Organizations: Management without Control

Books

Howard P. Greenwald

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Dedication

    To Phoebe and Jared

    Copyright

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    List of Abbreviations

    • CBO: Community-Based Organization
    • CEO: Chief Executive Officer
    • EAP: Employee Assistance Program
    • HQ: Headquarters
    • IRB: Institutional Review Board
    • MBO: Management by Objective
    • MNC: Multinational Corporation
    • R&D: Research and Development
    • TQM: Total Quality Management

    Preface

    This is a textbook about formal organizations and the issues they raise for members, managers, and society. Formal organizations may be understood as frameworks for focusing the efforts of many individuals on common, recognizable objectives. Organizations of this kind include armies, churches, political parties, community improvement societies, many clubs, and most business firms of consequence.

    Many types of formal organizations exist. But most have characteristics that make them easy to recognize. These characteristics include (a) assignment of specific jobs to individual members, (b) operation of mechanisms to ensure that everyone performs his or her function at an acceptable level, and (c) linking of individual functions to achieve objectives. Formal organizations follow routines. They have membership rosters, hold meetings, and occupy recognized physical space. They have the power, to a greater or lesser extent, to reward and punish members. Many have dress codes (explicitly stated or assumed) and sometimes uniforms. Features such as these cause people to behave differently than they might in other settings, creating challenges for members, managers, and society as a whole.

    The formal organization may be thought of as a technology capable of coordinating the thinking and energy of millions of human beings. Formal organization has helped humankind achieve mastery of nature. Monumental achievements ranging from 19th-century railroads to 21st-century space travel have depended on formal organization. The theater, the opera, television, the World Series, and the Super Bowl would be unthinkable without formal organization. The most personal of resources, from a bottle of prescription drugs to an investment account, are made available only by formal organizations.

    Everyone reading this book has had significant experience in formal organizations. They constitute an essential element of life in the modern world. The chapters to follow will help readers achieve an improved understanding of the organizations in which they find themselves or that they may join in the future. This book provides vocabulary to help people communicate with each other regarding their experience in organizations. It provides “handles” by which people may grasp the problems that inevitably occur in organizations and suggests steps toward their solution.

    This book pays special attention to practical interests and applications. While it introduces and explains basic terms and concepts, it makes only limited use of technical language and jargon. Formal theories on organization are introduced in an early chapter. Rather than extensively debating the merits of each theory, however, the chapter draws basic implications from several. These are presented as three “analytical perspectives”: organizational function, environment, and conflict. Although they in no way exhaust the conceptual approaches to organizations, these perspectives occur in several widely cited theories and are linked with classical ideas in the social sciences. Practically, these perspectives help explain the resources upon which organizations depend, the challenges organizations face, and the trade-offs involved in management decisions.

    Along with these perspectives, this book is based on a belief that organizations never fully control the thinking and actions of their members; hence, the book's subtitle. This proposition raises challenges for managers and members alike. Seldom if ever can managers succeed by simply giving orders to their subordinates. Likewise, members cannot fully attribute frustration of personal goals to the organization, nor can they fully blame the organization should they engage in unethical, unlawful, or socially destructive behavior.

    The book is divided into five parts. Part I introduces the concept of the formal organization and compares it with the group and the family. Capacities offered by formal organizations can (but do not always) help both members and outsiders to accomplish more, feel happier, and live longer (Chapter 1). Chapter 2 highlights the organization's “milieu,” encompassing phenomena internal to the organization (such as individual personalities and group dynamics), outside influences on individual members, and the broader social environment. These factors represent both challenges and assets to the organization. Chapter 3 introduces a range of theories about the formal organization and links the analytical perspectives of function, environment, and conflict with these theories.

    Part II explores the means by which organizations meet the challenges they encounter and make use of the assets available to them. Organizations attempt to direct individual efforts toward their objectives by assigning roles and establishing structure. Roles (Chapter 4) instruct individuals to carry out specific sets of tasks and to conduct their behavior within an acceptable range. Structure (Chapter 5) arranges roles into a matrix that, ideally, ensures that each role reinforces the contributions made by other roles to the organization's objectives. Though they may be considered the stable core of an organization, roles and structure are subject to continuous modification.

    Part II also addresses the question of why people adhere to roles and structure. Organizations depend on resources that induce members to carry out their roles within acceptable limits of deviation and to accept, if only superficially, the direction of others. For this task, organizations utilize mechanisms such as rewards, imperative forces, and organizational culture. Organizational reward systems (Chapter 6) allocate personally gratifying resources (such as money) to people in exchange for accepting and adequately performing their roles. Organizations back up reward-based motivation with imperative forces (Chapter 7), such as power and authority. When effectively exercised, both power and authority cause an organization's members to set aside their personal judgments and needs, at least temporarily, in the interest of organizational objectives.

    Organizational culture (Chapter 8) helps capture the members' “hearts and minds.” Culture is visible in the myths, symbols, artifacts, and rituals found in perhaps every organization. In an organization, the dominant culture justifies reward systems, legitimizes power and authority, and focuses the individual's attention on the organization's desired outcomes. Reward systems, imperative forces, and organizational culture reinforce each other's hold on the individual.

    Part III explores a series of dynamic forces in organizations. These forces arise from interplay of actual human beings. Roles and structure may promote stability in an organization, but human action constitutes its life. Dynamic forces are important in every organization. Leadership, for example, is of concern almost everywhere. Chapter 9 explores the basis for leadership and the methods by which it is exercised. This chapter also inquires into the reception of leaders by their followers, an important though often-overlooked concern. Chapter 10 examines organizational communication and decision making, “intelligence processes” within organizations that can lead in some instances to outstanding success or in others to disaster. Politics, conflict, and change, the subjects of Chapter 11, are interwoven processes highly pertinent to the success of individuals and ultimately to the organization's survival.

    Part IV addresses the future, asking whether large-scale human organization can work differently and better than it does today. Chapter 12 deals with bureaucracy. Unlike in many textbooks, treatment of bureaucracy in this book occurs late rather than early in the succession of chapters. It is placed here because bureaucracy, as the most “formal” of structures found in formal organizations, represents a crystallization of the features of organizations addressed earlier. A term used as much for pejorative as for descriptive purposes, bureaucracy embodies a possibly irresistible trend among modern, formal organizations. Bureaucracy, though, has more attractive features for the individual member than are often recognized. Chapter 13 reviews specific steps people have taken to change the nature of human relations in formal organizations. These steps represent efforts to make bureaucracy more efficient and more rewarding for its members, as well as a search for alternatives to bureaucracy itself.

    Part V intensifies the book's emphasis on limits in the formal organization's power over individuals. Chapter 14 provides guidelines to assist the individual in assessing the organization's suitability to his or her personal goals and deciding upon steps to achieve them. Of equal importance, Chapter 14 addresses features present in many organizations that place members at risk of unethical, unlawful, or socially destructive behavior. Chapter 15 offers a perspective on the impact organizations have had on the societies within which they operate. The multinational corporation receives attention here, with particular consideration given to the degree of dominance these organizations may someday achieve over world politics and economics.

    Each chapter concludes with several sections intended to aid the reader's understanding of the topics it covers. A section entitled Issues and Applications demonstrates relevance of the foregoing material to practical dilemmas and challenges. A brief concluding section, entitled Chapter Review and Major Themes, is also provided. This section summarizes the chapter's main points. It also connects the subject of the chapter with the analytical perspectives described above and the theme of personal independence and choice within organizations.

    A section containing discussion questions also follows each chapter. These are particularly useful in seminar and classroom settings. Discussion questions have been designed to stimulate ideas, controversy, and synthesis of fact and theory. They concentrate on drawing issues from the text rather than serving primarily as means of review.

    Finally, each chapter concludes with references keyed to bibliographic notes in the preceding text. Each reference indicates a book or article in a social science or management journal from which material in the text has been drawn; sometimes, reference is made to journalistic sources as well. For the curious or skeptical, these references provide an opportunity to see whether assertions in the text are backed up with systematic research.

    More important, the references in each chapter should promote awareness among readers of the vast world of research, writing, and thinking by both professional researchers and practitioners regarding organizations. Academic journals from a number of fields are frequently cited, such as American Sociological Review, Administrative Science Quarterly, Journal of Management, and Public Administration Review. More familiar to many readers will be publications such as the Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, and Harvard Business Review. Material from journalistic sources such as these may be less systematically documented than that found in academic journals. At the same time, news stories and magazine articles are usually more current and directly relevant to the reader's immediate experience. Some statistics have been taken from a primary source, the 2002 National Organizations Survey. This database is referenced as NOS in the text.1

    As a whole, this book aims at alerting the reader to the variety, depth, and power of forces at work in organizations today. Even the highest-level managers often exercise at best imperfect control over these forces. This perspective promotes understanding of the typical organization not as a unified monolith but as a dynamic array of shifting roles, flexible structures, imperfect communication, and conflict among individuals, groups, and specialized internal units. From this background can come an understanding of how organizations work, how they can be helped to work better, and how they can be prevented from doing harm.

    The book discusses management tools such as negotiation, progressive discipline, conflict resolution, exercise of authority, and leadership. But it does not prescribe formulas for problem solving. Actual challenges faced by managers have highly specific character and context, both of which change with the flux of organizations and their environments. Thus, this book emphasizes background and perspective as the best preparation for management in the years to come.

    Reference

    1. Smith, T. W., Kallberg, A. L., & Marsden, P. V. (2002). National organizations survey (computer file). ICPSR04074-v1. Chicago: National Opinion Research Center (producer), 2003. Ann Arbor: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (distributor), 2004.

    Acknowledgments

    A number of individuals deserve special recognition for contributing to the inception and development of this book. The initial project was suggested to me by my friend and teacher, Edgar F. Borgatta of the University of Washington, who provided inspiration and encouragement at every stage. My colleague Carl Milofsky of Bucknell deserves special recognition for reading manuscripts, assigning drafts to his classes, and making important suggestions. It was Professor Milofsky who helped crystallize the book's principal theme, as reflected in its subtitle. Professor Milofsky's wisdom was reinforced by that of James Begun of the University of Minnesota, who encouraged me to deviate from conventional thinking in organizational behavior and theory.

    Colleagues at the University of Southern California made valuable contributions to successive drafts by reviewing material in their areas of specialization. In particular, I wish to thank Professors Gerald Caiden, Michael Moody, Peter Robertson, and David Lopez-Lee. A large number of students in master's and doctoral classes at USC served as test audiences for various drafts. These students, many of whom had significant career experience in organizations of all kinds, helped correct academic misimpressions of the world of the corporation, government agency, and nonprofit. I am grateful as well to my colleagues and friends at the Group Health Community Foundation in Seattle for enabling me to live life in the corporate world, and thus to experience its issues and challenges directly. Deborah A. Dickstein and Gabriel Kabakov provided invaluable critiques at various stages of manuscript development.

    Richard W. Beesen, adviser to the president, Globexbank, Moscow, and former vice president, Bankers Trust Company and Deutsche Bank, New York and London, deserves special thanks for providing insights on multinational corporations in banking, finance, and several other industries.

    I am grateful to a number of reviewers who helped guide revisions and provided important suggestions. In addition to Carl Milofsky, these are Mary E. Guy, Florida State University; Abbas S. Mehdi, St. Cloud State University; Shibu Pal, Carleton University; W. W. Riggs, Texas A&M International University; Eugene S. Schneller, Arizona State University; Victor N. Shaw, California State University-Northridge; Peter F. Sorensen, Benedictine University; and Blue Wooldridge, Virginia Commonwealth University. Heidi Merrifield deserves thanks for producing graphics for the book. Few, I'm sure, have thanked Alaska and Southwest airlines for delayed flights, but I shall; over the years, delays at LAX provided the opportunity to work on the manuscript in an atmosphere of managed chaos, a description applicable to at least a few organizations.

    Most of all, I thank my family. My wife, Romalee Davis, provided the necessary ingredients of patience and encouragement. My children, Phoebe and Jared, contributed laughter and distraction, which I occasionally had the sense to receive with gratitude. It is to these children that the book is dedicated. To my family in its entirety, I owe my personal education in “management without control.”

    To the Student

    Some students will find this book easy reading, addressing as it does numerous everyday experiences and problems familiar to people used to life in formal organizations. Others may experience challenges due to new concepts and unfamiliar vocabulary. A number of special sections are included in each chapter that will be valuable to all. These sections underscore major themes, connect content with personal and management issues, and encourage development of independent perspectives.

    Each chapter begins with an item entitled Learning Objective. Under this title is a sentence-length statement of the chapter's main concern. This item is followed by a statement of about one page on individual principles to be covered in the chapter. Learning objectives and chapter principles are intended as signposts to help the student maintain awareness of each chapter's key issues and messages. In themselves, these signposts provide bare outlines of the material to follow. Reading them alone is insufficient to attain full understanding. But checking back on these items can be invaluable to the student who finds him- or herself lost in a chapter's details.

    As noted above, each chapter concludes with a series of sections titled Issues and Applications, Chapter Review and Major Themes, and Discussion Questions. These sections constitute signposts leading from the details presented in the chapter back to major ideas and messages.

    The Issues and Applications section provides concrete examples of events and dilemmas related to the chapter's subject matter. They connect abstract principles and theories with the world of human experience.

    The Chapter Review and Major Themes section restates the chapter's messages. In addition, this section applies the book's key analytical perspectives—function, environment, and conflict—to the specialized area addressed by the chapter. In most chapters, graphics are provided to illustrate how these perspectives apply. In addition, the Chapter Review and Major Themes sections periodically revisit the theme that resources at the organization's disposal, although capable of promoting cohesion and coordination among individuals, do not result in absolute control over them.

    The Discussion Questions section at the end of each chapter offers an important opportunity for learning. These questions provide a structure for review of material presented in the chapter. Review, however, is of secondary importance. More significantly, the questions provide students with an opportunity to deal with issues emerging from the text. They invite the student to apply material encountered in the chapter to his or her own life, to think independently, and to compare his or her interpretations with those of others. They promote sharing among students of individual experience. For any question, a number of different answers may be equally correct, depending on the facts and theories upon which the student chooses to focus. This mirrors situations often found in analysis and management of organizations, where the broad context of an organization's functioning is crucial.

    Although the student will regularly encounter the theme of imperfect control by organizations over their members, this theme is not intended to dominate the text. Many more things are important to learn about organizations. Imperfect control does not imply that chaos prevails in organizations. Organizations have resources that generally keep relationships orderly and activities focused on a day-to-day basis. But the understanding that objectives are best reached through willing cooperation rather than control enables managers to excel at their craft. An understanding by members that the organization does not fully control their thinking and actions enables them to remain true to their individual interests and those of society.

  • Glossary

    • Administrator. A role whose incumbent advances organizational objectives by implementing internal requirements and procedures, supervising support staff, and dealing on routine matters with outside vendors and agencies.
    • Authority. A form of imperative force considered legitimate according to the beliefs and values of a social system; the capacity to impel others to set aside personal preferences and judgment about how to behave in a given situation that is voluntarily accepted by those subject to it.
    • Boundary-spanner. An organizational role whose incumbents either encourage others to communicate outside customary channels or transmit information between individuals and between subunits not normally in direct contact.
    • Bureaucracy. An organization characterized by features including rules binding on the actions of all members; hierarchical supervision; specialization of personnel; prohibition of personal gain other than fixed salaries; and continuous operation over time.
    • Channel. A communication pathway that guides the flow of information in an organization.
    • Charisma (adj. charismatic). Having visible appearance or capacities beyond those identifiable as purely human, often representing the Deity, reflective of His will or power, or expressing the identity, ethic, or aspirations of a people or nation; the basis of charismatic authority or leadership.
    • Circuit. See Channel.
    • Coercion. A form of imperative force under which one actor demands involuntary submission from another and threatens to inflict extraordinary punishment (often including violence) in the event of noncompliance.
    • Cognitive Dissonance. The presence of contradictory concepts, values, or perceptions in an individual's conscious mind.
    • Collectivity. A body of individuals directly or indirectly interacting with each other under a durable system of organization, including groups, families, and formal organizations.
    • Collegial. A classification of organizations whose individual members are not formally subordinated to others for at least some purposes, in which wide participation takes place in at least some decisions, or in which hierarchy plays only a minor role in day-to-day operations.
    • Community-Based Organization. An organization whose objectives concentrate on protection or betterment of a defined residential community, whose leadership and membership are drawn from the community it serves, and which is accountable (though not exclusively) to that community.
    • Co-optation. The process by which a dominant leadership structure invites either formal leaders of a less powerful organization or informal leaders in the same organization to cooperate with it in exchange for resources or forbearance from sanctions.
    • Discipline. n. Habitual, rapid obedience to instructions. v. To apply corrective procedures for disobedience or noncompliance with operating procedures or rules.
    • Equilibrium. A state of mutual acceptance within an organization in which minimum objectives of all potential adversaries (subunits, role sets, etc.) are being met and challenges to the status quo are discouraged.
    • Ethics. Obligations of individuals to act toward others in a manner consistent with socially reinforced values.
    • Executive. A role not involving supervision of operating units, but focusing on the organization's purpose; communication, cohesion, and cooperation among managers; and maintaining the performance of the organization as a whole.
    • Focal Person. The individual who occupies a role. Synonym for role incumbent.
    • Function. The contribution made by formal organization to the broader society; the contribution made by a role incumbent, subunit, or process to maintenance of the organization or achievement of its objectives.
    • Goal. A widely recognized, though typically general, purpose toward which an organization aims.
    • Group. A collectivity comprising a number of people who feel a sense of common purpose or interest, distinguish themselves from people outside the group, and can, when necessary, identify or appoint a leader. Typically, groups arise spontaneously; they seldom have explicit membership requirements or operating procedures. See also Primary Group.
    • Imperative Force. An individual or group capacity for compelling others to set aside personal preferences and judgment regarding action in a particular situation. Imperative force is meant to capture Weber's concept of herrschaft; it may include power, authority, discipline, or coercion.
    • Instrumental. A type of reward valued for the purpose of getting something done or pursuing objectives inside or outside the organizational role other than job performance.
    • Internal Labor Market. The availability of opportunities within an organization in the form of job ladders that provide the means for advancement in the hierarchy, increased income, and secure employment.
    • Isomorphism. The tendency of organizations with the same objectives or sharing membership in the same organizational field to develop similarities in roles, structure, capacities, and expectations regarding each other's behavior.
    • Manager. An organizational role including responsibility for the achievements, prosperity, and survival of operating units, participating in setting objectives, and obtaining resources for these units.
    • Norm. A prescription for action based on values or traditions of a collectivity or society; behavioral standard expected of individuals.
    • Norm of Reciprocity. A standard of behavior stating that individuals should reciprocate acts of kindness and largess by others, for example, by “giving back” high job performance in exchange for high rewards.
    • Objective. A specific, often measurable, outcome in whose pursuit organizations allocate their resources.
    • Operative. Individuals in a work organization who perform routine duties and exercise no supervision of others. In industrial plants, employees who do routine, repetitive, often machine-paced work.
    • Organization. A body of individuals working under a defined system of rules, assignments, procedures, and relationships designed to achieve identifiable goals. Synonymous with formal organization.
    • Organizational Field. The set of all organizations involved in a particular activity, such as education, health care, or government, whose expectations promote uniformity of structure and process among individual organizations.
    • Organizational Learning. Lessons from the organization's experiments and ventures, both successful and unsuccessful, that are retained by the organization via absorption into its culture and reflection in its structure.
    • Organizational Slack. Resources available for discretionary expenditure in an organization, including money, vacant space, and personnel whose time is not fully occupied.
    • Organizational Structure. A pattern of linkages among roles in an organization.
    • Patrimonial. A classification of hierarchical organization in which superiors justify their authority over subordinates through claims of personal loyalty, based on grounds including personal favors, family, culture, religion, or history.
    • Power. A form of imperative force under which an individual or collectivity has the ability, legitimate or otherwise, to force others to act in a manner inconsistent with or contrary to their own judgment, inclination, or will.
    • Primary Group. A group whose members know each other in great depth through long personal acquaintance, as among people who have grown up in the same neighborhood or worked together for extended periods of time.
    • Rationalization. The fitting together of resources and activities into a consistent whole for the purpose of achieving objectives; for example, by dividing required operations into routine tasks and arranging these tasks into an appropriate system.
    • Received Role. The role as perceived by the focal person based on information transmitted by the role set.
    • Role. What an individual in an organization or other collectivity thinks and does in relation to others; a prescription for recurring behavior interrelated with the activities of others.
    • Role Ambiguity. Uncertainty by the focal person about his or her duties, place in the organization, and expected contribution to the organization's objectives.
    • Role Conflict. Perceived inconsistency in role expectations associated with each role occupied by an individual.
    • Role Expectations. The consensus of beliefs by members of an organization regarding actions and communication behavior expected by the incumbent of a given role; what others expect of the person occupying a role. Often, these expectations mirror those of the broader society.
    • Role Others. Members of a person's role set.
    • Role Sending. The process by which members of a role set transmit their expectations to the incumbent (focal person) in a role.
    • Role Set. The persons with whom an individual interacts in order to fulfill role expectations.
    • Socioemotional. A type of reward or value from membership in a collectivity consisting of good feelings about the collectivity or its members, including the company of others or encouragement, recognition, or comfort from them. A variety of leadership emphasizing maintenance of the collectivity or subunit through socioemotional means.
    • Value. The individual's preference for a specific type of conduct, achievement, way of life, or relationship with other people, society as a whole, or the Deity.

    Suggested Readings

    The following is a brief, annotated bibliography of books and monographs on organizational behavior, theory, and practice. The items cited are an eclectic mix, intended to acquaint the reader with the range of book-length literature in these fields. Some of the works cited (e.g., Social Psychology of Organizations) are classics in the field; others (e.g., Gainsharing and Power) are more recent, rigorously researched studies with practical implications; still others (e.g., Zapp!) are of the easy-to-read, popular management variety. All have their place in helping readers understand and manage organizations.

    Allison, G. T. (1971). Essence of decision: Explaining the Cuban missile crisis. Boston: Little, Brown.

    A detailed account of decision making during an international crisis and examination of the development of “groupthink” in a governmental setting.

    Byham, W. C., & Cox, J. (1989). Zapp! The lightning of empowerment: How to improve productivity, quality, and employee satisfaction. Pittsburgh, PA: Development Dimensions International Press.

    A volume in the easy-to-read, popular management style, this book uses a mythical workplace to illustrate principles of leadership, communication, and team building.

    Clark, J. (1991). Democratizing development: The role of voluntary organizations. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.

    Focusing on nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in developing countries, this book identifies challenges and solutions with special reference to relationships with governments.

    Clegg, S. R., Hardy, C., & Nord, W. R. (Eds.). (1996). Handbook of organizational studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Chapters in this edited volume cover specific subject areas in organizational theory, including several with a socially critical orientation, such as feminism and postmodernism.

    Collins, D. C. (1998). Gainsharing and power: Lessons from six Scanlon plans. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press (Cornell University).

    A study of applications of the Scanlon plan for combining group and individual incentives in six organizations, this volume provides practical advice for administering such plans and the type of management practice they require.

    Collins, J. C. (2001). Good to great: Why some companies make the leap — and others don't. New York: HarperCollins.

    Based on a series of well-researched case studies, this book identifies dimensions of leadership, executive ability, strategic planning, and organizational change that have distinguished the most successful business firms.

    Daft, R. L., & Lengel, R. H. (1998). Fusion leadership: Unlocking the subtle forces that change people and organizations. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

    Another book in the popular management style, this volume provides advice on leadership through involvement and collaboration.

    Denhardt, R. B., Denhardt, J. V., & Aristigueta, M. P. (2002). Managing human behavior in public & nonprofit organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Widely used as a textbook in public administration, this volume applies basic organizational principles to public and nonprofit settings.

    Downs, A. (1967). Inside bureaucracy. Boston: Little, Brown.

    Concentrating on the Washington, DC, government bureaucracy, this book provides guidelines for success of administrative officials in areas such as cross-checking information from alternative sources.

    Dunnette, M. D., & Hough, L. M. (Eds.). Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

    This volume provides a comprehensive review of psychological principles applied to organizations; chapters cover key concerns such as organizational development and change.

    Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.

    A seminal book on the ability of individuals to achieve empathy with others and the importance of this capability to success in organizations.

    Hannan, M. T., & Freeman, J. (1989). Organizational ecology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    A pioneering work, this book focuses on impersonal forces that shape organizations and influence their entry and exit from the organizational field.

    Hickman, G. R. (Ed.). (1998). Leading organizations: Perspectives for a new era. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    This book is a set of chapters authored by prominent organizational theorists; it focuses on a potential shift in organizations from hierarchical structures to networks of colleagues and implications for leadership.

    Hummel, R. P. (1977). The bureaucratic experience. New York: St. Martin's Press. A study of bureaucracy with special emphasis on bureaucratic culture.

    A study of bureaucracy with special emphasis on bureaucratic culture.

    Jablin, F. M., & Putnam, L. L. (Eds.). (2001). The new handbook of organizational communication: Advances in theory, research, and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    A well-researched and comprehensive volume, this book contains separately authored chapters on areas such as structure and communication, the external environment, and the effects of new technology.

    Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

    This is a well-written and highly comprehensive volume synthesizing experimental studies in social psychology to explain organizational behavior during the classic period of experimental social psychology; the work is limited in that it covers only research completed prior to 1978.

    Kets de Vries, M. F. R., & Miller, D. (1984). The neurotic organization. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    A psychoanalytic approach to organizational behavior, this book applies concepts such as unconscious wishes, transference, and narcissism to the interpretation of relationships within formal organizations.

    Meyer, M. W., & Zucker, L. G. (1989). Permanently failing organizations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

    This book examines several organizations that, although they apparently serve the external environment poorly, are able to survive due to the support of a restricted set of stakeholders.

    Oster, S. M. (1995). Strategic management for nonprofit organizations: Theory and cases. New York: Oxford University Press.

    This book applies concepts of strategic management originally developed for profit-seeking organizations to nonprofits; it provides guidelines for successful strategic planning and competition.

    Pfeffer, J. (1998). The human equation: Building profits by putting people first. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

    An easily comprehensible yet well-researched volume, this book provides a formula for improving human performance, which includes elements such as training, job security, and decentralization of teams.

    Powell, W. W., & DiMaggio, P. J. (Eds.). (1991). The new institutionalism in organizational analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    One of the most important contributions to organization theory in the late 20th century, this book expands and updates traditional institutional theory.

    Ritti, R. R. (1994). The ropes to skip and the ropes to know: Studies in organizational behavior. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

    This book presents a fictional story about a young man entering an organization and discovering the secrets that enable it to operate and that contribute to or detract from the success of individuals; basic principles of organizational behavior are illustrated.

    Scott, W. R. (1995). Institutions and organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    A review and update of institutional theory, this book represents a major contribution to understanding organizations and organization theory.

    Shafritz, J. M., Ott, J. S., & Jang, Y. S. (Eds.). (2005). Classics of organization theory. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

    Updated periodically, this book contains short passages from the best-known works in organizational behavior and theory.

    Shortell, S. M., & Kaluzny, A. D. (Eds.). (2006). Health care management: Organizational design and behavior. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.

    In this book, well-known writers on organizational behavior and theory apply basic principles to health care settings.

    Vaughan, D. (1996). The Challenger launch decision: Risky technology culture, and deviance at NASA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    In this well-known study, the author presents a detailed analysis of several agencies and subunits that were given the responsibility of cross-checking the flightworthiness of the space shuttle, and diagnoses the reasons for failure.

    Weick, K. E. (1995). Sensemaking in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    This book uses the classical concept of “sensemaking,” originating with William James, and applies it through the thinking of a number of other theorists.

    About the Author

    Howard P. Greenwald, Ph.D., is Professor, School of Policy, Planning, and Development, University of Southern California, and Clinical Professor, Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington. His academic honors include National Woodrow Wilson Fellow; Special Honors, Committee on General Studies in the Social Sciences, University of Chicago; Special Career Fellow, University of California, Berkeley; and Dissertation Fellow, Manpower Administration, United States Department of Labor. His research interests include organizational behavior and theory, public opinion, survey design and analysis, and program evaluation. He has served as director of USC's Health Services Administration Program, chairman of the Western Network for Education in Health Administration, director of the USC W. K. Kellogg Hispanic Leadership Program, and member of the executive board of the American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) in Sacramento, California. He consults widely for law enforcement agencies, health care providers, foundations, and community groups. His research has been published in Administrative Science Quarterly, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Public Administration Review, Journal of the American Public Health Association, Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, and other academic periodicals. The New York Times and the Wall Street Journal have published his opinion pieces. His most recent books include Who Survives Cancer? and Health for All: Making Community Collaboration Work, coauthored with W. L. Beery.


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