Out of the Darkness: Contemporary Perspectives on Family Violence
Featuring cutting-edge information from the international arena, Out of the Darkness pulls together into one seminal volume the work of emerging scholars and key figures in the field. Edited by Glenda Kaufman Kantor and Jana Jasinski, this book provides a comprehensive and interdisciplinary package of the newest generation of investigation and theory. Professionals and researchers in child welfare, mental health, and criminal justice fields will want to read this book to keep up with the latest controversial topics; international studies; theory, methods, assessment, and interventions; and ethical and cultural issues related to both child and partner abuse. Chapters address pressing questions such as: Is wife abuse declining? Are child homicides increasing? Does couple treatment work in violent marriages? From this volume several noteworthy findings emerge, ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: The Prevalence of Family Violence
- Chapter 1: Change in Cultural Norms Approving Marital Violence from 1968 to 1994
- Chapter 2: The Homicides of Children and Youth: A Developmental Perspective
- Chapter 3: An Examination of Physical Assault and Childhood Victimization Histories within a National Probability Sample of Women
Part II: Child Abuse and Neglect
- Chapter 4: Pandemic Outcomes: The Intimacy Variable
- Chapter 5: Pornography and the Organization of Intra- and Extrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse: A Conceptual Model
- Chapter 6: Black Mothers' Emotional and Behavioral Responses to the Sexual Abuse of Their Children
- Chapter 7: Children's Exposure to Marital Aggression: Direct and Mediated Effects
- Chapter 8: The Effects of Neglect on Academic Achievement and Disciplinary Problems: A Developmental Perspective
- Chapter 9: The Traumatic Events Screening Inventory: Assessing Trauma in Children
- Chapter 10: Measuring Physical and Psychological Maltreatment of Children with the Conflict Tactics Scales
- Chapter 11: Methodological Issues in Classifying Maltreatment: An Examination of “Protective Issue” Children
Part III: Wife Abuse
- Chapter 12: Attitudes as Explanations for Aggression Against Family Members
- Chapter 13: Woman Battering: A Comparative Analysis of Black and White Women
- Chapter 14: Surviving Abusive Dating Relationships: Processes of Leaving, Healing, and Moving On
- Chapter 15: Social Predictors of Wife Assault Cessation
- Chapter 16: Wife Abuse in Intact Couples: A Review of Couples Treatment Programs
- Chapter 17: Expanding Batterer Program Evaluation
- Chapter 18: Feminist Therapy for Battered Women: An Assessment
- Chapter 19: Controlling Domestic Violence: Victim Resources and Police Intervention
- Chapter 20: Collaboration Between Researchers and Advocates
Part IV: Ethical and Cultural Issues in Family Violence
Copyright © 1997 by Sage Publications, Inc.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Out of the darkness : Contemporary research perspectives on family violence / edited by Glenda Kaufman Kantor, Jana L. Jasinski.
“A collection of 23 articles, a majority of which were first presented at the 4th International Family Violence Research
Conference, at the University of New Hampshire in Durham, New Hampshire”—Introd.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7619-0775-0 (cloth : acid-free paper). — ISBN 0-7619-0776-9 (pbk. : acid-free paper)
I. Family violence—Congresses. 2. Family violence—Research–Methodology—Congresses. I. Kantor, Glenda Kaufman. II. Jasinski, Jana. L. III. International Family Violence Research
Conference (4th : University of New Hampshire)
97 98 99 00 01 02 03 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: C. Terry Hendrix
Editorial Assistant: Dale Grenfell
Production Editor: Sanford Robinson
Production Assistant: Karen Wiley
Typesetter/Designer: Danielle Dillahunt
Indexer: Janet Perlman
Cover Designer: Candice Harman
Most of the 23 chapters in Out of the Darkness were first presented at the 4th International Family Violence Research Conference at the University of New Hampshire in Durham, New Hampshire. The chapters exemplify the progress that has occurred in the field since the publication of the first proceedings, The Dark Side of Families, edited by our colleagues from the Family Research Laboratory: David Finkelhor, Richard J. Gelles, Gerald T. Hotaling, and Murray A. Straus. We are greatly indebted to our colleagues for their mentorship, for their contributions to the field of research on family violence, and for helping to lead research on family violence out of the darkness.
The research reported in this book has been conducted by some of the leading researchers in the field from a variety of disciplines, and also represents a new generation of investigation and theoretical inquiry. The chapters address controversial issues, include international studies, and make important contributions to theory, methodology, assessment, interventions, and ethical approaches related to child abuse and wife abuse.Resolving Controversies and Expanding Our Knowledge Base in Family Violence
Using child protective services caseloads or battered women's shelter occupancy as yardsticks of change suggests a continuing high level of serious abusive family patterns. Recent developments in the field of family violence include new pressures on child welfare, and on mental health and criminal justice professionals, to effectively assess, diagnose, substantiate, and treat or prevent wife abuse and child abuse. However, despite the pressures experienced by practitioners in the field, researchers and practitioners continue to debate the extent of family violence, how concepts should be measured, what treatment and evaluation strategies are best, and whether ethically and culturally sensitive research can be conducted. The chapters in this volume address new developments in knowledge and propose new solutions to some of the most complex questions related to the field of family violence.[Page viii]Part I: The Prevalence of Family Violence
Is Wife Abuse Declining? Previous research findings by Straus and Gelles that assaults on marital partners were declining led to disbelief and criticism about the survey results by some segments of the research and practitioner community. In Chapter 1, Straus, Kaufman Kantor, and Moore analyze four national surveys conducted from 1968 through 1994. Their results suggest that approval for a husband slapping his wife has declined significantly over the years and indicates an important change in the culture. The authors conclude that efforts to combat family violence have been successful and that such efforts are part of the reason for reported declines.
Are Child Homicides Increasing? Increasing media attention has been given to the problem of child homicide. In Chapter 2, Finkelhor suggests that although global statistics do show an increase in homicides of children and youth, this is not a singular phenomenon. For example, although teen homicides have been increasing among minority youth, the seeming increase in infanticide and child abuse homicide probably reflect improved scrutiny given to the deaths of young children. Finkelhor concludes that the homicides in middle childhood, which occur at a rather low rate and include a mixture of child abuse, sexual violence, family murder-suicides, and other causes, have actually been decreasing.
What Characterizes the Victims of Intimate Assault? In Chapter 3, Weaver, Kilpatrick, Resnick, Best, and Saunders expand our knowledge of victim characteristics, and the nature of the assaults that women experience, by using data from a new national study and a sample of help-seeking women. Their findings are important because they document the multiple forms of victimizations that women experience including sexual assault, and because they document the psychological injuries experienced by these women.Part II: Child Abuse and NeglectMethodological and Theoretical Contributions
Almost all evaluations of services and research on family violence stress the need for improved measurement of family violence concepts. Diagnosis and detection of child maltreatment has also been hindered by lack of a universal definition of child abuse. Research on concepts central to child maltreatment also suffers from a lack of consensus over valid definitions of abusive parenting, and whether abuse should be defined by parental behaviors or by child outcomes such as endangerment or demonstrable harm or injury. Several chapters in this section draw our attention to theoretical constructs and also illuminate a wide range of both sources and consequences of child maltreatment. In Chapter 4, Becker-Lausen and Mallon-Kraft propose a unifying theoretical construct for the maladaptive outcomes experienced by abuse survivors. Their construct of impaired “intimacy” captures the wide-ranging problems experienced by abuse survivors in the realm of parent-child relations, friendships, teen pregnancy, and romantic and sexual bonds. In Chapter 5, Itzin uses a disturbing case study of child sexual abuse in the United Kingdom to elaborate the phenomenology of child sexual victimization by pornography, and she conceptualizes the organization of child sexual abuse as a continuum in which pornography is a part of all forms of intra- and extrafamilial child sexual abuse. Bernard's (Chapter 6) U.K.-based study goes beyond previous work in the field of child sexual victimization by suggesting that the areas of race, class, and gender are central to developing paradigms of child sexual victimization, and our responses to that experience. She demonstrates how Black mothers' reactions to the processes of discovery of child sexual abuse, and intervention of social welfare agencies, are shaped by mothers' racialized and gendered identities. Margolin and John (Chapter 7) shift our focus to the area of children's exposure to marital violence. They inform the debate on whether the consequences of children's exposure [Page ix]are a direct effect of witnessing or an indirect effect of the parent-child relationship, and whether children are differentially affected according to gender. Kendall-Tackett and Eckenrode (Chapter 8) examine one of the lesser studied sources of child maltreatment, child neglect, finding that neglect alone and in combination with abuse effects a decline in school performance among children entering middle school.
New or improved methodologies are detailed by authors in several of the chapters. Edwards and Rogers (Chapter 9) present information on a new assessment measure of children's exposure to a large number of potentially traumatic events; the Traumatic Events Screening Inventory improves on previous instrumentation by including both a child and parent version of their instrument. Straus and Hamby (Chapter 10) provide extensive new information on an old instrument (the Parent-to-Child CTS) regarding construct validity, reliability, normative data, and suggestions on when the Parent-to-Child CTS can be appropriately used.
Taussig and Litrownik (Chapter 11) carefully review the classification schema for abused children and propose and test a new schema reflecting a more refined hierarchy of child maltreatment, including the categories of nonabused, protective issue (children at risk but not substantiated for abuse), and substantiated cases of abuse. Their results indicate, for example, that protective issue children are more likely to be younger, male, and perceived as more competent than children with substantiated maltreatment.Part III: Wife Abuse
Herzberger and Rueckert (Chapter 12) build on previous cognitive research, their own as well as that of others, to develop and test a new attitudinal measure of violence, assessing justifications for violence, assignment of blame, and tendencies to punish, in situations regarding intimate relationships. Their analysis of the association between attitudes and behavior raises important questions about the predictive power of attitudes in determining violent behavior.
The ability of any one variable to explain intimate violence is limited, and the experience of victimization may not be uniform across different cultural groups. Moreover, little attention has been paid to the victimization experiences of minority women. Joseph's cultural analysis of woman battering (Chapter 13) enriches our understanding of the patterns and responses to violence experienced by White and Black women. For example, Joseph finds that despite their more severe abuse-related injuries, Black women are less willing than White women to use social services agencies, including the police; Black women are more likely than White women to use defensive violence and to return to the relationship after a separation. Rosen and Stith (Chapter 14) also explore the dynamics of remaining and disentangling from abusive relationships. They find that women are propelled into leaving by a pile-up of negative events, or because they, much like those who initiate the process of recovery from chemical dependency, reach their personal bottoming-out point.
Three chapters provide new insights into changes in men's assaultive behavior toward partners, and interventions designed to effect changes in male batterer behavior. Aldarondo and Kaufman Kantor's (Chapter 15) analysis of data from a recent national survey of families explores the social factors that predict the continuity of abuse. Their results are important because they add to the literature demonstrating different types of batterers. For example, men engaging in more severe and repeated violence were found to be more likely to persist in violence toward their wives. Brown and O'Leary (Chapter 16) take on a controversial question in considering whether couples treatment works in violent marriages. Because treatment programs that use a couples therapy approach to end assaults on wives have been widely regarded as unsafe, few studies have examined them. Brown and O'Leary take an initial step in considering the merits of these programs by reviewing the available, albeit sparse, studies on this type of treatment, and they make recommendations for future evaluations while cautioning about the need for comprehensive assessments of aggression. Gondolf (Chapter 17) breaks new ground [Page x]in the area of methodologies for assessing the effectiveness of batterer treatment. He proposes a broader evaluation process including consumer-based assessment, community or systems analysis, social impact assessment, and ethical decision making. These alternative evaluative strategies are suggested as means to better measure the process of social change in reducing women battering.
Interventions to reduce and control wife abuse must also consider the importance of providing support to victims. Rinfret-Raynor and Cantin (Chapter 18) discuss and evaluate a feminist therapy model for battered women and compare the effectiveness of three models of treatment. These authors show that a “woman-centered” approach with an emphasis on restoring self-esteem, growth, and independence and supplying concrete assistance can reduce the level of violence experienced. In Chapter 19, Miller and Krull's study begins where the domestic violence arrest experiments ended. This study examines how domestic violence victims from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Colorado Springs, Colorado, and Omaha, Nebraska use personal and police resources to control the violence directed against them by their partners. The authors concluded that the victim's marital status, her employment, and her family influence her ability to control revictimization and that social structural explanations of domestic violence account for differences observed across cities.
Gondolf, Yllö, and Campbell (Chapter 20) call for collaboration between researchers and advocates in domestic violence. They illustrate the potential sources of misunderstanding and conflict inherent in collaborative models, as well as the efforts needed to achieve and maintain advocacy research. For example, the authors note that the agenda and concerns of advocates may seem lost or trivialized by researcher concerns with experimental designs and complex statistical analyses. Advocates fear that researchers may lack sufficient sensitivity to the ethical and safety concerns of victims. The result of successful collaborations, however, should be a more grounded, practical, relevant, and influential knowledge about domestic violence.Part IV: Ethical and Cultural Issues in Family Violence
I Family violence research entails a multitude of ethical considerations. The central issue is to balance the need for good science with the need for the safety of human research participants. Increasingly, researchers feel encumbered by human participants' concerns, and even federal agencies are at sea about appropriate handling of ethical issues in research. As noted above, practitioners are concerned about the sensitivity of researchers to the vulnerability of victims as well. A significant contribution of this volume is a strong section with three chapters addressing the leading ethical dilemmas of the day. Newman, Kaloupek, Keane, and Folstein (Chapter 21) make a major contribution to the field with their examination of ethical decision making in research. They direct our attention to ethical concerns about the vulnerability of trauma survivors in situations of research investigation, and they assess the risks and benefits of asking individuals about their traumatic histories and the research ethics of current consent procedures. They also argue that researchers need to develop empirical evidence on the effect of research on participants. Similarly, Rondeau, Lindsay, Beaudoin, and Brodeur (Chapter 22) argue for the importance of investigating the beliefs, values, and ethical dilemmas faced by practitioners. This chapter supplements the theoretical literature with field research conducted by the investigators, thus advancing our knowledge base in this important area. In the final chapter, Fontes exhorts us to conduct ethical cross-cultural research and cautions us against the abuse of power by research investigators, an overemphasis on differences and neglecting similarities between groups, and denial of diversity within groups (ethnic lumping) and of ignoring wider structural contexts.
The contents of this volume show that although some basic questions remain to be elaborated regarding who, how many, and why, there is also a new sophistication in the field of family violence research. This new sophistication is underscored by recognition of the complexity of family violence, and consequently the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative approaches [Page xi]in assessment, intervention, and evaluation. A major part of emerging out of the darkness is in seeing that we need to support and effect changes in both victim and batterer behavior, in seeing that there are wide variations in the forms, types, and consequences of abuse, and in bringing to bear a wide array of expertise, with greater sensitivity to affected populations.
About the Editors[Page 325]
Glenda Kaufman Kantor has been a Research Professor at the University of New Hampshire, Family Research Laboratory for several years. Her major research interests are related to the etiology and prevention of intimate violence and fatal child abuse; the criminal justice system response to family violence; the linkages between substance abuse and family violence, and structural and cultural influences on alcohol and wife abuse. Her recent federally (NIAAA) funded research projects include a longitudinal analysis of family members' alcohol use, marital conflict and violence, and a national study of alcohol and intra-family violence in Latino and Anglo-American families.
Jana L. Jasinski, Ph.D., is a National Institute of Mental Health postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Family Research Laboratory at the University of New Hampshire. Her research interests are in the area of interpersonal violence, in particular partner violence among Latinos, the response of the criminal justice system to violence, and substance abuse as a negative consequence of child sexual assault. In addition, she has research interests in criminology, research methodology, and social policy development. She has presented her research at numerous conferences and has published several articles.[Page 326]
About the Contributors[Page 327]
Etiony Aldarondo, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Counseling Psychology at Boston College, where he conducts research on risk markers for wife assault, the resolution of violence in intimate relationships, and the treatment of men who batter. Academic awards include Phi Beta Kappa, the Ford Foundation Minority Dissertation Fellowship, and the American Psychological Association Dissertation Award.
Ginette Beaudoin, M.S., is Research Assistant at Laval University in Québec. She currently works with researchers of the Interdisciplinary Research Center on Family Violence and Violence Against Women on different aspects of domestic violence.
Evvie Becker-Lausen, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychology at the University of Connecticut, was a 1993–1994 Fellow at Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard University and the recipient of a National Research Service Award for research in family violence. Prior to that, she was a 1992–1993 Congressional Science Fellow sponsored by the American Psychological Association (APA).
Claudia Bernard teaches in the Department of Applied Human Sciences at Goldsmith's College, University of London. She has previously worked with children and families as a social worker and counselor. She has worked on issues of violence against women and children for a number of years. Her research focuses on the interplay between race, gender, social class, and social welfare.
Connie L. Best is a clinical psychologist and Associate Professor of Clinical Psychology in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences of the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston. She is Director of Adult Services at the National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center. She is well published in professional journals and has made presentations to local, national, and international groups.
Normand Brodeur, M.S., is Research Assistant at the University of Montreal, Québec. He has worked as a therapist with batterers and participated in research projects in this field.[Page 328]
Pamela D. Brown received her B.A. from Wheaton College and an M.S. in experimental psychology from Howard University. She is completing her Ph.D. in clinical psychology at the University at Stony Brook. Her dissertation examines the therapeutic alliance and its relationship to both treatment dropout and treatment outcome (i.e., increased marital satisfaction and decreased psychological and physical aggression).
Jacquelyn Campbell, Ph.D., R.N., FAAN, is currently the Anna D. Wolf Endowed Professor and Director of the doctoral programs at Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing with a joint appointment in the School of Hygiene and Public Health. She is principal investigator of five NIH, DOD, or CDC major funded research studies on battering and author or coauthor of more than 50 publications.
Solange Cantin, M.A., is a professional social worker and Coordinator of the research team on conjugal violence at the Interdisciplinary Research Center on Family Violence and Violence Against Women. She has also participated in many research projects on conjugal violence and has published many reports and articles dealing with this subject.
John Eckenrode is Professor in the Department of Human Development and Family Studies at Cornell University and Associate Director of the Family Life Development Center. His research concerns child abuse and neglect, and stress and coping processes. He is a social psychologist and has directed federally funded projects. He has authored of over 30 journal articles and chapters and edited two books, Stress Between Work and Family and The Social Context of Coping.
Jason H. Edwards, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Psychology and Coordinator of the Marital and Family Therapy Concentration in the Department of Psychology at Assumption College. His teaching, research, and clinical interests are in the area of clinical child and family psychology.
David Finkelhor, Ph.D., is Codirector of the Family Research Laboratory at the University of New Hampshire. He has studied the problem of family violence since 1977 and has published numerous books, including Sourcebook on Child Sexual Abuse, Nursery Crimes, Stopping Family Violence, License to Rape, and Child Sexual Abuse: New Theory and Research. He is coeditor of Dark Side of Families and New Directions in Family Violence and Abuse Research.
Susan F. Folstein, M.D., is Director of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at Tufts University School of Medicine/New England Medical Center. She has published extensively on topics regarding psychiatric genetics and child and adolescent psychiatry. She is interested in the ethical issues regarding genetic testing, especially the implications of presymptomatic genetic testing.
Lisa Aronson Fontes, Ph.D., has written and presented extensively on issues of culture in family violence, particularly child sexual abuse. She has conducted research in Santiago, Chile, in rural Indiana, and with Puerto Ricans in Massachusetts. She has worked as a clinical supervisor and a family, individual, and group therapist in a variety of settings. She is editor of Sexual Abuse in Nine North American Cultures: Treatment and Prevention.
Edward W. Gondolf, Ed.D., M.P.H., is Associate Director of Research for the Mid-Atlantic Addiction Training Institute, where he conducts research on the response of the courts, mental health practitioners, alcohol treatment clinicians, and batterer treatment programs. He is also Professor of Sociology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania and a faculty associate of the Center for Injury Research and Control at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.
Sherry L. Hamby, Ph.D., has been involved in the research and treatment of domestic violence for over 10 years. She received her Ph.D. in clinical psychology from the University of North Carolina. She was Research Fellow at the Family Research Laboratory in 1994–1996, where she helped revise the Conflict Tactics Scales, among other projects. She is currently a clinical and research psychologist for the San Carlos [Page 329]Apache Tribe in Arizona. In addition to her research and clinical work, she is active in community education efforts.
Sharon D. Herzberger is Professor of Psychology at Trinity College in Hartford, CT She received her B.A. from Pennsylvania State University and her M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Illinois. She taught at Northwestern University before coming to Trinity in 1980. She teaches courses in social psychology, aggression, and socialization within the family. Her book, Violence Within the Family: Social Psychological Perspectives, was published in 1996.
Catherine Itzin, Ph.D., is Research Professor in Social Work and Social Policy in the School of Social and International Studies at the University of Sunderland, U.K. She is editor and coauthor of Pornography: Women, Violence, and Civil Liberties and author of “Pornographic and Violent Videos” in Video Violence and Young Offenders and “Pornography, Harm and Human Rights: The European Context” in Sexual Politics and the European Union.
Richard S. John, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Southern California. He received his Ph.D. in qualitative psychology from the University of Southern California. His research has focused on the dynamics of family systems.
Janice Joseph is Associate Professor in the Criminal Justice Program at Richard Stockton College of New Jersey. Her research interests include violence against women, women and criminal justice youth violence, juvenile delinquency, gangs, and minorities and criminal justice.
Danny G. Kaloupek, Ph.D., is a clinical psychologist, Deputy Director of the Behavioral Science Division of the National Center for PTSD at the Boston VA Medical Center, and Clinical Associate Professor of Psychiatry (Psychology) at Tufts University School of Medicine. His recent work addresses the use of psychophysiological measures to assess PTSD and the identification of trauma-related problems among individuals in primary care medical clinics.
Terence M. Keane, Ph.D., is Director of the National Center for PTSD-Behavioral Sciences Division, Professor of Psychiatry at Boston University School of Medicine, and Chief of the Psychology Service at the Boston VA Medical Center. Currently President of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Keane has published extensively on the topics of assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of PTSD.
Kathleen A. Kendall-Tackett, Ph.D., is a developmental psychologist, a consulting psychologist with the Perinatal Education Group of Henniker, New Hampshire, and Research Associate at the Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire. Her research interests include child maltreatment, perinatal health, maternal depression, and breast-feeding.
Dean G. Kilpatrick is Professor of Clinical Psychology and Director of the National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center at the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston. He and his colleagues have received several grants from the National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Justice, and the National Institute on Drug Abuse supporting their research on the scope of violent crime and its psychological effect on victims. He has over 100 journal publications and has made numerous presentations.
Amy C. Krull is a Ph.D. candidate in sociology at Purdue University. She teaches a sociology course on child abuse and neglect. Her Ph.D. research examines caretakers' responsibilities for elder family members.
Jocelyn Lindsay, Ph.D., is a faculty member of the School of Social Work at Laval University in Québec, teaching group work. Lindsay is also affiliated with the Interdisciplinary Research Center on Family Violence and Violence Against Women and has conducted research on the effectiveness of treatment programs for men who batter and on psychological violence.[Page 330]
Alan J. Litrownik is Professor and former Chair of the Psychology Department at San Diego State University. He is one of the founders of the San Diego State University/University of California, San Diego Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, and he is currently a member of its faculty. In addition, he is currently Codirector of the Interdisciplinary Child Abuse Training Program initially funded by NCCAN, and Associate Director of NIMH's Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services Research Center.
Sharon Mallon-Kraft is a doctoral candidate in clinical psychology at the University of Connecticut, where her research focuses on the relationship between childhood trauma and the capacity for intimate relationships in young adulthood. She received a B.S. with honors in psychology from Trinity College and is a member of Phi Beta Kappa and Pi Gamma Mu Honor Societies. At Trinity, she conducted research on children's perceptions of gender stereotyping in storybooks. Prior to entering graduate school, she was an elementary school teacher.
Gayla Margolin is Professor of Psychology at the University of Southern California. She received her Ph.D. in clinical psychology from the University of Oregon. She received a Guggenheim Career Development Award and the 1993 Award for Distinguished Contribution to Family Research from the American Family Therapy Academy. Her research and writings have focused on marital therapy, family interaction, and marital violence and its effects on children.
JoAnn L. Miller is Associate Professor of Sociology at Purdue University. Her research and teaching are in the sociology of law field, especially family law and domestic violence. Her scholarship is largely influenced by her mentor, Dean D. Knudsen, who works on behalf of all victims of family violence.
David W. Moore is currently a vice president at the Gallup Organization and Managing Editor of the Gallup Poll. Previously, he was Professor of Political Science at the University of New Hampshire and Research Associate at the Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire, where he participated in studies that focused on child abuse and on elder abuse in nursing homes. At the Gallup Organization, he has participated in the design of national surveys that measure people's attitudes about disciplining children.
Elana Newman, Ph.D., is a clinical psychologist and Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of Tulsa. She conducts research on the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of trauma-related disorders with children and adults. Her current endeavors include a study of trauma exposure and sex role egalitarian beliefs among college students, an empirical investigation on the impact of being a participant in trauma-related studies, and a study of the relationship of previous trauma exposure and sexual risk-taking behaviors.
K. Daniel O'Leary is Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the University at Stony Brook. He was president of the American Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy and received the Distinguished Scientist Award from the Clinical Division of the American Psychological Association. He holds an NIMH Research Training Grant for pre- and postdoctoral fellows who study wife abuse. Most recently, he wrote the DSM-IV Diagnosis for Relationship Problems With Partner Abuse and the corresponding source book chapter on partner abuse.
Heidi S. Resnick, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Clinical Psychology at the National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center at the Medical University of South Carolina. Her major research interest is the study of factors involved in the development of posttraumatic stress following civilian trauma. In addition, she is studying rape victims' concerns about their physical health following rape, and development of appropriate medical care and health care counseling for rape victims, including information about HIV and risk reduction.
Maryse Rinfret-Raynor, Ph.D., is Professor in the School of Social Work and Vice-Dean of Academics in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences [Page 331]at the University of Montreal, Québec. She is Codirector of the Interdisciplinary Research Center on Family Violence and Violence Against Women. As a specialist in evaluation research, she has directed many research projects on conjugal violence and is well published on the subject.
Karen C. Rogers is a psychologist who works in community mental health and is Adjunct Research Associate at Dartmouth Medical School. Her research interests include the prevalence and impact of trauma and stress in childhood.
Gilles Rondeau, Ph.D., teaches social work at the University of Montreal, Quebec. Over the past decade, he has been involved in the development of treatment programs for men who batter, in policy development to stop family violence, and in research in this field. He is currently affiliated with the Interdisciplinary Research Center on Family Violence Against Women.
Karen H. Rosen, Ed.D., is Assistant Professor in the Department of Family and Child Development at Virginia Tech. She is also licensed as a professional counselor in Virginia and a Clinical Member and Approved Supervisor of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy. Domestic violence is her major research focus. She has coedited a book on this topic with Sandra Stith, Violence Hits Home, and has published numerous book chapters and journal articles relating to the etiology, prevention, and treatment of domestic violence.
Quentin H. Rueckert is Primary Counselor at The Blue Ridge Center in Bloomfield, CT He received his B.S. in psychology from Trinity College. Since 1990, he has been working with chemically dependent people and their families. He is currently pursuing doctoral studies in clinical psychology.
Benjamin E. Saunders is Associate Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Medical University of South Carolina. He directs the Family and Child Program of the National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center. He has published numerous scientific papers and made many scientific and training presentations concerning criminal victimization, child sexual assault, sexual offenders, and marital and family relationships. He also maintains an active clinical and consulting practice.
Sandra M. Stith is Associate Professor in the Department of Family and Child Development and Director of Virginia Tech's Marriage and Family Therapy program. She is an AAMFT Clinical Member and Approved Supervisor and a licensed professional counselor in Virginia. Her primary research interests are in partner violence and adolescent sexual offending. She is principal editor of Understanding Partner Violence: Prevalence, Causes, Consequences and Solutions, coedited with Murray Straus, and Violence Hits Home, coedited with Karen Rosen and Mary Beth Williams.
Murray A. Straus is Professor of Sociology and founder and Codirector of the Family Research Laboratory at the University of New Hampshire. He is author or coauthor of over 200 articles on the family, research methods, and South Asia, and 15 books, including Stress, Culture, and Aggression, Beating the Devil Out of Them: Corporal Punishment in American Families, Physical Violence in American Families, Four Theories of Rape, Intimate Violence, Social Stress in the United States, The Dark Side of Families, and Behind Closed Doors: Violence in the American Family.
Heather N. Taussig is a fourth-year doctoral student in the San Diego State University/University of California, San Diego Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology. She has been conducting research with the Child and Family Research Group in San Diego for several years, and she plans to pursue an academic career after her predoctoral clinical internship at Stanford.
Terri L. Weaver, Ph.D., is Assistant Research Professor of Psychology at the University of Missouri-St. Louis, Center for Trauma Recovery. [Page 332]She received her Ph.D. in clinical psychology from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. She completed an NIMH-funded fellowship at the National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center. Currently, research and clinical interests include assessment and treatment of victims of rape and domestic violence, etiological factors related to the development of PTSD, and examination of the impact of trauma on health and physical functioning.
Kersti Yllö is Professor of Sociology at Wheaton College in Massachusetts. She received her Ph.D. from the University of New Hampshire where she was Research Associate with the Family Research Laboratory. She has written on the status of women and wife abuse, cohabitation, marital rape, battering during pregnancy, and feminist methodology. Her publications include Feminist Perspectives on Wife Abuse (with M. Bograd) and License to Rape (with D. Finkelhor). She is currently working on projects with the AWAKE program at Boston Children's Hospital and the U.S. Marine Corps.