Overcoming Unintentional Racism in Counseling and Therapy: A Practitioner's Guide to Intentional Intervention

Books

Charles R. Ridley

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Examining the Counselor's Unintentional Racism

    Part II: Overcoming the Counselor's Unintentional Racism

    Part III: Examining and Overcoming the Unintentional Racism of the Mental Health System

  • Multicultural Aspects of Counseling and Psychotherapy Series

    Series Editor

    Paul B. Pedersen, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Syracuse University, Visiting Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii

    Editorial Board

    Patricia M. Arredondo, Ed.D.

    Arizona State University

    J. Manuel Casas, Ph.D.

    University of California, Santa

    Barbara

    Harold E. Cheatham, Ph.D.

    Professor Emeritus

    Penn State University

    William E. Cross, Jr., Ph.D.

    City University of New York

    Candice Marie Fleming, Ph.D.

    University of Colorado

    Mary Fukuyama, Ph.D.

    University of Florida

    L. Sunny Hansen, Ph.D.

    Professor Emeritus

    University of Minnesota

    Ishu Ishiyama

    University of British Columbia

    Allen E. Ivey, Ed.D.

    Professor Emeritus

    University of Massachusetts at Amherst

    Teresa LaFromboise, Ph.D.

    Stanford University

    Jun-Chih Gisela Lin, Ph.D.

    ABPP, Texas A & M University

    Don C. Locke, Ed.D.

    University of North Carolina at Asheville

    Amado M. Padilla, Ph.D.

    Stanford University

    Freddy A. Paniagua, Ph.D.

    University of Texas Medical Branch

    Joseph G. Ponterotto, Ph.D.

    Fordham University

    Derald Wing Sue, Ph.D.

    Columbia University Teachers College

    Norman D. Sundberg, Ph.D.

    Professor Emeritus

    University of Oregon

    Junko Tanaka Matsumi, Ph.D.

    Kwansei Gakuin University

    Nishinomiya City, Japan

    Rebecca Toporek

    San Francisco State University

    Joseph E. Trimble, Ph.D.

    Western Washington University

    Melba J. T. Vasquez, Ph.D.

    Independent Practice

    Austin, Texas

    Clemmont E. Vontress Ph.D.

    Professor Emeritus

    George Washington University

    Volumes in This Series

    • Increasing Multicultural Understanding (2nd edition): A Comprehensive Model by Don C. Locke
    • Preventing Prejudice: A Guide for Counselors and Educators by Joseph G. Ponterotto and Paul B. Pedersen
    • Improving Intercultural Interactions: Modules for Cross-Cultural Training Programs edited by Richard W. Brislin and Tomoko Yoshida
    • Assessing and Treating Culturally Diverse Clients (3rd edition): A Practical Guide by Freddy A. Paniagua
    • Overcoming Unintentional Racism in Counseling and Therapy: A Practitioner's Guide to Intentional Intervention (2nd edition) by Charles R. Ridley
    • Multicultural Counseling With Teenage Fathers: A Practical Guide by Mark S. Kiselica
    • Multicultural Counseling Competencies: Assessment, Education and Training, and Supervision edited by Donald B. Pope-Davis and Hardin L. K. Coleman
    • Improving Intercultural Interactions: Modules for Cross-Cultural Training Programs, Volume 2 edited by Kenneth Cushner and Richard W. Brislin
    • Understanding Cultural Identity in Intervention and Assessment by Richard H. Dana
    • Psychological Testing of American Minorities (2nd edition) by Ronald J. Samuda
    • Multicultural Counseling Competencies: Individual and Organizational Development by Derald Wing Sue et al.
    • Counseling Multiracial Families by Bea Wehrly, Kelley R. Kenney, and Mark E. Kenney
    • Integrating Spirituality Into Multicultural Counseling by Mary A. Fukuyama and Todd D. Sevig
    • Counseling With Native American Indians and Alaska Natives: Strategies for Helping Professionals by Roger D. Herring
    • Diagnosis in a Multicultural Context: A Casebook for Mental Health Professionals by Freddy A. Paniagua
    • Psychotherapy and Counseling With Asian American Clients: A Practical Guide by George K. Hong and MaryAnna Domokos-Cheng Ham
    • Counseling Latinos and La Familia: A Guide for Practitioners by Azara L. Santiago-Rivera, Patricia Arredondo, and Maritza Gallardo-Cooper
    • Counseling Persons of African Descent: Raising the Bar of Practitioner Competence edited by Thomas A. Parham
    • Ethics in a Multicultural Context by Sherlon P. Pack-Brown and Carmen Braun Williams
    • Deconstructing Heterosexism in the Counseling Professions: A Narrative Approach edited by James M. Croteau, Julianne S. Lark, Melissa A. Lidderdale, and Y. Barry Chung
    • Culture and Disability: Providing Culturally Competent Services edited by John H. Stone
    • Integrating Traditional Healing Practices Into Counseling and Psychotherapy edited by Roy Moodley and William West

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Series Editor's Foreword

    Anyone in the United States who believes that he or she is immune to cultural attitudes about race underestimates the power of modern advertising. Indeed, we all have opinions and attitudes about racial issues, and many of us have good intentions in this area. This second edition of Overcoming Unintentional Racism in Counseling and Therapy: A Practitioner's Guide to Intentional Intervention speaks to mental health professionals who strive to offer high-quality mental health services to all clients and to avoid overemphasizing or underemphasizing racial issues. In this revision of the successful first edition, Charles Ridley builds on the premise of unintentional racism to “depoliticize” mental health issues regarding race and return the focus to accurate and successful mental health functioning.

    Part I of this book examines assumptions about race and racism in a systematic analysis of propositions and then applies these propositions to four models of mental health, with special attention to judgmental and inferential errors. Part II is action oriented, aimed at helping counselors make changes in their attitudes and opinions so that they can make more accurate and appropriate decisions regarding minority clients. Part III guides counselors toward overcoming both intentional and unintentional institutional racism in the mental health system. Specific change strategies are presented and discussed.

    Ridley challenges the predominant notion about overcoming racism: that “when people discover the motivational sources of their behavior, they can better understand themselves and make constructive changes in their personalities.” This idea has been a classic assumption of most psychological theories. In applying this premise to racism, practitioners’ focus is “usually on the biases, prejudices, and bigotry of racists,” working from inside out, and exploring individuals’ hidden, unconscious, or unintentionally racist attitudes. Rather than focusing exclusively on the causes of racism, however, Ridley also examines racism's effects, both intentional and unintentional. Racism is always harmful, but it is not always intentional.

    Ridley shows how counselors can change some of their specific behaviors to produce desired effects and consequences. In shifting the focus from causal to consequential explanations of racism, he does not minimize personal motivation, however. He provides specific strategies and guidelines that counselors can apply to reduce their racism. In an age when racist attitudes are probably more powerful than ever, this book is an important contribution to the mental health literature.

    All of the volumes in the Multicultural Aspects of Counseling and Psychotherapy series strive to combine a broad definition of culture with an expanded and inclusive understanding of counseling to provide practical guidance for multicultural counselors. This series has been more successful than we originally dared to hope it would be. By identifying specific gaps in the counseling and psychotherapy literature, the books in this series have made significant contributions to the profession of counseling with regard to multicultural issues. This book, which guides counselors in making culture central to the counseling process, is an excellent example.

    Paul PedersenProfessor Emeritus, Syracuse University, Visiting Professor, University of Hawaii, Department of Psychology

    Preface

    Theorists have explained human behavior using two major traditions in the social sciences: One emphasizes the causes of behavior, and the other emphasizes the effects of behavior. Psychological theories focusing on the causes of human behavior are prominent in research and scholarship. Many of these theories are based on a common principle: that behavior is motivated by conscious or unconscious mental processes. These theories assert that when people discover the motivational sources of their behavior, they can better understand themselves and make constructive changes in their personalities. Classical psychoanalysis, with its emphasis on unconscious mental processes and early childhood experiences, elegantly represents this class of theories.

    The theories used to explain racism and other forms of oppression typically emphasize the causes of behavior. Research on racism focuses almost exclusively on the biases, prejudices, and bigotry of racists; thus proposals for change generally involve working from the inside out. That is, these proposals encourage individuals first to explore their own hidden bigotry. They assume that once individuals unmask their own motives and begin to accept their bigotry, they will change and treat people of other races in a fair and equitable manner.

    In this book, I set forth a different approach, examining racism in mental health counselors and institutions in light of its effects. Racism has many faces. Some racism is intentional, but racism also may be unintentional. Whether intentional or unintentional, racism always is harmful. Counselors with laudable intentions often are the ones most responsible for insidious acts of racism. In the chapters that follow, I pinpoint specific racist behaviors of counselors and institutions and describe how these behaviors adversely affect their minority clients. In this way, I challenge counselors to examine the relationship between their behavior toward minority clients and the consequences of that behavior. For most counselors, this approach will require a paradigm shift in their thinking, from causal to consequential explanations of racism.

    This approach does not minimize the relevance of personal motivation. Certainly counselors must come to terms with the causes of their behavior. When they see their bigotry, they should try to stop it. But becoming self-aware and changing on the inside are only partial solutions to overcoming racism. To serve their minority clients better, counselors also must identify their specific racist behaviors, recognize the harmful consequences of these behaviors, and then deliberately change how they behave. Unfortunately, this behavioral part of the solution to counselor racism is usually overlooked. In reading this book, many well-meaning counselors are likely to discover that, despite their efforts to treat all clients equitably, they are unintentional racists.

    This volume is intended for all helping professionals, including mental health counselors, psychologists, social workers, psychiatrists, marriage and family therapists, student personnel professionals, nurses, and ministers. The book is analytic in its treatment of the topic, but it goes beyond problem analysis to offer solutions—concrete strategies that professionals can use to overcome unintentional racism in counseling and therapy.

    This book is organized into three major parts. Part I, “Examining the Counselor's Unintentional Racism,” contains six chapters covering the nature, scope, history, and dynamics of racism in mental health service delivery. These chapters focus in particular on counselor unawareness of the problem. Part II, “Overcoming the Counselor's Unintentional Racism,” comprises five chapters, each providing a specific strategy and a variety of practical recommendations. Part III, “Examining and Overcoming the Unintentional Racism of the Mental Health System,” is new to this edition. The three chapters in Part III move beyond the behaviors of individual practitioners to the policies and procedures of institutions. The most important lesson in these chapters is that all mental health professionals are stakeholders in mental health service delivery and therefore participate—usually unknowingly—in institutional practices that yield consequences that are antithetical to their intentions.

    I hope readers will benefit from this volume by learning to become more competent service providers. More important, I hope ethnic minority consumers of mental health services will benefit by becoming the recipients of improved service delivery.

    Charles R. RidleyBloomington, Indiana

    Acknowledgments

    Many individuals have contributed in various ways to the writing of this book, and I am indebted to each of them. Thomas and Annabell Ridley, my parents, taught me spiritual values and the self-discipline needed to complete this type of undertaking. Faith Phipps, my cousin, awakened in me a passion for writing. Dr. Paul Pedersen had the wisdom to suggest I write a book on this topic. More than anyone else, he has championed my development of these ideas, and I am one of his many protégés whom he has described as becoming “leading insiders.” Dr. John Taborn was my intellectual mentor. He laid the foundation for my understanding of racism. Dr. Joseph Ponterotto provided an evenhanded critique and helped shepherd the initial writing process.

    The staff at Sage Publications deserves special thanks. Marquita Flemming, aided by Dale Grenfell and Diana Axelsen, provided invaluable support on the first edition. Arthur Pomponio managed the delicate balance of patience, encouragement, and prodding on the second edition. Beth A. Bernstein, Veronica Novak, and Judy Selhorst are top-notch, and they made the project flow as efficiently as possible. The Sage staff believed in this project and made business a pleasure.

    I also would like to acknowledge several individuals at Indiana University. Benita Brown typed numerous drafts of the original manuscript. Her work was nothing short of excellent. Rochelle Picou, my administrative assistant, made the completion of the revision possible. She personifies competence and human dignity. Shannon Kelly demonstrated brilliance as an editorial assistant. Her editorial skill is persnickety, and she helped make the text engaging.

    I am especially grateful to the team of reviewers: Professors Gerald Corey, Michael D'Andrea, Halford H. Fairchild, Allen E. Ivey, Donald Pope-Davis, Tina Q. Richardson, and Jerome Taylor. Their comments were constructively critical and insightful, and they helped sharpen the presentation. Most important, their enthusiastic endorsement of the project was pretty amazing.

    Last but not least, Iris, Charles, and Charliss Ridley were incredible sojourners during this lengthy pilgrimage. They are God centered and lovers of life. I am most blessed for having them in my life.

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    About the Author

    Charles R. Ridley (Ph.D., counseling psychology, University of Minnesota) is a Professor in the Counseling Psychology Program and an Associate Dean in the University Graduate School at Indiana University, Bloomington. Previously, he was Director of Training in that institution's doctoral program in counseling psychology. He has held academic appointments at the University of Maryland and the Graduate School of Psychology at Fuller Theological Seminary. In addition to those appointments, he was a consulting psychologist with Personnel Decisions, Inc. A Fellow of the American Psychological Association, he is also a licensed psychologist and consults with a variety of nonprofit organizations. He has published numerous journal articles, monographs, and book chapters as well as several books. His many scholarly interests include multicultural counseling, training, and assessment; organizational consultation; the use of religious resources in psychotherapy; and therapeutic change. In his work, he is committed to the scientist-practitioner model; he believes that a sound scientific and theoretical foundation is the only legitimate basis for psychological practice. He has served on the editorial boards of The Counseling Psychologist and the Journal of Psychology and Theology, and he has been an ad hoc reviewer for a number of professional journals.


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