cotton, J. L. (1995). Participation's effect on performance and satisfaction: A reconsideration of Wagner. Academy of Management Review, 20, 276–278.
    Cotton, J. L. (1996). Employee involvement. In C. L.Cooper & I. T.Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 11, pp. 219–242). New York: John Wiley.
    Cotton, J. L., Vollrath, D. A., Froggatt, K. L., Lengnick-Hall, M. L., & Jennings, K. R. (1988). Employee participation: Diverse forms and different outcomes. Academy of Management Review, 13, 8–22.
    Crosby, P. B. (1984). Quality without tears: The art of hassle-free management. Milwaukee, WI: Quality.
    Dachler, H. P., & Wilpert, B. (1978). Conceptual dimensions and boundaries of participation in organizations: A critical evaluation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23, 1–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392432
    Decisions in Organizations International Research Team. (1983). A contingency model of participative decision making: An analysis of 56 decisions in three Dutch organizations. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 56, 1–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1983.tb00105.x
    Deming, W. E. (1986). Out of the crisis. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Engineering Study.
    Dewey, J. (1899). Psychology as philosophic method. Berkeley, CA: University Press.
    Dickson, J. W. (1982). Top managers beliefs and rationales for participation. Human Relations, 35, 203–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872678203500303
    Dickson, J. W. (1983). Beliefs about work and rationales for participation. Human Relations, 36, 911–932. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872678303601004
    Drucker, P. (1954). The practice of management. New York: Harper.
    Dunphy, D., & Bryant, B. (1996). Teams: Panaceas or prescriptions for improved performance?Human Relations, 49, 677–699. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679604900507
    Earley, P. C. (1993). East meets West meets Mideast: Further explorations of collectivistic and individualistic work groups. Academy of Management Journal, 36, 319–348. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256525
    Elizur, D., & Shye, S. (1990). Quality of work life and its relation to quality of life. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 39, 275–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1990.tb01054.x
    Erez, M. (1986). The congruence of goal setting strategies with socio-cultural values and its effect on performance. Journal of Management, 12, 585–592. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014920638601200413
    Erez, M., & Arad, R. (1986). Participative goal setting: Social, motivational, and cognitive factors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 591–597. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.71.4.591
    Erez, M., & Earley, P. C. (1993). Culture, self-identity, and work. New York: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195075809.001.0001
    Erez, M., Earley, P. C., & Hulin, C. L. (1985). The impact of participation on goal acceptance and performance: A two-step model. Academy of Management Journal, 28, 50–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256061
    Erez, M., & Somech, A. (1996). Is group productivity loss the rule or the exception? Effects of culture and group-based motivation. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 1513–1537. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/257067
    Erez, M., & Zidon, I. (1984). Effect of goal acceptance on the relationship of goal difficulty to performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 65–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.69.1.69
    Esser, J. K., & Lindoerfer, J. S. (1989). Groupthink and the space shuttle Challenger accident: Toward a quantitative case analysis. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 2, 167–177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdm.3960020304
    Festinger, L. A. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Evanston, IL: Row & Peterson.
    Fiedler, F. E. (1967). A theory of leadership effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Fiedler, F. E. (1989). The effective utilization of intellectual abilities and job-relevant knowledge in group performance: Cognitive resource theory and an agenda for the future. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 38, 289–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1989.tb01259.x
    Fiedler, F. E. (1995). Cognitive resources and leadership performance. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 44, 5–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1995.tb01378.x
    Fiedler, F. E., & Garcia, J. E. (1987). New approaches to effective leadership. New York: John Wiley.
    Fleishman, E. A. (1965). Attitude versus skill factors in work group productivity, Personnel Psychology, 18, 253–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1965.tb00284.x
    Freeman, S., Walker, M. R., Borden, R., & Latane, B. (1975). Diffusion of responsibility and restaurant tipping: Cheaper by the bunch. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1, 584–587. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014616727500100407
    Freiman, J. M., & Saxberg, B. O. (1989). Impact of quality circles on productivity and quality: Research limitations of a field experiment. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 36(2), 114–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/17.18827
    French, J. R. P., Israel, J., & As, D. (1960). An experiment in a Norwegian factory: Interpersonal dimensions in decision making. Human Relations, 13, 3–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872676001300101
    French, J. R. P., & Raven, B. H. (1959). The bases of social power. In D.Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power (pp. 150–167). Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research.
    Frese, M. (1995). Entrepreneurship in East Europe: A general model and empirical findings. In C. L.Cooper & D. M.Rousseau (Eds.), Trends in organizational behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 65–83). Chichester, UK: Wiley.
    Fried, Y. (1991). Meta-analytic comparison of the Job Diagnostic Survey and Job Characteristic Inventory as correlates of job satisfaction and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 690–697. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.76.5.690
    Fried, Y., & Ferris, G. R. (1987). The validity of the job characteristic model: A review and metaanalysis. Personnel Psychology, 40, 287–322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1987.tb00605.x
    Fry, L., Kerr, S., & Lee, C. (1986). Effects of different leader behaviors under different levels of task interdependence. Human Relations, 39, 1067–1082. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872678603901201
    Fulk, J., & Wendler, E. R. (1982). Dimensionality of leader-subordinate interaction: A path-goal investigation. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 30, 241–264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2882%2990220-3
    Gemmil, G., & Smith, C. (1985). A dissipative structure model of organization transformation. Human Relations, 38, 751–766. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872678503800804
    Gist, M. E., Locke, E. A., & Taylor, M. S. (1989). Organizational behavior: Group structure, process and effectiveness. In J. W.Newstorm & K. D.Davis (Eds.), Organizational behavior (
    8th ed.
    , pp. 205–249). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Goodman, P. S., Olivera, F., & Ramanujam, R. (1997). Critical linkages in cross-national research. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University.
    Greenberg, P. D., & Glaser, E. M. (1981). Viewpoints of labor leaders regarding quality of worklife improvement programs. International Review of Applied Psychology, 30, 157–175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1981.tb00135.x
    Guzzo, R. A., Jette, R. D., & Katzell, R. A. (1985). The effects of psychologically based intervention programs on worker productivity: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 38, 275–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1985.tb00547.x
    Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16, 250–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2876%2990016-7
    Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Hall, J., & Williams, M. S. (1966). A comparison of decision making performance in established and ad-hoc groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, 214–222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0022896
    Hammer, M., & Champy, J. (1993). Reengineering the corporation: A manifesto for business revolution. New York: HarperBusiness.
    Hammer, T. H., & Stern, R. N. (1986). A yo-yo model of cooperation: Union participation in management at the Rath Packing Company. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 39, 337–349. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2524094
    Hanson, R., Porterfield, R. I., & Ames, K. (1995). Employee empowerment at risk: Effects of recent NLRB rulings. Academy of Management Executive, 9(2), 45–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AME.1995.9506273271
    Harrison, D. B. (1995, Winter). Shaping the organization of the future. Canadian Business Review, pp. 13–18.
    Heller, F. A. (1971). Managerial decision making: A study of leadership styles and power sharing among senior managers. London: Tavistock.
    Heller, F. A., Drenth, P., Koopman, P., & Rus, V. (1988). Decisions in organizations: A three-country comparative study. London: Sage.
    Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. (1974, February). Do you want to know your leadership style?Training and Development Journal, pp. 22–32.
    Herzberg, F. (1968). One more time: How do you motivate employees?Harvard Business Review, 46(1), 53–62.
    Herzberg, E., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. (1959). The motivation to work. New York: John Wiley.
    Hisrich, R. D. (1990). Entrepreneurship/intrapreneurship. American Psychologist, 45, 209–222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.45.2.209
    Hoffman, R. L., & Maier, N. R. F. (1961). Quality and acceptance of problem solutions by members of homogeneous and heterogeneous groups. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62, 401–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0044025
    Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. London: McGraw-Hill.
    Hogan, R., Curphy, G. J., & Hogan, J. (1994). What we know about leadership effectiveness and personality. American Psychologist, 49, 493–504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.49.6.493
    Hollingshead, A. B. (1996). The rank-order effect in group decision making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 68, 181–193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1996.0098
    House, R. J. (1971). A path-goal theory of leader effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 16, 321–338. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2391905
    House, R. J., & Howell, J. M. (1992). Personality and charismatic leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 3(2), 81–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1048-9843%2892%2990028-E
    Hull, F., & Azumi, K. (1988). Technology and participation in Japanese factories: The consequences for morale and productivity. Work and Occupations, 15, 423–448. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0730888488015004004
    Hull, F., Azumi, K., & Wharton, R. (1988). Suggestion rates and sociotechnical systems in Japanese versus American factories: Beyond quality circles. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 35, 11–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/17.6000
    Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1990). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Hunter, J. E., Schmidt, F. L., & Jackson, G. B. (1982). Meta-analysis: Cumulating research findings across studies. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Hyman, J., & Mason, B. (1995). Managing employee involvement and participation. London: Sage.
    Industrial Democracy in Europe International Research Team. (1993). Industrial democracy in Europe revisited. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Ivancevich, J. M. (1976). Effects of goal setting on performance and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, 605–612. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.61.5.605
    Ivancevich, J. M. (1977). Different goal setting treatments and their effects on performance and job satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 20, 406–419. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255414
    Ivancevich, J. M. (1979). An analysis of participation in decision making among project engineers. Academy of Management Journal, 22, 253–269. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255588
    Jackson, S. (1983). Participation in decision making as a strategy for reducing job-related strain. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 3–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.68.1.3
    Jacob, R. (1993, October 18). TQM—More than a dying fad?Fortune, pp. 66–72.
    Jago, A. G., Maczynski, J., & Reber, G. (1996). Evolving leadership styles: A comparison of Polish managers before and after market economy reforms. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 27(2), 107–115.
    Jago, A. G., Reber, G., Bohnisch, W., Maczynski, J., Zavrel, J., & Dudorkin, J. (1993). Culture's consequences: A seven nation study of participation. In D. F.Rogers & A. S.Raturi (Eds.), Proceedings of the 24th annual meeting of Decision Sciences Institute (pp. 451–454). Washington, DC: Decision Sciences Institute.
    Jang, S., & Chung, M.-H. (1997). Discursive contradiction of tradition and modernity in Korean management practices: A case study of Samsung's new management. In S. A.Sackmann (Ed.), Cultural complexity in organizations: Inherent contrasts and contradictions (pp. 51–71). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Janis, I. L. (1982). Victims of groupthink (
    2nd ed.
    ). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Juran, J. M. (1989). Juran on leadership for quality: An executive handbook. Wilson, CT: Juran Institute.
    Kanungo, R. N., & Mendonca, M. (1997). Fundamental of organizational behavior. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
    Katz, A., Russ-Eft, D., Moran, L., & Ravi-Shankar, L. (1995). Team members speak out. Journal for Quality and Participation, 18(5), 76–81.
    Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: John Wiley.
    Katzenbach, J. R., & Smith, D. K. (1993). The wisdom of teams: Creating the high-performance organization. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Keller, R. T. (1989). A test of path-goal theory of leadership with need for clarity as a moderator in R&D organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 208–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.2.208
    Kelly, J. (1992). Does job re-design theory explain job re-design outcomes?Human Relations, 45, 753–774. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679204500801
    Kernan, M. G., & Lord, R. G. (1988). Effects of participative versus assigned goals and feedback in a multi-trial task. Motivation and Emotion, 12, 75–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00992473
    Kerr, N. L. (1983). Motivation losses in small groups: A social dilemma analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 819–828. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.45.4.819
    Kirkman, B. L., & Shapiro, D. L. (1997). The impact of cultural values on employee resistance to teams: Toward a model of globalized self-managing team effectiveness. Academy of Management Review, 22, 730–737.
    Klein, K. J., Dansereau, F., & Hall, R. J. (1994). Levels issues in theory development, data collection, and analysis. Academy of Management Review, 19, 195–229.
    Knudsen, H. (1995). Employee participation in Europe. London: Sage.
    Koslowsky, M. (1998). Modeling the stress-strain process in work settings. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203277591
    Koslowsky, M., & Sagie, A. (1993). On the efficacy of credibility intervals as indicators of moderator effects in meta-analytic research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14, 695–699. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030140708
    Kotter, J. P. (1996). Leading change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. J. (1988). The leadership challenge. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Krishman, R., Shani, A. B., Grant, R. M., & Baer, R. (1993). In search of quality improvement: Problems of design and implementation. Academy of Management Executive, 7(4), 7–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AME.1993.9503103187
    Kustin, R. A., & Jones, R. A. (1996). An investigation of Japanese/American managers' leadership style in U.S. corporations. Journal of International Management, 2, 111–126.
    Landy, F. (1985). Psychology of work behavior. Homewood, IL: Dorsey.
    Latane, B., & Nida, S. (1981). Ten years of research on group size and helping. Psychological Bulletin, 89, 308–324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.89.2.308
    Latham, G. P., Erez, M., & Locke, E. A. (1988). Resolving scientific disputes by the joint design of crucial experiments: Application to the Erez-Latham dispute regarding participation in goal setting. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 753–777. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.73.4.753
    Latham, G. P., & Marshall, H. A. (1982). The effects of self-set, participatively set, and assigned goals on the performance of government employees. Personnel Psychology, 35, 399–404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1982.tb02204.x
    Latham, G. P., & Saari, L. M. (1979a). The effects of holding goal difficulty constant on assigned and participatively set goals. Academy of Management Journal, 22, 163–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255489
    Latham, G. P., & Saari, L. M. (1979b). Importance of supportive relationships in goal setting. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 151–156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.64.2.151
    Latham, G. P., & Steele, T. P. (1983). The motivational effects of participation versus goal setting on performance. Academy of Management Journal, 26, 406–417. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256253
    Latham, G. P., Steele, T. P., & Saari, L. M. (1982). The effects of participation and goal difficulty on performance. Personnel Psychology, 35, 677–686. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1982.tb02218.x
    Latham, G. P., Winters, D. C., & Locke, E. A. (1994). Cognitive and motivational effects of participation: A mediator study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 49–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030150106
    Lawler, E. E., III. (1986). High involvement management: Participative strategies for improving organizational performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Lawler, E. E., III, Ledford, G. E., Jr., & Mohrman, S. A. (1989). Employee involvement in America: A study of contemporary practice. Houston, TX: American Productivity and Quality Center.
    Lawler, E. E., III, Mohrman, S. A., & Ledford, G. E., Jr. (1992). Employee involvement and total quality management: Practices and results in Fortune 1000 companies. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Lawler, E. E., III, Mohrman, S. A., & Ledford, G. E., Jr. (1995). Creating high performance organizations: Practices and results of employee involvement and total quality management in Fortune 1000 companies. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Lawrence, P. R. (1971). How to deal with resistance to change. In D. A.Kolb, I. M.Rubin, & J. M.Mclntyre (Eds.), Organizational psychology (pp. 375–387). New York: Prentice Hall.
    Leana, C. R. (1987). Power relinquishment versus power sharing: Theoretical clarification and empirical comparison of delegation and participation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 227–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.72.2.228
    Leana, C. R., Locke, F. A., & SchweigerD. M. (1990). Fact and fiction in analyzing research on participative decision making: A critique of Cotton, Vollrath, Froggatt, Lengnick-Hall, & Jennings. Academy of Management Review, 15, 137–146.
    Lee, C. (1990). Beyond teamwork. Training, 27(6), 25–32.
    Lee, C., Bobko, P., Earley, P. C., & Locke, E. A. (1991). An empirical analysis of a goal setting questionnaire. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12, 467–482. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030120602
    Lewin, K. (1943). Forces behind food habits and methods of change. Bulletin of the National Research Council, 108, 403–409.
    Lewin, K. (1947). Frontiers in group dynamics. Human Relations, 1, 5–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872674700100103
    Lewin, K., Lippitt, R., & White, R. K. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created “social climates.”Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 271–299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1939.9713366
    Lewis, C., & Rooney, J. (1981). Quality circles. Personnel Management, 13(10), 56–59.
    Libby, R., Trotman, K. T., & Zimmer, I. (1987). Member variation, recognition of expertise, and group performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 81–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.72.1.81
    Likert, R. (1961). New patterns of management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Likert, R. (1967). The human organization. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Lippitt, R., & White, R. K. (1958). An experimental study of leadership and group life. In E. E.Maccoby, T. M.Newcomb, & E. L.Hartley (Eds.), Readings in social psychology (pp. 496–511). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Locke, E. A. (1968). Toward a theory of task motivation and incentives. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 3, 157–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2868%2990004-4
    Locke, E. A., Feren, D. B., McCaleb, V. M., Shaw, K. M., & Denny, A. T. (1980). The relative effectiveness of four methods of motivating employee performance. In K. D.Duncan, M. M.Grunberg, & D.Wallis (Eds.), Changes in working life (pp. 363–388). New York: John Wiley.
    Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Locke, E. A., Latham, G. P., & Erez, M. (1988). The determinants of goal commitment. Academy of Management Review, 13, 23–39.
    Locke, E. A., & Schweiger, D. M. (1979). Participation in decision making: One more look. In B. M.Staw & L. L.Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 1, pp. 265–339). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Lowin, A. (1968). Participative decision making: A model, literature critique, and prescriptions for research. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 3, 68–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2868%2990028-7
    Macdonald, C. R. (1982). MBO can work! How to manage by contract. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Maczynski, J., Jago, A. G., Reber, G., & Bohnisch, W. (1994). Culture and leadership styles: A comparison of Polish, Austrian, and U.S. managers. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 25, 303–315.
    Maier, N. R. F. (1963). Problem solving discussions and conferences: Leadership methods and skills. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Manz, C. C., & Sims, H. P. (1987). Leading workers to lead themselves: The external leadership of self-managing work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 32, 106–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392745
    Martin, S. (1983). Managing without managers: Alternative work arrangements in public organizations. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper & Row.
    McCarthy, S. (1989). The dilemma of non-participation. In C. J.Lammers & G.Szell (Eds.), International handbook of participation in organizations (pp. 115–129). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    McClelland, D. C. (1961). The achievement society. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.
    McClelland, D. C. (1975). Power: The inner experience. New York: Irvington.
    McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Mendonca, M., & Kanungo, R. N. (1994). Motivation through participative management. In R. N.Kanungo & M.Mendonca (Eds.), Work motivation: Models for developing countries (pp. 184–212). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Mento, A. J., Locke, E. A., & Klein, H. J. (1992). Relationship of goal level to valence and instrumentality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 395–405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.4.395
    Mento, A. J., Steel, R. P., & Karren, F. J. (1987). A meta-analytic study of the effects of goal setting on task performance: 1966–1984. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 39, 52–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978%2887%2990045-8
    Michaelson, L. K., Watson, W. E., & Black, R. H. (1989). A realistic test of individual versus group consensus decision making. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 834–839. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.5.834
    Miles, R. E. (1975). Theories of management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Miller, K. I., & Monge, P. R. (1986). Participation, satisfaction, and productivity: A meta-analytic review. Academy of Management Journal, 29, 727–753. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255942
    Miner, F. C. (1984). Group versus individual decision making: An investigation of performance measures, decision strategies, and process losses/gains. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 33, 112–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2884%2990014-X
    Mondy, R. W., & Premeaux, S. R. (1995). Management: Concepts, practices, and skills (
    7th ed.
    ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Mulvey, P. W., Veiga, J. F., & Elsass, P. M. (1996). When teammates raise a white flag. Academy of Management Executive, 10(1), 40–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AME.1996.9603293195
    Murphy, S. E., Blyth, D., & Fiedler, F. E. (1992). Cognitive resource theory and the utilization of the leader's and group members' technical competence. Leadership Quarterly, 3(3), 237–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1048-9843%2892%2990014-7
    Nadler, D. A., & Lawler, E. E. (1983). Quality of work life: Perspectives and directions. Organizational Dynamics, 11(3), 20–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616%2883%2990003-7
    Napier, R. W., & Gershenfeld, M. K. (1993). Groups: Theory and experience. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Nemeroff, P. M., & King, D. C. (1975). Group decision making performance as influenced by consensus and self-orientation. Human Relations, 28, 1–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872677502800101
    Niepce, W., & Molleman, E. (1998). Work design issues in lean production from a sociotechnical systems perspective: Neo-Taylorism or the next step in sociotechnical design?Human Relations, 51, 259–287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1016992403973
    O'Neill, H. M., & Lenn, D. J. (1995). Voices of survivors: Words that downsizing CEOs should hear. Academy of Management Executive, 9, 23–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AME.1995.9512032188
    Oxley, N. L., Dzindolet, M. T., & Paulus, P. B. (1996). The effects of facilitators on the performance of brainstorming groups. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11, 633–646.
    Peters, T. J., & Waterman, R. H. (1982). In search of excellence: Lessons from America's best-run companies. New York: Harper & Row.
    Peterson, M. F., Maiya, K., & Herreid, C. (1994). Adapting Japanese PM leadership field research for use in Western organizations. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 43, 49–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1994.tb00809.x
    Raven, B., Schwarzwald, J., & Koslowsky, M. (1998). Conceptualizing and measuring a power/ interaction model of interpersonal influence. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28, 307–332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1998.tb01708.x
    Riehl, J. W. (1988). Planning for total quality: The information technology components. S.A.M. Advanced Management Journal, 55(4), 13–19.
    Rodgers, R., & Hunter, J. E. (1991). Impact of management by objectives on organizational productivity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 322–336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.76.2.322
    Rodgers, R., Hunter, J. E., & Rogers, D. L. (1993). Influence of top management commitment on management program success. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 151–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.1.151
    Sagie, A. (1994). Participation in decision making and performance: A moderator analysis. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 30, 227–246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021886394302006
    Sagie, A. (1995). Employee participation and work outcomes: An end to the dispute?Academy of Management Review, 20, 278–280.
    Sagie, A. (1996). The effects of leader's communication style and participative goal setting on performance and attitudes. Human Performance, 9, 51–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327043hup0901_3
    Sagie, A. (1997). Leader direction and employee participation in decision making: Contradictory or compatible practices?Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46, 387–416.
    Sagie, A., ElizurD., & Greenbaum, C. W. (1985). Job experience, persuasion strategy, and resistance to change: An experimental study. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 6, 157–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030060207
    Sagie, A., Elizur, D., & Koslowsky, M. (1990). Effect of participation in strategic and tactical decisions on acceptance of planned change. Journal of Social Psychology, 130, 459–465. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1990.9924607
    Sagie, A., Elizur, D., & Koslowsky, M. (1995). Decision type, participative decision making (PDM) and organizational behavior: An experimental simulation. Human Performance, 8, 81–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08959289509539858
    Sagie, A., Elizur, D., & Koslowsky, M. (1996). Work values: A theoretical overview and a model of their effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, 503–514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-1379%28199612%2917:1+%3C503::AID-JOB820%3E3.0.CO;2-Q
    Sagie, A., & Koslowsky, M. (1993). Detecting moderators with meta-analysis: An evaluation and comparison of techniques. Personnel Psychology, 46, 629–640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1993.tb00888.x
    Sagie, A., & Koslowsky, M. (1994). Organizational attitudes and behaviors as a function of participation in strategic and tactical change decisions: An application of path-goal theory. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 37–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030150105
    Sagie, A., & Koslowsky, M. (1996). Decision type, organizational control, and acceptance of change: An integrative approach to participative decision making. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 45, 85–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1996.tb00850.x
    Sagie, A., & Koslowsky, M. (1998). Extra- and intra-organizational work values and behavior: A multiple-level model. In C. L.Cooper & D. M.Rousseau (Eds.), Trends in organizational behavior (Vol. 5, pp. 155–176). New York: John Wiley.
    Salazar, A. J. (1995). Understanding the synergistic effects of communication in small groups: Making the most out of group member abilities. Small Group Research, 26, 169–199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1046496495262002
    Salem, M. A., & Banner, D. K. (1992). Self-managing work teams: An international perspective. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 13(7), 3–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437739210022847
    Sawyer, J. E. (1992). Goal and process clarity: Specification of multiple constructs of role ambiguity and a structural equation model of their antecedents and consequences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 130–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.2.130
    Schuler, R. (1980). A role and expectancy perception model of participation in decision making. Academy of Management Journal, 23, 331–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255435
    Schweiger, D. M., & Leana, C. R. (1986). Participation in decision making. In E. A.Locke (Ed.), Generalizing from laboratory to field settings (pp. 147–166). Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.
    Schweiger, D. M., Sandberg, W. R., & Ragan, J. W. (1986). Group approaches for improving strategic decision making: A comparative analysis of dialectical inquiry, devil's advocacy, and consensus. Academy of Management Journal, 29, 51–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255859
    Seashore, S. E. (1981). Quality of working life perspective. In A. H.Van De Ven & W. F.Joyce (Eds.), Perspectives on organizational design and behavior (pp. 89–120). New York: John Wiley.
    Selmer, J., & De Leon, C. (1996). Parent cultural control through organizational acculturation: HCN employees learning new work values in foreign business subsidiaries. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, 557–572. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-1379%28199612%2917:1+%3C557::AID-JOB823%3E3.0.CO;2-0
    Shani, A. B., & Rogberg, M. (1994). Quality, strategy, and structural configuration. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 7(2), 15–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09534819410056104
    Smith, C. S., & Brannick, M. T. (1990). A role and expectancy model of participative decision making: A replication and theoretical extension. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11, 91–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030110202
    Spector, P. E. (1986). Perceived control by employees: A meta-analysis of studies concerning autonomy and participation at work. Human Relations, 39, 1005–1016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872678603901104
    Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 1442–1465. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256865
    Spreitzer, G. M., Kizilos, M. A., & Nason, S. W. (1997). A dimensional analysis of the relationship between psychological empowerment and effectiveness, satisfaction, and strain. Journal of Management, 23, 679–704.
    Stashevsky, S. (1997). Total quality management at employee's level: Influencing factors and organizational outcomes. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.
    Steyrer, J. (1997). The end of participation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46, 431–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1997.tb01249.x
    Stogdill, R. M. (1974). Handbook of leadership. New York: Free Press.
    Stohl, C., & Jennings, K. (1988). Volunteerism and voice in quality circles. Western Journal of Speech Communications, 52, 238–251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570318809389638
    Strauss, G. (1990). Worker participation in management: An international perspective. In L. L.Cummings & B. M.Staw (Eds.), Leadership, participation, and group behavior (pp. 213–305). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Sutton, R. I., & Hargadon, A. (1996). Brainstorming groups in context: Effectiveness in a product design firm. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 685–718. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393872
    Sverko, B., & Vizek-Vidovic, V. (1995). Studies of the meaning of work: Approaches, models, and some of the findings. In D. E.Super & B.Sverko (Eds.), Life roles, values, and careers: International findings of the work importance study (pp. 3–21). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Szabo, E., Jarmuz, S., Maczynski, J., & Reber, G. (1997). Autocratic Polish versus participative Austrian leaders: More than a cliche?Polish Psychological Bulletin, 28, 279–291.
    Tang, T. L., Tollison, P. S., & Whiteside, H. D. (1989). Quality circle productivity as related to upper-management attendance, circle initiation, and collar color. Journal of Management, 15, 101–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014920638901500109
    Tannenbaum, A. S. (1968). Control in organizations. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Thomas, K., & Velthouse, B. (1990). Cognitive elements of empowerment: An “interpretive” model of intrinsic task motivation. Academy of Management Review, 15, 666–681.
    Tichy, N. M., & Devanna, M. A. (1990). The transformational leader. New York: John Wiley.
    Tindale, R. S., & Larson, J. R., Jr. (1992). Assembly bonus effect or typical group performance? A comment on Michaelson, Watson, and Black (1989). Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 102–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.1.102
    Topel, M. (1995). Trends of change in kibbutzim. Ramat Efal, Israel: Yad Tabenkin (in Hebrew).
    Totoki, A. (1990). Management style for tomorrow's needs. Journal of Business Logistics, 11(2), 1–4.
    Trist, E. L., & Bamforth, K. W. (1951). Some social and psychological consequences of the long wall method of coal getting. Human Relations, 4, 3–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872675100400101
    Trist, E. L., Susman, G. I., & Brown, G. R. (1977). An experiment in autonomous working in an American underground coal mine. Human Relations, 30, 201–236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872677703000301
    Tubbs, M. E. (1993). Commitment as a moderator of the goal-performance relation: A case for clearer construct definition. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 86–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.1.86
    Van Fleet, D. D., & Griffin, R. W. (1989). Quality circles: A review and suggested future directions. In C. L.Cooper & I.Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 213–233). Chichester, UK: Wiley.
    Vroom, V. H., & Jago, A. G. (1988). The new leadership: Managing participation in organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Vroom, V. H., & Jago, A. G. (1995). Situation effects and levels of analysis in the study of leader participation. Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), 169–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1048-9843%2895%2990033-0
    Vroom, V. H., & Yetton, P. W. (1973). Leadership and decision making. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Wagner, J. A., III. (1994). Participation's effects on performance and satisfaction: A reconsideration of research evidence. Academy of Management Review, 19, 312–330.
    Wagner, J. A., III., & Gooding, R. Z. (1987a). Effects of societal trends on participation research. Administrative Science Quarterly, 32, 241–262. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393128
    Wagner, J. A., III., & Gooding, R. Z. (1987b). Shared influence and organizational behavior: A meta-analysis of situational variables expected to moderate participation outcome relationships. Academy of Management Journal, 30, 527–541. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256012
    Wagner, J. A., Leana, C. R., Locke, E. A., & Schweiger, D. M. (1997). Cognitive and motivational frameworks in U.S. research on participation: A meta-analysis of primary effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 49–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-1379%28199701%2918:1%3C49::AID-JOB789%3E3.0.CO;2-P
    Waldman, D. A. (1994). The contributions of total quality management to a theory of work performance. Academy of Management Review, 19, 510–536.
    Wallach, M. A., & Kogan, N. (1965). The roles of information, discussion, and consensus in group risk taking. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 1, 1–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2865%2990034-X
    Warner, M. (1990). Management versus self-management in Yugoslavia. Journal of General Management, 16(2), 20–37.
    Weed, S. E., & Mitchell, T. R. (1980). The role of environmental and behavioral uncertainty as a mediator of situation-performance relationships. Academy of Management Journal, 23, 38–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255495
    Weick, K. E. (1996). Enactment in the boundaryless career: Organizing as we work. In M. B.Arthur & D. M.Rousseau (Eds.), The boundaryless career: A new employment principle for a new organizational era (pp. 109–159). New York: Oxford University Press.
    White, R. K., & Lippitt, R. (1960). Autocracy and democracy. New York: Harper & Row.
    Whitener, E. M. (1990). Confusion of confidence intervals and credibility intervals in metaanalysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 315–321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.3.315
    Wilkinson, A., Redman, T., & Snape, E. (1994). The problems with quality management—The view of managers: Findings from an institute of management survey. Total Quality Management, 5(6), 397–406. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09544129400000059
    Williams, H. (1996). The essence of managing groups and teams. London: Prentice Hall.
    Wofford, J. C., & Liska, L. Z. (1993). Path-goal theories of leadership: A meta-analysis. Journal of Management, 19, 857–876.
    Wood, R., & Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory of organizational management. Academy of Management Review, 14, 361–383.
    Yammarino, F. J., & Naughton, T. J. (1992). Individual and group-based views of participation in decision making. Group & Organization Management, 17, 398–413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1059601192174006
    Zwerdling, D. (1984). Workplace democracy: A guide to workplace ownership, participation, and self-management experiments in the United States and Europe. New York: HarperTorch-books.

    About the Authors

    Abraham (Rami) Sagie is Senior Lecturer of Organizational Behavior in the School of Business Administration, Bar-Ilan University, Israel. His main areas of interest are participative decision making, leadership, work values, and cross-cultural aspects of organizational behavior and withdrawal. On these topics, he has published about 70 scientific articles, book chapters, and conference proceedings. He has more than 10 years of experience working as manager in high-tech companies. Additionally, he has consulted with several Israeli organizations, in both the public and private sectors. Currently, he serves as the Secretary/Treasurer of the International Society for the Study of Work and Organizational Values and the Books Editor of the International Journal of Manpower.

    Meni Koslowsky is currently Professor of Social and Organizational Psychology at Bar-Ilan University, Israel. He received his Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1972. His first areas of interest, at the University of Connecticut Health Center, were in the fields of health research and the development of psychometrically acceptable scales for use in a medical/dental evaluation program. After working for a few years outside of academia, as a research psychologist at JCPenney, Meni returned to a university setting when he moved to Israel with his family. Over the years, his interests have changed somewhat and now include organizational behavior research, as well as methodological issues. Meni has authored more than 100 articles, presentations, and chapters in books in traditional, substantive industrial/organizational areas such as organizational withdrawal, stress, and participative decision making. In addition, he has authored two previous books on commuting stress and modeling the stress process in organizations.


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website